Organoid and 3D Bioprinting
Cell therapy was originated in the 19th century in which living cellular material is injected into organisms. Here, there are several new techniques, such as organoid and 3D bioprinting. As a major technological breakthrough, these emerging tools are now firmly established as a critical way in biological research and have significant implications for clinical applications.
Organoid Organoids are cell-derived in vitro three-dimensional organ models that allow the study of a variety of biological processes, including cell behavior, tissue repair and response to mutations or drugs, in an environment that imitates endogenous cell organizations and organ structures. Organoids supply a culture system, in which adult stem cells and their progeny grow and represent a native physiology of cells in vivo. Now, organoids have been successfully derived from some organs both in animal models and human patients as the following diagram.
Fig.2 (A) Pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived organoids; (B) Adult stem cell (AdSC)-derived organoids. (Huch, 2015)
This system has been applied in the transplantation, fundamental research, disease modeling, and drug testing. A major benefit of organoids is that they are grown from a limited supply of starting materials, for instance, biopsies, and used for drug screening to develop individual therapies. Efforts are underway to set up a mature cryopreserved biobank of human organoids as a resource for clinicians and researchers. • • • •
There are diverse advantages of organoid engineering listed below: A near-physiological model system Form organoids with a broad range of tissues Originated from a limited starting material Expanded for numerous applications
3D Bioprinting 3D bioprinting is a fabrication technology that makes use of 3D printing and 3D printing-like techniques to precisely create living tissues and artificial organs. This strategy covers a wide range of starting materials and combines cells, growth factors, and biomaterials to produce biomedical parts that maximally mimic natural tissue characteristics. It is an additive manufacturing technology that worked by the layerby-layer method to get a bioprinted structure. 3D bioprinting has become one of the most attractive technologies for fabricating functional tissues and organs that revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of many different medical conditions.
Fig.3 Schematic illustration of the 3D bioprinting process and optical images of the printing setup and printing constructs. (Wu, 2016)
Applications of 3D bioprinting are numerous. For example, it could create human tissues, including skin, bone, cartilage, even blood vessels, for patients and victims. It is also a means to make up human organs, in order to perform organ transplants. There are insufficient donors and this way could be a prominent fast and life-saving solution. This is definitely appearing new possibilities in terms of transplantation, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. • • • • •
Several major advantages of 3D bioprinting are demonstrated as follows: Offer transplantable organs to replace donors Generate a variety of tissues Low risk of cell rejections Avoiding animal testing in labs Reduce organ trafficking In Creative Biolabs, we can provide top-class organoids and 3D bioprinting technologies for widespread applications, which are increasingly used in combination with biomaterials and tissue engineering. Besides, we are skilled at these systemic
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References 1. Huch, M.; Koo B.K. Modeling mouse and human development using organoid cultures. Development. 2015, 142(18): 3113-3125. 2. Wu, Z.; et al. Bioprinting three-dimensional cell-laden tissue constructs with controllable degradation. Sci Rep. 2016, 6: 24474.