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With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union

online and aware

Provincia di Ravenna

Violence through the new technologies MEDIA UNDER THE LENS Supporting manual for the educational kit activities for violence prevention

“This publication has been produced with the financial support of the Daphne III Programme of the European Commission. The contents of this publication are the sole responsibility of Scuola Centrale Formazione and POVEL’s partners and can in no way be taken to reflect the views of the European Commission”.


A special thanks to CEFAL

Designed by

Davide Soncin for

YGES IT - yges.com


online and aware

Violence through the new technologies MEDIA UNDER THE LENS Supporting manual for the educational kit activities for violence prevention


index

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9 9 10 11

13 14 16 17 18

19 19 20 21 22

} The teenage phenomenon and the web The POVEL survey

} Web-related risks Education-related risks Economic risks for the young person involved and his/her family Individual safety risks Legal risks

on special forms of violence mediated by the new technologies in } Focus which boys/girls can be involved Cyber-bullying e cyberstalking Sexting Grooming Identity Theft

} Benefits and risks of the new media Mobile phones Instant Messaging (IM) E-mail Chatrooms Webcams Video-hosting websites Social networks Videogames, consoles and virtual worlds

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} Preventing violence through the media

23 24

Some rules When and how to contact the service provider

MATERIAL TO BE USED WITH STUDENTS


27 27 28

} Attachment: the sample under investigation of the POVEL project French context Italian context Belgian context Spanish context


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The teenage phenomenon and the web Online and Aware

} The POVEL survey Within the POVEL project, the initial action of on-field research included submitting a questionnaire in order to improve the understanding of the target group characteristics to which the project is addressed, concerning the use of drugs, the media, their relationships with peers and adults, and their perception of the different forms of violence. This questionnaire, consisting of 71 questions (mostly multiple-choice ones), was submitted to approximately 700 young people, aged between 14 and 20 years, who attended the training courses / the socio-educational activities of the project technical partners in Italy (CEFAL, CIVIFORM, Opera Sacra Famiglia and EFFE.Pi), in France (ID Formation), in Belgium (FISSAAJ) and in Spain (Fondazione Trinijove). The sample characteristics in the different Countries change according to the types of training supplied by the partners in their areas. For additional details please see the attached form. The analysis of the questions on the use of media showed that: ∘∘ the most used media is the mobile phone: 24% of the sample of Italian boys/girls and 33% of the Belgian sample declared to use it for more than 7 hours a day; ∘∘ the main way the mobile phone is used is to exchange text messages (90.7% of the sample), followed by phone calls (82%), by listening to music (66.4) and by taking pictures (ca. 60%). A little less than one third of the sample (29%) uses the mobile phone to navigate the web; ∘∘ the videos filmed on the mobile phone are used for personal purposes by 56.3% of the sample (“he/she watches them alone”), while 33.9% sends those videos to friends. There is a large percentage of boys/girls who declare not to film videos on their mobile phone; ∘∘ television seems to be the only media that is used together with other people, while the other media are mainly used by the boys/girls alone. Young people mainly watch films (51%) and TV series (almost 30%). Italian and French boys/girls watch more frequently TV news than the other countries of the sample; ∘∘ books are the least used by the sample: 42.8% declares not to read any book. There are differences between the Countries represented in the sample: the Belgian boys/girls read more than those from other Countries and mainly read novels and comic books;

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Violence through the new technologies

∘∘ as concerns the use of videogames on PCs or other consoles, many differences are noted in the sample Countries. Gambling is practiced by 18% of the Spanish sample, vs. 8% of the Belgian sample, 14% of the French one and 16% of the Italian one. The most common type of videogame is the action game; ∘∘ the web is used a lot by boys/girls: the most visited websites are Facebook, YouTube, Google, Messenger and Wikipedia; ∘∘ 81.7% of the total sample declared to have a profile on a social network; ∘∘ on social networks, the boys and girls mainly share ideas and thoughts (almost 59% of the sample) and publish pictures and videos of them together with friends (56.5%). ∘∘ 33.5 % of the sample declares not to use any access restriction to its data for privacy protection on social networks; ∘∘ the use of chatrooms is spread among boys/girls (56% of the sample); ∘∘ 326 boys/girls (equal to 47% of the sample) declared to have met people they did not know before in chatrooms. 115 boys/girls said they had bad experiences with that media (including privacy violation and psychological violence). This data confirms that often boys/girls approach technology as a virtual place of socialization, underestimating its risks and thus exposing themselve to unpleasant and dangerous experiences.


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Web-related risks1 Online and Aware

The risky areas to which minors may be exposed while browsing the Web can be summarized as follows: ∘∘ risks related to too much use of the Internet; ∘∘ education-related risks; ∘∘ economic risks for the young person involved or his/her family; ∘∘ individual safety risks; ∘∘ legal risks

} Internet-abuse risks The existence of diseases resulting from the use (and abuse) of the Internet is now widespread worldwide, these are psychological disorders that are called Internet addiction disorder (IAD, a form of abuse-addiction to the Internet), which include a wide variety of pathological uses of the Web by some users and which can lead to two main phenomena: addiction and losing contact with reality, up to more or less serious multiple personality disorders. According to Kimberly Young, who set up the US Centre for Online Addiction, five specific types of internet addiction were identified: 1. cyber-sexual addiction (virtual sex and pornography); 2. cyber-relational addiction (social network); 3. net-compulsion (gambling, online shopping and trade); 4. information overload; 5. computer addiction (exaggerated involvement in “virtual” games or “role” plays). Studies carried out on minors to understand how ill-used technology affects the psyche2 showed that Internet abuse can cause addiction, irritability, difficult relationships, techno autism, up to a psychiatric depressive disorder, that can also degenerate into an actual mental disease. An Internet-addicted boy/girl develops a morbid attachment to his/her virtual fellows, become increasingly more distant and isolated from friends and family. Children and teenagers can become psychologically addicted because of the interactive characteristics of the Internet. When chatting, exploring and playing they feel better with themselves while avoiding stress from school, adolescence, family life.

1

For this chapter, we would like to thank Stefano Bernardis, author of the thesis “Comunicazione e Internet: il problema dei minori” - Università degli Studi “G. d’Annunzio” Chieti - Pescara, Facoltà di Scienze Sociali.

2

see Tonino Cantelmi, Presi nella Rete: studi sulla dipendenza psicologica da Internet, Cultura e Libri, 21-25, May – June 2000, from page 21 to page 24


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} Education-related risks The possibility of not revealing one’s identity and easy access represent the two key reasons why the Internet is the preferred source of information of minors (especially on themes deemed “awkward” by boys/girls, like health and sexuality), in addition to the breadth of content that can be found in such a large container. Anonymity however helps make the Web content not always controllable, as a result often unreliable or false information is passed, which is difficult to identify. Likewise, the information present in discussion forums can also contain significant mistakes (intentional or unintentional). In a word, the authority of some websites that minors are not able to assess and put in context is questioned. In addition, it is possible to come upon (intentionally or not) violent or harmful videogames, websites with inappropriate content for the age bracket (violence, pornography, racism ...) or, un-moderated virtual meeting places where an obscene, vulgar, violent language can be used.

} Economic risks for the young person involved and his/her family Since the 90s, the Internet increasingly became a media to advertise products entirely focused on the younger age bracket. The Web gives the users multiple methods to buy any type of object: directly on e-commerce websites, from privates through advertising websites or through online auctions. In most cases we are asked to make an electronic payment which, unless protected, can cause an illegal use of the credit card or bank details by third parties. In addition, one is exposed to possible frauds on the nature of the materials purchased.

} Individual safety risks

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See Marino Livolsi, Manuale di sociologia della comunicazione, Bari, Laterza, 2004.

The predominantly digital nature of telecommunications caused the loss of most analogue communication: hand gestures, facial expressions, paralinguistic signs, postures and proxemics are communication tools that usually supplement coded communication, but for the most part they are not conveyed through the Web. Through the Internet it is easier to “lie”, it is easier to create “masks” and tailor “fictitious identities” that can be controlled by the person who tailors them. Through the Internet you only communicate at a “content” level and not a “relationship” level3. The anonymity guaranteed by the Internet can ensure that in virtual meeting places (chatrooms) you end up chatting to people whose name, origin, age etc. are not known. This exposes to individual safety risks: young people can be caught in the web of criminal associations which take them in absurd directions, it is possible that during the discussion unsuitable themes are dealt with and, from a virtual meeting, a possible request for a physical meeting can take place.


} Legal risks In the Web the feeling of anonymity of the user is very strong and as a result a case of depersonalization can ensue which can lead to behaviours which could have civil or criminal effects. Especially, in addition to computer-related crimes for which specific skills are requested, the practice of downloading music or films from the Web is very widespread, which leads to an infringement of copyrights. It is important to stress how the responsibility to make sure that the boys/girls browse the web safely to minimize risks while maximizing opportunities is not only their parents’, but it must also involve the institutions, the school, the media and the relevant operators, each in its own role and for its own part with targeted actions in the interest of minors. The Internet offers new instruments to old crimes, while generating new forms of illegality. If the concept of crime can be summarised by the following definition “illegal behaviour, conducive to an event against an interest protected by a criminal rule, and as such punishable”4 then cyber-crime can mean all the crimes that are committed through computer systems.

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Web-related risks1 Online and Aware

4

Giacomo Devoto, Gian Carlo Oli, Dizionario della lingua italiana, Firenze, Le Monnier, 1971, page1889, entry ”reato”.


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Focus on special forms of violence mediated by the new technologies in which boys/girls can be involved Online and Aware

∘∘ ∘∘ ∘∘ ∘∘

CYBER-BULLYING AND CYBERSTALKING SEXTING PAEDOPHILIA AND ONLINE GROOMING IDENTITY THEFT

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Violence through the new technologies

} Cyber-bullying e cyberstalking Definition of cyber-bullying (taken from Pisano, Saturno, 2008, 2009) Today, technology allows bullies to enter the houses of their victims, to materialise at any moment of their lives, stalking them with messages, images, offending videos, sent by mobile phones or published on websites with the help of the Internet (Pisano, Saturno 2008). In order to name aggressive and intentional actions, persistently made through electronic tools (text and video messages, pictures, video clips, e-mails, chatrooms, instant messaging, websites, phone calls), by one person or by a group, with the intentional objective to hurt or damage a peer who cannot easily defend him/herself, the term “cyber-bullying” was proposed (Patchin, Hinduja, 2006, Smith, 2007, Willard, 2007).

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Cyber-bashing is when the victim is involved in a fight with a bully and the bully films and publishes on the internet the video of the fight.

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Happy slapping is a form of cyberbullying that starts in real life (a boy/ girl or a group of boys/girls beat up or slap a peer while others film the attack on their mobile phone) and that continues, with different characteristics, on-line: the images, published on the internet, can be viewed, commented and voted by users to whom the web offers, despite not being personally involved, a chance for sharing. The “favourite” or “funniest” video is even recommended.

Bullying and cyber-bullying: a comparison

Bullying

Cyberbullying

The students of the class or the school are involved

Youth and adults from every part of the world are involved

Bullies and followers commit acts of violence

Anyone can be a cyber-bully, including those who in real life are victims of bullying, or have a “low profile“

Generally the victim knows or recognises a bully

Anonymity

Violent behaviours occur in set locations and often during school hours

There are not space-time limits, the threats can come from anywhere and 24 hours a day

Medium disinhibition

High disinhibition

Visibility of the action as an act of force and assertion of the bully

Illusion of invisibility

Feedback that often the bully ignores, cold awareness of one’s actions

Lack of feedback on the behaviour of the cyber-bully, not enough awareness of one’s actions

Lack of awareness of one’s responsibility

De-individuation, actions are not recognised as one’s own

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Cyber-bullying 2 main types

Type 1: Actions of “traditional” bullying of which pictures/videos are taken and published, released on the web (social networks, photo- video-sharing websites, emails, blogs, forums and chat rooms) Cyber-Bashing4 Happy Slapping5 ∘∘ Real acts of violence on peers filmed on mobile phones and published on videosharing websites; ∘∘ Damage and irresponsible behaviour filmed on mobile phones and published on video-sharing websites; ∘∘ Private moments and intimate sexual situations filmed on mobile phones and released on-line or by text message among peers.


Type 2: Actions of cyber-bullying (e.g. banning), stalking, harassment and slander made on web services (social networks, messengers, chatrooms, forums, role plays etc.):

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∘∘ FLAMING: Hostile and insulting on-line messages (see “Flame”) aimed at provoking verbal battles in a forum. The peculiarity is that they are exchanged between two “fighters” who do not necessarily know each other, but who somehow fight on equal ground, and just for the time of a shared chat ∘∘ HARASSMENT It consists of hostile and insulting messages that are repeatedly sent over time, aimed at hurting someone ∘∘ CYBER-STALKING: When harassment becomes especially insistent and intimidating and harassment and offences repeated, stalking and threats aim at striking fear into the “victim” ∘∘ VILIFICATION: “speaking ill” of, laughing at, ridiculing someone through pictures published, links and comments to harm his/her reputation, by e-mail, instant messaging or on on-line social networks. ∘∘ IMPERSONATION: logging in with the account of another person and pretending to be such other person in order to discredit him/her by sending messages to his/her circle of friends and acquaintances or publishing posts in the name of this person. ∘∘ OUTING: publishing information, private and/or embarrassing photos of another person. ∘∘ TRICKERY: obtaining someone’s trust with trickery to publish or share with other people the information confided via electronic media. ∘∘ EXCLUSION when, due to inadequate behaviours, one is excluded from a group or a forum when one is “banned”.

Focus on special forms of violence mediated by the new technologies in which boys/ girls can be involved

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The illusion of anonymity ...

A bully believes he/she can be invisible and unreachable due to his/her lack of IT knowledge. The illusion of anonymity can “encourage” people who in real life are victims of bullying in order to take on-line revenge for the abuse incurred. There is often an alteration of the perception of the severity of actions: the simplicity of the actions required to perpetrate computer-based injustices (the click of a mouse) and the comfort in which you find yourself while perpetrating said injustices reduce the individual perception of the severity of the actions you are making and twist the representation of the possible consequences of said actions on other people. For teenagers, it also makes difficult to imagine that there are specific laws which indicate said actions as illegal. Cyber-bullying is characterised by the absence of space-time limits: while traditional bullying usually occurs in specific places and at specific times (for example at school), cyber-bullying hits the victim every time he/she connects to the electronic media. In the virtual world, given how simple it is to reiterate harassment, there is a greater likelihood that a cyber-bully turns jokes into stalking. Moreover, very often a cyber-bully does not perceive his/her victim as an actual person, but as an almost-anonymous entity without emotions or feelings. This means that, in the relationship between a cyber-bully and a cyber-victim, a verbal and corporal feedback that directs players to interpret the effects of the actions on other people is missing. A bully cannot understand the pain, frustration and humiliation generated in the victim, these are all real feelings.

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Online and Aware

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Profile of a cyber-bully

1. Aged between 10 and 18 years; 2. student and has often a relationship with his/her victim; 3. computer skilled above-average compared to adults and his/her peers; 4. potential victim of traditional bullying who uses the web to “stalk” his/her stalker; 5. potentially a model student, good mannered and submissive, not used to aggressive behaviours (Ybarra and Mitchell, 2004); 6. potentially a traditional bully who continues his/her stalking on-line (Raskauskas and Stoltz, 2007); 7. people who would normally not commit actions of abuse can do it because they underestimate the severity of the action committed, they ignore the fact that the abuses are illegal, they do not have before their eyes the direct effects on the victim. Finally... it is not possible to outline a unique profile.

} Sexting

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A combination of the English words “sex” and “texting”, sexting is a neologism used to mean sending sexually explicit messages or sexually-charged texts by computer. Sexting mainly consists in the exchange of sexually-charged photos and videos, often taken by mobile phone, and/or in publishing them on the computer, such as chatrooms, social networks and the Internet in general or just on video messages. Even if they are sent to a close circle of people, these images often spread uncontrollably and can cause serious personal and legal problems to the person portrayed in photos and videos. Sending pictures that portray minors under 18 in sexually explicit poses sets up the crime of distribution of child-pornography material. Sexting can have multiple causes. In some cases, it represents a special form of cyber-bullying: some boys/girls can give in to the pressures of their girlfriends/ boyfriends who ask them for a “token of their love”, without considering that this can then backfire on them (e.g. in case of break-up, a boyfriend can release the images of his ex-girlfriend just for revenge). Other times, taking one’s own picture and sending it can just be a conduct undertaken without thinking about the consequences.

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From Quaderno di Telefono Azzurro “Pedofilia: cos’è e come ci si può proteggere - Per genitori e insegnanti”

Suggestions to give boys/girls concerning sexting

1. It is illegal! Do not accept nor send sexually allusive photos or videos, or photos or videos which portray you or your friends naked or in provocative poses. If you do, even if they are your or someone else’s personal pictures, you could be accused of the crime of distribution of child-pornographic material (that is pornographic material portraying minors). You could be at the same time the author and the victim of a crime, if the photos you send are yours! Even keeping in your computer this type of images can be risky, since you could be accused of possession of child-pornographic material. 2. The negative consequences are not just legal. Try to think about the psychological damage and the emotional consequences (and on your reputation!) resulting from knowing that your most intimate pictures, that you could have intentionally sent to


your boyfriend/girlfriend could, if you fight or break up, be sent by your ex to all the people you know … and more than that! Once an image enters the Internet circuit, it can be distributed or saved on-line and anyone, including strangers or ill-intentioned people, can access it; your most intimate sphere could be available to prying eyes and shown forever on the Web. 3. If you receive a sexting image on your mobile phone, first don’t send it to anyone else (you could commit the crime of distribution of child-pornography material!). Then talk to your parents or an adult you trust. Tell them the entire story so that they can have all the information to help you. Do not get upset if the adults you went to decide to talk to the parents of the other boys/girls involved: this is the best way to keep you and your friends away from more serious troubles! 4. If you receive this type of photo from a friend of yours or from someone you know, it is important to inform him/her that sexting is against the law and that he/she must not send that type of material ever again. In this way, you will do him/ her a great favour, because you will prevent him/her from running the risk of more serious consequences, if the Police were informed! 5. If your friend does not stop sending this type of photos, talk to your parents and consider the opportunity of talking to his/her parents and teachers. 6. If you come upon or are involved in sexting situations, remember that you can always go to ... put here the reference services in your country.

} Grooming The internet erased geographical borders opening up huge potentials of communication, exchange and contact among people to all. This wonderful opportunity unfortunately has a drawback: behind fancy nicknames, through false profiles on communities and social networks, actual paedophiles browse the web looking for contacts with children and youth, they exchange information on virtual locations where to find material of sexual abuse on minors, exchange opinions on the lawfulness of paedophilia. Manipulation is a method that often paedophiles can use very well and that they put at the service of their ability to “correspond” and to have written conversations, the typical forms of on-line communication. Paedophiles are also always experts of the children and teenage world and know how and where to focus their energies to maximise the likelihood of obtaining secrets from underage users of the web.

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The process

The process that goes from a random contact between an adult and a minor to an attempt at child grooming is varied. Among the cases under review by the Unit for the Analysis of On-line Crimes and the National Centre for the fight against on-line paedophilia there are people with the typical characteristics of a clear-headed criminal, characterised by complex relational abilities which make him/her an attractive and competent interlocutor in his/her contacts with minors, while other people are particularly straight-forward and aggressive in their on-line interaction, unable to wait for the pacing and problems of more inhibited minors, with clear methods of interaction and control of particularly immature emotions. However, a paedophile in general starts a conversation on trivial themes typical of the life of a child/young person searching in chatrooms (including telephone ones), forums, role play websites, social networks those profiles that match his/her favourite

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Focus on special forms of violence mediated by the new technologies in which boys/ girls can be involved Online and Aware


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age bracket. Sometimes the paedophile lies about his/her age, and only reveals it once the relationship has grown closer. Requests to know sexual secrets sometimes are made straight away, other times are preceded by declarations of affection. The request for daring images is the next step which is followed, if the minor is willing, by a request for a meeting in real life. Recently it has emerged that increasingly often pre-teens (aged between 11 and 14) use social network pages to show themselves in a provocative way alluding to their alleged sentimental and erotic availability to peers and adults. This phenomenon is a new frontier for the prevention and repression of sexual abuse of minors on the internet because, understanding how the inexperience and immaturity of developing individuals can give rise to careless behaviours, said conducts are considered very dangerous and worrisome. Paedophiles who are still uncertain whether to start on-line harassment could interpret the allusive messages of their potential victims as offers of actual and aware willingness, convincing themselves and their perverted conscience with arguments which could lead to a dangerous jump to action. [taken from: http://www.poliziadistato.it/articolo/view/23415/]

} Identity Theft Identity theft is a sly crime and it is still little known, especially in Italy, however it can be considered as an international crime, since your personal information can be stolen from all over the world. One of the first steps to fight this type of crime is prevention through training and control by the Postal and Telecommunications Police and thanks to the collaboration of different nations. There are the following types of identity theft: ∘∘ Identity cloning: impersonation with the objective of creating a new identity and a new life; ∘∘ Financial Identity theft: identity theft with the objective of using the personal data of a person to obtain credits, loans, set up current accounts in the name of the victim; ∘∘ Criminal Identity theft: using the victim’s data to commit in his/her stead illegal public deeds of various nature, like enabling new credit cards or mobile phones or other accounts; ∘∘ Synthetic Identity theft: using the personal information of different people which is combined to create, wholly or partly, a new “ad-hoc” identity based on one’s requirements; ∘∘ Medical Identity theft: using the personal information of other people to obtain medical care; ∘∘ Ghosting: creation of a new different identity from the original one taking the data of a dead person.


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Benefits and risks of the new media Online and Aware

} Mobile phones Mobile phones are widespread among youth. On a mobile phone you can talk and write messages but also take, download and send photos, videos, access the Internet, read electronic mail, listen to music and play videogames. Benefits ∘∘ quick contact with family, friends and acquaintances, ∘∘ use of the internet outside of the house, ∘∘ possibility of taking videos and photos both for personal reasons and as a report of events. Risks ∘∘ mobile phone addiction, ∘∘ inadequate use, widespread among youth, like using a mobile phone to film acts of bullying to be released on the web or by video message. Mobile phones and relationships with cyber-bullying: a mobile phone can turn into a detrimental instrument in the hands of a “bully”. Compared to bullying, the violence incurred is amplified by the lack of “safe havens”, on a mobile phone the harassment, the ridicule can reach the victim at any time and at any place. Harassing phone calls, inappropriate text messages, humiliating images or videos are all acts of cyberbullying.

} Instant Messaging (IM) Through some instant messaging programmes, the most widespread being Windows Live MSN, it is possible to send text messages to your contacts while being connected on the internet. Compared to the now more traditional chatrooms, which are public and with free subscription, IM is private, meaning that it allows only people who know their respective email addresses to chat. Benefits ∘∘ instant communication at very low costs, ∘∘ extension of one’s social life,

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∘∘ possibility of keeping in touch with “far-away” people. Risks ∘∘ contact requests from unknown people. IM and relationships with cyber-bullying: instant messaging represents a potential computer instrument for sending harassing messages to other users. Sharing one’s contact with unknown people also exposes the teenager to a complex and hard-tocontrol web of relationships.

} E-mail Electronic mail allows us to send messages in real time from one PC to another, using the internet. Messages can contain text, different types of files (audio, video, word, excel...). Benefits ∘∘ instant communication at very low costs; ∘∘ practical management of low-cost services. Risks ∘∘ tampering of the email with different purposes; ∘∘ “theft” of personal information (sensitive, bank data...); ∘∘ viruses; ∘∘ cloning of one’s account with access to personal information.

} Chatrooms Phone- or internet-based service that allows people, including strangers, to talk in real time within virtual locations called chat rooms. Benefits ∘∘ possibility of interacting on specific themes with people from all over the world; ∘∘ socialization, a feeling of greater freedom allows people to open up and talk freely. Risks ∘∘ false identities (for example age and sex not matching reality); ∘∘ risk of child grooming by ill-intentioned people; ∘∘ distribution of one’s personal information. Chatrooms and relationship with cyber-bullying: the impossibility of checking the truthfulness of the information given by interlocutors makes it necessary to pay attention and be careful when giving personal information, like name and surname, telephone number, address etc. Some acts of cyber-bullying are based on an initial phase of friendship, aimed at gathering information from the chosen “target”, followed by harassing or threatening messages aimed at discrediting or ridiculing the person.


} Webcams Webcams are small digital video-cameras that are connected to and operated by PCs. They can be used to record photos or videos which could then be posted or sent through the Internet. They are commonly used to see someone one is talking to online. Benefits Webcams allow us to see, in real time, people we are chatting with. They can have an educational value, when they are used for scientific purposes, to make videoconferences or to facilitate collaboration among schools from different parts of the world. They also allow anyone to remain in contact with far-away friends and family. Risks Children and youth must be persuaded not to take and send their pictures to people they’ve only met on the Internet. Webcams and cyber-bullying Children and young people must not use a webcam when they are dressed in scanty clothes and/or behaving inappropriately, because they run the risk of being manipulated or threatened.

} Video-hosting websites The term “video-hosting website” or “video sharing” means sharing “video files” on the web, using programmes of websites like YouTube, Yahoo Video, My Space etc. Benefits These websites can contain excellent videos, good music, instruments and educational resources. Risks There are two potential risks for boys/girls: ∘∘ having access to inappropriate material (too violent or pornographic); ∘∘ posting inadequate material, which could put them and/or other people in a vulnerable or awkward condition. Video sharing and cyber-bullying Sharing videos can be a tool to spread offending content.

} Social networks Social networks were designed to help people find new friends and communicate with them. In these websites (ex.: MySpace, Facebook, Badoo, Splinder etc.) a user can create a page with his/her profile, adding his/her interests and additional details, to be contacted by other potential friends to add to his/her list. Benefits Boys/girls use the on-line space to socialise with friends and other people. These websites give a public and a private space and allow users to express their creativity by selecting content.

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Benefits and risks of the new media Online and Aware


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Risks Many boys/girls use social networks as a reference for their activity and spend much of their time looking at and building their pages. Profiles and blogs on social network websites often contain own and friends’ personal details and information. The risk is that bullies and sexual predators can take hold of them. Social network websites and cyber-bullying Most of these websites allow people to leave comments which can also be offensive (e.g. humiliating images or videos, insults etc.). False profiles are also quite common and allow an identity thief to be someone else, threaten and cause problems to the victim.

} Videogames, consoles and virtual worlds Videogames can also be accessed through the internet. Players, who can communicate to each other by using ad-hoc chats, are often encouraged to create an avatar, an image chosen to represent their own image on line. Benefits According to many sociologists and psychologists, a videogame favours leadership, the ability to make decisions, solve problems, work in a group. Risks Many games were designed for an adult audience and are not suitable for children. From a study published on the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology of the University of Iowa, it emerged that those who play violent videogames become less sensitive to the violence of the real world. “Desensitization” is explained as “a reduction of emotions as a response to real acts of violence “. Videogames and cyber-bullying Just like other programmes that allow people to share communication, cases of offending language, insults and obscene proposals can take place.


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Preventing violence through the media MATERIAL TO BE USED WITH STUDENTS Online and Aware

} Some rules }

Always respect others

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Keep your password secret

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Block the Bully

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Don’t retaliate or reply!

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Save the evidence

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Ask for permission, respect the privacy

(taken from DCSF, 2007, pp. 22-37) Remember that when you send a message to someone you cannot see the impact that your words or images may have on the other person. That is why it is important to always show respect to people and be careful what you say online or what images you send. Remember that you could also be breaking the law with online insults and threats.

Don’t let anyone know your passwords. It is a good idea to change them on a regular basis, choosing numbers, letters and special characters.

Most responsible websites and services allow you to block or report someone who is behaving badly. Make use of these features, they are there for a reason!

Do not start a vicious circle of offences and threats.

Learn how to keep records of offending messages, pictures or online conversations. These will help you demonstrate to others what is happening. Before sending or publishing someone’s picture on a BLOG, always ask for his/her authorization.

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Violence through the new technologies

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Think before you send, browse carefully!

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When you are switching on the computer you must...

What you send on the internet can be made public very quickly and could stay online so FOREVER. Do you really want your teacher or future employer to see that photo of you drunk with friends?

Remember to... ∘∘ Keep your antivirus always updated; ∘∘ Set up an Antispyware software able to detect malware or setting changes; ∘∘ Set up a Personal Firewall so that it checks outgoing connections and excludes some communication protocols, if necessary; ∘∘ Use evolved and well-setup email clients; ∘∘ Make a constant update of the O.S. and application software. Remember not to... ∘∘ Click on links on e-mails; ∘∘ Give sensitive data. No credit institute will ever ask you for your password or other confidential information by e-mail; ∘∘ Answer “dangerous” e-mails, not even to insult or threaten. Do not try to take the law into your own hands, but report what happened to whom it may concern. On-line We are entitled to: ∘∘ Protect our identity and our reputation; ∘∘ Participate, have fun and find all the information we want, the web is an endless source of data; ∘∘ Express ourselves freely, when we are online, always respecting others; ∘∘ Protect all that is born of our creativity, in reality and on the web; ∘∘ Be critical and question everything we read and find online; ∘∘ Use New Technologies to develop our personality and ability; ∘∘ Protect ourselves from viruses and spamming.

} When and how to contact the service provider }

Social networking sites (ex. MySpace, Facebook)

In social networking sites it is possible to block or ignore unwanted contacts. It is also possible to arrange and set one’s profile as “private”, so that only authorized users can see it. If the social networking site receives special reports on cyber-bullying cases, it can investigate and remove offending and illegal content, delete the account of the cyberbully who does not follow the rules of conduct. ∘∘ MySpace: it is possible to report abuse by clicking on the following link “contact MySpace” and accessing http://www.myspace.com/index.cfm?fu- seaction=misc. contact. ∘∘ Facebook: it is possible to report abuses on the following link help@facebook.com or by accessing the “information” page once you’re logged in with your account and clicking bottom left on the link “report page”.


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Mobile phones

All Italian telephone operators have a call centre to call. The answers may vary, but the operator is also allowed to change the phone number of the victim, so that the bully cannot contact him/her anymore. The bully’s number can only be blocked by police.

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Instant Messaging (IM)

(ex. Windows Live Messenger oppure MSN Messenger)

It is possible to block users or change ID in order to make it impossible for the bully to contact the victim. Most providers give information on how to block a user. In addition, the Instant Messenger provider can investigate and close any account which misused the service or infringed the agreements on terms and conditions. The best proof for the service provider is to record and file offending conversations. ∘∘ MSN: to contact the technical service, click on https://support.live.com/default.aspx?scrx=1 ∘∘ Yahoo: it is possible to report content deemed illegal or contrary to the guidelines of the community by sending a report by clicking on the link “Report an abuse” (or on the red-flag icon).

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E-mail

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Video-hosting sites

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Chatrooms

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Save the evidence

It is possible to block specific senders and, if cyber-bullying persists, the victim can change email address. How to contact some e-mail providers: ∘∘ Hotmail: contact technical support on https://support.msn.com/default.aspx?locale=it-it ∘∘ Gmail: contact technical support on http://mail.google.com/support/bin/request.py?contact_type=contact_policy ∘∘ Yahoo! Mail: contact technical support on http://help.yahoo.com/l/it/yahoo/mail/yahoomail/index.html Illegal or offending content can be deleted. On YouTube, for example, it is possible to report to the provider inappropriate content. The rules of the community can be viewed on http://www.youtube.com/t/community_guidelines

Many chatrooms allow users to block or ignore other users. Some have a moderator who warns users that they could be deleted if they send offending comments which infringe the terms of use.

Schools should suggest students, teachers and staff to save the abuse evidence: especially date and time, message content and, if possible, sender’s ID (e.g. username, e-mail, mobile phone number) or the web address of the profile and its content. Saving the evidence will be useful for the investigation handled by the service provider but also to tell parents, teachers, staff and the police what is happening.

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Preventing violence through the media MATERIAL TO BE USED WITH STUDENTS Online and Aware


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Violence through the new technologies

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How to save the evidence:

∘∘ Mobile phone: make sure that the victim saves any voice/text/image message on his/her mobile phone, thus saving the sender’s number. ∘∘ IM: some services allow users to record all conversations. Users can copy, paste and print records, even if this is less valuable evidence, since it can be easily manipulated. The conversations recorded and filed by the IM service are more valid evidence. ∘∘ Social networking sites, video-hosting sites, other websites: save the link, print the page or save the screen on a Word document. ∘∘ Chatrooms: print the page or save the screen on a Word document. ∘∘ E-mail: ask the victim to print the email and every following communication he/she may receive. Save the entire message, including the sender’s name.


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Attachment: the sample under investigation of the POVEL project Online and Aware

} French context The local reference partner for research action was ID Formation, a professional training centre. The reference region is Corsica. As concerns the target group of young people, IDF mostly works to train / remotivate them, associated with building their professional project. The local inclusion centre is a service for young people, who can receive personalised care on the issues of employment, training, home or health. PAIO is a reception, information and professional guidance service that mainly focuses on people who dropped out of school early or are having problems. The young beneficiaries are mainly young people who dropped out of school early, aged between 16 and 20, without a qualification. In Ajaccio and Bastia, the young people come from local services that strive for local development and the fight against social and urban exclusion. In Balagne, Porto Vecchio and Ghisonaccia, the target mainly consists of young people with a history of immigration behind them. In Corsica 100 questionnaires were submitted. The following venues were involved: 7 IDF centres (Ajaccio, Balagne, Bastia, Corte, Folelli, Ghisonaccia, Porto Vecchio), 3 Local Missions and one PAIO.

} Italian context Most questionnaires were submitted in professional training centres of two regions: Emilia Romagna and Friuli Venezia Giulia, members of the Scuola Centrale Formazione network or of EFFE.Pi. In Emilia Romagna, in the province of Ravenna, three high schools were also involved (IPSIA Lugo, ITC Ginanni, IPSSAR-Riolo Terme). The professional training centres in Emilia Romagna, in compliance with regional law 5/2011, receive young people for two-year qualification courses after at least one year

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Violence through the new technologies

of secondary high school. This is why the boys/girls usually are between 16 and 18 years old and often come from school failures. In Friuli Venezia Giulia, qualification courses for young people in compulsory education last three years and can accept boys/girls from middle school. In both regions, many foreign boys / girls join initial professional training; in many cases they have problems understanding Italian. The reference professional sectors for the young people who made up the Emilia Romagna sample include: catering, administrative-secretarial, electrical, mechanical, sales; for Friuli Venezia Giulia: graphic design, beauty and hair stylists... The total number of questionnaires amounts to 425.

} Belgian context

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SAJ = “Service de l’Aide à la Jeunesse” is a public authority that only acts as a form of protection. SAJ, through its actions and consultancies, assists young people in trouble or in danger and their beloved. One of SAJ’s objectives is to find solutions to avoid judicial intervention.

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SPJ = “Service de Protection Judiciaire” is a specialist support service that acts after the juvenile court has established a supporting measure. Its role is to implement it.

The Belgian partner, FISSAAJ, submitted the questionnaire to young people aged between 14 and 18 coming from the 3 following centres: Asbl la Mohinette: 15 boys/girls aged between 13 and 18 join the service from SAJ7 or SPJ8 of Liège. These young people are sent to the centre due to problems concerning family issues like alcoholism, use of drugs, abuse or ill treatment. The main activities of the service and its objectives are to accept and offer support to 15 boys/girls and work on parents or relatives. Institute “la sainte union”: this is a general and professional services school for young people from different backgrounds. The main activities of the school and the service and its objectives are: training students and young adults to be responsible citizens, able to complete their course of studies and their life projects. Asbl Graine AMO: the mission of the service is to support social and preventive education of young people and children in their environment and in the relationships with their social and family context. The service operates on a non-binding basis. Its activities are: socio-educational support for individuals or families upon request; community action. That is the action of the broader service. It covers all the areas of the life of beneficiaries in their reference environment: school, family, neighbours, culture. It aims at improving the social context of young people, to give an integrated asnwer to individual and collective problems and develop a dynamic network. In Belgium 120 questionnaires were submitted.

} Spanish context In Spain the questionnaires were submitted at Trinijove offices. Trinijove is located in the suburbs of Barcelona, where the unemployment rate is around 20%: Trinitat Vella, Baró de Viver, Bon Pastor and Santa Coloma. These neighbourhoods are affected by high drop-out rates from compulsory or “ordinary” school. Many young drop-outs remain on the street and often join gangs or criminal bands. These are young people at a risk of social exclusion, who go to Trinijove to attend training activities in a professional profile that can help them find a job and leave their situation of social risk behind. In addition, the young people involved in the on-field research include those from Santa Coloma who are part of the shared schooling Unit, where boys/girls continue


their high-school compulsory education journey after being expelled from their school. In Spain 51 questionnaires were submitted.

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Attachment: the sample under investigation of the POVEL project Online and Aware


With financial support from the Daphne III Programme of the European Union

online and aware

Provincia di Ravenna

Violence through the new technologies MEDIA UNDER THE LENS Supporting manual for the educational kit activities for violence prevention

“This publication has been produced with the financial support of the Daphne III Programme of the European Commission. The contents of this publication are the sole responsibility of Scuola Centrale Formazione and POVEL’s partners and can in no way be taken to reflect the views of the European Commission”.


Trainer's Handbook  

Media Violence prevention kit

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