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Richard Burgess • Petter Fuhre • Rasma Haidri Sjøvoll Silje Moen • Helen Murray

Tracks Engelsk for yrkesfag • Vg1 • Vg2


Contents Chapter 1 – A World of English Text

Page

Text type

Shortcut

Audio

Where Do I Come From?

12

Listening: personal narratives

Becoming a Strategic Reader

15

Factual

web

Global English

20

Factual

book

CD / Task 7: web

Do You Speak Norwenglish?

26

Dialogue

Mari, Mariken and Magnus: Going Abroad

32

Web texts: personal narratives

web

web

Reading Literature

34

Factual

web web

CD

Shortcut

Audio

web

web

Raising the Mango

36

Short story (Angela M. Balcita)

Revision: Chapter 1

39

Self-evaluation / tasks

web

Chapter 2 – Life & Society: North America Text

Page

Text type

The USA: Facts & Figures

42

Map

Q&A: Myths and Facts about the USA

43

Dialogue

Two Sides of the American Dream

49

Poems (Ralph Waldo Emerson / Langston Hughes)

Becoming a Strategic Listener

53

Factual

Issues in American Society

55

Listening: Text 1: Dialogue Texts 2 & 3: Factual

The Hunger Games

59

Novel excerpt (Suzanne Collins)

book

CD

Detroit and Silicon Valley

66

Factual

book

CD

Son of the Mob

71

Listening: Novel excerpt (Gordon Korman)

No Speak English

74

Short story (Sandra Cisneros)

web

CD / Task 7: web

Black and White

79

Novel excerpt (Paul Volponi)

book

CD

Canada: Facts & Figures

90

Map

Canada: A Country of Contrasts

91

Listening: Text 1: factual Text 2: personal narrative

CD web web

CD

web

Revision: Chapter 2

94

Self-evaluation / tasks

Talking Course 1: The Art of Small Talk

95

Factual

web

Writing Course 1: Informal and Formal English

98

Factual

web

Chapter 3 – Work Matters Text

Page

Tasks

104

Text type

Shortcut

Audio Task 7: web

English at Work

107

Factual

What I Do for a Living

114

Listening: personal narratives

Finding a Job

117

Job adverts

book

CD web Task 5: web

3


Text

Page

Text type

Tricks of the Trade

121

Listening: three interviews

Landing in the North

123

Short story (Martin Bott)

Shortcut

Audio web

book

What’s Gone Wrong?

131

Illustrations

Revision: Chapter 3

136

Self-evaluation / tasks

Talking Course 2: Oral Presentations

137

Factual

web

Writing Course 2: Planning Your Text – Six Steps to Success

140

Factual

web

CD / Task 2: web

Chapter 4 – Life & Society: The British Isles Text

Page

Text type

Shortcut

Audio

The United Kingdom: Facts & Figures

146

Map

Teens in the UK

147

Listening: personal narratives

I Am the Secret Footballer

153

Autobiography excerpt

web

Reading Poetry

157

Factual

web

Connected

158

Poem (Ian McMillan)

Dora

161

Novel excerpt (Dawn French)

web

CD / Task 6: web

Dying for Dreadlocks

166

News article

book

CD

British Festivals

171

Factual

web

CD / Task 6: web

Coping with Bad Times

175

Listening: personal narratives

Ireland: Facts & Figures

179

Map

Who Are the Irish?

180

Text collage

Tommy from Dublin

184

Personal email

web

web

The Sniper

187

Short story (Liam O’Flaherty)

book

CD

Revision: Chapter 4

195

Self-evaluation / tasks

Talking Course 3: Speaking on the Phone

196

Factual

web

Task 4: web

Writing Course 3: Writing Clear, Logical Texts

198

Factual

web

web CD CD

web CD

Chapter 5 – Life & Society: The English-Speaking World Text

Page

Text type

Shortcut

Audio

web

CD

Factual

web

CD / Task 7: web

215

Novel excerpt (Hari Kunzru)

book

CD

220

Map

Extreme Sports in New Zealand

221

Factual

book

CD

The All Blacks

227

Listening: dialogue

Australia: Facts & Figures

228

Map

Australian National Holidays

229

Listening: radio interviews

Tuning in: See the World!

204

Board game

From British Empire to Commonwealth

206

Factual

India: Key Facts

209

Factual

Bollywood: The Global Cinema

211

Transmission New Zealand: Facts & Figures

4

web web


Text

Page

Text type

Shortcut

Audio

book

CD

Does My Head Look Big in This?

232

Novel excerpt (Randa AbdelFattah)

South Africa: Key Facts

239

Factual

My Country

241

Listening: speech

South Africa Has It All!

243

Factual

web

web

The Ten Things that White People Should Know about Black People

247

Column (Lerato Tshabalala)

web

CD

Revision: Chapter 5

250

Self-evaluation / tasks

Talking Course 4: Discussion and Debate

251

Factual

web

Writing Course 4: The Flow of Good Writing

253

Factual

web

web

Chapter 6 – Work Values Text

Page

Text type

Shortcut

Audio

The Little Red Hen

258

Listening: fable

web

Work Ethics: Doing the Right Thing

259

Interview

book

CD

Gender Roles in Working Life

264

Column and comments

web

web

Getting the Right Job

271

Listening: personal narratives

Child Labour

275

Factual

book

CD

Safety at the Workplace

280

Factual

book

CD

Health, Environment and Safety – Oral Presentation

287

Project instructions

Revision: Chapter 6

289

Self-evaluation / tasks

Shortcut

Audio

web

web

web

Chapter 7 – We Were Here First Text

Page

Text type

The First Australians

293

Factual

Son of Mine

297

Poem (Kath Walker)

CD

Ta Moko

299

Listening: factual

web

Butterflies

302

Short story (Patricia Grace)

web

CD

The Story of the Native Americans

306

Factual

book

CD

Sure You Can Ask Me a Personal Question

312

Poem (Diane Burns)

Revision: Chapter 7

315

Self-evaluation / tasks

CD

Conversion Table p. 316 Map of the English-Speaking World p. 318 Map of the USA p. 320 Map of the United Kingdom p. 321 Mini-glossary of Literary Terms / Toolboxes p. 322

Task symbols:

* = shortcut task (can also be done by readers of the main text) = challenging task

Interactive tasks and other resources for all texts: tracks.cdu.no

5


6


7


Chapter 2

Life & Society:

North America Look at the pictures with a partner. Tell each other what or who you recognize. What clues can you find that these pictures are from North America?

Learning targets in focus (selection):

–– Culture and society: understand values and social, cultural and economic issues in North America –– Reading skills: read and understand different types of texts: article, novel excerpt, short story and poem –– Oral skills: use different listening techniques before, during and after listening for different purposes –– Writing skills: write different types of text; choose the style of language to fit the writing purpose –– Digital skills: research and present a person; research an issue to discuss it –– Mathematical skills: understand and discuss statistics about values in the USA For a full list of learning targets for this chapter, see the website.


Ten chapter key words: American Dream – freedom – success – to immigrate – to emigrate – issue – firearm – financial crisis – stereotype – multicultural


What is a typical American like? What do they do? What do you think is important to a typical American? Make a mind map in pairs like the one below, and fill in key words for all your thoughts and ideas. (See page 140 for help on making mind maps.)

business and work

vacations

The American Way of Life

values and attitudes

food and drink

entertainment

sports

Q&A: Myths and Facts about the USA Here are some questions people asked about the USA on an online discussion forum. Try to answer the questions yourself before checking the answers on page 44.

Was it Christopher Columbus who discovered America? Felix, Austria

Is the USA the world’s only superpower? Jane, New Zealand

Have there always been 50 states? Luis, Argentina

Do all Americans dream of getting rich? Do all Americans own fast cars? Ingvild, Norway

vacation ferie value verdi Q&A = questions and answers

North america

43


Is freedom still an important value to Americans? Chen, Taiwan

Is the church losing ground in the United States? Tammy, Wales

I’ve heard that the USA is called a “melting pot”. Is this true? Sergej, Russia

Did the American Dream die with the latest financial crisis? Jason, Australia

Josie Taylor from Mt Rainier Senior High School in Seattle answered the questions on the forum:

to lose ground her: å bli mindre viktig melting pot smelte­ digel financial crisis finanskrise Native American indianer/indianar The War of Indepen­ dence uavhengighets­ krigen/sjølvstende­ krigen

44

Chapter TWO

Hi, Felix! No, this isn’t true at all. The Vikings landed in America 500 years before Columbus, but the Native Americans came here thousands of years before the Vikings. (The first Viking was called Leiv, but the name hasn’t caught on here, ha-ha!) Hi, Luis! 50 is an easy number to remember, right? But in the 1600s there were thirteen British colonies on the east coast. They became the first thirteen states after the new Americans had beaten the Brits in the War of Independence (1775–1783). Go USA! 


Hi there, Jane! This is so true! The United States is still the world’s only superpower. Our economy is more than twice the size of second-place China’s, and no other country has more soldiers stationed all around the world. (This has its good and bad sides, of course … L) Hi, Ingvild! (What a cool name!) Not many Americans rank “wealth” as their number one dream today. I’ve read that almost fifty percent of all Americans have “a good life for my family” as their biggest dream. As for cars, owning a car in the USA doesn’t have to cost a lot of money. Even poor families usually own at least one car. Public transportation (buses, trains, subways) is often found only in larger cities, so just to get to work, Americans will need a car. Gas is still pretty cheap too! 

wealth rikdom gas bensin desire ønske, begjær service gudstjeneste/ gudsteneste volunteer frivillig ordinary vanlig/vanleg poverty fattigdom spirit her: innstilling, sinnelag

Hello, Chen! Yeah, freedom is maybe our most important value. It was the search for freedom that brought the first immigrants to the USA, and this desire has been passed on through generations. Even today, Americans are willing to risk a lot for their personal freedom. Personally, I’m no fan of guns, but a lot of Americans want the freedom to own a gun. Hi, Tammy! You know, church is still very important to many Americans, even if not quite as many show up for Sunday service as they did a few years ago. It’s the place where Americans do volunteer work and are social at the same time. The atmosphere is very relaxed. It’s a meeting place, somewhere to be with old friends and make new ones. Hello, Sergej! Well, Americans hoped that this was true once, but today we see that many immigrants keep their old traditions and ways of life. They don’t really “melt into” American culture. There’s a lot that binds us Americans together, but maybe it’s better to compare the USA to a giant pizza? We could say that the different ethnic groups put different toppings on the pizza. And we all love pizza, right? G’day, Jason! No way – that’s not the case. The American Dream of starting with nothing, working hard, and ending with success is still very much alive today. This is what immigrants coming to the USA have always wanted. Still, most Americans live ordinary lives, and many also live in poverty. The economic crisis has made a record number of Americans lose their jobs, but the dream of success lives on – it’s part of the American spirit.

p. 46: to escape å unnslippe, å rømme fra / å sleppe unna, å rømme frå persecution forfølgelse/ forfølging The Declaration of Independence uavhengighets­ erklæringen/ sjølvstendefråsegna equal lik, jevnbyrdig / lik, jambyrdig liberty frihet/fridom to pursue å jage, å strebe etter / å jage, å streve etter opportunity mulighet, sjanse / moglegheit, sjanse pledge høytidelig løfte / høgtideleg løfte allegiance troskap/ truskap

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Facts THE AMERICAN DREAM

In “Q&A: Myths and Facts about the USA”, Josie explains to Jason from Australia that the American Dream is about starting with nothing, working hard, and ending with success. Actually, the idea of an American dream is older than the USA itself, dating to the 1600s, when European immimgrants began to have all sorts of hopes and dreams for what was a brand new continent. There is no doubt that the millions of emigrants who left Europe and sailed across the Atlantic Ocean all had a dream. For some it was to escape tyranny and persecution. For others it was to escape poverty, to make a better life for themselves and their families, and perhaps even to strike it rich. We find the roots of the American Dream in the US Declaration of Independence (1776), where it says that “all men are created equal,” and that they have the right to “Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.” At the time, this was quite a revolutionary idea: that each person had the right to pursue happiness and to strive for a better life through hard work and ambition. But over time the meaning of the American Dream has changed, and today we think less of the ideals of freedom and equality and more of the opportunity to own a house and a car and to get an education. Picture: American pupils reciting the Pledge of Allegiance. It begins like this: “I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America …”


Tasks 1 Understanding the text Some of the statements below are not correct. Can you find out which ones are not true and correct them? a Christopher Columbus discovered America. b  The Vikings were the first people who actually lived in America. c There are 52 states in the USA. d There are no superpowers left in the world. e  Many Americans say that they wish for a good life for their family. f  It can be difficult to find a bus in America outside the cities. g America is still the land of the free. h  Americans have more or less stopped going to church. i The American Dream is still alive.

2 Reflection Go back to the mind map you made before reading this text. Is there anything about the map that you would like to change now? Something that should be added, or taken away?

3 Looking at language  a  The language Josie uses is the type we use when we talk to our friends. This is typical of language used on online forums and social media. Go through her answers again, and see if you can spot at least four examples of informal language. (See page 98 for help on informal language.) b  What sort of person do you think Josie might be, judging from her answers? Does she come across as typically American in any way?

4 Writing The American Dream is very important to many Americans. Write a story in which someone’s dream of fame and fortune comes true. You may choose one of these ways to begin your story: – On her way home from the night-shift, Mary Watson found a coin on the sidewalk … – Silje had always dreamed of moving to America to become a Hollywood star … – Juan was really excited on his first day at work in New York. He knew he would have to work hard to make it in the USA …

5 Talking Stereotypes are often unfair and untrue descriptions of a group of people with a particular characteristic. For example: all teenagers are lazy / all Americans are fat / all Englishmen are polite. People from different countries have been asked what they think about Norwegians. Here is what they had to say: – “Norwegians are not easy to get to know.” – “Norwegians work hard enough while at work, the problem is they’re not at work long enough.” – “Norwegians have no sense of humor.” a  Discuss in groups whether you think these statements give a correct picture of Norwegians. hour in “The land of the automobile” – rush New York City

b  Are there other (perhaps totally different) characteristics and attitudes you would say are typically Norwegian? If so, which ones? NOrth america

47


Tasks c  Before reading the text, you were asked 4 Understanding to make a mind statistics map about Americans. The based Economist In 2008 British 4 Understanding statistics Werethe your ideasmagazine of Americans on did2008 astereotypes? pollthe in British Britain and the USA see how Explain! ThetoEconomist In magazine values differed in the two countries. Below did aCan poll in Britain and the USA to see howare d  stereotyping be dangerous? Explain.  some ofdiffered the results. values in the two countries. Below are

some of the results. statistics 6 Understanding  Look at the statements below. DiscussThe whether A few years ago the British magazine they can bedid supported the statistics. If they Economist a poll inby Britain and the USA to Look at the statements below. Discuss whether see how values different in the twoIf they cannot, do were the statistics they canwhat be supported by the show? statistics. Below are some of the results. acountries. Americans arethe generally religious than cannot, what do statisticsmore show? the Discuss whether these statements can be British. are generally a Americans more religious than supported by the statistics. If they cannot, what dothe theBritish. statistics show? Respondents’ views, by country (percentages)

a  Americans are generally more religious than the British. b The British are generally more old-fashioned b  The British are generally more old-fashioned thanAmericans Americans about sex. b than The British areabout generally more old-fashioned sex. c than MostAmericans American and British about sex. people agree that c  Most American and British people agree that abortion shouldusually usually legal. agree that c abortion Most American and British people should bebe legal. d abortion The British are generally favour of lower should usually beinlegal. d  The British are generally in favour of lower taxes than the Americans. d taxes The than British generally in favour of lower theare Americans. e taxes Most American and British people agree that than the Americans. e  Most American and British people agree that workers should look after themselves when e workers Most American and British people agree that should look after themselves when theylose losetheir theirjobs. jobs to look for new workers should lookand afterhave themselves when they ones.lose their jobs and have to look for new they

ones.

Respondents’ views, by country (percentages) Britain America Britain America Religion

Is sex between unmarried people a sin?

Do you believe there is a God? Religion

Yes

Is sex between unmarried people a sin?

Do you believe there is a God?

Yes No Yes

0

20

40

60

80

0

20

40

60

80

No, but not desirable Yes

0

20

40

60

80

0

20

40

60

80

No, but perfectly acceptable not desirable No, perfectly acceptable

No

Do you regard homosexuality a sin?

Do you believe there is a hell?

Do you regard homosexuality a sin?

Do you believe there is a hell?

Yes No Yes

0

20

40

60

80

0

20

40

60

80

No

Yes No, but not desirable Yes

0

20

40

60

80

0

20

40

60

80

perfectly acceptable No, but not desirable No, perfectly acceptable

If the prime minister / president were an atheist,

Ideology

would you feel: If the prime minister / president were an atheist,

The government should: Ideology

would you feel:

The government should:

delighted indifferent delighted

0

20

40

60

80

0

20

40

60

80

sorry indifferent

have a bigger role and raise taxes if necessary have a bigger role and raise taxes necessary have aif smaller role and

0

10

20

30

40

50

0

10

20

30

40

50

angry

reduce taxes have a smaller role and reduce taxes keep the present balance

Values

keep the present balance

When do you think abortion should be legal? Values

If workers are laid off, who should support

angry sorry

When do you think abortion should be legal?

whileare they look a new job? Ifthem workers laid off,for who should support

Always

them while they look for a new job?

Usually, but exceptions Always

0

20

40

60

80

0

20

40

60

80

The company

In specialbut circumstances Usually, exceptions

government The company

Never In special circumstances

workers themselves The government

Never

The workers themselves

48

Chapter TWO

0

10

20

30

40

50

0

10

20

30

40

50

193


The American Dream still has real meaning for many Americans, and success is often the key word here. The idea of setting yourself goals and striving to achieve them is an important part of the American way of life. a Take a few minutes to write down what success means to you in your life. Which goals are you willing to strive for? b Now make groups of 3–4 students and compare your ideas. Are there any similarities? Is there such a thing as “the Norwegian Dream”?

Two Sides of the American Dream Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803–1882), an American writer and philosopher, had this to say about success:

What is success? To laugh often and much; To win the respect of intelligent people and the affection of children; To earn the appreciation of honest critics and endure the betrayal of false friends; To appreciate beauty; To find the best in others; To leave the world a bit better, whether by a healthy child, a garden patch, or a redeemed social condition; To know even one life has breathed easier because you have lived. This is to have succeeded.

to strive å streve, å kjempe affection hengivenhet/ godhug to earn å fortjene / å fortene appreciation anerkjennelse, verdsettelse / anerkjenning, verdsetting critic kritiker/kritikar to endure å holde ut / å halde ut betrayal forræderi whether her: enten patch flekk to redeem å gjøre bedre, å rette opp / å gjere betre, å rette opp condition her: forhold

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49


However, not all dreams come true. And some dreams are put on hold. Maybe just for the time being. Or maybe indefinitely. This is what the American poet Langston Hughes (1902–1967) was wondering about dreams that were put on hold:

What happens to a dream deferred? Does it dry up like a raisin in the sun? Or fester like a sore – And then run? Does it stink like rotten meat? Or crust and sugar over – like a syrupy sweet? on hold utsatt/utsett deferred utsatt/utsett raisin rosin to fester å bli betent to run å renne to crust å danne skorpe to sag å henge ned load bør

50

Chapter TWO

Maybe it just sags like a heavy load. Or does it explode?


Tasks 1 Understanding the two texts a  How many different definitions of success does Emerson offer? b  Explain which definition you liked the most, and why.

Langston Hughes uses a metaphor when he asks if a dream that is put on hold will “explode”. How can a dream “explode”? Why is this metaphor used in the poem?

c Which definition meant the least to you? d  What are the possible consequences of putting a dream on hold, according to Langston Hughes? e  Go through the consequences that  Langston Hughes lists and decide which of the five senses each of the them appeals to. Which one can you see, hear, feel, smell, and maybe even taste?

2 Talking Discuss the following questions with a partner. Then share your answers with the rest of the class. a  Emerson says it’s important to “laugh often and much.” Why is laughter important? Are there times and places where we should not laugh? b  Are there any similarities between Emerson’s ideas of success and what you said about success and “the Norwegian Dream” earlier? c  Would the meaning of Langston Hughes’  poem change if you found out that the poet was Jewish? Or Native American? Or that he was in fact a she? d  Actually, Langston Hughes was the first  black writer in America to make a living from writing. He published this poem in 1951 and called it “Harlem”. How does the meaning of the poem change when you know when it was written, where it was written and who the author was? e  A metaphor is a figure of speech in  which a word or phrase meaning one thing is compared to another to suggest a likeness between them. The expression “to be drowning in paperwork” is a metaphor. Of course, nobody has literally drowned in paper, but having to deal with a lot of paperwork can sometimes feel like drowning in an ocean of water.

3 Looking at language When Barack Obama was re-elected as President of the USA in 2012, he said the following in his victory speech: “I believe we can keep the promise of our founders, the idea that if you’re willing to work hard, it doesn’t matter who you are or where you come from or what you look like or who you love. It doesn’t matter whether you’re black or white or Hispanic or Asian or Native American or young or old or rich or poor, able, disabled, gay or straight, you can make it here in America if you’re willing to try.” a  Would you say that Obama gives a good description of the American Dream here? Explain why or why not. b  Why does he mention so many different types of people, do you think?

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51


Tasks 4 Research There are many famous Americans today who have lived the American Dream. Pick one of the persons from the list below and see what you can find out about him or her. Questions to consider: When and where was this person born? What was their childhood like? What is their situation today? How did this person manage to come so far? Oprah Winfrey – Bill Gates – Sean “Diddy” Combs – Dolly Parton – Jay-Z – Sergey Brin – Serena Williams – Arnold Schwarzenegger

5 Writing 

Use examples from news articles, TV shows, films or English-language literature to discuss the following statement in a 5-paragraph essay (see page 198): The American Dream is all about money. Americans value money above all else, including each other.

Obama supporters, 2008

Web teaser: Barack Obama – “Yes We can!” On November 4, 2008 Barack Obama walked onto the open-air stage in Grant Park, Chicago to speak to 125,000 ecstatic supporters. He had just been elected the 44th President of the United States of America. Obama’s election was truly historic; for the first time ever the American people had chosen a president of African American origin. In 2012, after four tough years of economic crisis, high unemployment and an extremely unpopular war in Afghanistan, Obama was re-elected. African Americans are the second largest minority group in the United States (43.9 million in 2011). Most African Americans are descended from slaves that were brought over from Africa in the 17th and 18th centuries. Even after the end of slavery they were considered second-class citizens, and it was only in the last half of the 20th century that they were able to take an active part in political life. In his victory speech in 2008, Obama reminded his supporters of the meaning of democracy in America and the sacrifices that had been made, not least by African Americans, to achieve it. Go to the website to work with Obama’s speech.

52

Chapter TWO


Becoming a Strategic Listener Listening to a recording is different from listening to people speaking to you in person. In real-life situations, you can ask people to repeat and explain, or to speak slowly, and you can use their body language and facial expressions to help you understand what they are saying. However, since you can’t ask a voice on a CD or an audio file to slow down or use different words, here is some advice on how to get the most out of listening to a recorded text.

Before listening:

Use the same strategies you use for reading. Look at the title, illustrations and the introduction. What do you already know about the topic? How you listen should be guided by why you are listening. Examples: – Are you asked to get the main ideas in the text? Then you should listen for overview, only noting down the most important information in the text. – Are you expected to work with tasks afterwards? Look carefully at the tasks and keep them in mind while listening. – Do you need to know all the facts given in the text? Then you should stop the recording several times and make notes as you go along. Use the “recite-review-repeat” strategy given on p. 17. We can think of this technique as “close listening” (see close reading on p. 16).

While listening:

Keep in mind that you can listen as many times as you need, and you can stop the track to make notes. Ask yourself questions like: What did he just say? How did that relate to what he said earlier? Listen carefully for: – words which you may confuse with others: there are important differences between did and didn’t, can and can’t, is and was, will and would, his and hers, for example. – words that are repeated. These words may be more important, or they may carry a special meaning that you only understand after having listened to the whole text. –  the speaker’s tone of voice: Is he or she expressing surprise, doubt, or anger, for example? Is he or she asking a question or making a statement?

Stop!

How should you prepare for a listening text?

facial expression ansiktsuttrykk overview oversikt, overblikk to relate to å angå, å henge sammen med / å angå, å henge saman med tone of voice tonefall, holdning, måte å snakke på / tonefall, haldning, måte å snakke på doubt tvil statement erklæring, uttalelse / erklæring, utsegn

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53


– linking words: for example, if you hear but or however, you can expect some kind of contrast. (See page 254 for more linking words.) – numbers: If you hear There are three things…, listen for all three things. Words like first of all, secondly and thirdly will also tell you how many things are being talked about.

Stop!

a) What should you do while listening to a text? b) What is important to remember about taking notes?

54

Chapter TWO

Take notes while you listen: – Note only the most important facts first. – Use key words and phrases, don’t write complete sentences. – Write each important idea on a separate line, and leave lots of space so that you can write more later. – Diagrams such as mind maps, timelines and Venn diagrams (see p. 141) are useful for taking notes when listening as well as when reading.

After listening:

Check your notes. How do they compare with what you already knew about the topic before listening?


Now you are going to listen to three texts about different issues in American society. The first text is about gun ownership, the second is about how to be a celebrity, and the third is about Americans taking each other to court. a Start off by listening to all the issues to get an overview. What is the best way to get an overview? Check p. 53 again if you can’t remember. b Then choose one of the issues to work with in more detail. Now you will have to listen carefully to the text. Refresh your memory on how to listen carefully to a text on p. 53.

Issues in American Society Issue 1: The Gun Question Innocent people are killed by guns every day in the USA, but many Americans still strongly believe in the right to own a weapon. This is a right given to them in the Constitution. However, after a number of school shootings all across America, more and more people are wondering how the country is going to be able to balance the right to bear arms with the access to deadly firepower. Should there perhaps be a national age limit on owning guns? Would it make a difference if semi­ automatic weapons were made illegal? Did you know that: –  the US has the highest gun ownership rate in the world – an average of 89 per 100 people? – in 2011, 11,493 people in the USA were killed by firearms? On the website you can listen to a discussion between two Americans, Sandy and Bill.

Tasks 1 Understanding the dialogue a Why do Bill and Sandy disagree? b Sum up the arguments each person uses in the discussion.

issue emne, sak society samfunn ownership eie/eige celebrity berømthet, kjendis / berømt person, kjendis court rettssal innocent uskyldig constitution grunnlov to bear arms å bære våpen / å bere våpen access tilgang illegal ulovlig/ulovleg

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2 Writing Write a paragraph (3–5 sentences) where you explain what Sandy and Bill disagree about to someone who hasn’t listened to the discussion. Then write another paragraph where you say who you think has the best arguments, and why.

Issue 2: How to Be a Celebrity

The word “celebrity” (a famous or celebrated person) has never been used more than it is today. This is partly thanks to the Hollywood movies that spread around the world in the 20th century, and partly thanks to the social media of the 21st century. Earlier, you had to do something really special to become a celebrity – write a famous novel, be a war hero, set a world record or lead a country. Today, you can become famous simply by being in the right place at the right time! If you are photographed on the red carpet, your face may soon be recognized all around the world. Before listening: Who do you think of as the biggest American celebrities today? What are they famous for? Is there anyone you know who is famous, but who has never really done anything special? Make a list of ideas of how it would be possible to become famous. Then listen to the factual text on the website.

Tasks 1 Listening for overview List the seven routes to fame mentioned in the text. Are any of them the same as the ideas you listed before listening?

2 Listening for details According to the text, which of the ways of becoming famous … a costs the people involved a lot of money? b makes ordinary people into stars? c risked the person’s life? d led to TV appearances in many different countries? e has not produced the result promised? to spread å spre seg / å spreie seg

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f may only make you famous for a short time? g might make you unpopular?


h requires imagination and originality? i requires very little talent or ability? j has been repeated several times?

3 Talking a  Discuss the following questions with a partner: Which one of the methods of becoming famous appealed the most to you? Which one did you like the least? b  Pool all the answers from the class together and see if you can find the most and the least popular route to fame.

4 Writing Are celebrities important to you? Write a text explaining how you feel about celebrities.

Issue 3: I’ll See You in Court

You have probably come across the phrase “I’ll see you in court!” in American movies or TV series. Of course, life in the United States is not the way we see it on TV, but it is true that many Americans go to court when they are wronged or when they can pretend to be wronged. Here are three reasons why it is easier for Americans to sue than for Europeans: – Many lawyers will only ask you to pay them if you win. – If you lose, you don’t have to pay the other side’s legal fees. – There are too many lawyers – more than 1 million. The text you are about to listen to gives you a couple of great examples of strange American lawsuits.

Tasks 1 Listening for numbers and dates a When did Stella Liebeck sue McDonald’s? b How old was she at this point? c How much money was she originally given for having burnt herself? d How much had Doug Baker paid the vet to take care of his dog? e  How much did he think it was fair that the dog-sitter should pay him?

wronged gjort urett mot lawyer advokat legal fees saksomkostninger/sakskostnader lawsuit rettssak, søksmål

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2 Timeline Make a timeline of events in the story of Doug Baker and the dog. (See page 142 for help on timelines.) Start with: – 2003: God tells Doug to take care of a dog

3 Writing letters See page 98 for formal and informal language. a  Imagine that you are Doug Baker. Write a letter to your lawyer in which you explain what has happened and what you would like the lawyer to help you with. b  Imagine that you are Doug Baker. Write an email to your best friend, Dave, in which you explain what has happened and what you plan to do about it. c Compare the language you have used in the two letters.



4 Talking Stories about alligators in the sewers, rats in pizzas, stolen kidneys and the grandmother who put her poodle in the microwave after giving it a bath are all called urban legends (vandrehistorier). Have you heard any? Why do you think such stories are popular? Try to tell each other in English about the funny or scary stories you know. If you don’t know any, go to our website to find urban legends, and retell some of those stories to each other.

5 Writing Here are three statements about the three issues you have listened to. Choose one statement. Write a personal text giving your opinion. – “Without guns, we would be at the mercy of criminals.” – “It is totally meaningless that the media is full of celebrities and their lifestyles.” – “The ridiculous lawsuits that go on in the USA show us that greed is an important American value.”

6 Researching and discussing an issue Capital punishment (the death penalty) is a very serious and controversial issue in the USA. Go to the website to find tasks and materials that will give you a good overview of the debate. Then make groups of three or four and work with these questions: a  What are some of the arguments used in support of capital punishment in the USA? b What are some of the arguments used against capital punishment? c Which side of the argument do you find most persuasive? Why?

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Try to answer the following questions before sharing your answers with your classmates: a What reality shows do you watch? b How do you feel when you watch eliminations on reality shows like “Survivor” (Robinson) or “Idol”? Do you tend to feel more for the winners or for the losers? c Why do you think reality shows have become so popular? d Do you think your generation has become less sensitive to violence because there are so many violent images on TV and the internet? Explain your opinion. The Hunger Games is a novel which was first published in 2008. It is written in the voice of 16-year-old Katniss Everdeen, who lives in the future nation of Panem, where the countries of North America once existed. The Capitol controls the rest of the nation, and once a year, one boy and one girl aged 12–18 from each of the twelve districts are selected by lottery to compete in the Hunger Games. The games are a televised battle where there can be only one winner. The rules of the games are simple: Kill, or be killed! The following excerpt is taken from the early pages of the novel. It does not give us much information about the characters, but it gives us an idea of what the setting is like, and it introduces us to the plot of the novel. If you are unsure of what is meant by setting and plot, see page 34.

The Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins

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At one o’clock, we head for the square. Attendance is mandatory unless you are on death’s door. This evening, officials will come around and check to see if this is the case. If not, you’ll be imprisoned. It’s too bad, really, that they hold the reaping in the square – one of the few places in District 12 that can be pleasant. The square’s surrounded by shops, and on public market days, especially if there’s good weather, it has a holiday feel to it. But today, despite the bright banners hanging on the buildings, there’s an air of grimness. The camera crews, perched like buzzards on rooftops, only add to the effect.

elimination her: utstemming sensitive to følsom overfor / følsam overfor violence vold/vald selected by lottery valgt ut gjennom trekning / vald ut gjennom trekning to compete å konkurrere televised sendt på TV attendance frammøte mandatory obligatorisk to reap å høste (inn) / å hauste (inn) grimness dysterhet / dyster stemning perched vaglet opp / vagla opp buzzard gribb

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Stop!

a) What does to reap normally mean? What does it mean here? b) Where does the reaping take place? c) How old are the contestants in the game?

to keep tabs å føre kontroll med, å holde øye med / å føre kontroll med, å halde auge med herded samlet i flokk / samla i flokk perimeter her: innhegning at stake på spill / på spel Seam = an area of District 12 merchant handelsstand, kjøpmann racketeer svindler/ svindlar adjacent tilstøtende/ tilstøytande terse kort grin glis to murmur å mumle mayor ordfører/ordførar drought tørke to encroach å sluke sustenance mat, næring prosperity velstand uprising opptøyer/ opptøyar obliterated utslettet/ utsletta

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People file in silently and sign in. The reaping is a good opportunity for the Capitol to keep tabs on the population as well. Twelveto eighteen-year-olds are herded into roped areas marked off by ages, the oldest in the front, the young ones, like Prim, towards the back. Family members line up around the perimeter, holding tightly to one another’s hands. But there are others, too, who have no one they love at stake, or who no longer care, who slip among the crowd, taking bets on the two kids whose names will be drawn. Odds are given on their ages, whether they’re Seam or merchant, if they will break down and weep. Most refuse dealing with the racketeers but carefully, carefully. These same people tend to be informers, and who hasn’t broken the law? I could be shot on a daily basis for hunting, but the appetites of those in charge protect me. Not everyone can claim the same. Anyway, Gale and I agree that if we have to choose between dying of hunger and a bullet in the head, the bullet would be much quicker. The space gets tighter, more claustrophobic, as people arrive. The square’s quite large, but not enough to hold District 12’s population of about eight thousand. Latecomers are directed to the adjacent streets, where they can watch the event on screens as it’s televised live by the state. I find myself standing in a clump of sixteens from the Seam. We all exchange terse nods, then focus our attention on the temporary stage that is set up before the Justice Building. It holds three chairs, a podium and two large glass balls, one for the boys and one for the girls. I stare at the paper slips in the girls’ ball. Twenty of them have Katniss Everdeen written on them in careful handwriting. Two of the chairs fill with Madge’s father, Mayor Undersee, who’s a tall, balding man, and Effie Trinket, District 12’s escort, fresh from the Capitol with her scary white grin, pinkish hair and spring green suit. They murmur to each other and then look with concern at the empty seat. Just as the town clock strikes two, the mayor steps up to the podium and begins to read. It’s the same story every year. He tells of the history of Panem, the country that rose up out of the ashes of a place that was once called North America. He lists the disasters, the droughts, the storms, the fires, the encroaching seas that swallowed up so much of the land, the brutal war for what little sustenance remained. The result was Panem, a shining Capitol ringed by thirteen districts, which brought peace and prosperity to its citizens. Then came the Dark Days, the uprising of the districts against the Capitol. Twelve were defeated, the thirteenth obliterated. The Treaty of Treason gave us the new laws to guarantee

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Jennifer Lawrence as Katniss Everdeen in the 2012 movie The Hunger Games

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peace and, as our yearly reminder that the Dark Days must never be repeated, it gave us the Hunger Games. The rules of the Hunger Games are simple. In punishment for the uprising, each of the twelve districts must provide one girl and one boy, called tributes, to participate. The twenty-four tributes will be imprisoned in a vast outdoor arena that could hold anything from a burning desert to a frozen wasteland. Over a period of several weeks, the competitors must fight to the death. The last tribute standing wins. Taking the kids from our districts, forcing them to kill one another while we watch – this is the Capitol’s way of reminding us how totally we are at their mercy. How little chance we would stand of surviving another rebellion. Whatever words they use, the real message is clear. “Look how we take your children and sacrifice them and there’s nothing you can do. If you lift a finger, we will destroy every last one of you. Just as we did in District Thirteen.”

Stop!

a) How many people live in District 12? b) What is placed on the stage in front of the Justice Building? c) What is the history of Panem?

wasteland ødemark/ øydemark at their mercy på deres nåde, prisgitt dem / på deira nåde, prisgitt dei to sacrifice å ofre

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Stop!

a) What are the rules of the Hunger Games? b) Why does the Capitol organize these games? c) How does the Capitol force its population to treat the games?

To make it humiliating as well as torturous, the Capitol requires us to treat the Hunger Games as a festivity, a sporting event pitting every district against the others. The last tribute alive receives a life of ease back home, and their district will be showered with prizes, largely consisting of food. All year, the Capitol will show the winning districts gifts of grain and oil and even delicacies like sugar while the rest of us battle starvation. “It is both a time for repentance and a time for thanks,” intones the mayor. […]

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It’s time for the drawing. Effie Trinket says as she always does, “Ladies first!” and crosses to the glass ball with the girls’ names. She reaches in, digs her hand deep into the ball, and pulls out a slip of paper. The crowd draws in a collective breath and then you can hear a pin drop, and I’m feeling nauseous and so desperately hoping that it’s not me, that it’s not me, that it’s not me. Effie Trinket crosses back to the podium, smoothes the slip of paper, and reads out the name in a clear voice. And it’s not me. It’s Primrose Everdeen. […]

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a) Who is the first girl to be chosen for the games? b) How does this excerpt end? humiliating ydmykende/ audmjukande to pit against å sette opp mot grain korn delicacies delikatesser repentance anger to intone å messe, å si høytidelig / å messe, å seie høgtideleg nauseous kvalm strangled kvalt/kvelt to volunteer å melde seg frivillig

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Somewhere far away, I can hear the crowd murmuring unhappily, as they always do when a twelve-year-old gets chosen, because no one thinks this is fair. And then I see her, the blood drained from her face, hands clenched in fists at her sides, walking with stiff, small steps up towards the stage, passing me, and I see the back of her blouse has become untucked and hangs out over her skirt. It’s this detail, the untucked blouse forming a duck’s tail, that brings me back to myself. “Prim!” The strangled cry comes out of my throat, and my muscles begin to move again. “Prim!” I don’t need to shove through the crowd. The other kids make way immediately, allowing me a straight path to the stage. I reach her just as she is about to mount the steps. With one sweep of my arm, I push her behind me. “I volunteer!” I gasp. “I volunteer as tribute!”

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Shortcut

The Hunger Games This is a summary of what Katniss Everdeen tells us. She lives in the country of Panem – see introduction on page 59. At one o’clock we go to the town square. Everybody has to be there. If not, they will send you to prison. It’s too bad that they have decided to use the square. Usually it is a nice place with shops and happy people. But today, not one person is smiling. This is a good opportunity for the Capitol to check on the population. Young people between 12 and 18 are sent into roped areas. Family members line up around the roped areas, holding hands. But there are others in the crowd that are taking bets on the children. They try to guess who will be chosen for the games. I am standing with the other 16-year-olds. We look at each other, then up at the stage in front of the Justice Building. On the stage there are three chairs, one podium, and two large glass balls, one for the boys and one for the girls. When the clock strikes two, the mayor steps up to the podium and begins to read. It is the same story every year. He tells the history of Panem, the country that used to be North America a long time ago. He lists everything that happened: the droughts, the storms, the fires, the brutal war, and the seas that rose. The result was Panem: a beautiful Capitol ringed by 13 districts. Then came the Dark Days when the districts went to war against the Capitol. 12 districts lost. Number 13 was destroyed completely. The new laws gave us peace, but they also gave us the Hunger Games. Every year the Capitol reminds us that we must never forget the Dark Days, and never try to fight them again. The rules of the Hunger Games are simple. Each district must send one girl and one boy. These 24 young people are sent to a large outdoor place. Over a period of several weeks, they must fight to the death. The last person standing wins. To make things even worse, the Capitol forces us to watch the games. They want us to behave as if it were a sporting event. The winner of the games will get many prizes, and his or her district will have plenty of food for the rest of the year. It is time for the drawing. To find out what happens at the drawing, go to page 62, line 11 and read the rest of the excerpt. unease uro, bekymring bet veddemål mayor ordfører/ordførar desert ørken wasteland ødemark/øydemark

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Tasks 1* Jeopardy

4* Vocabulary

Make questions for the following answers:

An antonym is a word that means the opposite of another word. Can you match the words on the left with their antonyms on the right?

a  It is where the countries of North America used to be. b They are going to the town square. c Young people between 12 and 18 years old. d  This was when the districts went to war against the Capitol. e  One boy and one girl from each district – 24 young people in all – must fight to the death. Only one person will survive. f Primrose Everdeen. g  Katniss volunteers to take part in the Hunger Games in Primrose’s place.

2 Talking a  How can we tell that this day is not a normal day? b  Does this “reaping” remind you of other things you have seen or read about? Explain. c  What are the rewards for winning the games? Why are there rewards, do you think? d  What do you think about people taking bets on who will be chosen as tributes? Does this surprise you? e  Based on the excerpt you have read, can you come up with possible reasons for the novel’s great popularity?

3 Writing Choose one task: a* A friend of yours has gotten The Hunger Games for Christmas but isn’t sure if she wants to read it. She wants you to give your opinion. You know that she likes exciting stories and fantasy novels. Write her a message. b  Write a continuation of the story. If you have already read the novel or seen the movie, feel free to use elements from these, but use your own imagination as much as possible.

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oldest  war peace  youngest everybody  unpleasant nice  freezing outdoor  life burning  nobody death  indoor plenty  dark pale  little

5 Talking The Hunger Games shows that people find violence and human suffering entertaining. This theme is not new. Throughout history, people have flocked to see knights competing in bloody tournaments, public executions, whippings, witch burnings, and so on. As late as the last century, freak shows drew crowds of people to stare at people or animals with deformities. a  Can you give examples of this being popular on TV today? b  How do you react to the exploitation of human suffering for entertainment purposes? Would you consider a boxing match in the same category?


6 Looking at language – idioms An idiom is an expression that cannot be understood from the meanings of its separate words but that has a separate meaning of its own. If, for example, you say that something costs “a pretty penny,” it means that you think it’s very expensive. In column A below is a list of idioms taken from the Hunger Games excerpt. Can you match them with the correct explanation in column B? A to be on death’s door to keep tabs on someone to be at stake to be at someone’s mercy to stand a chance to hear a pin drop

B to be very, very quiet to be almost dead to have a possibility to make sure you know where somebody is to have somebody have complete power over you to be in danger of being lost or damaged

Web teaser: Working with the novel and the movie The novel The Hunger Games is divided into three sections: The Tributes, The Games and The Victor. Each part ends with a “cliffhanger” that makes you want to continue reading to find out what happens. If you would like to read the entire novel, you can go to our website for questions on each of the three sections. When the movie The Hunger Games came out in 2012, the reviews varied from average to outstanding. But the fans loved it! Only two other movies in the United States have made more money during their opening weekend, and none has done better outside of what is considered to be high season for movie goers, namely summer and Christmas. Go to the website to find tasks for working with the movie.

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Did you know that in 1945 more than half of all goods produced in the world came from the United States? Or that this “Golden Age” in America lasted all the way until the early 1970s? This was a time when a lot of people got rich, and the United States built dams, bridges, interstate highways, schools and hospitals. They even sent a man to the moon! Today, however, the American Dream is looking more like a nightmare to many Americans. The financial crisis started in 2008, and at one point 14,000 Americans lost their jobs every day. Families lost their homes, and many people lost all their savings. Clearly, the crisis hit the United States hard. a Do you know if all parts of the United States were hit equally hard? b Have you heard of any American companies that went bankrupt because of the crisis?

Detroit and Silicon Valley The USA is a vast and varied country, and the financial crisis has hit different regions in different ways. Let us take a look at two contrasting areas: the city of Detroit and Silicon Valley in the San Francisco Bay Area.

Detroit

goods varer dam demning financial crisis finanskrise savings sparepenger, oppsparte midler / sparepengar, oppsparte midlar to go bankrupt å gå konkurs vast stor, veldig varied variert automobile bil industrialist industriherre, fabrikkeier / industriherre, fabrikkeigar automaker bil­ produsent blue-collar worker fabrikkarbeider/ fabrikkarbeidar spark plug tennplugg hood ornament panserutsmykning/ panserutsmykking

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Did you hear the story of the guy who built a bike, won a race, and used $28,000 to build one of the oldest and most successful automobile companies in the world? You should, especially when it’s Michigan’s very own Henry Ford and his Ford Motor Company that we’re talking about. Henry Ford – the farmer’s boy who rose from his country roots to become an industrialist, a billionaire and an architect of modern America. Michigan is a state in the Midwest that is surrounded by the five Great Lakes. The largest city is Detroit. To many people Detroit is simply known as the Motor City. It is the hometown to what used to be the world’s three largest automakers – General Motors, Ford and Chrysler. In the middle of the 20th century, hundreds of thousands of blue-collar workers found work in all kinds of factories that made all sorts of parts, from spark plugs to hood ornaments. It used to be great to live in Michigan! If you got a job working for one of “The Big Three,” you could buy and pay for a house before you were 30 years old. You could get a new car every three years, and


take your family on a nice vacation every other summer. You could send your kids to college and pay for their entire education. And your pension would be set aside so that it would be there for you when you retired. But things have changed in Michigan. First, the price of oil went up so much that many Americans stopped buying gas-guzzling SUVs and pick-up trucks. Then, the financial crisis made it almost impossible for regular people to get a bank loan. Since the year 2000, almost half the people working for the car industry have lost their jobs, and today Michigan has one of the highest rates of unemployment in the entire USA. One of the many unemployed car industry workers, Ray Castillo, says that he used to love his job. “I got to work with my hands,” he explains, “which is one of the greatest things in life!” He first lost his job after having worked for General Motors for almost 20 years. He quickly got another job, but two years later he lost that job as well, and this time to a robot. Then he lost his house – and then his wife left him. “Today Detroit looks like a ghost town,” Castillo says. “You can ride around the city for hours, and all you’ll see is devastation.”

Silicon Valley

On the western side of the United States is California, the most popu­lated state in the USA. The capital of California is Sacramento, but Los Angeles is the largest city in the state and the second largest in the country. California is also home to the famous Silicon Valley. Silicon Valley is not actually a city, and originally the name referred to the large number of factories that produced silicon chips. Today, we use the term for all the high-tech businesses in the area. Although many other high-tech centers have sprung up throughout the United States and the world, none has been able to rival Silicon Valley when it comes to innovation and development – nor when it comes to making money! Silicon Valley is home to many of America’s biggest corporate headquarters, like Apple, Google and Yahoo. However, many top Japanese companies, like Toyota, Toshiba and Nintendo, have also set up Ameri-

Unemployed worker Alan Pollock carries a sign to demonstrate for jobs and good wages at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit

gas-guzzling bensinslukende/ bensinslukande regular vanlig/vanleg rate of unemployment arbeidsledighetstall/ arbeidsløysetal devastation ødeleggelser, ruin / øydeleggingar, ruin originally opprinnelig/ opphavleg silicon chip mikrochip, silisiumbrikke high-tech høyteknologisk/høgteknologisk innovation nyskapning, innovasjon corporate (aksje)selskap headquarters hovedkvarter, hovedadministrasjon / hovudkvarter, hovudadministrasjon

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can headquarters here. This is one of the richest corners of the country, with nearly 14 percent of all households earning more than $200,000 a year. (In 2012, the average yearly income of US households was $45,018.) Even when the financial crisis hit America hard – with the financial industry and the car industry being hit the hardest – Silicon Valley only suffered a minor setback before it was back on its feet again. Still, Silicon Valley has little of the “bling” that Los Angeles has become so famous for. The millionaires (and billionaires!) here don’t like to flaunt their wealth, and even Mark Zuckerberg, Facebook’s chief executive, still walks around in his rumpled hoodies. “We’re so bland,” says one restaurant owner in Silicon Valley. “People spend their weekends taking out last year’s incredibly energy-efficient light bulb and screwing in this year’s even more energy-efficient bulb!” This might be about to change, though, now that the Valley has gotten its own reality show. The first program showed hard-partying young people vying for new companies and instant success. average yearly income årlig gjennomsnitts­ inntekt / årleg gjennomsnittsinntekt minor mindre, ubetydelig / mindre, ubetydeleg setback tilbakeslag to flaunt å briske seg med chief executive admini­strerende direktør / administrerande direktør rumpled krøllete hoodie hettegenser bland kjedelig, tam / kjedeleg, tam energy-efficient energibesparende/ energisparande to vie å konkurrere instant umiddelbar interaction gjensidig påvirkning / gjensidig påverknad edge forsprang, overtak founder grunnlegger/ grunnleggar to crumble å falle fra hverandre, å smuldre opp / å falle frå kvarandre, å smuldre opp

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So what is it that makes Silicon Valley so special? It may seem difficult to believe, but in the age when cell phones and emails and social media have made communication easier than ever, it is still the face-to-face contact that gives places like Silicon Valley that edge. In short, they have everything there: the founders, the investors and the connection to major bankers. That powerful network has been building up since the 1960s. It may, of course, crumble one day, but that doesn’t seem to be happening any time soon. So for the time being, Silicon Valley keeps on winning, and Detroit keeps on losing.

Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg


Shortcut

Detroit and Silicon Valley Detroit

Michigan is a state in the Midwest that is surrounded by the five Great Lakes. The biggest city in Michigan is Detroit. To many people Detroit is known as the Motor City. It is the hometown to what used to be the world’s three biggest auto­ makers: General Motors, Ford and Chrysler. ­It used to be great to live in Michigan. If you got a job working for one of the automakers, you knew you would have a good life ahead of you. But things have changed. First the price of oil went up so much that many Americans had to change the way they used their cars. Then, the financial crisis made it almost impossible for regular people to get a bank loan. Since the year 2000, almost half the people working for the car industry have lost their jobs. Today Michigan has one of the highest rates of unemployment in the USA.

Silicon Valley

On the western side of the United States is California. California is home to Silicon Valley. It is not actually a city, but we use the name for all the high-tech businesses in this area. In Silicon Valley, they are experts on inventing new products. They are also experts on making money! Silicon Valley is home to American companies like Apple, Google and Yahoo. But many Japanese companies also have their American headquarters here. This is one of the richest parts of the entire USA, but the millionaires (and billionaires!) who live here don’t like to show off their money. So what is it that makes Silicon Valley so special? Even today when everybody has a computer and a cell phone, it is still the face-to-face conversations that matter. Anyone who is anybody can be found in Silicon Valley. This powerful network has been growing since the 1960s. That is why Silicon Valley keeps on winning, and Detroit keeps on losing.

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Tasks 1* Understanding the text

3 Talking

a Where is Detroit?

In pairs, retell the information about Detroit and Silicon Valley, using only the paragraph headings in task 2 for help.

b Why is Detroit also known as the Motor City? c  Give reasons why things have changed for Michigan. d Where is Silicon Valley? e  Name two things they are experts on in Silicon Valley. f  How are millionaires here different from other millionaires? g What makes Silicon Valley so special?

2 Paragraph headings We have left out the headings to the paragraphs in “Detroit and Silicon Valley”. Read the text again, and try to match the paragraph headings with the correct paragraphs. Detroit: Motor City – Henry Ford – A Ghost Town – Bad News – A Sweet Life Silicon Valley: The Network – By the Pacific Ocean – Boring No More? – A Very Wealthy Valley – High-Tech Heaven

Web teaser: Travel Project If you and the rest of your class would like to learn more about the various parts of the United States, go to the website and take a look at the travel project that is explained there. It involves working with a travel budget, so get your calculators out!

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4 Vocabulary a  One group of words contains positive words. One group contains negative words. One group contains neutral words – words that are neither positive nor negative. Can you identify the three groups? A state bank loan high-tech headquarters logo

B great rich love home true

C crisis impossible unemployment ghost town boring

b  Choose a word you think is useful to know from each of the three groups. Write a sentence in your own words for each word.


Discuss with a partner: a What do you know about the mafia? b Where have you gotten your knowledge of the mafia from? Books? Movies? The news? c What is dating? On page 34 we said that when you read literature you get to experience a different world. The same goes for listening to literature. As you listen, focus on who is telling the story (the narrator), who the characters are, where they are (the setting), and what they are doing (the plot). Make notes while you are listening to “Son of the Mob”. It is a good idea to make a timeline of the events that occur. Start off with “Five o’clock. Meeting Alex.” (See p. 142 for help on making timelines.)

Son of the Mob by Gordon Korman

acne kvise mobster mafiamedlem law-abiding lovlydig

Most kids have to worry about acne, studying, and trying to find a way to get a car – high school isn’t an easy time for anybody! But what do you do if you’ve not only got to worry about high school, but a father who is a mobster, as well? Vince Luca is an honest, lawabiding boy in a family of mobsters. He and his dad get along great, when his father is able to keep the family business away from the family. Unfortunately, that isn’t an easy thing to do! Listen to the story of Vince’s date with Angela – what he calls “The worst night of my life”. This listening text is available on the Tracks Teacher’s CDs.

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Tasks 1 Timeline

5 Talking

a  In groups of three, compare the timelines you made while listening. Make a combined timeline based on all your notes.

Discuss in groups:

b  Practice re-telling the story of Vince’s date, using your timeline for help.

2 Listening for overview Decide which statement you think best sums up what the listening text is about: – This is a serious and realistic text about the mafia. – This is a news story about the dangers of dating a mobster. – This is a humorous text about an unusual date. – This is a serious text about a boy’s difficult relationship to his family.

a  You have maybe watched American movies or TV shows where dating and dating problems play a big part. Tell each other about the movies or shows you know. Why is dating a popular topic, do you think? b  The mafia is a very real problem in the  USA and in the country the organization originally came from, Italy. Why is such a brutal, criminal organization a popular theme in movies, TV series and books, do you think? Should it be?

3 Listening for details a  Who is Alex, and what is he doing in Vince’s room? b  Who is Tommy, and why is he “on the warpath”? c  Where does Vince take Angela first? How are they getting on? d  What kind of movie do they go to see afterwards? e What kind of place is Bryce Beach? f  What does Vince find in the trunk of his car? What has happened? g How does Angela react? h  What happens when they try to leave the beach? i Who saves them? How?

4 Vocabulary

Here are some nouns from the listening text. Explain the role each plays in the story: Example: trunk Jimmy Rat was in the trunk of Vince’s Mazda. checklist – blanket – diner – movie – vampire – kiss – family business – roadblock

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6 Writing Choose one topic: a  Vince writes Angela a text message to explain what happened on their date and to apologize. Write Vince’s message to Angela. b  Angela decides to give Vince a second chance. Write the story of their second date. This time it is Angela who tells the story. c  Write a comment (see p. 279) on the following statement found on the internet: “American culture is everywhere these days. I’m fed up with watching American gang violence, mafia hitmen or sitcoms with high school teenagers worrying about their prom dresses. Why can’t we have more Norwegian culture on TV?” d  Write a 5-paragraph essay (see page 198) that discusses some of the important values in American society. Use examples from English-language literature, films or TV shows to illustrate your discussion.




Facts HISPANICS IN THE USA

About one million legal immigrants come to the United States each year. The southern parts of the USA in particular receive many immigrants, mainly from Mexico. Hispanics (Spanish-speaking people from Latin America) are now the largest and fastest growing minority group in the USA, and the Spanish language is becoming more and more important. By the year 2050 less than 50 percent of Americans will be white and about 30 percent will be Hispanic. legal lovlig/lovleg southern sørlig/sørleg


When people move we call it migration. They emigrate from one place, and immigrate to another place. When they get to their new place of residence, we call them immigrants. There are many reasons for moving from one country to another. Some people flee from war or political persecution. Some try to escape from poverty, while others want to find a better life for themselves in another country. Some people succeed in finding happiness, but many find out that it can be hard work to learn a new language and a new culture, and to be a real part of their new country. Before reading the short story below, go back and re-read the para­graph called “Plot, theme and message” on p. 34. Then as you read the short story, think about what knowledge it gives you about the topic “immigration”. Pay attention to the main character, Mamacita, who is an immigrant. What is her situation like? Note down key words about being an immigrant while reading.

No Speak English by Sandra Cisneros

to flee å flykte persecution forfølgelse/ forfølging poverty fattigdom fuchsia rødlilla/raudlilla to bloom å blomstre salmon-pink lakserød/ lakseraud feather fjær/fjør rosebud rosenknopp/ roseknopp lavender blålilla satin high-heels høyhælte sko i sateng / høghæla sko i sateng

Mamacita is the big mama of the man across the street, third-floor front. Rachel says her name ought to be Mamasota, but I think that’s mean. The man saved his money to bring her here. He saved and saved because she was alone with the baby boy in that country. He worked two jobs. He came home late and he left early. Every day. Then one day Mamacita and the baby boy arrived in a yellow taxi. The taxi door opened like a waiter’s arm. Out stepped a tiny pink shoe, a foot soft as a rabbit’s ear, then the thick ankle, a flutter of hips, fuchsia roses and green perfume. The man had to pull her, the taxicab driver had to push. Push, pull. Push, pull. Poof! All at once she bloomed. Huge, enormous, beautiful to look at, from the salmon-pink feather on the tip of her hat down to the little rosebuds of her toes. I couldn’t take my eyes off her tiny shoes. Up, up, up the stairs she went with the baby boy in a blue blanket, the man carrying her suitcases, her lavender hatboxes, a dozen boxes of satin high heels. Then we didn’t see her. Somebody said because she’s too fat, somebody because of the three flights of stairs, but I believe she doesn’t come out because she is afraid to speak English, and maybe this is so since she only


knows eight words. She knows to say: He not here when the landlord comes, No speak English if anybody else comes, and Holy smokes. I don’t know where she learned this, but I heard her say it one time and it surprised me. My father says when he came to this country he ate hamand­ eggs for three months. Breakfast, lunch and dinner. Hamandeggs. That was the only word he knew. He doesn’t eat hamandeggs anymore. Whatever her reasons, whether she is fat, or can’t climb the stairs, or is afraid of English, she won’t come down. She sits all day by the window and plays the Spanish radio show and sings all the homesick songs about her country in a voice that sounds like a seagull. Home. Home. Home is a house in a photograph, a pink house, pink as hollyhocks with lots of startled light. The man paints the walls of the apartment pink, but it’s not the same you know. She still sighs for her pink house, and then I think she cries. I would. Sometimes the man gets disgusted. He starts screaming and you can hear it all the way down the street. Ay, she says, she is sad. Oh, he says, not again. ¿Cuándo, cuándo, cuándo? she asks. ¡Ay, Caray! We are home. This is home. Here I am and here I stay. Speak English. Speak English. Christ! ¡Ay! Mamacita, who does not belong, every once in a while lets out a cry, hysterical, high, as if he had torn the only skinny thread that kept her alive, the only road out to that country. And then to break her heart forever, the baby boy who has begun to talk, starts to sing the Pepsi commercial he heard on T.V. No speak English, she says to the child who is singing in the language that sounds like tin. No speak English, no speak English, and bubbles into tears. No, no, no as if she can’t believe her ears.

landlord husvert seagull måke hollyhock stokkrose to sigh å sukke disgusted lei cuándo (spansk) når commercial reklame tin blikk/blekk


Tasks 1 Overview

4 Writing

Write a short description of Mamacita. You should mention where she comes from, where she lives, her family, and how she behaves.

Choose one of these tasks:

2 Focus on Mamacita Work with the following questions on your own, and then discuss them in pairs or small groups: a  Why did Mamacita’s husband want her to come to the USA with their child, do you think? b  She is described as being dressed colorfully and having lots of luggage. What does this tell us about her? c The husband paints the apartment pink. Why? d  Why does Mamacita cry when her son sings a Pepsi commercial? e  The narrator (fortelleren/forteljaren)  suggests reasons why Mamacita does not come down from her apartment. Which reasons do you think are the most important ones? f  What does this story tell us about the  American Dream?

3 Vocabulary a  What are the most useful words to know from this text? Make two lists: A: useful words I knew from before  B: useful words I understood while reading the text Write at least five words in each list. b  Compare lists with a classmate. Have you chosen the same words? Agree on a combined list of the five most useful words from the text.

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a  You are Mamacita. Write a letter home to your relatives in Mexico describing your life in the USA and begging them to come and rescue you. Tell them what you miss about home. Tell them what you hate about the USA. (You will have to write the letter in English, even though Mamacita only speaks Spanish.) b  Continue the story: You are Mamacita’s  son. You are now 12 years old. You have been asked by your teacher to write a short essay about your family. Write about your mother. Compare how she was when she first came to how she is now. How did she feel about you learning English and going to school? Does your mother speak English now? Do you help her? How has your father dealt with the situation? What do you feel about being the son of immigrants?

5 Making a commercial Mamacita cries when her son sings a Pepsi commercial. Write the text of a commercial for one of these products:


Toolbox

Writing commercial texts The aim of the text is to sell the product, so use a light and friendly tone. The language should be easy to understand for as many people as possible. • Be personal – use “You” and “We” (personal pronouns). For example: “We want you to enjoy the best possible images on your TV!" • Use a lot of positive descriptions (adjectives): new, good, better, best, fantastic, free, fresh, great, delicious, wonderful, etc. • Use simple actions (verbs): make, taste, start, hurry, get, look, love, feel, ask for, want. • Use short paragraphs with not too much information in each, making it easy to skim and scan the text. • Repeat the beginning sounds of words (alliteration): Britain’s best business bank; Don’t dream it. Drive it (Jaguar); Intel Inside • Use commands (the imperative verb form): Buy! Enjoy! Take a seat!

illegal immigrants cross the border between Mexico and the USA every year. On the American side of the border, guards are waiting to try to stop them. Go to the website to listen to an interview with one of these border guards. First, do the listening tasks on the website. Then discuss the following: a How would you describe Maria’s job? b Is it an important job? Explain why or why not. c  What do you think is the most difficult part of her job? Explain why.

Illegal Mexican immigrants caught on the border

6 Countries, nationalities and languages What are the names of these nationalities, and what languages do most people living there speak? Use a dictionary. Then make sentences like in this example: – People from Australia are Australian and they speak English. Countries: Mexico / The USA / Finland / Canada / The Netherlands / Sweden / The United Kingdom / The Czech Republic / Norway

7 Listening – illegal immigration  People have come to the USA for hundreds of years looking for a new and better life. However, there is a problem with people who come to the USA illegally. Today there are about 11 million illegal immigrants in the country, and more than half of them come from Mexico. About 150,000

Web teaser: Test yourself! To become an American citizen, you have to be able to prove that you know something about American history and society. You will be asked up to 10 questions from a list of 100. You must answer 6 out of 10 questions correctly to pass. On the website you will find a quiz made by the American Immigration and Naturaliza­ tion Service as examples of questions you may get if you should plan to become an American citizen sometime in the future. Would you pass the test? Take the quiz to find out!

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Facts BASKETBALL

Basketball is a game that has long traditions in the USA. It was invented in Massachusetts in the 1890s. Competitive games are played indoors, but many young people play basketball for fun on outdoor courts. Practically all high schools have a basketball team, and inter-school games often attract a lot of attention. In some schools the teams are so good that many of their players are selected for university and professional teams. Basketball is a popular spectator sport in the USA and the professional men’s league, the NBA, has millions of dedicated fans. Perhaps you have heard of teams like the Los Angeles Lakers, the Chicago Bulls and the Miami Heat, or players like Kobe Bryant, LeBron James and Dwight Howard? Picture: Basketball superstar Kobe Bryant goes for a dunk. to invent ü finne opp competitive konkurranseinter-school mellom skoler / mellom skolar spectator tilskuer/tilskodar


The following text is the first chapter of a novel called Black and White. It is set in New York City. Marcus and Eddie are best friends and the stars of their high school basketball team. Their dream is to become professional basketball players. But one decision – one mistake – will change their friendship, and their lives, forever. If you have listened to the text “The Gun Question” (p. 55), you will know that there is a serious problem with gun violence in the USA. While reading, think about what role guns play in the story.

Black and White by Paul Volponi BLACK:

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I admit it. I’ve been scared shitless lots of times. But I was never as shook as when the gun in Eddie’s hand went off. It thundered inside that car like the whole world was coming to an end. I never expected Eddie to pull the trigger, by accident or any other way. I guess that was a big part of it, too. In all the time Eddie had that gun, we never shot it off once. It was just for show, so we could get our hands on some quick money. That’s all. We never flashed it around in front of our friends or anything. It was just for us to know about. I was more scared for that man we shot than anything else. I didn’t even know he got clipped in the head until Eddie told me later. The gun went off and I closed my eyes. I shut them so tight, I thought my eyelids would squeeze them right out of their sockets. I only opened them again to find the handle on the door, so I could get out of that car and take off running. That damn sound was ringing in my ears. There was no way to outrun that. I couldn’t hear the air pumping in and out of my lungs, or the sound of my feet hitting against the concrete. And I didn’t know that Eddie wasn’t right behind me until I was halfway home, and peeked back over my shoulder. Then I looked back for him again, even though I knew he wasn’t there. I ran to my crib on instinct, and I guessed Eddie did the same. But I wished he was right there with me to explain what happened. I had to know right then. My brain was going twice as fast as my feet. I didn’t know how to slow it down or what to think about first. I just needed to tell Eddie I had seen that man someplace be-

to pull the trigger å skyte to flash å vifte med he got clipped in the head han ble truffet i hodet / han vart treft i hovudet socket øyehule/ augehole to outrun å løpe fra / å springe frå concrete betong to peek å kikke crib hus, hjem / hus, heim

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Stop!

a) What has happened? b) How does Marcus, who tells the story, feel now? c) Where is Marcus now; and where is Eddie? d)Do you feel you want to read on or not? Explain.

neighborhood nabolag tag merkelapp, kallenavn / merkelapp, kallenamn hype oppmerksomhet/ oppmerksemd scout talentspeider/ talentspeidar college høgskole block kvartal Ravenswood Houses kommunalt bolig­kompleks i Queens / kommunalt bustadkompleks i Queens allowance lommepenger/lommepengar senior dues avgift for avgangselever / avgift for avgangselevar to graduate å ta avsluttende eksamen på high school / å ta avsluttande eksamen på high school Bear Mountain utfluktsmål vest for New York Six Flags fornøyelsespark-kjede Nike Marauders en type basketballsko / ein type basketballsko

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fore. I could still see his round, black face in front of me, like he was somebody I passed on the streets a hundred times. And I was praying to God with every breath I took that the man wasn’t dead. My name is Marcus Brown, but almost everybody outside my family calls me “Black”. That’s because they’re used to seeing me all the time with my boy, Eddie Russo. Eddie is white. Kids who are different colors don’t get to be that tight in my neighborhood. But we got past all that racial crap, until we were almost like real blood brothers. So somebody came up with the tag “Black and White” for us, and it stuck. It got more hype because we played basketball and football for Long Island City High School. We were two of the best players they ever had. Everybody who goes there knows about us. We even made the newspapers for winning big games a couple of times. Scouts from lots of colleges came to see us play. Some of them wanted to sign up the both of us, and keep what we had going. But that’s all finished with now. I don’t remember if the idea of robbing people came up before Eddie snuck out his dead grandfather’s gun or not. But once the two of those things were square in front of us, they fit together right. We weren’t trying to get rich off it. We were just looking for enough money to keep up. <…> Eddie’s family has more money than mine. They live two blocks down and across the street from the Ravenswood Houses, in a private house with a front porch. Eddie has a mother and a father, and they both work. Eddie gets an allowance that’s only a little bigger than what I get to go to school with every week. But if Eddie ever needed twenty bucks for something, he could put his hand out and probably get it. My mother has always been tight like that. The only money coming in is from her sewing jobs, and what the state sends her every month to take care of me and my little sister. Senior dues were $150, and the end of February was the deadline. You either paid it or missed out on everything good that went along with graduating, like the class trips to Bear Mountain and Six Flags. It took me almost three months to save that kind of money. Eddie put a lock on his wallet, too, and we were just about there. Then around the middle of January, Nike came out with the new Marauders. Everybody on the basketball team was buying

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a pair because they came in maroon and powder blue, the same as our school colors. We were the main attraction on that squad. There was no way we were getting caught behind the times like that. So we spent most of our dough on new basketball kicks. That left us with just over a month to get the money we needed for dues. We didn’t know how we’d do it. But we made a pact that either both of us would come up with the cash, or we’d miss out on everything together. Teenagers can get a job easy in some place like McDonald’s or Burger King. It’s honest, but it’s low-rent, too. Kids at school and around our way already treated us like stars. And we were going to be even bigger one day. First in college, and then the pros. So we decided Black and White shouldn’t be serving up fries in those stupid hats for everybody to see. Besides, there was almost no way to juggle going to practice every day and having a job. That’s when Eddie first snuck out the gun, thinking we could sell it. We knew a kid who paid almost $300 for a .38 caliber just like it. But Eddie’s father knew where the gun was supposed to be and might go looking for it one day. Eddie couldn’t blame something like that on his sister. His father would have known it was him, straight off. So we figured that we could borrow the gun

Stop!

a) Describe Marcus Brown and Eddie Russo. b) What are their families like? c) Why do Marcus and Eddie need money? maroon kastanjebrun powder blue koboltblå squad lag to get caught behind the times å ligge etter dough penger/pengar basketball kicks basketballsko low-rent dårlig betalt / dårleg betalt pros profesjonell serie

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Brooklyn Bridge and East River

to call it quits å slutte to heist å stjele fra / å stele frå off-duty cop politimann som ikke er på jobb / politimann som ikkje er på jobb corrections officer fengselsbetjent to be home free å være i havn, å være sikret / å vere i hamn, å vere sikra

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anytime, then put it back. That’s how we came to do stickups. We kicked it around a lot first and knew everything we could lose. But it was only going to be a problem if we got caught. Eddie and me weren’t going to be that dumb. We were just going to pull enough stickups to get the money for dues. Then we’d call it quits. Eddie was sold on the idea before I was. “It’ll be too easy,” he said. “And whatever we can take, we deserve.” That hit something inside, and pushed me over the line. We knew enough not to rob other kids. They could get stupid right in the middle of it, or might have a posse of their own and come back after us. We were looking for a payday, not a war. Adults are just easier. Most of them don’t want any trouble. They’re scared of kids they don’t know. And unless you get unlucky and try to heist an offduty cop or corrections officer, you’re usually home free. We even thought about taking the bullets out of the gun, just to play it safe. But we stressed, thinking we might have to shoot it

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off in the air, if there was ever any real drama. Growing up, kids all around my way would boost little things from stores, like candy and soda. If you got caught, the owners would beat your ass good before they’d even think about calling the cops. But I was more worried about what my mother would do to me, and how it would make her feel to know her only son was a thief. It wasn’t worth it to me back then. I would rather watch everyone else getting over than turn my own mother against me. But things were different now. I was already seventeen. I had to start pulling my own weight, until playing ball paid off in cash. It was the same for Eddie. He was my best friend, and the only one I would ever trust on something like this. We practiced coming up on people, over and over. Eddie said we should watch how they did it on TV, because they copied things like that from the way it really goes down. So we worked on it, like any play we ever ran in a game. Then we scouted out a good-sized parking lot just off the end of Steinway Street, where people shopping might have some real cheese on them. <…> Our first time out, it took almost an hour before we moved. We sat on the swings going back and forth, figuring out if we had the nerve to pull it off or not. Lots of people walked by alone, but we just watched them all. Then we started dissing each other about who was going to chicken out first. When all that ran dry, we got quiet and moved closer to the gate. We picked out a white lady carrying a shopping bag. She walked real slow. That was good for us because we wanted to keep our timing right. Eddie and me were walking even with each other, maybe twenty feet apart. And if that lady had turned around, she never would have thought we were together. We waited until she got all the way to her car. Then Eddie came up from behind and showed her the gun. She got hysterical right away and started to cry. I took the package out of her hand so she could open her pocketbook. Her wallet was sitting right on top. She was so scared, she couldn’t pull it out. Finally, Eddie reached in and grabbed it. Then we got our asses out of there quick. I didn’t want to throw the lady’s package down in the street and have somebody take a second look at us. So I just held on to it tight, and dropped my face down behind it. We weren’t even a block away when she started screaming for help. I hated the way she sounded. It was like we did something really terrible to her. After that, Eddie and me decided we’d never rob another woman. “It’s like if somebody did that to your mother,” Eddie said.

Stop!

a) Why can’t the boys work to earn the money they need? b) Why do they think it is a good idea to start robbing people? Do they worry at all? c) They decide to rob only adults. Why?

to boost å naske, å rappe to pull one’s own weight å forsørge seg selv / å forsørge seg sjølv to come up on people å angripe folk to scout out å finne Steinway Street T-banestasjon cheese penger/pengar swing huske to pull it off å gjennomføre det dissing each other rakke ned på hverandre / rakke ned på kvarandre to chicken out å trekke seg, å feige ut twenty feet ca. 6 m

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meanlooking med et ondt ansiktsuttrykk / med eit vondt ansiktsuttrykk to bounce å bykse ut bumper støtfanger/ støytfangar folding money sedler/ setlar token brikke loot fangst, tyvegods / fangst, tjuvegods bent out of shape irritert to fast-talk å manipulere, å overbevise / å manipulere, å overtyde leap year skuddår / skotår receipt kvittering  

Stop!

a) Describe the first stickup. How did the victim react? How did the boys react? b) How was the second robbery different from the first?

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“How would you feel?” I was just happy we got away with it. We were so nervous that almost a half hour went by before we looked in her wallet. There was $92 inside. So we did a little victory dance, and gave each other high fives out behind my building. We looked at the picture on her driver’s license for a second, but neither one of us wanted to know her name. Then we walked a couple of blocks and threw her wallet into a big trash bin behind a supermarket, credit cards and all.<…>

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Two weeks after that, we robbed an old white man just before the stores closed that night. We were about to step to him when somebody passed by out of nowhere. Eddie and me just froze for five or six seconds. When I looked up again the man was already halfway into his car. I was surprised when Eddie went ahead and pulled the gun on him anyway. Eddie’s face turned meanlooking. He made the man slide over, and got into the driver’s seat next to him. Then Eddie unlocked the back door, and I got in, too. He screamed at the man to empty all his pockets. I didn’t see much because my eyes were glued to the side window, watching for trouble. But after the man took out his money, he had his eyes shut tight. When we bounced, Eddie grabbed the man’s car keys and left them on his back bumper. “The cops probably won’t even find them back there,” Eddie said. And we walked away fast with confidence, like we were professionals now. That job got us $129 in folding money, almost $3 in loose change and a token to drive across the Triboro Bridge. I remember, we stopped at the McDonald’s underneath the train tracks on Broadway and each had two QuarterPounders with Cheese. Then we left the token on the table like a tip for anybody who wanted it. Between our loot and what we had saved, there was enough for dues. We held on to the money over the weekend just to look at it some more. But when we went to pay that Monday, the school secretary got bent out of shape because it was March first already. Eddie knows how to fasttalk most people good, and he didn’t waste a second after the last word left her mouth. He told her I was busy celebrating Black History Month. That he thought it was a leap year, and February had the one extra day to it. She smiled at all of that nonsense and made us each out a receipt. We were happy the way everything turned out, but were flat broke again. It all went down too easy to just walk away. And nei-

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The Bronx

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ther one of us mentioned quitting the stickup business. Our last stickup was on the next Friday night, after basketball practice. Before we left, Coach Casey called everyone over to the bleachers and gave his usual speech for the weekend. “Gentlemen, I know the city never sleeps, but try not to get into anything stupid over the next couple of days,” Casey told the team. “Don’t get into fights and don’t get locked up. Do your families a favor – stay home at night and study. I want to see everybody back here on Monday the way we left.” Eddie and me would always smile at each other while Casey talked like that. Not because we didn’t appreciate it, but because we knew his rap inside out. We heard him make that same speech every Friday for almost four years. But Casey was solid with us. And we knew he meant it. On our way up to Steinway Street, Eddie asked me if I wanted

bleacher tribunebenk the city that never sleeps kallenavn for New York / kallenamn for New York to appreciate å sette pris på rap prat   

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Stop!

a) Who is Casey, and what does he tell the boys every Friday? b) Who is holding the gun during the third stickup?

New York cab at night

to screw up å ødelegge / å øydelegge to take a pass å trekke seg, å feige ut locked festet, fastlåst / festa, fastlåst to pass on å droppe, å kutte ut cane stokk weed marihuana hardware store jernvarehandel  

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to be the one to hold the gun this time. It felt good in my hand the couple of times I played around with it. But I didn’t have any real practice pulling it out on somebody. Eddie had been perfect twice already. I didn’t want to screw things up, so I took a pass. It was freezing out that night. We started to shiver, waiting in the back of the parking lot, across from the park. We had our eyes locked onto everything around us, looking for somebody easy. We even passed on a man with a cane because it didn’t feel right, and the wind came up strong against us. Eddie said that holding the gun was like squeezing a piece of ice, and his fingers were going numb. So I let him have my gloves. After a while, I started blowing into my hands to keep them warm. I could see my breath coming out between my fingers, and anybody who saw us there probably thought we were smoking weed. The man was just a shadow to me when he first came out of that hardware store. It was really dark, and he had his coat buttoned all the way up around his neck. Eddie gave me a nod, and I nodded right back. I didn’t even know the man was black until we walked up to him, and Eddie told him it was a stickup. (excerpt)

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Shortcut

Black and White

Marcus and Eddie are best friends. They are the stars of the high school basketball team. Marcus is black and Eddie is white. Marcus tells the story of how their lives were changed forever. Marcus first tells us that he and Eddie have robbed a man. Eddie held a gun and the gun went off. The man was shot in the head. The boys ran off home and Marcus is now extremely scared and praying that the man isn’t dead. Marcus then tells us that he and Eddie are called “Black and White” because they are blood brothers even though they have different skin color. Their status at school is high because they are good basketball players, but they don’t have a lot of money. They need money to pay for school trips and to buy new basketball shoes, but they think working at a burger place is uncool. Eddie comes up with a plan to rob people with a gun his father keeps in the house. They decide to rob adults since this is easier than robbing kids. The first two victims are a woman and an old man. Both robberies are successful, and they have enough money to pay the school. Then they are broke again and decide to do another stick-up. They see a man coming out of a store. It is dark. Marcus nods to Eddie. He goes up to the man and says, “This is a stickup”. Then they see the man is black. to pray å be victim offer stickup ran

Queens neighborhood

NOrth america

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Tasks 1* Main points

3 Vocabulary

a How does the story begin?

a* Find words in the text that mean the same as these words: frightened – steal from – cash – weapon

b  Why are Marcus and Eddie called “Black and White”? c Why do they need money? d How do they get money? e What goes wrong?

2 Focus on characters a  How would you describe the attitudes the two boys have when it comes to: – friendship? – status? – money and material goods? – work? – guns? – other people (their families, their victims)? b  The story is told by Marcus – he is the first person narrator (see p. 35). How might you have reacted differently to the story if it had been told by someone else, for example someone who was not a part of the story? Or by one of their victims? Explain your opinion. c C  hoose a paragraph from the text and  re-write it in the third person. This means that the narrator is outside the story and uses the pronouns “he/she/they” about the characters. How does this change the story? Do you like it better now or not? Explain!

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b  In pairs, go through the text “Black and White” and pick out words that are new to you. Find out what they mean by using context clues (se p. 16), the glossary or your dictionary. Go on to task c. c  Write ten of the words on small pieces of  paper and place them face down. One of you begins by picking two pieces of paper, and writes a sentence that includes both words. When you have written down your sentence and your partner has approved it, you switch roles. Example: bumper – receipt I left my receipt on the bumper of the car.

4 Looking at language

Read about formal and informal language on page 98. a  How would you describe the style of the language in Black and White? Give at least 4–5 examples to prove your point. b  Why is this kind of language used in the story, do you think?


5 Writing

6 Working with a novel

Choose one task:

Black and White is a good choice if you want to read a novel from the USA. Go to the website to find tasks for the novel.

a* How do you think the story of Marcus and Eddie will continue? What happens to the man Eddie shot? Will Marcus and Eddie stay friends? Will they go to prison? Three years have passed: write a summary of what has happened to the two boys. b  Two high school boys start robbing people at gunpoint to get money for material goods. Could this have happened in Norway, or is the USA a totally different culture when it comes to violent crime? Write a text giving and explaining your opinion. c  Write a 5-paragraph essay (see p. 198)  where you give your opinion on the following statement: â&#x20AC;&#x153;There should be tougher prison sentences for young offenders (lovbryter/lovbrytar) in Norway.â&#x20AC;?

Web teaser: The school system Marcus and Eddie go to senior high school. They dream of getting a sports scholarship (stipend) to a university and going on to become professional basketball players. How much do you know about the American education system? Go to the website to learn more.

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Revision: Chapter 2 Learning targets: self-evaluation a Work with a partner. Go to page 40 and read the learning targets given there. Make “I can” statements for each target – for example “I can read and understand the short story ‘No Speak English’.” Then tell your partner if you can do this … – very well – quite well – not very well Also discuss: What can you do to improve your skills? b Go to the website to find a full list of learning targets for the chapter as well as tasks for self-evaluation.

Chapter key words a Choose eight of the chapter key words on page 41. Write a sentence for each word, and then delete the key word from the sentence. b Swap your sentences with those of a fellow student. Use context clues to guess which word is missing in each sentence. See who gets the higher score!

b Use examples from American TV shows, films or literature to argue for or against this statement: “Freedom, including the freedom to carry a gun, is at the heart of what it means to be an American.” Write a 5-paragraph essay (see p. 198).

Grammar teaser 2: Articles – a or an As you know, the indefinite article (Norw. “en/ein, ei, et/eit”) can have two forms in English: a and an. But when do you use each, and when do we drop the article entirely? Start off by doing this task and check your answers. If you answered correctly, did you know it or were you just lucky? There are lots more tasks on the website. Fill in a or an where necessary: a That’s … honest thing to say. b He is … old man now but still feels like … young boy. c I am going to be … electrician. d She had to find … work, or she wouldn’t be able to pay for … place to live. e I think … life is just wonderful! f My grandfather went to … school for seven years only.

Writing a Choose one text that you enjoyed reading or listening to in this chapter and write a short introductory text for someone who is about to start studying it. Explain why you recommend working with the text.

X = no article a: an; b: an, a; c: an; d: X, a; e: X; f: X 94

Chapter TWO


Talking Course 1:

The Art Of Small Talk Small talk is the term used for the light conversation we have with people we meet for the first time, or people we don’t know very well. Small talk can even be used between good friends when they meet. The purpose is not to give or receive information, but simply to put each other at ease and avoid awkward silences. How awkward the silence is depends on the culture you are from. Norwegians in general are more comfortable with silence than Americans, who are the champions of small talk. What language you use for small talk depends on how formal the situation is. Formality has become less important over the last few decades. There are fewer situations in which we have to use formal language. But they do still exist – and they are situations that can often be quite important: job interviews and business meetings, for example. Small talk also differs from country to country in the English-speaking world. In the examples below the focus will be mainly on American and British English. We can divide small talk into three phases: 1) Meeting and greeting 2) Main conversation 3) Parting

medical history! If you do answer, you might say: Fine, thanks / Not so bad / Great. / OK, thanks. / Pretty good. / Can’t complain, thanks.

1) Meeting and greeting

Greetings are always underlined by body language. This varies a good deal from culture to culture, and from person to person. A smile, a nod of the head, a wave, a “high five”, a handshake, a hug, a kiss – there are many variants to choose between. The trick is to choose something that you are comfortable with and that won’t make the other person feel uncomfortable. It’s worth remembering that there are cultures in which physical

Informal greetings: Hi. / Hello. / Hey. / How are you? / How’s it going? / Whassup? (What’s up?) / How ya doing? (How are you doing?) These are just some of the many informal greetings that are possible. In theory some of these sentences are questions, but in practice they often go unanswered. They are certainly not invitations to give your recent

There will often be a follow-up question demanding a similar response: And you? / And yourself? / How about you? More formal: Very well, thanks. How are you?

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contact, particularly between the sexes, is problematical, so if you are in doubt, it is probably wise to choose something not very intimate. On the other hand, it’s also worth remembering that there is no such thing as no body language. In other words, if you greet someone with a deadpan expression on your face and your arms held stiffly to your body, you are also expressing an attitude. And not a very friendly one. Sometimes when we greet someone we are with another person. Then we need to introduce them. (Norwegians often forget this!) This is Mary / Meet Mary / Do you know Mary? She’s a friend from school. Formal greetings: Formal greetings are reserved for situations like meetings and interviews, and other settings where you are meeting people for the first time. (Give your name) How do you do? Pleased to meet you. Notice that, in spite of the question mark, How do you do is not actually a question. It is not meant to be answered. The person being greeted simply repeats the same “question”. (Give your full name) How do you do? Pleased to meet you. Formal How do you do greetings are always accompanied by a handshake – as well as a smile and eye contact. If we need to introduce someone else, we can do it formally like this: May I introduce / I’d like you to meet (full name). When we meet people in passing, without starting a conversation, we can use the following greetings: Good morning. / Good afternoon. / Good evening. If we remove the “good” the greetings become more informal. Morning! / Afternoon! / Evening!

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2) Main conversation

When we have established contact, we have to find something to talk about. Obviously, there are no rules for this, and if you are meeting someone of your own age and interests, finding a topic of conversation is not likely to be a problem. In more formal settings, however, it can be a challenge. In most English-speaking countries, the weather is usually a safe choice. The weather is something that affects us all and that none of us can do much about! Politics and religion are usually avoided in formal small talk; they are both potential minefields!

3) Parting

Part of the art of small talk is knowing when to end a conversation. There are no rules for how long a conversation should be, but both parties should be aware of signals from the other that the conversation is coming to an end. Such signals might be a short silence or loss of eye contact. Words like well, anyway, right, OK, all right are useful for signalling a break in the conversation. Well then, it’s time to make a move. / Well, I suppose I’d better be off. / All right, well, I must dash, I’ve got a train to catch. / Anyway, nice talking to you. Finally there is nothing more to do than say goodbye: Bye! / All the best! / See you later. / See ya! / So long (AmE) / Have fun! / Take care! / Cheerio! (BrE) / Cheers! (BrE) More formal: Goodbye. Formal expressions you can use in combination with “Goodbye” are: Nice talking to you. / I look forward to seeing you soon. / It was nice meeting you. / It was nice seeing you again.

Politeness

Politeness is always a challenge in a foreign language, because there are different ways of being polite. For Norwegians speaking English there is one word that often causes serious difficulties: please. The problem is that


Norwegian does not really have a word for it. Vennligst and vær så snill are not used much in speech. In English, please is used all the time. When Norwegians leave it out, they sound rude, although they don’t intend to be.

Glossary: awkward pinlig/pinleg to greet å hilse / å helse sex kjønn deadpan tomt, uttrykksløst / tomt, uttrykkslaust to affect å påvirke / å påverke to draw to a close å nærme seg slutten polite høflig/høfleg rude uhøflig/uhøfleg

Tasks 1 Strange dialogue

2 Role-play: The Cocktail Party

In the following dialogue, one of the speakers is clearly not an expert on small talk. Sit in pairs and perform the dialogue. Then discuss where the problems are. Finally, perform the dialogue again, but this time using the “rules” of small talk: Joe: Hi Sally, I haven’t seen you for a long time. Sally: How do you do? Joe: What? … Yeah, well anyway, how are you these days? Sally: My body temperature is currently 37.5°Celsius, that’s 99.5° Fahrenheit, due to a slight inflammation of the throat, presumably a viral infection. However, I am now eating normally again after a prolonged period of indigestion. Joe: Oh, well that’s good … And otherwise? It hasn’t been much of a summer has it? Sally:  How can you make such a claim? Statistics show clearly that average temperatures have been higher than normal. Joe: Really, I didn’t know that … Well anyway, it was nice talking to you. Sally:  Rainfall, however, has been slightly above the national average, but that is only to be expected after a prolonged period of drought in the spring. Joe: I’m sure you’re right. Well, I have to dash. Give my regards to your mother. Sally: Give my regards to your mother. Joe: I will. Sally:  And your father and your brother and your sister. Joe: Indeed I will. Bye Sally! Sally:  Good afternoon.

Everyone in class stands up and walks about the classroom. When your teacher gives a signal, you must stop and use small talk with the person nearest you. Each conversation must last one minute (your teacher will time it). When your teacher gives the signal that time is up, you should move on and repeat the process. Here are some phrases to keep your small talk going: – So, what do you do? – Fancy seeing you here! Are you ... – Nice weather we’re having, isn’t it? – Have you read any good books or seen any good movies lately? – Did you see the match last night? – Don’t you just love the furniture in this room? – These snacks are delicious, aren’t they? – That shirt you’re wearing, please tell me where you got it. – Who does your hair?

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Writing Course 1:

Informal and Formal English This writing course is going to help you with the basic skills you need to write long, coherent texts for exams and homework assignments.

Different styles in different situations

Each of the writing courses in this book will focus on one writing skill. The skill we will look at first is how to change the style of your language to fit different situations. By style we mean if the writing is informal or formal. Informal writing will sound personal and more like everyday speech. The writer will seem to be talking directly to the reader, as if they know each other. Formal writing, on the other hand, will have more of a distance between the writer and the reader. So, which style should you use? Well, one style is not in itself better than the other. However, in any given situation one style

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will be more appropriate. This means that how formally or informally you write will depend on the situation. Ask yourself: Who is the reader? What is the purpose of the text: to inform and instruct the reader with facts, or persuade the reader using strong emotions? The style might also depend on the topic. To get an idea of different writing situations, look at these sample exam tasks: 1  Write an article using â&#x20AC;&#x153;Love the Way You Lieâ&#x20AC;? and other songs to discuss this statement: Do bands feel a duty to comment on social issues, or are they more interested in singing about themselves and their personal issues? 2  Write an article where you discuss the need to learn English for the workplace in your future occupation. 3  Write a speech about the pros and cons of giving 16-year-olds the right to vote.


Which text will have strong personal opinions? Which will be objective and distant? Which will talk directly to the reader? Thinking about these questions before you write will help you choose the appropriate style. Let’s begin by looking at exactly what is meant by formal and informal language.

Informal and formal words

Have you ever noticed that English can have two words meaning exactly the same thing? Look at these vocabulary lists: A B go on continue end terminate own possess stop discontinue shock appall

Informal

You have probably heard the words in column A before. They show up in normal speech among ordinary people. They are also used in writing online messages, emails, letters, diaries and other personal texts. You also read them in literature, because literature deals with human life. The words in column A are informal. They are the common language of everyday situations.

Formal

So the words in column B must be formal, right? Right! They mean the same thing as the words in column A. These words are less familiar because they are used less often in everyday conversation. You find them mostly

in written texts, especially texts that are not personal: textbooks, job reports, news articles, magazine articles and research papers. Formal words can be used in speech, but most often in formal situations, like a debate, a lecture or an oral presentation.

Informal and formal styles

You can tell the style of a text by looking at the kind of vocabulary it uses. This text you are reading is more informal because common words like “show up” are used instead of more formal words like “occur”. It also uses the personal pronoun “you”. The informal style makes the text more like speech and easier to understand. Any text, written or spoken, will be easier to understand in an informal style. However, “easy to understand” is not always the goal. Sometimes we choose a more formal style to suit the situation. Look back at the task about 16-year-olds voting. The style would depend on the situation, wouldn’t it? If the speech were to the Norwegian parliament, then a more formal spoken language would get the respect of the audience. However, if the audience were a group of teenagers assembled in the gym, a very formal language would bore the audience. Luckily, exams usually say what the purpose and situation of the text is. Your job is to make the style of your writing fit the situation and audience. If the exam question does not mention the audience or situation, use a somewhat more formal style. That way, your written text will sound like a written text, not like everyday speech.

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Signs of informal and formal language: INFORMAL language uses …

FORMAL language uses …

common words (see above)

formal words (see above)

abbreviations: BTW, FYI; contractions: doesn’t, isn’t, can’t, won’t, would’ve; emoticons: <3, ;-)

complete words: does not, is not, cannot, will not, would have

a way of speaking directly to the reader or listener, using I, you, me, and tags at the end of sentences: …, isn’t it? …, okay? …, really.

a distance between the writer and the reader

*slang: gonna, wanna, coulda, stuff, Wassup?

Standard English: going to, want to, could have

a spoken style with filler words: well, I mean, you know, sort of, kind of, I guess

a written style, few filler words

stream of thoughts, many ideas in one paragraph, the text appears made up as it goes along

clear logical structure to the argumentation

imprecise words like thing and stuff, idioms like You can’t beat a dead horse you know.

words that have a precise meaning

dialogue: “The plane should leave in an hour!” shouted the chief.

indirect quotation: The chief insisted that …

incomplete sentences: Just got home from school. Exclamation marks: That’s great!

complete sentences and standard punctuation, no exclamation marks

in a letter: Dear John, Hi there! How are you? See you later, Love always, Cheers

in a letter: Dear Mr. Perkins, Yours sincerely, Dear Sir/Madam, Yours faithfully

* slang should only appear in very informal texts, not essays and not oral presentations in school.

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1 Formal and informal vocabulary a  Match the formal words on the left with the informal ones on the right. Use a dictionary if needed to look up the exact meaning of the formal words. formal conceal separate postpone cancel squander

informal call off waste split hide put off

b Which word from the lists in task 1a would you put into these sentences? First decide if the sentence is formal (F) or informal (IF), and then choose the right word from the list above. 100

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F / IF Guess what, I don’t love you after all, I’m just gonna … the wedding! F / IF During the five-hour long operation the doctors were successful in their attempt to … the conjoined twins who were attached at the head.

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F / IF The study revealed that homeless people would often … their money on treats rather than pay the light bill. F / IF So it seems that if the Indians can’t … themselves from the white men, then they’ll most likely be killed. F / IF The teacher made a decision to … the exam until a later date.

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2 Analyzing informal language

5 Which style in which situation?

Below are some examples of informal messages. Read them and discuss how you can tell they are written in a spoken style.

Which style would you use to answer these exam questions? Which items in the formal and informal charts above would you definitely not use?

a All you people over there with small kids, come on over to the front of the line, will you? b When you’re done at the doctor’s you gotta pay the bill, now don’t forget.

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c Hey, you can’t smoke around here! This is a hospital. I have half a mind to report you to the boss and he’ll whip your ass.

3 Analyzing formal language

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Below are some examples of formal written notices. Discuss how they differ from the informal messages you just read. a Passengers travelling with small children are requested to come to the front of the queue. b Patients are reminded that the doctor’s invoice must be settled after each consultation.

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c Smoking in the vicinity of the hospital is strictly prohibited and offenders will be prosecuted.

4 Which style? 25

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Which style of writing below is formal, informal, or very informal slang? Explain your decisions to a partner using the charts above. a  As part of a scheme to encourage paperless working and maximize efficiency, the Committee is piloting a new web portal for online submission of written evidence. b  Harry was nickin’ a bike and wasn’t keeping his eyes open. Whaddaya know? The cops were there quick as lightning. They must’ve been tipped off, I guess. c  Abraham Lincoln had gone to the theatre to enjoy a play, but was shot there by John Wilkes Booth. As he escaped, Booth broke his leg and twelve days later he was shot dead by a soldier. Lincoln, as we all know, died of his wounds.

a  Write a speech you would give to a group of visiting students about your Norwegian vocational program. b  Present and discuss poems, stories or films that you feel show how young people value courage. c  Write a text giving a teenage perspective on getting the right job.

6 Mixing formal and informal: semi-formal Some texts are easy to identify as very formal or very informal. Many other texts, however, will be written with some features from the formal column and some from the informal. This can be called a semi-formal style. The text you have just read has some formal and some informal elements. See if you can find examples of: a personal pronouns b complete words instead of contractions c incomplete sentences d informal punctuation like exclamation points e common everyday words f language that sounds spoken g formal, uncommon words

Glossary: informal uformell, uhøytidelig / uformell, uhøgtideleg formal formell, høytidelig / formell, høgtideleg coherent sammenhengende/samanhengande appropriate passende/passande to persuade å overbevise, å overtale / å overtyde, å overtale pros and cons argumenter for og mot / argument for og mot distant fjern common dagligdags, vanlig / daglegdags, vanleg familiar kjent abbreviation forkortelse/forkorting contraction sammentrekning/samantrekning tag halespørsmål stream of thought tankestrøm/tankestraum imprecise upresis idiom ordtak, fast uttrykk indirect quotation indirekte tale punctuation tegnsetting/teiknsetting

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