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Strengthening Resilience to Disasters among Vulnerable Urban Poor Communities in Manila, Philippines


Strengthening Resilience to Disasters among Vulnerable Urban Poor Communities in Manila, Philippines


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Table of Contents I. Executive Summary.............................................................................................6 II. Research Overview.............................................................................................23 III. Global Policy Review........................................................................................35 IV. Covered Areas.................................................................................................... 52 Quezon City 53 1. Overview of local context.................................................................. 54 1.1. Geography 54 1.2. Socio-economic context 55 1.3. Disaster situation 57 1.4. Research sites 58 2. Methodology and stakeholders.......................................................63 2.1. Tools and Respondents 63 2.2. Analysis Approach 69 3. Understanding of risks, urban resilience and child rights....... 70 3.1. Awareness of hazards and risks in the community 70 3.1.1. City Level 70 3.1.2. Barangay Level 72 3.2. Perception of urban resilience 75 3.2.1. City Level 75 3.2.2. Barangay Level 76 3.3. Perception of child rights 84 3.3.1. City Level 84 3.3.2. Barangay Level 85 4. DRRM and CCA Policies and Activities............................................93 4.1. DRRM and CCA Policies 93 4.1.1. City Level 93 4.1.2. Barangay Level 93 4.2. DRRM and CCA Activities 94 4.2.1. City Level 94 4.2.2. Barangay Level 96 5. Recommendations...............................................................................102 5.1. City Level 102 5.2. Barangay Level 102 San Juan City 1. Overview of local context.................................................................. 105 1.1. Geography 106 1.2. Socio-economic context 107 1.3. Disaster situation 107 1.4. Research sites 108 2. Methodology and stakeholders.......................................................109 2.1. Tools and Respondents 109 2.2. Analysis Approach 112 3. Understanding of risks, urban resilience and child rights....... 114 3.1. Awareness of hazards and risks in the community 114 3.1.1. City Level 114 3.1.2. Barangay Level 115 3.2. Perception of urban resilience 123 3.2.1. City Level 123 3.2.2. Barangay Level 125


133 3.3. Perception of child rights 133 3.3.1. City Level 134 3.3.2. Barangay Level 4. DRRM and CCA Policies and Activities........................................................145 145 4.1. DRRM and CCA Policies 145 4.1.1. City Level 146 4.1.2. Barangay Level 149 4.2. DRRM and CCA Activities 149 4.2.1. City Level 152 4.2.2. Barangay Level 5. Recommendations...........................................................................................163 163 5.1. City Level 164 5.2. Barangay Level Valenzuela City 1. Overview of local context..............................................................................170 170 1.1. Geography 171 1.2. Socio-economic context 171 1.3. Disaster situation 172 1.4. Research sites 2. Methodology and stakeholders...................................................................174 174 2.1. Tools and Respondents 179 2.2. Analysis Approach 3. Understanding of risks, urban resilience and child rights...................181 181 3.1. Awareness of hazards and risks in the community 181 3.1.1. City Level 182 3.1.2. Barangay Level 188 3.2. Perception of urban resilience 188 3.2.1. City Level 183 3.2.2. Barangay Level 199 3.3. Perception of child rights 199 3.3.1. City Level 200 3.3.2. Barangay Level 4. DRRM and CCA Policies and Activities........................................................210 210 4.1. DRRM and CCA Policies 210 4.1.1. City Level 210 4.1.2. Barangay Level 213 4.2. DRRM and CCA Activities 213 4.2.1. City Level 216 4.2.2. Barangay Level 5. Recommendations...........................................................................................223 223 5.1. City Level 223 5.2. Barangay Level V. Conclusion.....................................................................................................................229 VI. References...................................................................................................................231

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I. Executive Summary QUEZON CITY Covered Barangays:

Bagong Silangan, Batasan Hills, Gulod, Sta. Lucia

AWARENESS OF VARIOUS HAZARDS AND RISKS IN THE COMMUNITY Flooding

Fundamentally, flooding has long been a hazard in most parts of Quezon City, affecting not only various livelihoods and infrastructures, but also the social schematic through which the community operates as it disrupts the way of life for the community and its members. Flooding has become a common cause for disaster particularly in Barangays Sta. Lucia, Gulod, Bagong Silangan, and Batasan Hills in Quezon City, as most of them were gravely affected when Typhoon Ondoy (2009) and the southwest monsoon or habagat (2012 and 2013) hit Metro Manila. Mainly, this compelled the barangays – with help from the municipal government – to relocate those residing near rivers and waterways. The aforesaid barangays are aware of this perennial dilemma and have taken appropriate action toward the appeasement of its impact to their constituents. These actions coupled with several capacity-building initiatives, as also reiterated by Brgy. Sta. Lucia, have reduced the overall impact of flooding in the community, moving with a steady pace toward a more resilient community.

Typhoon Among the most common of hazards in the whole urban sprawl is the typhoon, affecting all the aforementioned barangays and other communities beyond the scope of this study. Barangays Sta. Lucia, Gulod, Batasan Hills, and Bagong Silangan were among those that had endured the wrath of Typhoon Ondoy as well as the southwest monsoon or habagat, bringing with it torrential rains and flooding that affected both their livelihoods and their homes. Barangay Batasan Hills attests to the occurrence of these disasters, recounting that the aforementioned disasters rendered great damage to their homes and families, leaving them in distress whenever an imminent typhoon looms nearby. Barangays Sta. Lucia, Bagong Silangan, and Gulod also aver similar accounts, with the distinct memory of Typhoon Ondoy in their minds. Today, though all four (4) barangays are still struck by typhoons, their increased awareness and vigilance alongside relevant programs and projects have helped in decreasing the vulnerability of these communities toward certain hazards such as typhoons.


Kids at Work. Children and youth make cut-outs of different shapes and figures for use in their Social Venn Diagram during the CCUDRR workshop in Brgy. Sta. Lucia, Quezon City.

Fire Fires spreading throughout the neighborhood are a certain cause for alarm, specifically in Barangay Gulod, Quezon City where three (3) fire incidents have been recorded in the first quarter of 2015 alone. Gulod has been known to be predisposed to these kinds of risks, with households closely situated in one location and the latter built with easily flammable, light materials. Albeit the rarity of these incidents in their communities, Barangays Batasan Hills, Sta. Lucia, and Bagong Silangan are also vigilant of the abovementioned hazard. These communities have begun to employ strategies that will aid them in the response of this hazard should it occur in their barangay.

Earthquake Of late, the high plausibility of earthquakes in Quezon City has become one of the key concerns of the local and national government alike. This is even more heightened in the case of Barangay Batasan Hills, as their community lies along the West Valley Fault, a segment of the Marikina Valley Fault System which runs through the cities of Quezon, Marikina, Pasig, Makati, Paranaque, and the provinces of Laguna and Cavite. Primarily, the latter poses a threat to Quezon City, particularly Batasan Hills, as the fault is projected to produce a 7.2-magnitude earthquake, dubbed “The Big One� by experts in the field of seismology. Indeed, the possibility of this earthquake occurring has been a major cause for concern in the barangay, causing its residents to think that when the quake hits their community, only a few of them will survive.

Illegal Drug Addiction/Use Different sectors from the four (4) barangays have, in fact, conveyed that illegal drugs have long been a problem in their respective communities, affecting the adults and youth alike. In Barangay Bagong Silangan, stakeholders aver that children get engaged in peddling and using drugs at the age of 10 years old,

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oblivious to its adverse effects to their mind and wellbeing. Similar to this, Barangays Sta. Lucia, Gulod, and Batasan Hills are faced with the same quandary, along with many other vices, which include drinking of alcohol and gambling, leading the children and youth into addiction. Connected to this is the problem that Brgy. Gulod has regarding gambling, where adults and children/youth alike compromise their family’s needs or even starve themselves just so they could use the money to gamble or play “video karera.” For the most part, the barangay regards these problems an auxiliary problem to the primary social hazard which is unemployment and poverty, both of which are perennially existent in the four (4) barangays as well as in the whole of society. Child Abuse (Sexual and/or Physical) Principally, stakeholders relayed that there is indeed a problem in the security, safety, and welfare of the children and youth in their communities as there are many cases of child abuse (i.e. rape, physical abuse, exploitation/child trafficking) present in their barangay. One community which stood out among the four (4) is Barangay Gulod where the parents themselves force their children to work so that they could use the latter’s profits for their gambling. In the same community, they noted that a lot of children/youth are abused sexually, yet they do not voice out these cases possibly out of fear or the prevailing stigma of rape. In Barangay Sta. Lucia, however, there are cases where children/youth are raped by their own stepfathers. According to these cases, as well as those leading to physical abuse, often lead to the exploitation of children and youth as they are rendered powerless and voiceless in the community, unable to protect or safeguard their own rights whenever they are compromised or taken advantage of. Bullying Of all the threats beleaguering the four (4) communities, bullying tops the list as well because this threat emanates from the youth and children sector and is directed toward the same. In all barangays that were part of the study, everyone remarked that this is a leading factor to the refusal of children to return to school, as other children are bullied by their fellow students. Physical violence is, at times, added into this equation as children become violent to their own peers. Due to this growing threat in the schools, parents have sought counsel with the teachers, and in turn, the latter counseled and talked to the bullies and the bullied students to appease and resolve their problems in a more diplomatic way under the supervision of their teachers.

PERCEPTION OF URBAN RESILIENCE

As one of the vast metropolises that continue to thrive economically, Quezon City deems urban resilience that of a social and an economic concern respectively, where families and households are strong enough to withstand calamities and are also able to restore economic activity amid myriad disasters. Focused on a multitude of aspects, the barangays also perceive resilience in the urban setting a bit differently than that of the city-level stakeholders. For example, Barangay Gulod sees urban resilience emanating from the

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strengthening of the social and attitudinal aspect as well as the political and institutional perspective, where people are strengthened by solidarity, discipline, obedience to the legislations and policies, and an increased awareness to the natural risks and hazards in the community. Similar to the aforesaid definition is Barangay Sta. Lucia, where they perceive resilience the general preparedness and capability to adapt and bounce back in times of adversities, particularly natural disasters. Barangays Bagong Silangan, on one hand, definitely has a more holistic view of urban resilience, where they stressed the importance of good governance; the existence of discipline, solidarity, and unity in the community; structural improvements to avert and mitigate disasters; economic stability; and a happy, safe, and sound environment. Lastly, Barangay Batasan Hills envisions urban resilience a concern of social and attitudinal reform, where if values such as cooperation, diligence, solidarity, and unity are present in the locality, progress and development are sure to follow. To this, they stressed the value if Bayanihan, where the strong, robust leader and the community work as one toward the achievement of a more resilient and strong barangay.

PERCEPTION OF CHILDREN’S RIGHTS

Children’s Rights are vital to the fruition of a child-centered community; this is the reason why the research had also highlighted the significance of the stakeholders’ perceptions toward this aspect. For the city of Quezon, the rights of the children and the youth, according to the city-level stakeholders, zeroed in on the significance of the following: 1) Survival Rights (i.e. food/nutrition); 2) Protection Rights (i.e. a safe environment); 3) Developmental Rights (i.e. education); and briefly discussing about a child’s 4) Participation Rights (i.e. participation in project planning and implementation). Looking into the plight of the four (4) barangays, Barangay Batasan Hills emphasized the significance of Developmental, Protection, and Participation Rights, taking note of their Basic or Survival rights as well such as the right to have his/her own identity, right to gain shelter, and the right to have a family and be cared for by the latter. Bagong Silangan views children’s rights in the same light with respective importance on the Developmental and Protection Rights of the child, putting more weight in educating the children/youth about the imminent hazards, risks, and vulnerabilities that they may be predisposed especially for those abused by their own parents/guardians. Barangays Sta. Lucia and Gulod have parallel opinions in this regard as they view the following as the most significant children’ rights: 1) Basic Survival Rights (i.e. identity, shelter); 2) Developmental alongside Protection Rights (i.e. right to be prioritized during disasters and the right to be informed of risks, disasters, and how they can prepare for such); and 3) Structural Rights (i.e. right to safe public roads). Essentially, these aforesaid rights are given importance by the authorities, yet have not been fully realized due to underlying perennial problems which the communities face. Despite these, certain measures, policies, and initiatives were launched and implemented to reduce, respond to, and resolve the threats to these rights. Only through the achievement of the community to fulfill their vision of becoming more cooperative and participative can they better realize 9


and accomplish a truly resilient community that will serve a giant leap toward a more disaster-resilient, safer, and sustainable city.

DRRM AND CCA POLICIES AND ACTIVITIES

To better visualize the overall image of the study areas with regard to Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation, certain policies, legislations, and activities were reviewed as well – in conjunction with the global, national, and regional policy review. Various stakeholders were assessed and asked about their knowledge and awareness of these policies to measure, albeit qualitatively, their capacity to carry out the programs and policies related to DRRM and CCA. Overall, the barangays’ environmental and general welfare programs are parallel to one another as they all listed off the following: Relocation for Residents residing near rivers (Implementation of the three-meter easement legislation), Tree Planting Activities, Clean-up Drives, Solid Waste Management and Segregation (Garbage Collection), Annual Earthquake and Fire Drills in the public elementary and high schools, Urban Gardening/Farming, Feeding Programs for children, Hospitalization and Financial Assistance for children and other constituents, and the Alternative Learning System for the Out-of-School Youth and Children. Apart from this, the barangays boasted of a plethora of programs, committees, and projects that are specifically devoted to DRRM and CCA, some of which include the establishment and activation of a Barrangay DRRM Committee and its counterpart in the education sector, the School DRRM Committee, headed by a member of the faculty of the respective school/s where the committee is activated. They also prided themselves in the swift and steadfast provision of relief in times of disasters with the help of the municipal government. With all the aforesaid initiatives, stakeholders from the municipal to the barangay government still admit that currently-implemented projects and programs do not empower the youth and children, but only render them beneficiaries or participants in the conduct of its activities. City stakeholders primarily possess fundamental knowledge about the laws and legislations relevant to Disaster Risk Reduction and Management (DRRM), running the gamut of city-specific ordinances like the “Green Building Ordinance” and the “No to Plastic Ordinance” to national-level directives such as the “Clean Air Act.” However, they know that the projects and programs initiated for these legislations are limited to the participation and education of adults and key players in society, rarely giving a chance for the youth and children to get highly involved in the process. Though certain elements of barangay governance and disaster management are in place, like the Task Force on Youth Development and the Batang Emergency Response Team or the Red Cross Youth, the barangay remains reliant on its own forces in times of hazards and adversities, like the Barangay Public Safety and Order committee or the barangay tanods and other relevant committees, leaving the huge potential of the youth and children untapped and rendering them mere beneficiaries dependent on the help and relief provided by the authorities. Albeit this, the barangays are responsive to the aid given by numerous agencies and organizations to help their communities be better focused on the welfare of the children and youth not only during disasters but also in their journey towards sustainable development.

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RECOMMENDATIONS FOR A CHILD-CENTERED AND RESILIENT COMMUNITY

Fundamentally, the project was aimed at helping the partner communities realize a vision toward a child-centered community. The Child-Centered Urban Disaster Risk Reduction Research aided the barangays in renewing their perception of a disaster-resilient community, by enabling them to see how the children and youth can be leaders and pioneers of change, a sector rich in potential and intellect that can invigorate the municipality and the barangay with their fresh outlook and contemporary views. Looking at it closely, stakeholders who participated in the study centered their recommendations on additional livelihood, financial, and housing assistance; strict monitoring and evaluation of existing legislation and policies (i.e. curfews and solid waste management); furthering capacity-building initiatives to edify youth and children on disasters, more help from external organization; supplemental laws protecting children against sexual abuse and bolstering their right to self-expression; amending the Juvenile Delinquency Act to impose stricter sanctions for young criminals; implementing an ordinance to strengthen the management of the dead and missing during disasters; and the sustainment of capacity-building initiatives for barangay and municipal government staff. In quintessence, it can be deduced that a huge improvement remains to be seen in the crusade towards a child-centered community. Much of the problems and their corresponding recommendations still revolve around the dismal state of the economy and livelihood in their localities, neglecting the plight of the children particularly in the achievement of sustainable development. Albeit their enthusiasm in further education and assistance in making their community child-centered, the stakeholders involved still need to realize that there is limitless potential in the children and youth, and much like the core principle of Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction, people can better attain and govern their own development if they are empowered, educated, and capacitated. Then will they realize that the path toward development is not in the hands of their government, but in their own.  

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SAN JUAN CITY

AWARENESS OF VARIOUS HAZARDS AND RISKS IN THE COMMUNITY The identified key hazards and risks affecting the city are as follows:

Covered Barangays:

Batis, Corazon de Jesus, Salapan and West Crame

Flooding Of the natural hazards identified, flooding is the most common as revealed by adults, children, and youth respondents. The San Juan River, which traverses along the western boundary of the city, causes inundation in two of the four barangays covered by the research namely Salapan and Batis. Their vulnerability to flooding is exacerbated by improper waste disposal as canals and creeks get clogged impeding the continuous flow of water. Both communities were greatly devastated by Typhoon Ondoy (International name: Ketsana) in 2009 as high floodwaters submerged most of the houses and properties of the populace, especially those who are situated in high-risk areas, those belonging to informal settler families (ISF), and live below the poverty line. As cited by a representative from the Department of Education (DepEd), flooding is detrimental to children and youth since it disrupts schooling. Instead of serving as a haven of learning, the classrooms are utilized as evacuation centers.

Fire Apart from flooding, the four barangays are also vulnerable to fire due to poor housing materials and design; congested living condition; narrow roads; and absence of unobstructed evacuation routes.

Drug use The use/ pushing of drugs is a major risk in the villages of Batis, Corazon de Jesus, Salapan, and West Crame since it was identified as high both in terms of frequency and effect. It is a significant threat to the future of children and youth since the use of drugs also leads them to engage in undesirable actions such as dropping out of school, gambling, violence, and crimes. Poor parenting, poverty, peer pressure, and weak enforcement of laws are among the contributing factors that exacerbate drug issues in the city.  


Poverty The impoverished condition of many families in the city triggers the increasing rate of crimes. Out of desperation, the marginalized poor are forced to engage in criminal acts such as robbery and kidnapping to provide for their families. As mentioned by a mother in Barangay Corazon de Jesus, poverty, which is exacerbated by unemployment, inhibits the parents to meet the survival and development needs of their children. Growing population of informal settler families (ISF) Barangay Corazon de Jesus is one of the communities in San Juan that has the most number of inhabitants making them a home to many ISF. Along with the continuous growth of ISF population, the houses built along the roads also expand vertically and horizontally. This leads to overcrowding the village and becomes a source of risk since the roads get congested making evacuation difficult in case of a fire or an earthquake. The Barangay Council has categorized this concern as a priority risk that needs attention.

Bullying Both adult and youth participants identified bullying, which usually results to fighting, as a significant threat to the welfare of children and youth. Bullying results to low self-esteem, which hampers the young individuals from socializing and performing well not only in school but also in the greater community.

PERCEPTION OF URBAN RESILIENCE Ability to recover after a disaster

The City of San Juan described urban resilience as the ability of individuals or groups to recover from disaster impacts. It refers to the capacity of a particular community to regain its sense of normalcy after the occurrence of a certain disaster, life-threatening event, or any unexpected disturbances. Urban resilience is equated to the ability of communities to withstand and rise up from the detrimental physical, economic, social, and political impacts of disasters, may it be of driven by natural causes, anthropogenic activities, or combination of both.

Disaster preparedness Disaster preparedness is emphasized as a critical factor to achieving urban resilience. In particular, systematic and timely coordination among concerned authorities and multi-hazard contingency planning were shared as some of the proactive measures that need to be undertaken to prevent loss of lives, huge destruction to properties, and damage to livelihoods. The representatives particularly from the City Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Office (CDRRMO), City Social Welfare and Development Office (CSWDO), and the Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG)-San Juan mentioned the necessity of investing on proactive measures since these offices are legally mandated to carry out DRRM related tasks and responsi13


Post-workshop. Stakeholders from the Barangay Council, schools, homeowners and youth organizations participated in the Youth and Adult CCUDRR Workshop in Brgy. Corazon De Jesus, San Juan City.

bilities as stipulated in the Philippine DRRM Act of 2010 (RA 10121). They give premium on activities inclined to preparedness, prevention, and mitigation as fundamental to achieve urban resilience.

Social/attitudinal and Political/institutional resilience The adults, children, and youth of the four barangays defined urban resilience highlighting two main aspects: attitudinal and political. The adults and children identified attributes such as cooperation and bayanihan, discipline, peace, love and respect for one another, and firmness in decision-making, which they reckon essential in realizing a resilient community. They also expressed the need for community leaders and concerned authorities from the city to embrace a culture of good governance. Leaders should be able to demonstrate determination and strong political will. According to a participant from Barangay Batis, an urban resilient community is governed by leaders who are capable of responding to the needs and issues of its people. Another participant from West Crame reiterated the necessity for the local governments to develop a plan that will provide guidance to the people on what to do before, during, and after a disaster. The overall average rating of San Juan City on urban resilience is 7.5.

PERCEPTION OF CHILDREN’S RIGHTS

Majority of the child rights identified by the city level participants fall under survival and protection. Survival rights include those that relate to meeting the basic needs of children such as food, clothing, shelter, and medical care. The fulfillment of these rights is necessary for securing the physical wellbeing of children, which is fundamental for them to continue living. On the other hand, protective rights include the following entitlements: (1) to be with a happy family that can nurture a child with love, care, and proper attention; (2) to live in a safe and motivating environment; and (3) to be prioritized in times of disasters.

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Both the adults and children in Barangay Batis emphasized the need to protect the development rights of children and youth, which include the following entitlements: education, leisure time; interaction with friends; discipline; religion; name; and enjoy a good life. The recognition of these rights is essential for the young generation to fulfill their role as allies of adults to effect change and pursue sustainable development. The realization of these provides a venue for the children and youth to discover and hone their potentials as future leaders. The adults and children in Barangay Corazon de Jesus revealed the importance of providing equal recognition of all rights: survival, protection, development, and participation. Survival rights similar to those identified in Barangay Batis such as provision of basic needs have to be regarded. For the protective rights, they conveyed that respect for children with disability; children’s privacy; and protection from abuse and exploitation should be recognized. On the other hand, the right to religion is among the development rights deemed necessary for the protection of children’s wellbeing. Lastly, the significance of participation rights of children and youth were acknowledged as a crucial element for their holistic development. Among the participation rights mentioned are freedom of expression; right to be heard; and right to engage in issues that affect them such as environment and disasters. The adults, children, and youth provided an overall average rating of 7 to the city’s capacity to protect child rights.

DRRM AND CCA POLICIES AND ACTIVITIES DRRM and CCA Policies

At the city level, relevant policies on DRRM and children were shared. In particular, the CDRRMO mentioned two executive orders that assisted the city government to reorganize its DRRM council (EO 66613) and create its DRRM office (EO 66609). The presence of these provided an enabling environment to institutionalize the DRRM agenda in the mandate of the local government. The enactment of RA 10121 also provided an avenue for transforming the response-oriented nature of DRRM work in the city to a more proactive and inclusive one. The city also crafted an ordinance on forced evacuation as one of the proactive measures in times of disasters. The CSWDO representative articulated a number of laws that uphold the rights of children and youth. These include RA 7610 (An act providing for stronger deterrence and special protection against child abuse, exploitation and discrimination); RA 9344 (Juvenile Justice Welfare Act); RA 9775 (An act defining the crime of child pornography); RA 9208 (Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act); Children’s Code; RA 9442 (Amended Magna Carta for Disabled Persons). A memorandum circular institutionalizing the local council for the protection of children (LCPC) was also passed. The presence of these laws guides the city in crafting their programs and interventions to make them attuned to the needs of children and youth. On the other hand at the barangay level, the adults and children shared common policies on DRRM and child protection and safety. For DRRM, the barangay local government crafted ordinances on the formation of Barangay Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Committee (BDRRMC); implementation of solid waste management to promote recycling; and conduct of clean and green activities. With regard to children’s welfare, RA 7610 primarily guides the ba15


rangays. However, they revealed that the implementation of this law is problematic since the children and youth tend to abuse their rights. Enforcement of curfew for minors is also common in the four covered communities.

DRRM and CCA Activities The DRRM activities shared at the city level are concentrated mainly on the preparedness and emergency response components. As the lead organization in DRRM related affairs, the CDRRMO plays a chief role in capacity building and rescue operations. The CDRRMO is legally mandated to acts as trainer, advocate, and responder. The CSWDO, on the other hand, is the lead in emergency response. This delineation of tasks is in accordance with the provisions of RA 10121. Having the said role, they are in charge of relief distribution; coordination to facilitate response; monitoring the status of the evacuation centers; and conduct of psychosocial activities such as Critical Incident Stress Debriefing for disaster survivors. At the barangay level, majority of the activities identified by adults, children and youth fall under preparedness, prevention, and mitigation. Among the existing preparedness activities include conduct of trainings, awareness raising activities, provision of equipment, risk assessment, DRRM planning, and organizing of community-based groups. On the other hand, the prevention/ mitigation activities shared include recycling, tree planting, and urban gardening. These actions also serve as measures by the community to adapt to climate change. While they articulated a number of emergency response activities, these are only limited to evacuation and relief provision. The absence of recovery and rehabilitation activities is common to all the barangays covered. While there are model barangays that put premium on children and youth empowerment such as Corazon de Jesus, it is notable that many of the identified activities of the city and other covered barangays for the children and youth are inclined towards the protection of their physical wellbeing and development. The existing interventions are focused on providing nutritional, educational, medical, psychological, and security needs and the 7K (Kalusugan, Kaunlaran, Kalinisan, Kabuhayan, Katahimikan, Kalikasan, at Kalinga sa Pamilya) program of the city government is a concrete example. In general, the children and youth play a passive role in the abovementioned activities. Their level of engagement is restricted as either beneficiary or participant. Adults have the control in planning and decision-making processes leaving the younger members of the population unconsulted and sometimes taken for granted.

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR A CHILD-CENTERED AND RESILIENT COMMUNITY

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The city and the four barangays articulated similar recommendations that would provide an enabling environment for children and youth to flourish not only in DRRM and CCA but in the greater development agenda as well. They expressed the need for programs such as organizing that will allow the children and youth to build linkages and hone their knowledge and skills as able partners of adults. The need to organize is validated by a recommendation to craft an ordinance that will push for the creation of a DRRM council comprised of children and youth. Conduct of trainings on climate change, DRRM for multiple hazards (i.e. flood, fire, and earthquake), and basic life support (BLS) is necessary for the children and youth to become able and equipped in advocating for


safe, resilient, and sustainable communities. The participants also expressed the need for local governments to prioritize children and youth in planning and budgeting processes. Networking with various government and non-government agencies is proposed as a mechanism to put forward children’s needs and be able to mobilize support and resources. Strengthening the existing committees that deal with children and youth affairs at the barangay and school levels (i.e. Barangay Council for the Protection of Children) is deemed necessary to secure their wellbeing including those with disabilities and out-of-school. The presence of these committees would be beneficial for the children and youth as they are provided with apt guidance and prevented from engaging in dangerous activities such as drug use, gambling, and crimes.

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VALENZUELA CITY Covered Barangays:

Arkong Bato, Gen. T. De Leon, Punturin, and Ugong Post-workshop. Stakeholders from the Barangay Council, schools, homeowners and youth organizations participated in the Youth and Adult CCUDRR Workshop in Brgy. Gen. T. De Leon, Valenzuela City.

AWARENESS OF VARIOUS HAZARDS AND RISKS IN THE COMMUNITY Flood and fire

Flooding and fire were the most common natural hazards pointed out by the residents in the four covered barangays in Valenzuela City. Several barangays in Valenzuela City are traversed by the Tullahan River—part of the Marilao-Meycauayan-Obando river system of central Luzon—which poses risks of flooding especially when combined with intense rainfall during the monsoon months. Fortunately, the City Government has recognized this critical threat and have formulated and imposed various policies and programs to mitigate possible risks brought about by flooding. However, there is still a need to integrate the needs and capacities of the children and youth into city and barangay contingency plans. In addition to flooding, fire was also cited as a natural hazard experienced by the covered barangays in the city. With Valenzuela City being a major economic and industrial center in the Philippines, it houses a large number of industries in the central parts of the city which pose possible risks of fires due to the use of hazardous and flammable industrial chemicals. A truly glaring event


exhibiting the risk of fire in the city is the occurrence on May 13, 2015 considered one of the worst fire incidents in the country, where seventy-two people were killed in a fire that wrought havoc in the Kentex Manufacturing factory in Barangay Ugong.

Drugs The problematic issue with drugs surfaced as the leading social hazard in the four barangays covered by the research. Quite saddening is the fact that the very ones who suffer the most are the children and youth due to their vulnerable state. For one, drug use was noted as rampant among the adult population, having devastating effects on familial dynamics, with children and youth being at risk for neglect and abuse. What is more, due to peer pressure, some children and youth are pushed into taking drugs at an early age. This starts these youngsters on a negative path of drug addiction essentially hindering their educational opportunities. Even more grave is when these youth are taken advantage of and used as drug runners since their status as minors precludes them from prosecution by the police. While there are efforts from the different communities to address this pressing concern, such as the commendable exertions by the Valenzuela Anti-Drug Abuse Council (VADAC), there are also complex issues of politics which hinder this process—drug traffickers are said to be protected by influential connections. Indeed, it would seem that the war on drugs may be an arduous battle for the four covered barangays in the city; however, with the continuous determination of the VADAC, in cooperation with other city agencies and barangay officials, the four barangays may soon triumph over this struggle.

Vices Along with drug abuse, use, and addiction, other vices have been noted as pervasive among the young crowd, particularly liquor drinking, cigarette smoking, and gambling. These activities usually start at the age of 15 due to the influence of peers, and continues on to become a habit in adult life. Curfew laws have attempted to mitigate these activities at least in the evenings to prevent possible havoc by intoxicated youth, but have yet to fully resolve these issues. Parental supervision and guidance surfaced as potential mitigators of these activities, as parents are the ones who have the most latitude to teach children the right values and to provide them with the right disciplinary measures. However, it has been found that the parents themselves are not fully equipped with adequate parenting skills to be able to transmit moral standards and principles to their children. Fortunately, there have been efforts to better strengthen the bond between parents and their children and to further control the indulgement of vices by the children and youth through parental supervision projects such as the nanay/tatay-teacher.

Computer Game Addiction A vice of the modern age, excessive playing of computer games to the point of getting addicted, was found troubling by the stakeholders of the various barangays covered by the research. This, they believe, is the root of delinquency in school as the children and youth, through the influence of their peers, may prioritize playing computer games to the detriment of their studies. This is also a source of conflict between the children and youth and their parents as the former may shirk household chores to instead play games in local computer shops. Efforts to curb this practice include the local prohibition for minors to visit local computer shops during school hours. 19


PERCEPTION OF URBAN RESILIENCE

When it comes to perception of urban resilience, a dichotomous view can be observed between Valenzuela City-Level officials and their barangay constituents. For the city level officials, the term urban resilience can be directly equated to preparedness; that is, the capacity to prepare, respond, and recover after disaster events, whether they be natural or human induced. This includes having ample knowledge on disaster management, the formulation of strategic plans for disasters and other threats, and possessing the right attitude to face and conquer any eventualities brought about by disaster or crisis situations. For participants from the four barangay, their perception of urban resilience revolves around a different aspect of resilience; that is, social and attitudinal aspects, noting coordination and unity as main contributors to urban resilience; as well as political and institutional aspects embodied by good leadership and governance of local government officials. Based on their given definitions of urban resilience, the participants gave an overall rating of 7.3615 when asked to rate to what extent they believe that their city is urban resilient. This rating was an average of distinct experiences that revolved around the dual conceptualization of urban resilience of the stakeholders in the city. For instance, for the city-level officials, given their view that urban resilience pertains to preparedness to hazards, their ratings vacillated depending on the kind of hazard, with the city possessing different capacities to handle the wide-range of disasters. While they believe the city would rate highly in combating flooding and fire, they perceive that there is much to be improved in preparing for earthquakes. The stakeholders from the barangay, however, based their ratings on their social and political conceptualization of urban resilience and the capacity of the barangay to fulfill their given definitions.

PERCEPTION OF CHILDREN’S RIGHTS

For the city and barangay respondents, developmental and protective rights are the foremost kinds of rights that must be safeguarded. Truly, they prize highly the right of children to development, particularly the right to proper education as this is a value that Filipinos hold dearly. In tandem with this is the right of children to leisure and play, as they believe children need these kinds of activities for physical and psychological development. Along with this, they believe that the children and youth must be kept safe and secure at all circumstances. This includes being free from physical and psychological abuse at home, in school, and in their community. This also ropes in their right to protection during times of disasters, arming them with ample ways to be safe and secure during these circumstances such that they themselves, through their own capacities can take care of their needs. The city-level officials and the stakeholders from the four barangays gave an average of 7.7466 in terms of the city’s protection of the rights of the children and youth.

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DRRM AND CCA POLICIES AND ACTIVITIES DRRM and CCA Policies

Due to their positions in the government, city-level officials were able to cite a multitude of disaster risk reduction (DRR) and climate change adaptation (CCA) related policies, both on a national and local scale: Comprehensive Land Use Plan (2009-2018), Solid Waste Management Related Ordinances/Policies, Contingency Plans, Local DRRM plan, Urban Planning. Stakeholders from the four barangays were not as quick to cite DRR and CCA policies operating within their community. Their focus seemed to be on local measures geared towards protecting children. For instance, policies mentioned revolved around anti-violence measures, particularly the laws against child abuse and abuse of women, with the protective arm of the barangay, the Barangay Council for the Protection of Children to safeguard these acts of violence. There were also local curfew and anti-gambling policies to curb the indulgences of vices by the children and youth. What can be observed from these is while there were DRR and CCA policies on one hand, and children and youth-related policies on the other, noticeable was the lack of interaction between the two agenda that would interrelate the capacities of the youth with the DRR and CCA platforms.

DRRM and CCA Activities Being standard bearers of their positions, city-level respondents were able to enumerate a multitude of programs and projects banked on the promotion of DRRM and CCA. Most of those cited fall under the thematic area of Prevention and Mitigation such as flood control projects, climate proofing of school buildings and facilities, waste segregation program, and geo tagging of industries. In addition to this, there were also a myriad of disaster preparedness trainings conducted by the city government and headed by the City Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Office covering a wide range of hazards: Basic Emergency First Responder Training (BEFR Training), Disaster Preparedness and Drill Orientation (DPDO), Water Emergency and Life Saving Techniques Training Center, Basic Fire Safety Prevention Suppression Training, Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction and Management, and Wemboree, a youth camp focused particularly on capacitating and training children and youth to address disasters risks. A number of trainings on disaster preparedness and response are also continuously being led by various external organizations. Covering all thematic areas are the 3S Action Centers built and spread around large barangays designed to house various agencies to maintain functioning of the local government when disasters strike. Other examples of partnerships, organizations, and programs implemented in Valenzuela City to reflect their efforts in upholding the safety, security, and disaster-preparedness of the city and in upholding children’s welfare include: conduct of Youth Development Office of palaro among the youth; formation of Task Force Youth in barangays; programs on maintenance of cleanliness (in cooperation of DSWD); Red Cross—information dissemination, disaster preparedness and training; continuous training of volunteers, Knight of Columbus, etc; Citizen Crime Watch (DILG), Special task force, Community Crime Watch; Philippine Coast Guard Auxiliary; training of many NGOs; continuous Disaster Preparedness Skills Olympics and Drills; DepEd activities (e.g., Yearly programs on school disaster and risk management, BERT, Red Cross Youth, trained Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts, new buildings for ALS and SPED). 21


For the four barangays covered, it would seem that most programs and projects the stakeholders were aware of revolved around the aspect of general welfare. This is especially the case for Barangay Arkong Bato wherein stakeholders focused on such measures as anti-gambling, anti-corruption, and anti-violence against women and children. Aside from programs and projects focused on general welfare however, programs and projects within Barangays Gen. T. De Leon and Ugong were dedicated to the thematic area of Emergency Response, with barangay and external organizations providing for rescue and relief operations during times of disasters. Measures in Barangay Punturin aside from general welfare seemed to converge on the thematic areas of Prevention and Mitigation and Preparedness citing barangay initiatives such as putting up fences along the creek and school-led activities such as earthquake drills.

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR A CHILD-CENTERED AND RESILIENT COMMUNITY For the city-level officials, to be able to foster a child-centered urban resilient city, there is a need for creation of more policies that safeguard the rights of the children and youth; a given example is the cultivation of more child-focused contingency and evacuation plans. Provision of livelihood programs for the parents of children were recommended by the four barangays, recognizing that without economic uplifting of the parents’ status in life, the children and youth’s lives would be grossly affected. Much more vulnerable in this regard are children with disabilities, who the stakeholders believe must be given more ample assistance especially in times of calamities. However, not only in terms of economics are parents vital to the survival and protection of children but also in terms of their development of values and morals. For instance, the residents of Barangay Gen. T. De Leon recognize the importance of responsible parenthood to instill the right values in forming a family and the right approach to discipline and value formation. Another salient point in forwarding the child-centered urban DRR agenda is the need for children and youth to have more active roles and participation within their barangay structures, and to serve as leaders to programs and projects within and outside their communities, a recommendation which Brgy. Arkong Bato highlighted. Focus on political and structural aspects are also vital in promoting a child-centered urban resilient community, as Barangay Punturin recommended stricter implementation of laws and more facilities like schools, hospitals, libraries; and Barangay Ugong advanced the need for proper information dissemination within the community system. Through all these, it is clear that there is still a need for the four covered barangays in Valenzuela City to fully institutionalize a child-centered urban disaster risk reduction and climate-change adaptation platform. With the laudable efforts of the city and barangay local government units in tandem with barangay and organizational stakeholders, accomplishment of this goal will be very much attainable.

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II. Research Overview INTRODUCTION

The Center for Disaster Preparedness Foundation, Inc. and Plan International Philippines have converged for a three-year project aimed at boosting and strengthening the resilience of at-risk communities, particularly the children and the youth in the urban setting. Essentially, this project, dubbed “Strengthening Resilience to Disasters among Vulnerable Urban Poor Communities in Manila, Philippines,� is geared toward fostering safe and resilient communities against the impact of disasters and climate change in four (4) chosen communities in each of the three (3) major cities in Metro Manila: Quezon City, San Juan City, and Valenzuela. This project will be done through the conduct of various research activities that will nurture the consciousness of the community in disaster risk reduction and management (DRRM) and climate change adaptation (CCA). Alongside this, the project entails the enhancement of barangay DRRM plans to promote a culture of inclusivity for boys, girls, children with disabilities, and out-of-school children and youth. Essentially, the sincere cooperation and participation of different stakeholders in the community is paramount to the success of this project towards the attainment of a safer, more disaster and climate-resilient community, primarily for the children and youth.

RESEARCH COMPONENT & RATIONALE

As a component of the project, research was conducted with different sectors in the target communities: local government units, parents, teachers, non-government and youth organizations, and children and the youth aged 10-12 and 13-15 respectively. The output of the research will be utilized as the baseline that will aid in informing the project implementation. Additionally, the research output will serve as substantial input in the planning of Disaster Risk Reduction and Management (DRRM) and climate change adaptation (CCA) plans at the barangay and city level. Furthermore, it will serve as a guidepost for local and international child-centered and urban resilience initiatives. Children, youth, parents, their communities, the local government units and the organizations present in the communities are expected to benefit from the programs indicated in the project. The implementation of the project will be a synergy among the beneficiaries, the city governments and the project holders to ensure that the relevance of the project and to mainstream cross-cutting issues such as gender, disability and human rights. The partnerships would also


24 facilitate the participation of all the stakeholders in the process of planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating.

COVERED AREAS

The proposed study was undertaken in three (3) cities in Metro Manila namely Quezon City, San Juan City, and Valenzuela City. These cities were chosen due to their highly urbanized nature, presence of informal settler families, and great number of population of children and youth. Upon research and consultation with city level officials, four (4) barangays were selected to serve as target areas taking into consideration the high risk of natural hazards within these communities, the high population of children and youth, and other pertinent factors.

RESEARCH DURATION

PROPONENTS

Research team

The research conduct ran from February 2015 to July 2015. It commenced in the first week of February with the conduct of preliminary activities: planning, formulation of concept note, objectives, and tools. Scoping and coordination with the different cities and barangays followed in the subsequent weeks. The data gathering process ensued thereafter: first in Quezon City from February to May, in San Juan City from March to May, then in Valenzuela City from May to June. The final stage of the research in June was dedicated to analysis and report writing.

The Research Team was composed of 6 personnel from the Center for Disaster Preparedness consisting of three (3) lead researchers, three (3) assistant researchers, and one (1) desk reviewer. The matrix below outlines the specific tasks of each project management team members. Designation

Task and Functions

Lead Researchers (3 personnel)

• Provides the overall direction of the research project. • Oversees the day-to-day implementation of the research project. • Acts as the primary researcher of the project.

Assistant Researchers (3 personnel)

• Participate in the orientation of the Plan International project to the community leaders and other relevant stakeholders. • Facilitate coordination of the schedule of fieldwork activities such as courtesy call to the office of the

Name Ms. Jesusa Grace Molina Ms. Elyse Rafaela Conde Ms. Santina Joy Lora


Designation

Task and Functions

• • •

Desk researcher (1 personnel)

Name

chief executive, project orientation with community leaders, key informant interviews (KII), workshops, and focus group discussions (FGDs) with community leaders and other relevant stakeholders. Document the conduct of data- gathering methods of fieldwork such as KII, workshops, and fieldwork such as KII, workshops, and FGDs following the prescribed template prepared by Center for Disaster Preparedness’ (CDPs) project management team. When necessary, carry out KII, workshops, and FGDs following using the guide questions prepared by CDP’s project management team. Collate results of KII, workshops, and FGDs and submit the outputs using the prescribed template of CDP project management team. Assist in the preparation and analysis of data of the reports/deliverables. Attend regular team meetings. Support the logistical preparations together with the CDP team for the conduct of all project- related activities such as preparation of materials for the fieldwork that includes the purchase of materials and securing of its availability, reservation of the transportation for the activities related to the project and other needs that may arise.

• Write a comprehensive write up on about: • Relationship of DRR, CCA, urban resilience to child-development objectives • In global terms: policy-alignment of urban resilience to UNCRC, children’s charter DRR, Yokohama declaration • In national terms: DRR integration in schools curriculum; NGAs – NYC, CWC, DepEd, DSWD.

Mr. Jesus Dominic

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Designation

Task and Functions

Name

• In national terms: DRR integration in schools curriculum; NGAs – NYC, CWC, DepEd, DSWD. • In local terms: Barangay Council for the Protection of Children (BCPC), child-friendly spaces, school activities on DRR, CCA

Participants / Partners / Stakeholders

The key partners in the research are the following: • • • • • • • • • •

Participants / Partners / Stakeholders

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Local governments of Quezon City, San Juan, Valenzuela Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG) Offices of Quezon City, San Juan, Valenzuela City Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Offices (CDRRMOs) of Quezon City, San Juan, Valenzuela Barangay Councils of the ISF communities in Quezon City, San Juan, Valenzuela Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) implementing DRRM-related projects in the selected ISF communities in Quezon City, San Juan, Valenzuela Youth Organization/s under the barangay, external youth organizations (i.e. faith-based organizations) in the selected ISF communities in Quezon City, San Juan, Valenzuela Parents of school children/youth, out-of-school children/youth, and children/youth-with-disabilities School officials from the elementary and high school level School children, Out-of-school children, Children-with-disabilities – Ages 10-12 High school/Youth, Out-of-school youth, Youth-with-disabilities – Ages 13-15

The research design for this study was qualitative and descriptive as it aimed to draw out the awareness, perception, and opinions of the participants about urban resilience, disaster risk reduction, and climate change adaptation relating to the status of the children and youth through their own observations and experiences within the community. As such, the data gathering process consisted of interviews, focus group discussions, and write-shops conducted with the informants from the different sectors in the communities. These were based on the core principles of CBDRRM that aid and result in the dramatic reduction of vulnerabilities and the establishment as well as the sustainment of resilient and adaptive communities, which are outlined and modeled in the research framework below.


A Child Centered Approach to Disaster Risk Reduction

Principles of Community-Based DRR

Inclusivity

Local-Based

Human Rights

Multi-Stakeholder Participation

Vulnerability Reduction + Resilience

Figure 1. A visual depiction of the child-centered approach to Disaster Risk Reduction or DRR; the model upon which this research is founded.

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Research Objectives, Variables, and Indicators

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Objectives

Variables

Indicators

Methods

Understand the perception of urban resilience of different stakeholders (i.e. LGU, parents, school officials, children, youth, and the civil society)

• Perception of hazards and risks • Perception on impacts of past disasters across: • age • gender • socio-economic background • culture and religion • length of stay in the community

• Accounts on past disaster experiences

• FGD with the aid of participatory tools • KII

Gauge the awareness of different stakeholders on the policies regarding disaster risk reduction / climate change adaptation, the rights of the children and the youth, the disaster and climate related risks that the children and the youth face

• Level of participation in risk assessment and DRR planning • Representation of different stakeholders in the DRR structure

• Contingency plan for different hazards • DRR structure • Practices in planning and decision making processes

• FGD with the aid of participatory tools • KII • Policy review and analysis

Elicit the awareness and understanding of different stakeholders on their roles, programs and projects in relation to child-centered urban disaster risk reduction / climate change adaptation.

• Activities and strategies before, during and after a disaster • Level of participation in DRR/ CCA processes

• Existing mechanisms for: • preparedness • prevention and mitigation • emergency response • rehabilitation and recovery

• FGD with the aid of participatory tools • KII

Determine the relationship between disaster risk reduction / climate change adaptation / urban resilience and children and youth development objectives through the review of existing policies

• -Linkage of existing DRR/ CCA interventions with the development agenda for children and youth

• -Existing programs, projects and policies on DRR, CCA and Children/ Youth

• - Policy analysis and review • -KII • -FGD with the aid of participatory tools

Draw out recommendations of different stakeholders towards realization of child-centered urban disaster risk reduction / climate change adaptation.

• Enabling environment and processes • Sustainability of the enabling environment • Role of different stakeholders

• Nature of children and youth participation in DRRM processes • Institutional actions and strategies to be taken by different stakeholders

• KII • FGD with the aid of participatory tools


Research Process and Work Flow

Global Level

• UN CRC • Children’s Charter for DRR • Hyogo Framework for Action (20052015) • Sendai Framework for DRR (20152030)

National Level

Desk Review

• RA 10121 • Memorandum Circulars and Executive Issuances (i.e. OCD, Department of Education)

City Level

• DRRM Office • Interior and Local Government Office • Social Welfare and Development Office • Education • Planning and Development Office • Health Office Key informant interviews

• Village (Barangay) Level • • • • • • • •

Barangay Council School Parents NGOs Community-based organizations Youth organizations Out-of-School Youth Children with disabilities

City Level

Focus group Discussion/ Writeshop

• DRRM Office • Interior and Local Government Office • Social Welfare and Development Office • Education • Planning and Development Office • Health Office

• Village (Barangay) Level • • • • • • • •

Barangay Council School Parents NGOs Community-based organizations Youth organizations Out-of-School Youth Children with disabilities

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Research Methods and Tools

QUESTIONNAIRE MATRIX

The Questionnaire Matrix was used for one-on-one interviews. This includes the following headings and questions. Additional probing questions are asked depending on the sector in focus. Perception of Urban Resilience • • •

What is ‘urban resilience’ for you? What is your understanding of this concept? How would you consider that a city is resilient towards disasters? Do you think your community is resilient towards disasters? How would you rate your community from a scale of 1-10, 1 being the lowest and 10 being the highest?

Awareness of Policies, Rights, and Risks Policies • Are you aware of any policies or laws relating to disaster risk reduction or climate change adaptation? It can be in your community, in the locality, or on a national level. • How do you use these policies in implementing your projects in DRRCCA? Rights • Are you aware of the rights of children or youth in terms of DRRCCA? If yes, what are these? • Would you say that the children or youth in your community are able to experience / exercise these rights? Why or why not? • What rights do you think children or youth in your community should experience or what rights should be bestowed to them to be able to say that they are protected? • What other initiatives have your organization carried out to protect or uphold the rights of the children and youth? Risks • What do you think are the risks that are experienced by the children or youth in your community? • What do you think are the root causes of these risks? • What initiatives have you carried out or are currently undertaking to lessen or eradicate the risks or vulnerabilities experienced by the children and youth in your community?

Awareness and Understanding of Roles, Programs, and Projects • • • • •

Do you have programs and projects that are related to disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in your community? Are the children beneficiaries, participants, or leaders in these programs and projects? Would you say that these programs or projects are child-centered or focused on the needs of children and youth? What did you use as basis for these programs or projects? Would you say these programs or projects are effective?

Recommendations •

What policies, programs and projects, or other initiatives do you think can/should be carried out in your community to be able to forge a community that is child-centered and responsive to the needs of the children and youth?

TOOLS

For the children and youth - The following tools were utilized to draw out their understanding, perceptions, and other input regarding the situation of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation in their respective communities. The children and youth utilized special tools due to their varied needs compared with their adult counterparts. Basically, the use of customized and interactive tools for children and youth are necessary (i.e. games, drawings, role playing and stories) to encourage active participation, keep their attention and prevent a non-threatening atmosphere. Such an approach enables the younger generation to better express

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Tool

Procedure

Urban Resilience Race

The participants are divided into two groups (one group for children, one group for youth; if available). The groups are told that they are to note as many words or phrases or sentences that they think of when they hear the word ‘urban resilience’. They are given a time limit to post all their responses. A representative is chosen to report their output, choosing the five words/phrases that best describe the term ‘urban resilience’. The group with the most words and the best reporting will win a prize.

Rights of Children / Vision for Children

The participants are provided with manila paper and coloring materials. They are instructed to draw their vision of an ideal community, including the rights of the children that they think should be protected therein.

Hazard Assessment Matrix

The participants are asked for the different hazards that they face within their community. They then rate these on two scales: frequency on the horizontal scale and impact on the vertical scale.

Policies / Programs / Roles of Children

The participants are asked to enumerate the policies and programs they are aware of within their community or nationally. Corresponding to the programs, they are asked to label the roles of children within these: whether as beneficiaries, participants, or leaders.

Hazard Map

The participants are asked to sketch a map of their community. From this, they are to color parts of their community based on how risky they perceive these parts of the community are: red signifying high risk, yellow for medium risk, and green for low risk. They are asked to explain why they deemed these places having the aforementioned levels of risks and are probed about the kinds of risks existing within these places in their community.

Social Venn Diagram

With the children and youth at the heart of the four-cornered venn diagram, the participants are asked to name the different stakeholders that help them in four sectors: barangay, family, school, and extra-community. They are to cut shapes out of colored paper to illustrate these institutions, which are to be studied in two dimensions: the size of the shape symbolizing the impact of the aid given by these sectors, and the distance to the children and youth symbolizing how close these institutions are to the children and youth.

Recommendations

The participants are asked to enumerate their recommendations regarding the policies or programs and projects that can/should be carried out in their community to be able to forge a community that is child-centered and responsive to the needs of the children and youth.

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their ideas and perceptions while enhancing their creativity, confidence and socialization skills at the same time. For adults - In cases where there were multiple respondents at a given time, a write-shop is conducted utilizing writing materials instead of the vocalization in the traditional focus group discussion. The tools are similar to the ones used for the children and youth, but these have been simplified, as the highlight is on the reporting stage after each activity, for probing and clarificatory questions to have more emphasis. For each question, participants are asked to write their answers on metacards using markers, and to post these on manila papers for facilitated discussion and documentation. A color-coding metacard scheme is used to differentiate the answers of the different stakeholders from each other.

PROCEDURE Preliminary Steps

Prior to the conduct of the key informant interviews / focus group discussions/ workshops, the researchers first coordinated with city and barangay local government units to gain their affirmation as to the conduct of the research in their area. After affirmation from the city and barangay levels have been secured, letters were distributed to respective barangays through their barangay officials. The data gathering process is scheduled upon their available dates.

Data Gathering Proper The gathering of data was conducted in two (2) stages: the first was the review of related literature and the other was the series of child-centered key informant interviews/focus group discussions write-shops.

Desk Review The desk review sought to discover the relationship of disaster risk reduction, climate change adaptation, and urban resilience to child-development objectives in three spheres: • In global terms: policy-alignment of urban resilience to UNCRC, children’s charter DRR, Yokohama declaration. • In national terms: DRR integration in schools curriculum; NGAs – NYC, CWC, DepEd, DSWD. • In local terms: Barangay Council for the Protection of Children (BCPC), child-friendly spaces, school activities on DRR, CCA.

Key Informant Interviews / Focus Group Discussions / Write-shops

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The conduct of key informant interviews, focus group discussions, and writeshops were dependent on the availability of participants. In case only one participant was available at a particular time, a key informant interview was conducted using the Questionnaire Matrix. In the case that there were more participants, then focus group discussions through write-shops were conduct-


ed. Prior to the research proper, participants were briefed as to the background and objectives of the research. They were given attendance sheets and consent forms to accomplish. The latter sought the participants’ consent to be part of the research and stated their rights within the research. After these preliminary activities, researchers moved on to the research proper wherein, depending on the number of participants available on the scheduled date, a key informant interview or focus group discussion/write-shop was conducted. In the key informant interview with one or very few participants, the latter were asked questions based on the prepared Questionnaire Matrix. They were encouraged to freely share their experiences to make their inputs flow spontaneously. Their responses were audio recorded and documented for research Tool

Procedure

Perception of Urban Resilience

The participants are instructed to note on provided metacards as many words or phrases or sentences that they think of when they hear the word ‘urban resilience’. They are to post these metacards on provided manila paper and to discuss and report the responses per sector.

Rights of Children

The participants are to write the rights of children that they are aware of.

Hazard Assessment Matrix

The participants are asked for the different hazards that the children and youth within their community face. They then rate these on two scales: frequency on the horizontal scale and impact on the vertical scale.

Policies / Programs of the Stakeholders / Roles of Children

The participants are asked to enumerate the policies and programs they are aware of or conduct personally/institutionally within their community or nationally. Corresponding to the programs, they are asked to label the roles of children within these: whether as beneficiaries, participants, or leaders.

Policies / Programs of Other Organizations / Roles of Children

The participants are asked to enumerate the policies and programs they are aware of that are conducted by other organizations within their community. Corresponding to the programs, they are asked to label the roles of children within these: whether as beneficiaries, participants, or leaders.

Recommendations

The participants are asked to enumerate their recommendations regarding the policies or programs and projects that can/should be carried out in their community to be able to forge a community that is child-centered and responsive to the needs of the children and youth.

purposes. In the focus group discussion/write-shop in case of multiple participants, participants were asked the same questions based on the Questionnaire Matrix. They were tasked to write their inputs regarding the questions posed on colored pieces of paper (metacards) and then to post these answers on manila 33


papers. After all responses have been registered, they were given the stage to report their outputs, and the researchers were also able to ask clarifications or questions that may further validate and ascertain the exactitude of the answers. Once the write-shop or focus group discussion came to a close, the researchers extended their immeasurable gratitude to the participants; assuring them that all their hard work and participation in the concluded discussion will not be in vain. Hereafter, all participants were further requested and invited to attend, participate, and cooperate in all other events pertinent to the implementation of the aforesaid project; given that they also envision the same child-centered, disaster and climate-resistant community for generations to come.

Method of Analysis Primarily, the results of this study were analyzed and evaluated through the qualitative research method Content Analysis. This method of scrutiny and examination aided in laying out the classification of the data collected from the interview transcripts and write-shop results. From these classifications, the researchers were able to highlight significant messages, definitions, and conclusions regarding the participants’ comprehension and perception toward urban resilience. With these results, the researchers were able to determine and ascertain the relevance of disasters and climate change events to perennial areas of concern such as the welfare of community, most especially its children and youth sectors.

Anticipated Outputs The research project generated the following outputs: 1. Comprehensive literature review of global, national, and local policies regarding the interrelationship between disaster risk reduction/ climate change adaptation/ urban resilience and children and youth development objectives 2. Comprehensive research on the situation of children and youth in informal settler families (ISF) communities, particularly in Quezon City, San Juan, and Valenzuela, which includes the perceptions of urban resilience by different stakeholders, their awareness of existing DRRM/ CCA policies and programs, and the rights and risks that the children and the youth face 3. Inventory/database of DRRM-related programs of Non-Government Organisations (NGOs) implementing DRRM-related projects in the selected ISF communities in Quezon City, San Juan, Valenzuela. 4. Recommendations towards realization of child-centered urban disaster risk reduction / climate change adaptation

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III. Global Policy Review OVERVIEW

The world is in the middle of a major transition from predominantly rural to urban living, with cities growing most rapidly in Asia and Africa (Global Risks 2015). By 2050, the United Nations (UN) expects 80 percent of world’s population to live in urban areas. Urbanization brings tremendous opportunities to many and will continue to do so throughout the countries all over the world (Brown and Dodman 2014). With the opportunities it brings, it also bears complexity and poses great challenge. One of which is the risk associated to natural hazards and climate change. The frequency and severity of natural disasters are both on rise, and experts point to climate change as one of the factors. Global statistics indicate that disasters have increased by 233 percent. More than 2.3 billion people have been directly affected by disasters, more than 8,000 disasters have been recorded causing 1.94 million deaths, and US$2.4 trillion in economic losses – primarily as a result of hydro-meteorological hazards such as droughts, extreme temperatures, floods, tropical cyclones and related health epidemics (Cousins 2014). The human suffering caused by natural disasters is mostly felt in developing countries, particularly poverty-stricken nations that lack the resources to cope with their aftermath (UNICEF 2007). While natural disasters are devastating for anyone, children are the most vulnerable (Tanner 2009; ADPC 2010) because of their developing cognition, limited experience and risk prone behavioral characteristics, which render them less able to avoid and cope with hazards (Brown & Dodman 2014) International frameworks on disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation are well placed to recognize the need for children’s participation in reducing climate and disaster risks. Understanding children and youth capacity to participate in decision-making and take adaptive action on climate change – and their value in this process – is crucial to ensuring fair and equitable adaptation policy and programming (Institute of Development Studies 2009). Both climate change and disaster risk reduction are critical elements of sustainable development. If not fully addressed, they will undermine human development and impede progress towards meeting the Millennium Development goals. The paper draws on the evidence from a comprehensive literature review of policies and practices, both global and local, engaging children as active citizens in disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. It demonstrates how the existing policies address the underlying risk and shows the relationship of DRR frameworks vis-à-vis the achievement of child development objectives in the context of urban resilience. It maps out the avenues where children have opportunities to participate in CCA and DRR. Lastly, it explores


how evidence from children’s participation can provide lessons and guidance in achieving the outcomes of the Sendai Framework for DRR and provide an empirical basis for a range of urban, national and global stakeholders to make programming and policy decisions.

METHODOLOGY

The information contained in this paper is based on several data gathering methods such as review of secondary materials, periodicals and documents available in the various agencies and the internet aimed at providing an overall picture of children’s policies and practices related to CCA and DRR both global and local. The analysis is an attempt to capture the findings that have emerged from these reports. Notwithstanding the limited scope and comprehensiveness, the paper provides useful insights in promoting CCA and DRR child-led initiatives. This report can be useful for other researchers and countries in raising the involvement of children and young people toward a culture of safety and resilience.

LIMITATIONS

INTRODUCTION

While there were information that can speak for the Philippine case as a whole, there were information, depending on sources that could be attributed only to specific cases and therefore generalization could not be made.

The World Risk Report 2013 identified China, the United States, Indonesia, the Philippines and India as the top 5 countries most frequently hit by natural hazards. The Philippines experiences an average of 20 tropical cyclones per year and is highly vulnerable to disasters resulting from extreme natural events like tropical cyclones, monsoon rains, earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions. From 1970-2013, the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Operations Center (NDRRMOC) listed 856 tropical cyclones that entered the Philippine area of responsibility (PAR), 322 of which, or 38 percent, were destructive. In the past 20 years, tropical cyclones claimed 17,119 lives and injured 51,068, with 5,198 still missing. It affected at least 24.8 million families or 122.1 million people and caused damages to agriculture, infrastructure, and private properties worth P354.7 billion (Y it Happened 2014). The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) projects an increase in the frequency and intensity of hydro-meteorological events, such as cyclones, floods and storm surges. The growing intensity and frequency of climate-related hazards take a disproportionately heavy toll on children. Every year, 175 million children are being affected by disasters and climate change (Children in a Changing Climate Coalition 2013). According to World Health Organization (WHO), thirty to fifty percent of the total recorded fatalities in natural disasters are children (World Vision 2013). In developing countries mortality rates are higher among children than adults with young girls and women facing disproportionate risk as a result of climate stresses and extreme events (Seballos and Tanner 2011)

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The impacts of disasters and climate change on children vary across countries. In 2012, over one million children faced life-threatening malnutrition during the drought and food crisis in the Sahel Region of Sub-Saharan Africa. On the


same year, Typhoon Bopha hit the Philippines with over 1.6 million children affected (Bild and Ibrahim 2013). The effects of disasters are due to their developing cognition, limited experience and risk-prone behavioral characteristics, which render them less able to avoid and cope with hazards. In Mongolia, a UN study revealed that 47 percent of children areas affected by 2010 dzud, showed signs of psychological stress characterized by expressions of disappointment, loss of self-confidence, nervousness, and insomnia. Similarly, in Tamil Nadu, a year after the tsunami, children who were exposed to deaths of, or injuries to, developed anxiety problems. (Williams et al 2008). Researches indicate that children are prone to trauma if they experience a death of family members, friends, teachers and others who are familiar to them and when they are displaced from their homes and communities or when they have previously experienced other traumatic events (Osofsky et al. 2007). Children in poor urban areas face different challenges. The urban poor, who live in informal settlements where they lack adequate sewage and drainage systems, access to health facilities and sanitation services are widely recognized to be at risk to environmental hazards, disasters and the impacts of climate change. More than 900 million people are estimated to live in overcrowded, under-serviced and hazard-prone environments and a large proportion of them are children. Overcrowding in high-risk areas can increase the number of people exposed to disasters especially where quality housing and infrastructure is lacking. For example, children from San Juan de Coastal in Paranaque City are exposed to sea level rise, typhoons, storm surges, tsunamis and earthquake liquefaction because their settlement is next to reclaimed land and in low-elevation coastal zone (Brown and Dodman 2014). With poor basic services, the effects of climate related and natural hazard risk can turn a heavy rain into a disastrous flood with a spread of disease. Destruction or damage to infrastructure can lead to water scarcity or contamination. Lack of access to safe housing with good provision for water, sanitation, health care and education affects the capacity of the children and youth to recover (World Bank 2011). Similarly, children from low-income households as well as those without parents or guardians are more exposed to hazards because they are often forced to reside on the streets or in hazard-prone areas (UNICEF 2011). This clearly indicates that children who live and work in poor quality environments are most at risk to everyday environmental hazards, disasters, and the impacts of climate change (Brown and Dodman 2014).

RATIONALE FOR CHILDREN’S PARTICIPATION IN DRR AND CCA ACTIVITIES

Disasters continue to occur unpredictably, yet their impact can be reduced through participation, cooperation and preparation (Wakayama Declaration by Youth on DRR). Addressing climate and disaster risks requires concerted efforts among different stakeholders. The Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) 2005-2015 promotes a participatory disaster risk reduction and states “both communities and local authorities should be empowered to manage and reduce disaster risk by having the necessary information, resources, and authority to implement actions for disaster risk reduction”. On a similar note, the Sendai Framework for DRR 2015 promotes a more action-oriented and more people-centered approach describing the clear role and participation of different stakeholders on DRRM and CCA, mentioning children and youth as agents of change. The new framework promotes that the children and youth should be given the space and modalities to contribute to disaster risk reduction, in accordance with legislation, national practice and education curricula. 37


The United Nations defines “youth� as persons between the ages of 15 and 24 years. Each country has its own youth age range. In Southeast Asia, youth can be as young as 12 in Timor Leste and be as old as 40 in Brunei Darussalam and Malaysia. In the case of the Philippines, the youth are persons from 15 to 30 and would normally include fourth-year high school students and older, college students, those who are working and even married individuals (Fernandez and Shaw 2013). While many practitioners have considered the benefits of children’s participation in DRR, such as receptivity to new ways of thinking, creativity in approaching obstacles, and enthusiasm to share their knowledge with peers and wider community in innovative and effective ways, the degree of their participation vary depending on the extent to which adults are willing to share their power with them. (Brown and Dodman 2014). Practitioners and researchers have been working towards establishing a platform for meaningful participation, by recognizing the need to nurture the strengths, interests and abilities of young people in order that they can take charge of the decisions of that may affect them. Excluding children from planning and decision-making process threatens their safety when the disaster strikes and ignores a valuable resource for risk communication, education, advocacy, and help with practical risk reduction activities (Mitchell et al. 2009) Hart (1997) adapted a model developed by Arnstein that shows the level of participation of youth and children. The bottom rung represents non-existent or minimal participation while the top represents full participation.

Table 1. Rung of the Ladder (Hart 1997)

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RUNGS OF THE LADDER

DEGREE OF PARTICIPATION

(Top) Children and young people initiated, shared decision with adults.

Children and young people have the ideas, set up the project, and invite adults to join with them in making decisions.

Children and young people are directed

Children and young people have the initial idea and decide how the project is carried out. Adults are avail- able but do not take charge.

Adult-initiated shared decisions with children

Adults have the initial idea but children and young people are involved in every step of the planning and implementation. Not only are their views considered, but they are also involved in taking the decisions.

Consulted but informed

The project is designed and run by adults but children and young people are consulted. They have a full understanding of the process and their opinions are taken seriously.

Assigned but informed

Adults decided on the project and children and young people volunteer for it. Adults respect their views.

Tokenism

Children and young people are asked to say what they think about an issue but have little or no choice about the way they express those views or the scope of the ideas they can express.

Decoration

Children and young people take part in an event, e.g. by signing, dancing or wearing t-shirts with logos on, but they do not really understand the issue.

(Bottom) Manipulation

Children and young people do or say what adults suggest they do, but have no real understanding of the issues, or are asked what they think. Adults use some of their ideas but do not tell them what influence they have had on the final decision.


In general, there are three main rationales for greater voice and participation of children and young people (Fernandez and Shaw 2013). First, children have the right to be nurtured, protected and treated with respect, and be consulted and involved. Second, inclusion and addressing the needs of marginalized groups such as people with disability, children and women require their views and interests to be well represented and articulated. It has been proven that when children and young people are involved, they are able to identify and act on issues that adults may otherwise ignore due to other priorities such as lack of time, a general sense of apathy, or a fatalistic attitude to disaster (Brown and Dodman 2014). Third, it is asserted that there are developmental benefits from child participation. Participation of children can promote their personal development; strengthen their knowledge, practical skills, social values and civic competencies (Fernandez and Shaw 2013). Children and young people can participate in climate change and DRR activities in several ways (Tanner et al. 2009): 1. As analyzers of risk and risk reduction activities; 2. As designers and implementers of DRR interventions at community level; 3. As communicators of risks and risk management options (especially communications with parents, adults or those outside the community); 4. As mobilizers of resources and action for community-based resilience; 5. As constructors of social networks and capital; and 6. As monitors of progress in implementing disaster risk reduction activities in line with the HFA.

INTERNATIONAL POLICY AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK

Significant progress in promoting children’s participation in disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation has been accomplished in the areas of policy formulation, development of tools and guidelines, capacity building and training and documentation of good practices. The efforts have continued to increase since the HFA. High-level dialogues and roundtable discussions between policy makers and practitioners are initiated thru the regional platforms such as the Asian Ministerial on Disaster Risk Reduction. At the same time, considerable efforts are being made by different nations to support the vision to build a culture of safety and climate/disaster resilient nations. As a result, a growing number of frameworks and policy commitments have been initiated to intensify the efforts for the inclusion of children in CCA and DRR activities. YEAR

POLICY

SALIENT POINTS

1948

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Establishes the fundamental rights to be universally protected. Build on three basic premises (provision, participation and protection) from the rights of children and youth.

1989

UN Convention on Rights of the Child

An international human rights treaty that grants all children and young people (aged 17 and under) a comprehensive rights. Gives priority to the welfare of children, adolescents and youth. Affirms the right to participate in matters that affect their survival, wellbeing and development.

the

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2004

Core Commitment for Children in Humanitarian Action (CCCs)

Global framework for humanitarian action for children. The framework is guided by international human rights law, in particular the Convention on the Rights of the Child. CCCs promote predictable, effective and timely, humanitarian activities, which can be measured with identified assistance goals that reflect the humanitarian contexts in developments, including United Nations humanitarian reform and the sectorial coordination approach. From a DRR perspective, the CCCs include risk reduction aspects in the stages of emergency preparations and non-exhaustive way early recovery.

2002

Global Declaration for Child Survival, Protection, and Development

This was adopted at the World Summit for Children in September 1990

2005

Hyogo Framework for Action

This is an important instrument for the implementation of disaster risk reduction activities adopted by 168 countries during the World Conference on DRR in Kobe, Japan in 2005. The HFA specifies that knowledge, innovation and education lay the foundation for a culture of safety and resilience. Building such foundation needs to start early with children. It identifies three strategic objectives, five priority areas for action and four crosscutting themes that point to DRR as key element for development.

2011

Children’s Charter Act for DRR

Launched at the United Nation’s International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) Global Platform for DRR in 2011, this action plan was developed by children for children from 21 hazard-prone countries. In other words, this is a letter for children made for children. Similar to HFA, it consists of five priority areas grouped according to common themes. These are: safe schools; child protection; information and participation; safe community infrastructure and ‘building back better, safer and fairer’; and reaching the most vulnerable

Table 2. International Policy and Frameworks related to Children in CCA and DRR

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2000

Millennium Goals

Development

Adopted by 189 states, the MDGs are aimed at contributing and realizing of child rights and promoting well being. Specific indicators include MGD 1,4,5,6, which mentioned about Child Health and Survival while MDG 2 and 3 on Education and Equity. Lastly, MDG 7 and 8 talks about Child Protection and Emergencies. These goals are drivers of action for governments, donor, and development agencies all over the globe.

2002

A World Fit for Children

An outcome document based on four priorities: promoting healthy lives; providing quality education for all; protecting children against abuse, exploitation and violence; and combating HIV/AIDS

2015

Sendai Framework for DRR

The new framework recognizes the role of different stakeholders in achieving resilience including children and youth. It emphasizes that children and youth are agents of change and should be given space and modalities to contribute to DRR, in accordance with legislation, national practice and education curricula.


The Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) is a groundbreaking international commitment by the global community to build resilience to disasters. It articulates a worldwide consensus that DRR is an integral part of sustainable human development. This framework identifies five priorities for action. On May 2011, the Children’s Charter Act for DRR was introduced at the Global Platform for DRR in Geneva, Switzerland. Similar to HFA, this action plan consists of five priority areas grouped according to common themes. These are: safe schools; child protection; information and participation; safe community infrastructure and building back better, safer and fairer; and reaching the most vulnerable. It was developed through consultations with over 600 children in 21 high-risk countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The Charter embodies a child-centered DRR approach combining child-focused (for children) and child-led (by children) activities with interventions geared towards bringing about change in community, local and national duty bearers. It applies strategies such as awareness raising, capacity building, group formation, institutional development, research and influencing and advocacy across a range of arenas. In simple terms, child-centered DRR approach seeks to place children at the heart of DRR activities. It recognizes the specific vulnerabilities children face as compared to adults and ensures that children’s capacities are recognized and their needs are appropriately planned for and addressed in DRR programming and policies. The Charter contributes to the target outcomes of the Hyogo Framework for Action (Plan International 2010): 1. Ensure that disaster risk reduction is a national and a local priority with a strong institutional basis for implementation – promoting and supporting children’s rights. 2. Involve children and young people to identify, assess and monitor disaster risks and enhance early warning. 3. Use knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels, because children are our future. 4. Involve children and young people to reduce the underlying risk factors. 5. Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response at all levels, particularly at community level, wconcentrating on children and young people. In the same manner, the Charter embraces the principles of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC). It is a valuable entry point for programs aiming to promote sustainable development and promoting the realization of children’s rights. The link between child protection and CCA/DRR remains relatively new, although the protective link is logical (Mitchell et al 2009). 1. Right to life: In line with Article 6 of the UNCRC, Child-centered CCA and DRR works towards securing safer communities for children and the reduction of climate/disaster risks that may affect their lives. 2. Right to education: Child-centered CCA/DRR contributes to the realization of Articles 28 and 29 of the UNCRC on the right to education by providing safer learning spaces for children, by minimizing the disruption of schooling during emergency situations, by engaging children in learning new knowledge and skills, including technical knowledge and life skills, and by developing respect for the natural environment. In the Philippines, children of Santa Paz in Southern Leyte lobbied to have their school relocated to safer ground when risk assessments showed that the school was vulnerable to landslides. In Seirra Leone, children advocated to have a bridge that they had to cross to get to school repaired. 41


3. Right to health: Article 24 stipulates that all children have the right to the highest attainable standard of health. CCA/DRR can contribute to achieving good health for children by promoting greater knowledge of hygiene and sanitation to protect communities from major diseases. Children in El Salvador, for example, launched a campaign to reduce the transmission of dengue in their community. Through child-centered CCA/DRR, children are able to learn new skills and knowledge that they can use to safeguard their health and well-being. 4. Right to participation: Child-centered CCA/DRR supports the realization of Article 12 of the UNCRC on the right of girls and boys to express their views on matters that affect them. This is realized by creating opportunities at local level for children’s participation in CCA/DRR structures in schools and in communities, but also at national and global levels and by fostering opportunities for adults and children to exchange and contribute their views through peer-to-peer learning and cross-cultural dialogue. Child-centered CCA/DRR also contributes to realizing children’s rights to information and to freedom of expression (Article 13 of the UNCRC) by supporting children’s efforts to seek, receive and impart information on natural hazards, climate change and disaster risks more broadly.

REGIONAL PLATFORMS

Since the first session of the Global Platform on Disaster Risk Reduction in 2007, regional platforms in Asia, Africa, and Latin America successfully recognized children and youth’s added value in reducing disaster risk and in building community resilience to disasters and climate change. Commitments have made to youth and DRR during the Arab Regional Platform in 2008. The “Arab Strategy for DRR 2020” promotes awareness of DRR in schools, hospital preparedness and public health infrastructure; it also supports the involvement of children in the development of disaster preparedness plans. The 5th Asian Ministerial in Yogyakarta Indonesia called upon participants to include CCA and DRR in the education curriculum. This indicates the need for more opportunities and spaces for children to discuss share their views with policy makers and decision makers. Children have a lot of ideas, which can help schools and communities to become safer and resilient to climate and disaster risks, however, they do not have budget to support it. (Yogyakarta Declaration Annex 1-24 October 2012). On the other hand, youth at the Regional Platform in the Americas in 2014 advocated for the inclusion of young people and the disabled in decision making on DRR. In addition, the Voices movement, which represents 2,000 youth from 15 countries, and the Coalition for Resilience in Children and Young People in Latin America and the Caribbean (CORELAC) assembled a 100-meter cord of ribbons and drawings inscribed with messages. (UNISDR 4th Regional Platform for DRR). The ongoing consultations for the post-2015 framework for DRR provide a unique opportunity to children and youth to raise their voice on the role they want to play, their expectations and priorities. Children and youth called for their more systematic involvement in the decision-making processes that determine their life and “the resilient future they want” (Children and Youth Forum 2015). The High-Level Dialogue Communiqué at the Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction (May 2013, Geneva) recognized the safety of children and youth as a priority “ in accordance with their views as captured in the consultations on the post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction”. A Children

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and Youth Forum was organized in the Third UN World Conference on DRR in Sendai, Japan on March 14-18, 2015.

LOCAL IMPLEMENTATION: THE PHILIPPINE EXPERIENCE

Largely because of its geographical location and physical characteristics, the Philippines is considered one of the world’s most disaster prone countries. For the past years, the country has been exposed to mainly floods, storms, and earthquakes (Asia Foundation 2014). Disasters take a particular toll on children and youth because of where they live. In Metro Manila, thirty percent of 210,000 urban poor households live in hazard prone areas. Children are at high-risk areas seldom have access to information or the protective infrastructure – storm drains, sewer systems, sea walls or paved roads – that can help people withstand extreme events. Homes are often built from flimsy materials that cannot stand up to high winds, mudslides, rushing water or earthquakes. Hazard Typhoon

Table 3. Number of Public Schools Affected By Natural Hazard

Flood Earthquakes Landslide Volcanic Eruption

Number of Public Schools Affected by natural 33, 698 11, 938 5,929 1,656 85

Source: Making our Schools Safer, Philippine Department of Education, 2015

As urban growth continues, increasing number of children will be born in these rapidly expanding at risk settlements. As of 2010, the population aged 19 and under was 42,671,826 accounting for 47.5% of the total population. Addressing the challenges presented by urbanization will have a great impact on the well being of children and young people – the major players in building the future success of our communities and ensuring the continued viability of our environments (UNICEF 2012). Recent disaster events highlight the vulnerability of children while attending school in times of disaster. The mudslide in Guinsaugon, Leyte in February 2006 buried more than 200 school children. In the same year, Typhoon Reming hit the Province of Albay where 702 out of 704 schools were totally damaged affecting 357,400 enrolled children (UNICEF 2012). In 2013, a 7.2 magnitude earthquake hit Bohol and neighboring provinces in Visayas region, destroying Php 2.25 billion worth of schools, bridges, roads and other public infrastructures (UNOCHA n.d). During the last quarter of 2013, super typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda) ravaged the provinces of Leyte, Iloilo, Panay, Cebu and Antique affecting 3,171 schools with varying degrees of damage (Seameo Innotech 2014). Disasters disrupt the schooling pattern of children, affect the quality of education service in school communities, and result in great human losses destruction of school buildings and facilities as well as educational materials, often results to suspension of classes disrupting the learning process of the students (DepED 2009). Traditionally, public schools serve as evacuation centers during disasters. In Pakistan, after the 2010 Attabad landslide, schools served as refugee camps for six months, causing students to fall behind and many to drop out. Similar case with Indonesia, Nepal and Vietnam where school enrolment dropped, especially among girls following extensive disasters (World 43


Vision 2014). Schools suffer damages as their usage as temporary shelter is not factored to their design and so their use as such puts a strain on them. In the Philippines, Typhoon Durian caused $20 million in damage to schools, including to 90-100% of schools buildings in three cities and 50-60% in two cities (UNISDR 2012). Table 3 shows the number of public schools in the Philippines affected by natural hazard at least once in five years (DepEd 2015). The UNISDR together with its partners have made disaster risk education and safer school facilities the two key themes of the 2006-2007 World Disaster Reduction Campaign. The Campaign, entitled “Disaster Risk Reduction Begins at School” aims to inform and mobilize Governments, communities and individuals to ensure that disaster risk reduction is fully integrated into school curricula in high risk countries and that school buildings are built or retrofitted to withstand natural hazards. When the Second Session of the Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction was held in 2009, commitments were made to integrate DRR into school curricula by 2015, commitments that were reinforced at the 2011 Third Session of the Global Platform (UNISDR 2009 & 2011). A global framework on Comprehensive School Safety has emerged to promote the disaster risk reduction throughout the education sector, along with education for sustainable development. The framework contains three overlapping areas of focus. Each of these involves a significantly different (though sometimes overlapping) set of decision-makers, developers, stakeholders and implementers as well as indicators, activities and actors responsible for implementation.

Figure 1. Comprehensive School Safety Framework

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Figure 1.  Comprehensive  School  Safety  Framework


Adopted in the Philippines, the Comprehensive School Safety framework provides the foundation for DRRM in basic education. In Southeast Asia, Cambodia, Lao PDR and the Philippines put high priority in mainstreaming CCA and DRR in the education sector. The table below listed down the milestones in the Philippine implementation of the three pillars of the framework:

Table 4. Milestones in the Philippine Implementation of CCA/DRR in the Education Sector

Pillar 1: Safe Learning Facilities

Pillar 2: School Disaster Management

Pillar 3: DRR in Education

• Adopted disaster resilient designs for classroom construction • Construction of 19,648 and 2,318 classrooms in areas affected by Haiyan using the improved designs • Strengthened construction monitoring process covering an initial of 633 schools • 87% of schools were already mapped for geospatial analysis • US$ 2.3 M increase in the Quick Response Fund (QRF) in 2014 • Construction of 13,586 Water and Sanitation Facilities in 2014

• Established DRRM office with coordinators in 17 regions and 220 division offices • National budget support for improving the organizational preparedness and response • Continued implementation of 3- pronged schoolbased National Greening Program • Tree planting/Reforestation • Vegetable garden in schools • Solid Waste Management • Adoption of a unified DRR in Education framework to guide all schools, offices, and partners • CSS orientation and DRRM planning for 233 DRRM focal persons • Adoption of information management system for all phases of DRR • 5-year school-level hazard data collected • Inter-agency camp coordination and management policy signed in 2013

Integration of CCA and DRR in the new K to 12 curriculum DRRM print and electronic references were mapped and classified per pillar Supporting curriculum with student and extra curricular activities such as drills, awareness events, among others Uploading of DRRM reference materials in the learning portal beginning 2015

Source: Making our Schools Safer, Philippine Department of Education, 2015

With the passage of the DRRM Act of 2010, efforts to mainstream CCA and DRR were boosted. DRRM became not only a priority of government but an obligation of government to the citizenry to uphold the people’s constitutional rights to life and property by addressing the root causes of vulnerabilities to disasters, strengthening the country’s institutional capacity for DRRM and building the resilience of local communities to disasters including climate change impacts. RA 10121 provides a legal basis for policies, plans and programs to deal with disasters, outlining activities aimed at strengthening the capacity of national and local government to build disaster resilient communities, enhance disaster prevention/mitigation and preparedness and response capabilities at all levels, and institutionalize arrangements and measures for reducing disaster and climate risks. Section 4 of RA 10121 specifically included provision for the development of policies, plans, actions and measures pertaining to knowledge building and awareness raising (Section 4) and the integration of DRR education in school curricula at secondary and tertiary levels, in the National Service Training Program (NSTP), in mandatory training in DRR for public sector employees, in formal and non-formal vocational and indigenous learning and in out-of-school 45


youth courses and programs (Section 13). It also provided for the establishment of training institutes for continuous and sustained DRR education (UNESCO and UNICEF 2014). Various orders and directives have been issued by the Department of Education to facilitate the mainstreaming of DRR in the education sector. Department Order 55 s.2007, titled “Prioritizing the Mainstreaming of Disaster Risk Reduction Management in the School System and Implementation of Programs and Projects Relative Thereof.” endorses and facilitates the integration of DRR in both the structural (i.e., safe schools) and non-structural (i.e., curriculum) components of the school system. DepEd Order 82 s.2010, titled “Reiteration of Related Implementing Guidelines on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction at the School Levels” directs schools to revitalize the various programs and projects on DRR including mainstreaming of DRR and integration of climate change adaptation in school lessons. On a similar note, DepEd Memo 276 s.2010 orders the integration of climate change adaptation and DRR with environmental education into elementary and high school curricula. DRR has been integrated also in the curriculum and learning materials of the Alternative Learning System (ALS) or non-formal education program. The textbook has been approved and printed out for use by students taking up ALS. To ensure the continued delivery of quality education services, DepEd, by virtue of Order 50 s.2011, has established its own disaster risk reduction and management office (DRRMO) to serve as a central planning, policy-making and operations center in times of calamity. The DRRMO shall institutionalize the culture of safety at all levels and systematize protection of education investments. In addition, DepEd also requires its regional, division and school heads to designate a permanent DRR focal person/ coordinator in-charge of CCA and DRRM programs. Coordinators or focal persons are trained through the coordination with NGO’s and INGO’s who are helping to mainstream CCA and DRR in the education sector nationwide. As part of the mainstreaming of DRR in the curriculum, DepEd has developed modules and lessons exemplars for both teachers and students. The lesson exemplars and teacher/student modules were developed for the secondary curriculum, in particular, science and social studies subjects. The lesson exemplars contain strategies and methods of teaching DRR, while teacher/student modules serve as reference material. Moving beyond the school environment, several initiatives have worked to facilitate children and youth’s active participation in efforts to prevent, prepare for, cope with, and adapt to climate change and extreme events. Such initiatives cover knowledge transfer through different forms of media such as childled radio programs, cartoons like the “Meena Story in Pakistan and children’s television cartoons such as the Tales of Disasters’ series in the Philippines, children’s engagement in related policy spaces and child-centered risk communication. In Solomon Islands, young people were trained to become peer educators engaging them in community forums (Tanner 2009). These initiatives stress the children’s ability to participate actively in CCA and DRR activities in their homes, schools, and communities. They have the ability to share and apply what they learned within their households, families, and the wider community (Fernandez and Shaw 2013).

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The Philippine policies and frameworks on CCA and DRR focusing on the work on children are listed below: YEAR

Table 5. Philippine Policies on Children’s Welfare

KEY FINDINGS

POLICY

SALIENT POINTS

1974

Presidential Decree 603 The Children and Youth Welfare Code

In case of earthquake, flood, storm, conflagration, epidemic, or other calamity, the State shall give special assistance to children and youth whenever necessary. On occasions of national or local disasters the school may accept voluntary contributions or aid from students for distribution to victims of such disasters or calamities.

1987

Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines

The State recognizes the vital role of the youth in nation-building and shall promote and protect their physical, moral, spiritual, intellectual, and social well-being. It shall encourage their involvement in public and civic affairs.

2009

Republic Act 9729 Climate Change Act

The Department of Education (DepED) shall integrate climate change into the primary and secondary education curricula and/or subjects, such as, but not limited to, science, biology, civics, history, including textbooks, primers and other educational materials, basic climate change principles and concepts.

2010

Republic Act 10121 Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act

This law called for the integration of DRR education in the school curricula of secondary and tertiary level of education. The national and local DRR councils, the Barangay DRR Committees, and the SK councils shall encourage communities, specifically the youth, to participate in DRR activities.

2015

Senate Bill No. 2702

Act Including National Youth Commission Chairperson as a Member of the NDRRMC

1. SCHOOL SAFETY

Schools are the best venues for forging durable collective values; therefore they are suitable for building a culture of prevention and disaster resilience. This is one of the reasons why UNISDR has launched the One Million safe schools and hospitals campaign calling on all stakeholders to pledge aimed at creating a demand to ensure the safety of schools and hospitals in disasters. (ASEAN 2013). The commitment to ensuring school safety has been expressed at various international and regional fora. However, the challenge lies in the translation of this political commitment into reality. In several consultations, children in different countries consistently identified education and school safety as their top priority. Policy makers, local decision makers and teachers acknowledge the necessity of having schools that are resilient to multiple hazards. The literatures and reports revealed how the schools are damaged by disasters throughout the years; how they have missed months of education and how they may not be able to get to school safely. The tragic effects of the 2008 earthquake in Sichuan, China, in which many schools collapsed, demonstrated the disastrous consequences of poor school design and construction (Tanner 2009). The destruction of the physical infrastructure is a great economic loss for any country; the cost of reconstruction can be a substantial burden on the economy. Although national laws and policy framework are often strong and in place in many countries, implementation of building code and construction standards at the local level is often weak. School construction standards of most 47


countries have yet to be updated to take account disaster risks and to reflect hazard-resistance standards. Moreover, special requirements for children with disabilities are seldom taken into account (Tran 2009). In the HFA reporting where countries are asked the percentage of schools and hospitals that have been assessed, only four countries (Antigua and Barbuda, British Islands, Cuba and Finland) conducted 100 percent assessment of schools and hospitals (UNISDR 2014). The assessment of infrastructure and implementation of building code and construction standards require resources, technical capacity and political will. It worth noting, in the reports, that there was a lack of guidelines on how the assessment will take place. Vulnerability assessments are often lacking and do not have common standards. In the Philippines, the Department of Education (DepEd) developed the Educational Facilities Manual published in 2010. This is a revision of the 2007 Education Facilities Handbook. The Manual aims to assist DepEd field officers, policy makers and stakeholders facilitate an efficient and effective management of educational facilities. This material puts together statutory provisions, rules, regulations, standards, building construction guidelines, and instructions (including illustrations, samples, etc.), on the effective management and supervision of school facilities. In addition, DepEd also developed a DRR resource manual, for school administrators, supervisors and teachers, to provide them with information needed to reduce risk, protect lives, investments and properties. The manual adopted a four-phase strategy: Mitigation, Preparedness, Response and Rehabilitation, which illustrates the basic procedures that a school may employ before, during and after the occurrence of a disaster. The manual provides useful information and practical tips to protect and preserve personnel and students, educational facilities like school buildings, equipment, fixtures, instructional materials and school records which are essential components of learning environment.

2. INTEGRATE DRR AND CCA INTO SCHOOL EDUCATION

Education, knowledge and awareness are critical to reduce losses from natural hazards, as well as the capacity to respond to and recover effectively from extreme natural events (Wisner 2006). Education can be a cost effective approach to proactively building the resilience of communities to climate change and disasters. The HFA acknowledges the role of education in addressing the global challenge of climate change and disaster risks and calls for the use of knowledge, education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels. (World Vision 2014). Recent studies from the World Bank and Center for Global development state that educating girls and women is one of the best ways of ensuring that communities are better able to adapt and thus be less vulnerable to extreme weather events and climate change. The integration of CCA and DRR into the school education is a complex endeavor that requires political will, a systematic approach, and sustained action from different stakeholders (Tran 2009). In 2011, only 44 percent of the countries that reported on HFA Priority 3 had successfully integrated DRR into both their primary and secondary curriculum (Bild and Ibrahim 2013). In Georgia, children’s experience demonstrates the benefit of working closely with government authorities at the national level to raise awareness on the key role the education system plays in building the resilience of communities. This experience revealed that a proactive approach to CCA and DRR at the school 48


level can be a catalyst for the mobilization of different actors around disaster risk reduction and management. Meanwhile, in the Philippines, the Department of Education reported that CCA and DRR have been integrated in K-12 curriculum. Universities also offer master’s degree program on DRM to complement the efforts to mainstream CCA and DRR education. Progress has been evident with regard to the development of teaching and learning materials. A relatively wide range of materials and activities has been developed to include curriculum-based resource kits, IEC materials, textbooks, films, activity-based materials, mock drills, art competitions and inter-school events dedicated to promoting CCA and DRR. Some of these materials have incorporated locally relevant content (Tran 2009) While there is progress in integrating CCA and DRR in the curriculum, the degree of success and intensity of the activities varies across countries. In some countries, CCA and DRR education starts from primary grades but majority begin only from Grade 6 onwards. In addition, specialized courses in CCA and DRM are also available in university’s postgraduate programs.

3. SCALING UP THE PARTICIPATION OF CHILDREN AND YOUTHV IN DRR AND CCA

Since disasters affect everyone, DRR should be everybody’s concern, including children and youth. Children continue to be perceived as mere victims of disasters rather than active agents of change who can make a real difference (Plan International 2012). The degree of their participation varies depending on the extent to which adults are willing to share their power with them (Brown and Dodman 2014). The potential of putting children at the core of DRR recognized them as an agent of change. This means that they have the right to be included in decision-making affecting their future. In the Philippines, Republic Act 10121 specifically mentions the importance of children and youth participation. However, so far very little has been done to involve children and youth in CCA and DRR, whether in community or school. Documentation of the projects and activities conducted has also been poor (Fernandez and Shaw 2012). The existing policies and practices in CCA and DRR mainly targeted the adults and remain silent on the role of children and youth in reducing risks. Evidently, majority of programs, projects and activities are designed mainly for children rather than with them. Only few child led activities remain despite the intensified advocacy (Tran 2009). Scaling up the participation of children in DRR requires enhanced efforts to incorporate children’s perspective knowledge and potential action into development programs (Tanner et al. 2009). Scaling up requires advocacy and bring about policy changes that enable children to participate in DRR and adaptation processes. Government actors at the local level need to have an understanding of children’s needs, capacities and agency as well as a political sense of duty to protect and engage with their citizens to reduce disaster risks. It also requires support for children’s groups to be visible in communities and in policy spaces to raise the profile of children as capable contributors to improving resilience (Tran 2009).

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4. KNOWLEDGE SHARING AND DATABASE MANAGEMENT

A great number of organizations highlighted the importance of documenting learning and practices from different programs and sharing this knowledge across countries and among various agencies. Documentation of best practices and dissemination of available resources in CCA and DRR are critical step towards scaling them up. Despite having the features that are specific to socio-cultural contexts of areas they originated, these practices can be adapted and replicated benefitting more people. These practices offer a tremendous amount of knowledge and experience that have been proven successful in different countries. It reflects on lessons learned which will benefit the future work of other nations. The replication of best practices needs to be documented very well. It would provide useful insights and lessons of the replication and assess the extent to which good practices and successful cases are being introduced outside of its origin (Tran 2009). In addition, historical information and lessons from past disasters can help the community reflect on their capacities and prepare areas prone to disasters. The community can share insights on disaster resilience and mobilize much needed support to build safer school structures, create better evacuation plans, and maintain health and hygiene facilities, among others.

5. STRENGTHEN COLLABORATION BETWEEN VULNERABLE COMMUNITIES, GOVERNMENT, CIVIL SOCIETY AND PRIVATE SECTOR IN POLICY DEVELOPMENT AND DECISION MAKING PROCESSES.

The reviewed reports underline the importance of the role of partnerships in implementing CCA and DRR initiatives. In particular, identifying CCA and DRR champions within national government agencies as well as local communities and international organizations was highlighted as an enabling factor to advance work around children’s work. In San Francisco, Philippines, Vice Mayor Alfredo Arquillano has recognized the key role that children and youth can play in building resilience in their communities and supported their DRR activities, which include child-led risk assessments, community drills and simulation exercises. Both the public and private sectors have high stakes in promoting CCA and DRR. The private sector has participated in a number of social development initiatives to fulfill their corporate social responsibility. Some examples are Nokia, which supported children’s education in Northwest China and the private enterprises in India funding education activities. Such partnerships help generate resources needed and shared responsibilities will be better understood and shouldered by all parties. The contribution of the private sector can make a difference in building a culture of resilience at all levels.

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CONCLUSION

Although this research demonstrates that there is so much work being undertaken by different stakeholders: governments, NGOs and private sector, there is still so much work to be done in engaging children and youth including other marginalized groups, such as person’s with disabilities in building disaster resilient communities; a greater effort is needed to systematically include children and youth in CCA and DRR activities. The risks they face can vary considerably depending on their particular situations. The valuable contribution that marginalized groups can offer serves to challenge and change the negative perception towards them and build a stronger foundation for communities to work collectively in reducing the risks of climate change and disasters. Therefore a more strategic and long-term action plans are needed to address these concerns. It is these longer-term activities that will contribute to the development of more resilient families and communities. Children and young people’s participation in decision-making, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation gives them the opportunity to improve dialogue and collaborative work with different stakeholders. The level of participation is not limited at the high-level global meetings but more importantly to get engaged at the national and local levels. Given that children and youth make up more than half of the population, their right to participate is linked ultimately to their right to survival, development, and protection. It is widely recognized by leaders, development practitioners, teachers, parents, and children themselves the added value and insights that children and youth offer to secure their future. And to quote the message from former Executive Secretary of the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCC), Yvo de Boer, “We have to give children the opportunity to get their voices heard and then we can understand that climate change is not just about environment and glaciers but also about people. We need to hear from people particularly affected…and that’s children.”

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52

IV. Covered Areas


Quezon City


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I. Local Context 1.1 GEOGRAPHY

Primarily, Quezon City lies at the northeastern part of Metro Manila, located on the relatively high Guadalupe plateau, which explains the sloping and tilting roads in its various barangays. The city is basically bordered in the southwest by the lowlands of the city of Manila and by the Marikina River valley in the east. As well, the San Juan River and its branches to the Pasig River enclose the southern boundaries of the city, while the Tullahan River surrounds it in the northern part. As the latter suggests, Quezon City contains several watersheds that double their risk to various hazards – including floods – in contrast to other cities.

Figure 2. A digital location map of Quezon City

With the municipality named after a late Philippine President, Quezon City is encircled by myriad cities such as Manila, Caloocan, and Valenzuela City to the southwest, west, and northwest portions respectively. In the southern parts lie San Juan and Mandaluyong, while Marikina and Pasig border Quezon City to the southeast. Also, the provinces of Bulacan and Rizal reside beyond the northern and eastern boundaries of the city. Quezon City has a land area of 161.126 sq. km. or 16,112.8 hectares, making it the second biggest city in the country next to Davao City, comprising a quarter


of the population of the whole National Capital Region. Fundamentally, this wide land area is divided into popular divisions with no defined constitutional boundaries as these separations are primarily residential in nature, as such: • • • • • • • • • •

Diliman, Commonwealth, the Project areas (i.e. Projects 3, 4, 5, 6), Cubao, Kamias, Kamuning, New Manila, San Francisco del Monte, Santa Mesa Heights, and Novaliches (the Novaliches region is further divided into the areas of Fairview and Lagro).

Mainly owing to its rich and diverse commerce industry, the constantly huge influx of migrants from various cities in Metro Manila as well as provinces in Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao is the primary reason for the constant rapid increase in the city’s population growth and density. In the 2012 census, the population reached 3,179,536 with an annual growth rate of 2.92% and a population density of 19,933 persons per kilometer. In essence, these figures easily make Quezon City the most populated city in the Philippines. Deemed as the melting pot of the country, it is indeed in Quezon City where various industries thrive, which is truly why people from the provinces and neighboring municipalities have flocked to this metropolis for decades. Beyond doubt, it is in Quezon City that people from the rural (or even urban) settlements envision their futures, thinking that only in this locality can they reach their dreams and aspirations, as the city is home to a plethora of private companies and offices. Moreover, people who have herded toward the metro find the lavish, dynamic living spaces and fast-paced lifestyle of the urban sprawl equally appealing and enthralling, an experience deemed unique to the lifestyle in the city.

1.2 SOCIOECONOMIC CONTEXT

Quezon City is divided into six (6) congressional districts represented by six (6) City Councilors and one (1) District Representative each. Particularly, one (1) congressman/woman from each particular district is elected as a member of the National Legislature. Formerly divided into four (4) legislative districts, President Benigno Aquino III signed a motion under Republic Act 10170 in July of 2012 dividing and reapportioning the second district into three (3) more, bringing the total number to six (6) congressional districts. Further, these districts are currently represented by these following congressmen/women: • • • • • •

First District: Hon. Francisco A. Calalay, Jr. Second District: Hon. Winnie “Winston” Castelo Third District: Hon. Jorge “Bolet” B. Banal Fourth District: Hon. Feliciano R. Belmonte, Jr. Fifth District: Hon. Alfredo D. Vargas III Sixth District: Hon. Jose Christopher Y. Belmonte

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At present, the city is composed of 142 barangays, divided accordingly into the following district areas:

Table 6. The list of barangays in Quezon City, divided among the six (6) congressional districts

District 1

District 2

District 3

District 4

District 5

District 6

Alicia Bagong Pagasa Bahay Toro Balingasa Bungad Damar Damayan Del Monte Katipunan Lourdes Maharlika Manresa Mariblo Masambong N.S. Amoranto (Gintong Silahis) Nayong Kanluran Paang Bundok Pag-ibig sa Nayon Paltok Paraiso Phil-Am Project 6 Ramon Magsaysay Saint Peter Salvacion San Antonio San Isidro Labrador San Jose Santa Cruz Santa Teresita Santo Cristo Santo Domingo Siena Talayan Vasra Veterans Village West Triangle

Holy Spirit Batasan Hills Commonwealth Bagong Silangan Payatas

Amihan Bagumbuhay Bagumbayan Bayanihan Blue Ridge A Blue Ridge B Camp Aguinaldo Claro Dioquino Zobel Duyan-Duyan E. Rodriguez East Kamias Escopa I Escopa II Escopa III Escopa IV Libis Loyola Heights Mangga Marilag Masagana Matandang Balara Milagrosa Pansol Quirino 2-A Quirino 2-B Quirino 2-C Quirino 3-A Saint Ignatius San Roque Silangan Socorro Tagumpay Ugong Norte Villa Maria Clara West Kamias White Plains

Bagong Lipunan ng Crame Botocan Central Kristong Hari Damayang Lagi Doña Aurora Doña Imelda Doña Josefa Don Manuel East Triangle Horseshoe Immaculate Concepcion Kalusugan Kamuning Kaunlaran Krus na Ligas Laging Handa Malaya Mariana Obrero Old Capitol Site Paligsahan Pinyahan Pinagkaisahan QMC Roxas Sacred Heart San Isidro Galas San Martin de Porres San Vicente Santo Niño Santol Sikatuna Village South Triangle Tatalon Teachers Village East Teachers Village West U.P. Campus U.P. Village Valencia

Bagbag Capri Fairview Greater Lagro Gulod Kaligayahan Nagkaisang Nayon North Fairview Novaliches Proper Pasong Putik Proper San Agustin San Bartolome Santa Lucia Santa Monica

Apolonio Samson Baesa Balon-Bato Culiat New Era Pasong Tamo Sangandaan Sauyo Talipapa Tandang Sora Unang Sigaw

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legislative_districts_of_Quezon_City

Apart from the cornucopia of barangays in the city, it also boasts of a number of historical landmarks and events. With the city’s name derived from a historical moniker, the city prides itself in the rich cultural heritage the city holds. To wit, the San Pedro Bautista Church in San Francisco del Monte, Quezon City is known to be the second oldest church in the country. The historical First Cry of Pugad Lawin, which kicked off the revolution of the Filipinos against the Spanish colonial rule, also occurred within the city.

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On top of this, education remains a valuable aspect to the development and progress of this municipality, with the literacy rate in the city at 98.32%.This


mainly signifies that education is truly an important undertaking for its residents and students alike. Besides this figure, two (2) of the top-ranking universities, University of the Philippines – Diliman and Ateneo de Manila University, are found in this city. In addition to this, the healthcare service is also valued in the city with the presence of 15 government hospitals and 32 private hospitals in the municipality, totaling to at least 8000 in hospital bed capacity. With regard to the commerce and trade industry, Quezon City thrives greatly as numerous investors empower and endow their business ventures in this conurbation. According to the 2012 statistics, as of that year, there were 62,679 businesses registered to the city. The businesses found in the city run the gamut of mass communication and media to financial services and information technology. Of these industries, the most notable and profuse of all is the media industry. Furthermore, two (2) of the country’s biggest media networks are actually located in the city. Both GMA (Channel 7) and ABS-CBN (Channel 2) have been pioneers as well as behemoths in the television and multimedia industry, with regional stations and networks that serve as their satellite offices. One other network that has taken refuge in the city is TV5, a multimedia network formerly known as ABC-5. Having been located in Novaliches, Quezon City in the past years, TV5 has recently moved their main operations to Mandaluyong City. On the whole, the city is home to 23 radio stations, 11 broadcast (multimedia) companies, four (4) newspaper publishing companies, and six (6) cable TV stations. What’s more is that Quezon City continues to be a prime location and venue for both small and large-scale enterprises. In 2013, a total of 15,720 retail businesses were registered to Quezon City, while 15,277 were contractors. In quintessence, this proves this esteemed city is not only a melting pot of myriad cultures and backgrounds, but also a central industrial hub for industrialists and consumerists alike.

1.3 DISASTER SITUATION

In recent years, Quezon City has weathered and endured numerous cataclysms that have tested and strengthened their resilience. These disasters, however, did not befall the city without the loss of lives and livelihoods. To wit, the aftermath of Typhoon Ondoy in 2009 has left at least 50 residents of Quezon City dead or missing. As the locality is situated on a high plateau, the city’s uneven land topography has left some barangays in deep inundation after torrential rains. Particularly, Brgy. Sta.Lucia – located near the Tullahan River – has been prone to severe flooding because of its geographical location. Various residents from the aforesaid community whose houses were situated beside the river have been relocated to safer relocation sites. Apart from this, the city is inexorably at-risk from the possible wrath brought on by the potential 7.2 magnitude earthquake that was dubbed “The Big One,” a great tremor that’s projected to arise from the West Valley Fault. In a map published online, as shown on the next page, many subdivisions and buildings can possibly suffer from massive structural damage once the West Valley Fault System wields its great power and trembles the urban sprawl. Fire disasters have also been rampant in the city, with Brgy. Gulod and Brgy. Bagong Silangan having endured great fires in recent years, suffering huge 57


Figure 3. A geographical depiction of the projected damage of “The Big One� to Quezon City

economic losses and structural damages that have fortified and braced the barangay officials and residents alike. However, as the conurbation is also beleaguered by various hazards, both barangays also experience significant flooding in times of storms, typhoons, or torrential rainfall. Chiefly, the Quezon City government has since moved the establishment of a Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council to possibly avert and respondto looming hazards and potential disasters which may occur in its barangays. Since July 2013, the Quezon City Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Office (QCDRRMO) was established to better prepare, prevent, and respond to the plethora of hazards that the city is predisposed to. At present, this office is under the direct supervision of Mayor Herbert Bautista.

1.4 RESEARCH SITES 58

Principally, this urban resilience research was aimed at improving the welfare of the children and youth in the metropolis, with particular focus on strengthening the disaster and climate resilience at the community level. The study was conducted and pioneered mainly in three (3) key cities in Metro Manila: the cities of Quezon, San Juan, and Valenzuela. To build on the context behind the selection of these project areas, both the proponents and researchers of this study chose these cities due to their high levelof urbanization and the large population of the urban poor residing in their localities. Among the many vast metropolises in the metro, Quezon City


consists of one-fourth of the population of the whole National Capital Region at 2.76 million, with roughly 45% of the latter comprising of informal settlers. For the most part, this is the reason why Quezon City was deemed one of the most apt receivers of this venture, along with the four (4) chosen communities that have the most proclivities toward natural or man-made disasters, either of natural or social origin. The following information regarding the communities covered by this study are featured here not only to establish the context of their inclusion in the research, but also due to their current engagement in the study as they were the first major project area to undertake the project implementation phase, which included activities that were relevant to boosting their awareness regarding CBDRRM.

Quezon City

Dubbed as the “City of New Horizons,” Quezon City continues to be one of the more prosperous cities in Metro Manila that serve home to various industries of note, most of which play a key role in the structural, economic, and political milieu of the country. Having weathered numerous calamities in the past years, Quezon City remains a testament to the enduring strength and resilience of the Filipino people. This stands especially true after the onslaught of Typhoon Ondoy in 2009, where the storm left many fatalities and colossal damage in its wake. Consequently, this served as an eye-opener to the residents of the city to strive for a more disaster-resilient community. A plethora of programs geared to helping address these concerns were launched, running the gamut of prevention and mitigation to recovery and rehabilitation. Mainly, these were implemented in the urban sprawl by both local and national agencies, devoted to reducing the impact and consequences of natural hazards as well as climate change. Known as one of the largest conurbations in Metro Manila, Quezon City continues to take on the challenge of providing safer, disaster and climate-resilient communities not only to its adult constituents but also to the future leaders and movers of society, the children and youth.

Figure 4. An OpenStreetMap depicting Barangay Bagong Silangan, Quezon City

To further these initiatives, Quezon City has fervently agreed to be part of this significant project, evident in their keenness during the project’s launch held last February 2015. As the pilot area of this most significant CCUDRR project, Quezon City was more than eager to join up this venture to improve and bolster its disaster risk reduction and management plans and strategies especially for the most vulnerable sectors of the community. Since these localities are some of the most susceptible areas to various natural – as well as social – hazards in the city, the following communities 59


were chosen to be part of the study:

Barangay Bagong Silangan

Barangay Batasan Hills

To begin with, the first of the four (4) communities is Barangay Bagong Silangan which is governed by their Barangay Captain Crisell “Beng” Belmi-Beltran under the second congressional district which is currently represented by Hon. Winston “Winnie” Castelo. Succinctly, this barangay is situated alongside the Marikina Valley Fault System as well as the Marikina River, indicating the community’s predisposition to earthquakes and floods. Although beleaguered by these risks, the community continues to grow as one of the emergent localities of Quezon City, as it was formerly considered a part of the municipality of San Mateo in the province of Rizal. Now, the barangay boasts of its own barangay local government which caters to the needs of its residents.

Home to the session hall of the legislative branch of government, better known as the Batasang Pambansa, Barangay Batasan Hills was previously known as “Constitution Hill,” referring to the hilly area where the legislative edifice stands. Similar to Brgy. Bagong Silangan, this locality also belongs to the second congressional district. As it was once envisioned to encompass the National Government Center of the Philippines, housing the three (3) branches of government (legislative, executive, and judicial), the barangay continues to be one of the hubs that serve home to several government offices such as:

Figure 5. An OpenStreetMap depicting Barangay Batasan Hills, Quezon City

the House of Representatives; the Sandiganbayan, whichserves as the judicial entity to government officials; the Civil Service Commission; the Commission on Audit; and the Department of Social Welfare and Development. Currently, their barangay chief executive is Captain John “Jojo” Mercado Abad, the youngest elected barangay captain in the locality. Nonetheless, the barangay prides itself in being relatively peaceful and orderly, expressing deep gratitude to the current community administration. Situated in the vicinity of Novaliches in Quezon City, Barangay Gulod is more prone to a fire disaster rather than a flooding event because of its uphill location. As also emphasized by its name, Gulod actually means “uphill,” which is why the risk of flooding is low in contrast to its neighboring barangays. At present, the community is led by Barangay Captain Rey Aldrin Tolentino under the 60


Barangay Gulod

fifth congressional district represented by Hon. Alfredo Vargas III. This community, though beleaguered by various challenges and difficulties, remains to strive for a progressive locality that can endure and triumph over the many problems and impediments to sustainable development. Under the same district as the latter, Barangay Sta. Lucia is predisposed to threats such as typhoons and floods because of its geographic proximity to the Tullahan River. Apart from this, the community is set upon low-lying areas and creeks that expose it to similar risks. Nonetheless, this community is steadfast in their journey towards resilience as they continually attempt to gain new

Figure 6. An OpenStreetMap depicting Barangay Gulod, Quezon City

Barangay Sta. Lucia

knowledge and learning relevant to disaster preparedness. Currently guided by their Barangay Captain William Bawag, this community stands strong in the face of adversities by taking on any hardship head-on, guided by the knowledge and skills that they’ve learned. In entirety, the aforesaid largely signifies that Quezon City is a pivotal compo-

Figure 6. An OpenStreetMap depicting Barangay Sta. Lucia, Quezon City

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nent to the journey towards urban resilience, with a great portion of the urban poor population in this municipality at 91,090 as of 2007. Thus, this gives greater reason to the researchers to engage the latter, giving grander purpose to the objective of appeasing and assuaging the plight of the children and youth in the metropolitan area.

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II. Methodology 2.1 TOOLS AND RESPONDENTS

Fundamentally, the CCUDRR research employed a qualitative approach, banking on methodologies such as key informant interviews (KIIs), focus group discussions (FGDs), and Writeshops to muster pertinent baseline data that will serve as significant input not only to the aforementioned research but also to the plans, programs, and activities of the Child-Centered Disaster Risk Reduction Project that was launched and carried out with the same objective. Much like the research, the project also targets to improve the welfare of the children and youth through various activities and capacity-building initiatives. On the other hand, the CCUDRR study will help to form a larger picture demarcating and depicting the milieu of the concerned barangays’ Disaster Risk Reduction and Management (DRRM) in the context of the children and youth sectors. Outlined in the next sections are the stakeholders involved in the study as well as the tools and methods that were utilized to gain vital information about their specific locale in Quezon City, particularly on the plight and situation of the children and youth in the outlook of urban resilience. Also featured in the subsequent sections is the exact number of attendees and respondents for each engagement in the four (4) barangays, in accordance to the list of stakeholders also highlighted in this section. STAKEHOLDERS Quezon City (City-Level Engagement) City Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Office (CDRRMO)

Barangays Bagong Silangan, Batasan Hills, Gulod, and Sta. Lucia Children (ages 10-12) and Youth (ages 13-15) Parents of the Children and Youth

Table 6. A demarcated list of the stakeholders vital to the completion of this study

Department of Interior and Local Government – QC Division

Teachers and other School Authority Figures

Social Services Development Department

Barangay Officials

Liga ng mga Barangay – Quezon City

Relevant External Organizations NGOs Faith-based Groups Homeowners’ Associations People’s Organizations Other relevant community groups

City Schools Division Community Relations Office (specific to Quezon City)

Mainly, the stakeholders deemed vital to the fruition of this study are those that possess a key role in the protection and preservation of children’s rights and welfare. Generally, the city-level stakeholders were selected because of their primary role in shaping the interests and welfare of the children and


youth in their municipality, with their duty to safeguard the community by fostering and influencing policy as well as action at the national down to the municipal level. In contrast, the community-level stakeholders were selected because of their seminal role in inspiring and touching the lives of the children and youth not only in their responsibilities as duty-bearers, but also as the guardians and authority figures of the latter. As they have a greater hand in molding and shaping the minds and hearts of the children and youth on a more personal level, these stakeholders and the decisions they make have a dire impact on how the latter will grow up and what kind of environment they will be raised in. That said, their roles and functions as duty-bearers and stakeholders have all the more weight and significance as their every step greatly impinges on the future of the children and youth in their community, one which should not be taken lightly in today’s challenging times. City Quezon City

Table 7. A demarcated list of the respondents in the city-level engagement of this CCUDRR study

Barangay Bagong Silangan

Table 8A. A demarcated list of the adult respondents in the community-level engagement of this CCUDRR study (Bagong Silangan).

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Methods

Participants

M

F

• Quezon City Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Office • Community Relations Office of QC • Liga ng mga Barangay • Department of Interior and Local Government – QC • Social Services Development Department

2

3

Tools

Participants

M

F

• Perception of Urban Resilience • Rights of Children/ Youth • Hazard Assessment Matrix • Policies / Programs of the Stakeholders / Roles of Children/ Youth • Recommendations

• Barangay LGU • Barangay Chairperson • Barangay Kagawad • VAWC GAD Focal • Staff under the Barangay Council for the Protection of Children • Barangay Staff

1

5

• School Officials • Guidance teacher • Head Teacher III • Teacher

0

5

Tools

• Focus Group • Perception of Urban Discussion Resilience • Writeshop • Rights of Children/ Youth • Hazard Assessment Matrix • Policies / Programs of the Stakeholders / Roles of Children/ Youth • Policies / Programs of Other Organizations / Roles of Children/Youth • Recommendations

Methods • Focus Group Discussion • Key Informant Interviews • Writeshop


Barangay

Batasan Hills

Table 8B. A demarcated list of the adult respondents in the community-level engagement of this CCUDRR study (Batasan Hills).

Methods

• Focus Group Discussion • Key Informant Interviews • Writeshop

Tools

• Perception of Urban Resilience • Rights of Children/ Youth • Hazard Assessment Matrix • Policies / Programs of the Stakeholders / Roles of Children/ Youth • Policies / Programs of Other Organizations / Roles of Children/Youth • Recommendations

M

F

• Parents

1

2

• Non-Government/FaithBased Organizations • President – Home Owners Association • Home Owners Association Members • President – PCYO • President – PARAC • President – Gabriela BagongSilangan • Treasurer – Gabriela BagongSilangan

1

4

• Youth Organizations • President – BagongSilangan Youth Force • BSYF Members

1

2

• Barangay LGU • Barangay Kagawad • Barangay Public SafetyOffice • Barangay Staff • BDRRMO • Barangay Volunteers • Purok Leader • Barangay Investigator

18

18

• School Officials • Teachers

1

3

• Parents

1

4

• Non-Government/FaithBased Organizations • SikapMistah Staff • Tau Gamma Phi • Environmental NGO • President – Batasan Everlasting HOA • Secretary – Lunduyan HOA Inc. • Volunteer – ABOT ALAM • President – CMP • Vice-president – CMP

3

12

Participants

65


Barangay

Gulod

Methods

• Focus Group Discussion • Key Informant Interviews • Writeshop

Participants

M

F

• Youth Organizations • Batasan Youth Council of Leaders

8

5

• Perception of Urban Resilience • Rights of Children/ Youth • Hazard Assessment Matrix • Policies / Programs of the Stakeholders / Roles of Children/ Youth • Policies / Programs of Other Organizations / Roles of Children/Youth • Recommendations

• Barangay LGU • Barangay Chairperson • BCPC • Barangay Kagawad

2

2

• School Officials • Teacher I

0

1

• Parents

1

4

• Non-Government/FaithBased Organizations • President – Vicente H. Villamarzo HOA Inc. • President – Reform for the Development of Filipino Masses Inc. • President – Sabadohan HOA • President – Sanavi HOA • Vice President – Alyansa ng mga Pilipino Villa HOA • Adviser – Ernestville

1

10

• Perception of Urban Resilience • Rights of Children/ Youth • Hazard Assessment Matrix • Policies / Programs of the Stakeholders / Roles of Children/ Youth • Policies / Programs of Other Organizations / Roles of Children/Youth • Recommendations

• Barangay LGU • Barangay Chairperson • Barangay Secretary

1

1

• School Officials • Sped Teacher • EPP Teacher • RCY Adviser

3

3

• Parents

2

5

• Non-Government/FaithBased Organizations • Cluster Coordinator - St. Vincent Foundation for Children and Aging Inc. • Community Coordinator - St. Vincent Foundation for Children and Aging Inc.

1

2

Tools

Table 8C. A demarcated list of the adult respondents in the community-level engagement of this CCUDRR study (Gulod).

Santa Lucia

Table 8-D. A demarcated list of the adult respondents in the community-level engagement of this CCUDRR study (Sta. Lucia).

66

• Focus Group Discussion • Key Informant Interviews • Writeshop


Barangay

Methods

Tools

Participants

M

F

• Youth Organizations • Vice President - Red Cross Youth • Documentor - Red Cross Youth • Youth Development Head - Red Cross Youth • Red Cross Youth Members • Task Force for Youth Development Members

6

6

67


Barangay

Methods

Tools

Participants

M

F

Age

Bagong Silangan

• Focus Group Discussion • Key Informant Interviews • Writeshop

• Urban Resilience Race • Rights of Children and Youth / Vision for Children and Youth • Hazard Assessment Matrix • Policies/ Programs/ Roles of Children/ Youth • Social Venn Diagram • Hazard Map • Recommendations

• School children • Bagong Silangan Elementary School

3

4

10-12

• Children with disability • Bagong Silangan Special Education

0

1

10-12

2

1

13-15

• Focus Group Discussion • Key Informant Interviews • Writeshop

• Urban Resilience Race • Rights of Children and Youth / Vision for Children and Youth • Hazard Assessment Matrix • Policies/ Programs/ Roles of Children/ Youth • Social Venn Diagram • Hazard Map • Recommendations

• School children

2

6

10-12

• School Youth

1

5

13-15

Santa Lucia • Focus Group Discussion • Key Informant Interviews • Writeshop

• Urban Resilience Race • Rights of Children and Youth / Vision for Children and Youth • Hazard Assessment Matrix • Policies/ Programs/ Roles of Children/ Youth • Social Venn Diagram • Hazard Map • Recommendations

• School children • San Gabriel Elementary School

1

1

10-12

• School youth • San Gabriel Elementary School • Sta. Lucia High School

9

9

13-15

• Youth with disability • San Gabriel Elementary School

1

0

13-15

Gulod

Table 9. A demarcated list of the youth respodents in the community-level engagement of this CCUDRR study

68

• School youth • Bagong Silangan High School


2.2 ANALYSIS APPROACH

To elaborate further, the researchers employed a qualitative approach in this study to assess and scrutinize the overall setting and milieu of resilience starting at the municipal down to the community levels, with particular bias to the welfare of the children and youth in times of adversities – may it be natural, social, political, or economic – all greatly influential to the attainment of sustainable development. According to its many definitions, qualitative research seeks to find and explore socially-constructed meanings and definitions that people have established for various social phenomena which is how they, in turn, find meaning and enlightenment in the circumstances that occur within the scope of their existence. Simply put, qualitative research is perceived as “…interested in understanding the meaning people have constructed, that is, how people make sense of their world and the experiences they have in the world.” (Merriam, 2009, p. 13) Looking at it through a more epistemological viewpoint, qualitative research can also be defined as, “[a] research using methods such as participant observation or case studies which result in a narrative, descriptive account of a setting or practice. Sociologists using these methods typically reject positivism and adopt a form of interpretive sociology.” (Parkinson & Drislane, 2011) Chiefly, the employment of the aforesaid approach paved the way toward a plethora of comprehensive focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and write-shops/workshops that have provided rich data regarding the topic of urban resilience and disaster risk reduction. The researchers, taking the role of keen observers and facilitators throughout the whole process, were able to gather copious information relevant to the perceptions, views, and standpoints of the sample population regarding the concepts of resilience and child-centered urban disaster risk reduction. Consequently, the research team was able to analyze and explore the large spectrum of definition and interpretation the stakeholders held for urban resilience and disaster risk reduction. They primarily documented, noted, and, ultimately, examined the responses of the different stakeholders that were involved in the study to muster and consolidate the quintessence of urban resilience under the framework of child and youth rights, welfare, and safety.

69


70

III. Understanding of Risks, Urban Resilience, and Child Rights 3.1 AWARENESS OF VARIOUS HAZARDS AND RISKS IN THE COMMUNITY

In the turmoil and commotion of urban living, people so often neglect – and sometimes even ignore – the everyday risks and hazards they encounter and experience on a regular basis. Risks, as defined by the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR), are the “combination and probability of an event and its negative consequences.” This indicates that risks are actually the potential losses and disasters that can manifest from perennial vulnerabilities that a certain community or locale is constantly predisposed to. In connection to the latter, vulnerabilities are defined as “[t]he characteristics and circumstances of a community, system or asset that make it susceptible to the damaging effects of a hazard.” Therefore, it can be deduced that the aforementioned “everyday risks” are actually rooted on perpetually-existing vulnerabilities that have not been addressed and responded to, thence adding to the plausibility of a large-scale disaster if the latter are not dealt with. These everyday risks, in reality, are actually those that society fails to notice yet perturb them in the most unsettling way possible as its deep entrenchment in the daily lives of Filipinos is seen as ordinary, a common element to their way of life. With this, the researchers deemed it all the more important to tackle the issue of urban resilience on a holistic level, not focusing on the sole aspect of natural hazards and the environmental disasters entailed with them. The researchers particularly approached the question of urban resilience on a more holistic level, looking at the whole framework of development and the role of urban resilience in the attainment of sustainable development for the urban sprawl. Apposite to this, the researchers saw the need to discuss and explore not only the natural hazards that beleaguer the communities concerned, but also the social, political, economic, and developmental hazards that they are faced with in their day-to-day existence.

3.1.1 City-Level

CHILD ABUSE/EXPLOITATION

As already established and aforesaid, Quezon City is one of the most populous cities in the country, which also signifies that a large percentage of the population of children and youth can also be found in this locality. Primarily, children are most vulnerable and prone to abuse and exploitation, as also averred by the city-level stakeholders, as they are still rendered relatively voiceless and powerless in their respective communities. In this light, they stated that the children of the municipality are most likely predisposed to physical – and even sexual – abuse, committed, more often


than not, by their own parents and guardians, the persons mainly responsible for their growth and wellbeing. They added that, for the most part, the primary problem to this hazard is the inability of the parents to raise and guide their children responsibly, often attributing to the underlying threat which continues to upset most urban communities which is poverty. Often, according to the municipal stakeholders, poverty is the cause of most problems in the grassroots level, as adults – parents and duty-bearers alike – are unfocused and sidetracked by the everyday struggle of daily sustenance for their families. This results in a diverted household, with the parents/guardians busy working while the children are left alone with only their peers, among other means, to lead and influence them. Apart from this, the city-level stakeholders affirm that many other problems can arise from the principal hazard of poverty.

STREET CHILDREN

Also ascribed to the fundamental prevalence of poverty, the large number of street children has long been a social hazard in the conurbation, as can be observed in the many streets of Metro Manila. As Quezon City continues to grow as one of the industrial hubs of the metro, so does its urban poor population. With the latter comes the predominance of homeless children and youths which, in turn, become street children or those better known as “batang hamog.” Street children, as affirmed by city-level officials, are a consequence of the predominance of the urban poor in the locality as well as the incapability of other parents to guide and influence their offspring maturely. This, coupled with the high incidence of poverty, is one of the primary causes of the prevalence of street children. Along with this, the stakeholders assert the existence of crime syndicates which subject these children to further abuse and exploitation.

TEENAGE PREGNANCY

As was ascertained previously, risks and hazards that beleaguer children are deep-rooted on the lack of values formation and guidance in the household. As a direct offshoot of this lack of domestic support and counsel, the children and youth resort to the company of their peers, leading them to make decisions without carefully thinking the consequences through. Furthermore, the apparent inaccessibility of the children and youth to appropriate and clear information regarding teenage pregnancies makes them all the more vulnerable to this hazard, rendering them incapable of making informed and mature choices. This basically applies to other prevalent hazards in the community, including that which was found most common in all four (4) communities covered by this study: drug abuse/addiction.

DRUG ADDICTION

The use, abuse, and addiction to illegal narcotics is one of the most ubiquitous problems in the country, affecting all the communities that were part of this study. As per the stakeholders in the city-level, drug abuse and addiction is a perennial hazard to the city because of the high influx of migrants that flock to the city from other localities. Along with this, it’s been attested by the city stakeholders that corruption is one of the causes of the prevalence of illegal 71


drugs not just in the city but in most parts of the country as well. This, according to the city stakeholders, is one of the greatest challenges that necessitate the convergence of different agencies of government, particularly the most rudimentary institution which is the barangay government.

FLOODING

3.1.2 flooding has long been a hazard in most parts of Quezon City, Barangay-Level Fundamentally, affecting not only various livelihoods and infrastructures, but also the social schematic through which the community operates as it disrupts the way of life for the community and its members. As the city is home not only to residential but also industrial areas, Quezon City is more significantly at-risk than other municipalities because of its thriving commerce and retail and industry, one which the city is most known for.

Flooding has become a common cause for disaster particularly in Barangays Sta. Lucia, Gulod, Bagong Silangan, and Batasan Hills in Quezon City, as most of them were gravely affected when Typhoon Ondoy (2009) and the southwest monsoon or habagat (2012 and 2013) hit Metro Manila. To wit, Barangay Sta. Lucia and Bagong Silangan recount that, during past disasters, most of the parents and guardians weren’t able to come to work as their livelihoods and jobs were put to a screeching halt after the onslaught of the typhoon. In effect, food security and safety become rife in times of adversities. Mainly, this compelled the barangays– with help from the municipal government – to relocate those residing near rivers and waterways. The aforesaid barangays are aware of this perennial dilemma and have taken appropriate action toward the appeasement of its impact to their constituents. These actions coupled with several capacity-building initiatives, as also reiterated by Brgy. Sta. Lucia, have reduced the overall impact of flooding in the community, moving with a steady pace toward a more resilient community.

TYPHOON

Among the most common of hazards in the whole urban sprawl is the typhoon, affecting all the aforementioned barangays and other communities beyond the scope of this study. With an average of 20 typhoons blitzing the country annually, it’s no shock to the researchers that this hazard ranks as the most common of all other natural hazards that affect the city of Quezon. Barangays Sta. Lucia, Gulod, Batasan Hills, and Bagong Silangan were among those that had endured the wrath of Typhoon Ondoy as well as the southwest monsoon or habagat, bringing with it torrential rains and flooding that affected both their livelihoods and their homes. Of late, the conurbation has been afflicted by many other storms such as Typhoon Glenda (2014) and Mario (2014). Barangay Batasan Hills attests to the occurrence of these disasters, recounting that the aforementioned disasters rendered great damage to their homes and families, leaving them in distress whenever an imminent typhoon looms nearby. Barangays Sta. Lucia, Bagong Silangan, and Gulod also aver similar accounts, with the distinct memory of Typhoon Ondoy in their minds. Today, though all four (4) barangays are still struck by typhoons, their increased awareness and vigilance alongside relevant programs and projects have helped in decreasing the vulnerability of these communities toward certain hazards such as typhoons.

72


FIRE Fires spreading throughout the neighborhood are a certain cause for alarm, specifically in Barangay Gulod, Quezon City where three (3) fire incidents have been recorded in the first quarter of 2015 alone.Gulod has been known to be predisposed to these kinds of risks, with households closely situated in one location and the latter built with easily flammable, light materials. Albeit the rarity of these incidents in their communities, Barangays Batasan Hills, Sta. Lucia, and Bagong Silanganare also vigilant of the abovementioned hazard. These communities have begun to employ strategies that will aid them in the response of this hazard should it occur in their barangay.

EARTHQUAKE

Of late, the high plausibility of earthquakes in Quezon City has become one of the key concerns of the local and national government alike. This is even more heightened in the case of Barangay Batasan Hills, as their community lies along the West Valley Fault, a segment of the Marikina Valley Fault System which runs through the cities of Quezon, Marikina, Pasig, Makati, Paranaque, and the provinces of Laguna and Cavite. Primarily, the latter poses a threat to Quezon City, particularly Batasan Hills, as the fault is projected to produce a 7.2-magnitude earthquake, dubbed “The Big One” by experts in the field of seismology. Indeed, the possibility of this earthquake occurring has been a major cause for concern in the barangay, causing its residents to think that when the quake hits their community, only a few of them will survive.

ILLEGAL DRUG ADDICTION/USE

Different sectors from the four (4) barangays have, in fact, conveyed that illegal drugs have long been a problem in their respective communities, affecting the adults and youth alike. In Barangay Bagong Silangan, stakeholders aver that children get engaged in peddling and using drugs at the age of 10 years old, oblivious to its adverse effects to their mind and wellbeing. Similar to this, Barangays Sta. Lucia, Gulod, and Batasan Hills are faced with the same quandary, along with many other vices, which include drinking of alcohol and gambling, leading the children and youth into addiction. Connected to this is the problem that Brgy. Gulod has regarding gambling, where adults and children/youth alike compromise their family’s needs or even starve themselves just so they could use the money to gamble or play “video karera.” For the most part, the barangay regards these problems an auxiliary problem to the primary social hazard which is unemployment and poverty, both of which are perennially existent in the four (4) barangays as well as in the whole of society.

CHILD ABUSE AND EXPLOITATION (SEXUAL AND/OR PHYSICAL)

Principally, stakeholders relayed that there is indeed a problem in the security, safety, and welfare of the children and youth in their communities as there are many cases of child abuse (i.e. rape, physical abuse, exploitation/child traf73


ficking) present in their barangay. One community which stood out among the four (4) is Barangay Gulod where the parents themselves force their children to work so that they could use the latter’s profits for their gambling. In the same community, they noted that a lot of children/youth are abused sexually, yet they do not voice out these cases possibly out of fear or the prevailing stigma of rape.InBarangay Sta. Lucia, however, there are cases where children/youth are raped by their own stepfathers. According to these cases, as well as those leading to physical abuse, often lead to the exploitation of children and youth as they are rendered powerless and voiceless in the community, unable to protect or safeguard their own rights whenever they are compromised or taken advantage of.

BULLYING

Of all the threats beleaguering the four (4) communities, bullying tops the list as well because this threat emanates from the youth and children sector and is directed toward the same. In all barangays that were part of the study, everyone remarked that this is a leading factor to the refusal of children to return to school, as other children are bullied by their fellow students. Physical violence is, at times, added into this equation as children become violent to their own peers. Due to this growing threat in the schools, parents have sought counsel with the teachers, and in turn, the latter counseled and talked to the bullies and the bullied students to appease and resolve their problems in a more diplomatic way under the supervision of their teachers. However, it is a common everyday hazard such as this that can worsen into a wide-scale disaster. Bullying is a form of attitudinal unfairness which is also rooted on the lack of familial guidance and values formation. Due to the latter, many children and youth lack the direction necessary for them to socialize and interact with others, thus leading them to look to other sources for guidance. Often, while sources of entertainment such as the media and the Internet are indeed one of the primary sources of knowledge, skills, and attitudes apart from the academe, the seeming lack of regulation and control in these avenues of information is the most crucial reason why children nowadays can gain access to new information but lack the proper supervision and direction to make sense of it and utilize it for their further improvement. This, in turn, steers them toward other standards and principles teaching them what ought to be done. Consequently, this may or may not be considerate of their peers’ wellbeing and interests which sometimes leads to physical and emotional violence.

74


3.2 PERCEPTION OF URBAN RESILIENCE

3.2.1 City-Level

As one of the vast metropolises that continue to flourish, Quezon City deems urban resilience that of a social and an economic concern respectively, where families and households are strong enough to withstand calamities and are also able to restore economic activity amid myriad disasters. Focused on a multitude of aspects, the barangays also perceive resilience in the urban setting a bit differently than that of the city-level stakeholders.

QUEZON CITY Structural

Environmental

Social/Attitudinal Political/Institutional Fast recovery Preparedness Awareness

Strong leadership

Table 10

Economic The community’s sources of livelihood should be able to recover immediately in times of disasters

However, in the four (4) communities’ perspectives, the main emphasis was put on the social and attitudinal aspect of community development, giving focus on the religiosity and cooperation among its residents. Apart from this, the presence of sound plans and infrastructural interventions are deemed an indicator of resilience as well, reiterating the importance of structures built for the aversion of disasters.

8 7 6 5 4 3 Chart 1. Rating of Urban Resilience in Quezon City

2 1 0

Average

CDRMMO

Liga ng Barangay

DILG

CRO

75


3.2.2 Barangay-Level

As one of the vast metropolises that continue to flourish, Quezon City deems urban resilience that of a social and an economic concern respectively, where families and households are strong enough to withstand calamities and are also able to restore economic activity amid myriad disasters. Focused on a multitude of aspects, the barangays also perceive resilience in the urban setting a bit differently than that of the city-level stakeholders.

BARANGAY BAGONG SILANGAN Structural

Environmental

Social/Attitudinal

Political/ Institutional

• To have a garbage-free community

• To possess cooperation among the residents of the community • To have coordination and solidarity among community members • For both community officials and members, resilience entails them to be knowledgeable of hazards and other relevant matters • Apart from this, community members and authorities need to religious • The community should possess humility and modesty • Above all, the community should be respectful of one another

• To have political will and good governance in the community • To have sound plans regarding hazards and other societal problems

Environmental

Social/Attitudinal

Political/ Institutional

Table 11A. BLGU

Structural

• • • • • • Table 11B. Parents

76

The community must be open-minded The community must also be united Apart from this, the community must be knowledgeable and cooperative The community must also be caring Also, the barangay must learn to be humble Most especially, the community must be religious

Economic

Economic


Structural

Environmental

Social/Attitudinal • • • • • • •

Table 11C. School

Structural

Environmental

There should be many buildings and structures

The surroundings of the community must be clean

Table 11D. Children

Structural

Table 11E. Youth

Environmental

Political/ Institutional

The community should have • Government unity intervention in The community should also disasters be peaceful • Infrastructure As well, the community programs should be harmonious The community should also have cooperation Furthermore, the community should have coordination The community should also be knowledgeable The community should be organized Likewise, the community should be prepared

Social/Attitudinal

Political/ Institutional

The community should have/be: • Many people • Helpful • Happy • Disciplined • Prepared • United • Brave • Respectful • Cooperative • Intelligent • Active • Chaotic • Loving • Determined • Sharing • Solidarity

Social/Attitudinal

Economic Progress

Economic

The community should have a wide number of livelihood opportunities It should be progressive The community should be financially stable

Political/ Institutional

Economic

The community should have/be: • Faith • Reliable • Preparedness • Courageous • Humility • Fortitude • Unity • Clear • Strong • Enhancing • Ready for disasters • Inclusive • Intelligent

77


Structural

Environmental

Systematic waterways should be built

Social/Attitudinal

Political/ Institutional

Economic

The community must have/be: • Preparedness • Able to bounce back after tragedies • Cooperation • Communication • Education • Participation

Table 11F. School

Fundamentally, Barangay Bagong Silangan perceives their urban resilience at an average rating of 7.91666 (as shown below), as the combined rating of multiple concerned sectors were consolidated to reach an estimated average resilience rating for the community. These sectors are the key stakeholders vital to the attainment of resilience of the community, which are basically comprised of the whole locale, specifically the local authorities and duty-bearers. Basically, these sectors are: Barangay officials, the parents of the children and youth, teachers, children, youth, and other relevant external organizations such as Gabriela and the Task Force on Youth Development. Based on their answers, resilience should come from a great attitudinal reform where discipline, cooperation, solidarity, and the presence of sound policies and structures are in place. Resilience, in their perspective, should emanate from the attitudes and values that make up a person, leading them toward holistic progress and sustainable development.

10 8 6 4 Chart 2. Rating of Urban Resilience in Brgy. Bagong Silangan

2 0

78

Average

Barangay

Parents

Teachers

Children

Youth Organizations


BARANGAY BATASAN HILLS

For Barangay Batasan Hills, urban resilience can be achieved and obtained if the environment in which the community stands is taken care of and maintained responsibly by its residents. Similar to the responses for Barangay Bagong Silangan, Batasan Hills deems cooperation, unity, and strong family ties the key to the resilience of the urban barangay. Notwithstanding the challenges that they’re faced with, Batasan Hills strives to meet the challenge of becoming more resilient by aspiring to meet these values and practices. Structural

Environmental

Social/Attitudinal

Political/Institutional

• The community’s environment must be clean

The community must have/be: • Cooperation • Unity • Compliance • Strong family ties • Readiness • Knowledge in rescue ops • Religiousness • Unity • Cooperation • Peace • Compliance

• The establishment of organizations is a must for the community • Good governance is also a must-have for the community to be resilient

Environmental

Social/Attitudinal

Political/Institutional

Economic

Political/Institutional

Economic

Table 12A. BLGU

Structural

The community must have/be: • Peaceful • Respectful • United • Diligent • Cooperative

Table 12B. Parents

Structural

Environmental

Social/Attitudinal

The community must be clean

• The community must have/be: • Cooperative • Awareness • United

Environmental

Social/Attitudinal

Political/Institutional

Economic

• The community must have/be: • Unity and cooperation • Order • Knowledgeable in disasters • Concern or “malasakit” • Discipline • Unity and cooperation • Respect

Good leadership

The community must be progressive

Table 12C. Teachers

Structural The community must have complete and functional facilities Table 12D. Organizations

Economic

The barangay must implement a good livelihood program

79


Quintessentially, Barangay Batasan Hills rated their urban resilience at an estimated average of 8.17 (as shown below), which signifies that the members of the aforesaid community view their resilience at a reasonably above average degree. The multitude of sectors that gave their ratings include the barangay officials, parents, teachers, children, youth, and external organizations. 10 8 6 4 Chart 3. Rating of Urban Resilience in Brgy. Batasan Hills

2 0

Average

LGU

Parents

Teachers

Children

Youth Organizations

BARANGAY GULOD

In a nutshell, Barangay Gulod sees urban resilience as an element that could be attained through the convergence of environmental, social, attitudinal, and economic aspects of the community. Much like Batasan Hills, the most common responses to the question, “What is urban resilience to you?” are the presence of ample and good livelihood opportunities for the residents, the concern of the community for the environment, the knowledge and preparedness of residents about disasters, peace, compliance to the law, unity, and the cooperation within the locality. With the fulfillment of these aspects, according to the residents of Gulod, the community should be able to attain resilience, an ability that not only reflects disaster preparedness but also the holistic progress and development of a certain locale. Below are the detailed answers of the respondents. Structural

Environmental

Structural

Environmental The residents must care for nature

80

Political/Institutional

Economic

Political/Institutional

Economic

The community must have/be: • Knowledge about disasters • Disaster-ready • Peaceful

Table 13A. BLGU

Table 13B. Parents

Social/Attitudinal

Social/Attitudinal The community must have/be: • Able to follow the law • Helpful to the youth • Peaceful

The barangay must implement a good livelihood program


Structural

Environmental

Social/Attitudinal

Political/Institutional

Economic

Political/Institutional

Economic

Political/Institutional

Economic

The community must have/be: • The community must have/be: • Disaster-ready

Table 13C. Teachers

Structural

Environmental The community must have strict garbage disposal rules

Social/Attitudinal The community must have/be: • Disaster knowledge

Table 13D. HOA

Structural

Environmental

Social/Attitudinal The community must have/be: • United and helpful • Caring and generous • Honest

Table 13E. Children

Mainly, Barangay Gulod was rated by its residents and stakeholders at 7.25 (as shown below), indicating that though the locality may fare reasonably well, some improvement remains to be seen in the specific aspects of waste segregation and living conditions in the community. As Gulod serves home to a great number of urban poor families, the residents averred that improvements are also necessary in the way the barangay council governs their locale. According to members of the Gulod Urban Poor Alliance (GUPA), the local council needs to be more proactive in responding to the needs of its constituents. Nonetheless, the members of GUPA deem the establishment of their organization a great opportunity for the urban poor population in their community to better help one another, as they also serve as a members’ cooperative to the residents of Gulod. 8 7 6 5 4 3 Chart 4. Rating of Urban Resilience in Brgy. Gulod

2 1 0

Average

LGU

Parents

Teachers

Children

Youth Organizations 81


BARANGAY STA. LUCIA

Located in the low-lying areas of the Novaliches district of Quezon City, Barangay Sta. Lucia prides itself in taking all the capacity-building exercises and workshops regarding Disaster Risk Reduction and Management (DRRM) to heart. In doing so, stakeholders from the barangay administration itself attest to the increase in the level of awareness and preparedness of the community members especially in times of natural hazards. However, stakeholders from the community aver that they are also not wellversed in focusing their programs regarding urban resilience and DRRM to the specific needs of the children and youth. Albeit this shortcoming, the community and its stakeholders are more than willing to make up for it by continuing to actively partake in the programs and movements toward a brighter future for the children and youth, particularly those that empower the latter to be active movers and citizens toward sustainable development. Structural

Environmental

Structural

82

Environmental

The community must have complete and functional facilities for its residents

Structural

Table 14C. Teachers

Political/Institutional

Economic

Political/Institutional

Economic

• We can say that the community is resilient when it is ready and prepared against disasters • The community should be knowledgeable [particularly in disasters] • The barangay should know how to recover from any disaster • The community should be adaptable

Table 14A. BLGU

Table 14B. Parents

Social/Attitudinal

There must be complete equipment and facilities for the community

Social/Attitudinal The community must have/be: • United • Prepared

Environmental

Social/Attitudinal The community must have/be: • ‘disaster-ready’ and trained for disasters

The people must be protected by its barangay government

Political/Institutional

Economic


Structural

Environmental The community must have strict garbage disposal rules

Social/Attitudinal

Political/Institutional

Economic

The community must have/be: • ‘disaster-ready’ • organized

There should be good leadership within the community

There must be financial stability within the locale

Social/Attitudinal

Political/Institutional

Economic

Political/Institutional

Economic

Table 14D. Organization/s

Structural

Environmental

Table 14E. Youth

Structural

Environmental

Table 14E. Children

The community must have/be: • Aware • Prepared [in times of disasters] • Patriotism • Active • United • Healthy • Tactful

Social/Attitudinal The community must have/be: • Intelligent • Studying or continually pursuing learning • Applying what is learned • United • Helping one another

The community’s economy should be progressive

As depicted below, Barangay Sta. Lucia reached an average rating of 7.25 for the urban resilience of their community. Albeit this rating, the community of Sta. Lucia is relatively satisfied with their barangay authorities, but they comprehend that there is sill a lot to improve on and bolster in terms of their overall resilience as well as the focus on the rights and welfare of the children. However, they acknowledge that without the proper attitude and mindset, combined with good governance and financial stability, their community would not be fully resilient to withstand myriad difficulties. 10 8 6 4 Chart 5. Rating of Urban Resilience in Brgy. Sta. Lucia

2 0

Average

LGU

Parents

Teachers

Children

Youth Organizations

83


3.3 PERCEPTION OF CHILDREN’S RIGHTS

The rights of children, as well as their protection and preservation, are vital to the fruition of a child-centered community; this is the reason why the research had also highlighted the significance of the stakeholders’ perceptions toward this particular aspect. For the city of Quezon, the rights of the children and the youth that ought to be protected, according to the city-level stakeholders, are the following: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Survival Rights (i.e. food/nutrition); Protection Rights (i.e. a safe environment); Developmental Rights (i.e. education); and briefly discussing about a child’s Participation Rights (i.e. participation in project planning and implementation).

Looking into the plight of the four (4) barangays, Barangay Batasan Hills emphasized the significance of Developmental, Protection, and Participation Rights, taking note of their Basic or Survival rights as well such as the right to have his/her own identity, right to gain shelter, and the right to have a family and be cared for by the latter. Bagong Silangan, on the other hand, views children’s rights in the same light with respective importance on the Developmental and Protection Rights of the child, putting more weight in educating the children/youth about the imminent hazards, risks, and vulnerabilities that they may be predisposed especially for those abused by their own parents/guardians. Barangays Sta. Lucia and Gulod have parallel opinions in this regard as they view the following as the most significant children’ rights: 1) Basic Survival Rights (i.e. identity, shelter); 2) Developmental alongside Protection Rights (i.e. right to be prioritized during disasters and the right to be informed of risks, disasters, and how they can prepare for such); and 3) Structural Rights (i.e. right to safe public roads). In the subsequent sections, all responses coming from the multitude of sectors from the city level and the four (4) communities are discussed, elaborating which children’s rights are most significant to them and how, in their perspective, the protection of these rights fared in their barangay.

3.3.1 City-Level

84

QUEZON CITY

The Quezon City stakeholders that were interviewed aver that child rights’ protection in the locality is not perfect, yet they are united in this mission and are doing all they can to preserve and defend these rights which these adult


stakeholders are sworn to do. Overall, they gave a rating of 8 for the current performance of their municipality in the aforesaid mission. Admittedly, they professed that without the cooperation, discipline, and concern of many other stakeholders, most especially the parents, the fruition of this mission will be most difficult. However, it is their responsibility to continue to rally and call upon the consciousness of these important duty-bearers to converge and come together as one toward the achievement of the aforesaid vision which is a child-centered resilient community.

Table 14.

Survival

Protective

Developmental

Children have a right to proper: • Food and nutrition • Basic needs (shelter, food, clothing, and a family)

Children have a right to good: • Evacuation centers • Environments free from trauma • Protection and Safety

Children have a right to: • Education

Children also have the right to live

Participative Children have the right to: • Participate in planning

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 Chart 6. Rating of Child Rights Protection for Quezon City Level Agencies

3.3.2 Barangay-Level

1 0

Average

CDRRMO

CSWDO

Liga ng mga Brgy

DILG

CRO Organizations

BARANGAY BAGONG SILANGAN

In general, Barangay Bagong Silangan values the holistic and inclusive growth of the children and youth in their locality, with the respondents of the study pointing out the significance of the Survival, Protective, Developmental, and Participation Rights of the child. In the next several tables, it can be seen that complete and total growth is seen in this community as the key toward a more child-centered and resilient barangay. On the whole, Barangay Bagong Silangan views the performance of their community reasonably well, yet problems such as the inability of parents to guide their children responsibly; the profusion of inappropriate vices and pursuits for the youth (i.e. drugs, alcohol, et cetera); and the underlying issue of poverty hinder the attainment and protection of children’s rights in the community. Basically, the protection of child rights reached an average of 7.5 for this barangay, with the presence of perennial threats and difficulties to the holistic growth and development of the children and youth. Despite of these imped85


iments to progress, the barangay continues to tread on the path toward sustainable development in a steady pace through its gamut of programs and activities that can further improve the situation of the young people in the community. Survival

Table 15A. BLGU

Survival

Protective

Developmental

Participative

• The rights of the children must be protected • They must have the right to be protected against abuse

The child must be informed and educated of his /her rights • The child must get “proper education” • The child has a right to be informed

The child has a right to participate in community activities

Protective

Developmental

Participative

They have a right to be informed

Children have the right to: • Be included in assemblies; • Participate in sports activities; • Participate in talks in the community

Developmental

Participative

Children have the right to be provided safe shelter

Table 15B. Parents

Survival

Protective

Children have the right to: • An environmentally-friendly school; • Be made aware; • Be given trainings • An education

Table 15C. Teachers

Survival

Table 15D. Teachers

Children have the right to: • Apt medical attention; • Proper food and nutrition; • A family • Be loved • A good shelter

Survival

Table 15E. Youth

Children have the right to a: • Happy life • Family

Survival

Table 15F. Organizations-

86

Protective Children have the right to: • Peaceful • Safe

Protective Children have the right to be: • Protected

Protective Children have the right to be: • Protected from harm

Developmental

Participative

Children have the right to: • Education • Religion • Knowledge

Developmental

Participative

Children have the right to: • Good education • Knowledge and information

Developmental Children have the right to: • Proper education • And guidance

Participative Children have the right voice out their personal insights/ emotions


8 7 6 5 4 3 Chart 7. Rating of Child Rights Protection for Brgy. Bagong Silangan

2 1 0

Average

Survival

BLGU

Parents

Protective

Teachers Organizations

Developmental

OSY

Participative

15% 31%

39% Chart 8. Rights of the Children and Youth in Bagong Silangan

15%

On the whole, Barangay Bagong Silangan views the performance of their community reasonably well, yet problems such as the inability of parents to guide their children responsibly; the profusion of inappropriate vices and pursuits for the youth (i.e. drugs, alcohol, et cetera); and the underlying issue of poverty hinder the attainment and protection of children’s rights in the community. Basically, the protection of child rights reached an average of 7.5 for this barangay, with the presence of perennial threats and difficulties to the holistic growth and development of the children and youth. Despite of these impediments to progress, the barangay continues to tread on the path toward sustainable development in a steady pace through its gamut of programs and activities that can further improve the situation of the young people in the community.

87


BARANGAY BATASAN HILLS Survival Family

Protective • Protection against child abuse

Table 16A. BDRRMO

Table 16B. BCPC

Survival

Protective

Children have the right to: • Be born • Gain shelter • Eat good and nutritious food • Have an indentity

Children have the right to be protected from harm

Survival

Protective

Children should have the right to: • Respect • Love and be loved

Children should have the right to be: • protected from harm and live in a peaceful community

Survival

Protective

Children should have the right to be: • Born

Children should have the right to: • Be fostered and loved • Recreation • Education • Freedom • Have a name/ identity

Survival

Protective

Table 16C. Parents

Table 16D. Teachers

• Basic needs

Table 16E. Organizations

• Protection from harm

Developmental Children have the right to: • Education • Good future • Recreation

Developmental

Participative Children have the right voice out their personal insights/ emotions

Participative

Children have the right to: • Education

Developmental

Participative

Children have the right to: • Education

Developmental Children have the right to: • Education

Developmental

Participative Children have the right to be: • Involved in organizations

Participative

Children have the right to: • Education • Recreation • Freedom • Equal rights

Barangay Batasan Hills rated the performance of children’s rights and protection at 7.5, coming from the sectors of Barangay Officials, Parents, Teachers, and Organizations. These sectors affirmed that the attainment of children’s rights is indeed a challenging feat, but its fruition will be all the more possible given the cooperation and unity of the aforementioned sectors. 88


Basically, the sectors involved in the study deem that their community is still a long ways away from the utmost protection of child rights, but they have taken it upon themselves to make it their mission – one that they will strive for toward the establishment and sustainment of a more child-centered community.

8 7 6 5 4 3 Chart 9. Rating of Child Rights Protection for Brgy. Bagong Silangan

2 1 0

Average

Survival

BLGU

Parents

Protective

Teachers

Developmental

Organizations

Participative

13% 32%

41% Chart 10. Rating of Child Rights Protection for Brgy. Bagong Silangan

14%

BARANGAY GULOD

In a nutshell, the engaged sectors in Barangay Gulod perceives child rights as a vital component to the general development and progress of the community. According to the academic and parental sectors, children should be given protection and guidance to make wise decisions for their personal growth and development. As well, the organizations that were involved in the study pointed out the significance of good governance, as they view the solidarity, discipline, and unity of a community reliant on the firmness of leadership of the local authorities 89


in the locality. In totality, Gulod sees the importance of protecting the rights of the child and youth, making the promise to be more vigilant and conscious of the needs of the aforesaid sectors. Survival

Table 17A. BCPC

Children have the right to: • Shelter • Good nutrition

Protective

Developmental

Children have the right to be: • Protected from harm

Participative

Children have the right to: • Education • Peaceful environment

Survival

Protective

Developmental

Children should have the right to: • have the right to good healthcare

Children shoud have the right to safe, public roads

Survival

Protective

Table 16B. Parents

Children have the right to: • Be guided by parents • Open-minded authority figures • Education

Developmental

• Basic needs

Participative

Participative

Children have the right to: • Education • Recreation

Table 16C. Teachers

Survival

Protective

Developmental

Children should have the right to: • Proper shelter

Children should protected from harm and violence

Children have the right to: • Be informed

Table 16E. Organizations

Participative Children have the right to be: • Participate in community affairs

10 8 6 4

Chart 11. Rating of Child Rights Protection for Brgy. Gulod

2 0

90

Average

BLGU

Parents

Teachers

Organizations


Survival

Protective

15%

40% Chart 12. Rating of Child Rights Protection for Brgy. Gulod

Developmental

Participative

25%

20%

BARANGAY STA. LUCIA

Looking at the context of the barangay, Barangay Sta. Lucia perceives child rights as a crucial element as well in the journey towards a sustainable future. As outlined in the next segments, Sta. Lucia emphasized the value of a clean environment and the ability of the local government to prioritize the children and youth during disasters, apart from the rudimentary needs that they should be given such as proper nutrition, their own identity, and shelter. In the following segments, it is seen that much weight is given to the stability of their futures, an integral factor in reaching the progress every community aspires for.

Survival

Protective

Participative

Developmental

Participative

Children have the right to be: • Protected from violence and harm • Prioritized during disasters

Table 17A. BLGU

Survival Children have the right to: • Proper nutrition • Basic needs

Protective Children have the right to be: • protected from violence and harm

Table 17B. Parents

Survival

Table 17C. Organizations

Developmental

Children have the right to: • A proper name/ identity

Protective

Children have the right to: • A clean environment • An ensured future • Recreation

Developmental

Participative

Children have the right to: • Education • Proper Name

91


8 7 6 5 4 3 Chart 13. Rating of Child Rights Protection for Brgy. Sta. Lucia

2 1 0

Average Survival

BLGU Protective

Parents Developmental

Organization Participative

36% 46%

Chart 14. Rating of Child Rights Protection for Brgy. Sta. Lucia

18%

In essence, Barangay Sta. Lucia did not put much importance in the Participative Rights of the child. However, it was observed mainly by the researchers that the initiatives focusing on the participation and empowerment of the children are already in place, such as cultural dance competitions, the active participation of the Red Cross Youth organization in the schools, and the dynamic and vigorous involvement of the Task Force on Youth Development. In a nutshell, it could be deduced that the barangay has already a relatively established and sound relationship with its children and youth, yet it still somehow lacks initiatives and activities where the latter are called upon as organizers and leaders, similar to the recurrent plight of all the other covered barangays in the study. Essentially, these aforesaid rights are given importance by the authorities, but have not been fully realized due to underlying perennial problems which the communities face. Despite these, certain measures, policies, and initiatives were launched and implemented to reduce, respond to, and resolve the threats to these rights. Only through the achievement of the community to fulfill their vision of becoming more cooperative and participative can they better realize and accomplish a truly resilient community that will serve a giant leap toward a more disaster-resilient, safer, and sustainable city. 92


93

IV. Awareness of DRRM and CCA Policies and Activities 4.1 DRRM AND CCA POLICIES

4.1.1 City-Level

To better visualize the overall image of the study areas with regard to Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation, certain policies, legislations, and activities were reviewed as well – in conjunction with the global, national, and regional policy review. Various stakeholders were assessed and asked about their knowledge and awareness of these policies to measure, albeit qualitatively, their capacity to carry out the programs and policies related to DRRM and CCA.

Primarily, the DRR and CCA policies in place for Quezon City reflect those that are already implemented nationally. One of these legislative policies is Republic Act 10121 or the “Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management of 2010.” Through the strict implementation and compliance of this law, the establishment of the Quezon City Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council was done. Strengthened by the latter, Mr. Karl Michael Marasigan avers that their office, the City Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Office, gained a stronger hold on the DRRM approach of the municipality. Apart from this, Mr. Marasigan states that the Executive Order No. 23, Series of 2010, streamlining the QCDRRMC and redefining its functions, providing for its composition, and for other purposes, pursuant to RA 10121. According to him, the functions and responsibilities of the DRRM entity were not only strengthened but also restructured, becoming more defined than ever before. In totality, the city stakeholders deem the aforementioned, along with other policies already carried out, are deemed significant yet derisory to the attainment of a child-centered community. Nonetheless, these challenges make the municipal authorities more keen on taking on and addressing the concerns of their city, onto a sustainable, disaster and climate-resilient locality that not only thrives in business but also in the overall developmental aspects of the municipality.

4.1.2 Barangay Level

Overall, the barangays’ environmental and general welfare programs are parallel to one another as they all listed off the following: Relocation for Residents residing near rivers (Implementation of the three-meter easement legislation), Tree Planting Activities, Clean-up Drives, Solid Waste Management and Segregation (Garbage Collection), Annual Earthquake and Fire Drills in the public elementary and high schools, Urban Gardening/Farming, Feeding Programs for children, Hospitalization and Financial Assistance for children and other constituents, and the Alternative Learning System for the Out-of-School Youth and Children.


Apart from this, the barangays boasted of a plethora of programs, committees, and projects that are specifically devoted to DRRM and CCA, some of which include the establishment and activation of a Barrangay DRRM Committee and its counterpart in the education sector, the School DRRM Committee, headed by a member of the faculty of the respective school/s where the committee is activated. They also prided themselves in the swift and steadfast provision of relief in times of disasters with the help of the municipal government. With all the aforesaid initiatives, stakeholders from the municipal to the barangay government still admit that currently-implemented projects and programs do not empower the youth and children, but only render them beneficiaries or participants in the conduct of its activities. City stakeholders primarily possess fundamental knowledge about the laws and legislations relevant to Disaster Risk Reduction and Management (DRRM), running the gamut of city-specific ordinances like the “Green Building Ordinance” and the “No to Plastic Ordinance” to national-level directives such as the “Clean Air Act.” However, they know that the projects and programs initiated for these legislations are limited to the participation and education of adults and key players in society, rarely giving a chance for the youth and children to get highly involved in the process. Though certain elements of barangay governance and disaster management are in place, like the Task Force on Youth Development and the BatangEmergency Response Team or the Red Cross Youth, the barangay remains reliant on its own forces in times of hazards and adversities, like the Barangay Public Safety and Order committee or the barangay tanods and other relevant committees, leaving the huge potential of the youth and children untapped and rendering them mere beneficiaries dependent on the help and relief provided by the authorities. Albeit this, the barangays are responsive to the aid given by numerous agencies and organizations to help their communities be better focused on the welfare of the children and youth not only during disasters but also in their journey towards sustainable development.

4.2 DRRM AND CCA ACTIVITIES

4.2.1 City-Level

QUEZON CITY PREPAREDNESS Activity CBDRRM Trainings (under the Technical Assistance to Securing the Safety of ISFs in Metro Manila Project)

Initiating Organization

94

Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

X

X

DRRNet X

Risk Profiling Infrastructure Audit

Role of Children and Youth

QC Gov’t and PICE

X

As seen in the tables, there are reasonably numerous activities for preparedness and prevention in the municipal level. Albeit the number of precautionary activities and initiatives listed above, there’s still a great need for preparedness and prevention measures particularly those focused on the welfare and safety of the children and youth.


Admittedly, the city stakeholders aver that they still have a lot to improve on in terms of disaster resilience, zeroing in on the significance of the rights of the children. Similar to the four (4) barangays studied in this urban resilience research, DRR and CCA activities revolve around the general welfare of the community, centered on programs such as feeding programs, information campaigns about illegal drugs, clean-up drives, tree planting activities, outof-school education programs, and the Violence Against Women and Children (VAWC) help desk as also compliant to RA 9262 and RA 7610, an act on the Special Protection of Children Against Abuse, Exploitation, and Discrimination Act. PREVENTION AND MITIGATION Activity

Initiating Organization

Role of Children and Youth Leader

Volunteering and Auxiliary Program Handang Maglingkod sa Bayan

CRO

Participant

Beneficiary

X

X

X

X

Zero Casualty Program

X

Operation Listo – Youth Camp or Wemborees

X

DILG

EQRP-Earthquake Response Program

EMERGENCY RESPONSE Activity

Initiating Organization

Junior Rescuer Program (3rd and 4th year high school levels)

Public Schools

Role of Children and Youth Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

X

X

GENERAL WELFARE Activity

Initiating Organization

Day Care Program

Role of Children and Youth Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

X

X

X

X

UNICEF Youth Development Program

As observed in the following tables, it can be deduced that the projects given by the four (4) barangays in the conduct of this research represents the level of awareness and prioritization of the different challenges and hazards in their vicinity. Basically, these information signify the seeming fundamental threats that actually beleaguer the community and how local authorities from different rungs of government have tried to resolve them. 95


4.2.2 Barangay-Level

BRGY. BAGONG SILANGAN PREPAREDNESS

Role of Children and Youth

Activity

Initiating Organization

Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

Disaster Training

Barangay Council

X

X

X

Disaster Preparedness Training

Red Cross

X

X

Earthquake Drills

Schools

X

X

X

Seminars on CCA

Barangay Council

X

X

Disaster Training

Sagrada Familia Training

Awareness Campaign

GABRIELA

X

X

X

X

X

PREVENTION AND MITIGATION Activity

Initiating Organization

Mangrove Planting

Korean NGO and Youth leaders

Solar street posts / light

NGO and Youth leaders

Role of Children and Youth Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

X

X

X

X

X

X

Solar light bulb Proper Waste Disposal Campaign

Barangay Council

X

X

Rainwater Harvesting

NGO and Youth leader

X

X

Urban Farming

NGO and Barangay Council

X

X

EMERGENCY RESPONSE Activity

Initiating Organization

Social Service Development Ministry

Sagrada Familia Parish

Role of Children and Youth Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

X

X

RECOVERY AND REHABILITATION

96

Activity

Initiating Organization

VAWC Training

LGU

Disaster Relief/ Help

Lion’s Club

Role of Children and Youth Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

X

X X


GENERAL WELFARE Role of Children and Youth

Activity

Initiating Organization

Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

Drug awareness and Protection Projects

Barangay Council

X

X

X

Sponsored preschool

Korean NGO

X

Health Service

LGU

X

Rehabilitation for Drugs Users

LGU

Seminars on Anti-Child Abuse

School

X

Counseling

School

X

Value Format Trainings

School

X

Health Awareness

GABRIELA

X

X

LITNUM Program

GABRIELA

X

X

BLC Day Care

GABRIELA

X

X

“Dayong Program”

GABRIELA

X

X

Migrant Organizing

SagradaFamilia Parish

X

X

X

X

Pastoral Care for Women and Children Security of Land Tenure

X

X

X

X

HOA

BARANGAY BATASAN HILLS PREPAREDNESS Activity

Initiating Organization

Awareness Campaign Seminars on Disaster Preparedness

Role of Children and Youth Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

BYCL

X

X

BYCL

X

X

PREVENTION AND MITIGATION Activity

Initiating Organization

Clean-up Drive Disaster Mitigation

Role of Children and Youth Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

Barangay Council

X

X

School

X

X

97


Clean-up Drive

BYCL

Clean-up Drive

Tau Gamma Phi

X

X

X

X

X

EMERGENCY RESPONSE Activity

Initiating Organization

Strategic Emergency Management Search and Rescue Team

Role of Children and Youth Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

School

X

X

BYCL

X

Activity

Initiating Organization

Role of Children and Youth

Foot Patrol

Barangay Council

Peace and Order Campaign

Barangay Council

Abot Alam Program

BCPC

Feeding Program

Barangay Council

4Ps – Pantawid Pamilya Program

DSWD

X

X

Education for All

Department of Education (DepEd)

X

X

Children as focal persons

BYCL

X

X

X

Sports Training

BYCL

X

X

X

Lakbay-Aral

BYCL

X

X

Feeding Program

Tau Gamma Phi

X

Mass Feeding Program

Barangay Happy Group

X

Gift-giving Activity

Barangay Happy Group

X

GENERAL WELFARE

98

Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

X

X X

X

X X


BARANGAY GULOD PREPAREDNESS Activity

Initiating Organization

Disaster Training Program

Role of Children and Youth Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

City Government

X

X

Earthquake Drill

School

X

X

Fire Drill

School

X

X

Flood Drill

School

X

X

DRRNet seminars

DILG

X

X

Hazard Mapping / Disaster Seminars

FDUP

X

X

PREVENTION AND MITIGATION Activity

Initiating Organization

Solid Waste Seminar

Barangay Council

Role of Children and Youth Leader

Participant

Beneficiary X

EMERGENCY RESPONSE Activity

Initiating Organization

Relief Goods

Various NGOs

Search and Rescue Team

BYCL

Role of Children and Youth Leader

Participant

Beneficiary X

X

RECOVERY AND REHABILITATION Activity

Initiating Organization

School Renovation

SM Supermalls

Role of Children and Youth Leader

Participant

Beneficiary X

GENERAL WELFARE Activity

Initiating Organization

Feeding Program

Schools

Orientation / Seminar on Children’s rights

Role of Children and Youth Leader

Participant

Beneficiary x

x

x

School supplies and Tuition Subsidy

Abot Kamay Interantional

x

Housing

Gawad Kalinga

x

99


BARANGAY STA. LUCIA PREPAREDNESS

Role of Children and Youth

Activity

Initiating Organization

Procurement of Disaster Tools

Barangay Council

Tree Planting

Barangay Council

X

X

Clean-up Drive

Barangay Council

X

X

Disaster training for Fathers

Barangay Council

X

X

Special Disaster Training for children-with-disabilities (CWDs)

Barangay Council

X

X

Earthquake Drills

School

X

X

Vaccination for Kids

Barangay Council

X

X

First-aid treatment and Training

Red Cross

X

X

Disaster Lessons

School

X

X

Tree planting

Barangay Council

X

X

Leader

Participant

Beneficiary X

PREVENTION AND MITIGATION Activity

Initiating Organization

Disaster Prevention Activities

Role of Children and Youth Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

Barangay Council

X

X

Community Bridges

Barangay Council

X

X

Environment Protection

Schools

X

X

School Disaster Risk Reduction Management Council

Community Public Schools

X

X

GENERAL WELFARE

100

Role of Children and Youth

Activity

Initiating Organization

Relocation

Barangay Council

X

Putting up light posts

Barangay Council

X

Surveys on CWDs

Barangay Council

X

Leader

Participant

Beneficiary


Hospitalization Assistance for CWDs

Barangay Council

Feeding Program

St. Vincent

4Ps - Pantawid Pamilya Program

DSWD

X

Capturing of stray dogs

Barangay Council

X

Anti-TB Program

Barangay Council

X

X

Magic Show and book-giving

International Magician Society

X

X

Film Showing

Barangay Council

X

X

CCTV Projects

Barangay Council

Anti-Drugs Awareness Campaign

Barangay Council

X X

X

X X

X

As aforesaid, the activities, programs, and projects noted and documented for the purpose of this research are centered on appeasing the underlying hazards of environmental pollution, hunger and poverty, and, lastly, the socially-induced perils such as drug addiction, alcoholism, and crimes. That is indeed why much emphasis and attention was given to programs such as Anti-Drugs Awareness Campaigns, Clean-Up Drives, Tree Planting Activities as these, while they help to reduce and mollify perennial threats, only scratch the surface of the crises that have long agitated these four (4) communities. Hence, it can be concluded that, as community initiatives fare, the level by which the barangay government can aid in the resolution of perpetually existent threats is still negligible, only endeavoring to break the exterior, failing to immerse into the core of the problem. Certainly, the soul and heart of transforming and governing a locality should try to find the root of the threats that disconcert and upset the process of development and growth to come to an ultimate resolution, not just a “band-aid solution. However, with the culture of corruption deeply embedded in the landscape of Philippine politics, the achievement of sustainable development becomes all the more difficult and unpromising for the adult and youth stakeholders alike. Albeit these observations, the vibrancy and enthusiasm that the youth and children of Quezon City bring give both the researchers and stakeholders hope and optimism; indicating that all is not lost in the crusade towards a more child-centered and disaster-resilient community and municipality. The key to this apparent impediment is the way of thinking that some, if not all, adult stakeholders have. Usually, authority figures in the community – who are most commonly adults – fail to see the rich potential that the children and youth possess, leaving it untapped and neglected. This needs to change; authorities need to learn that development and progress comes from empowering all sectors in the barangay and including them in the journey towards a safer, resilient, and developed community.

101


102

V. Recommendations for a Child-Centered & Resilient Community Fundamentally, the project was aimed at helping the partner communities realize a vision toward a child-centered community. The Child-Centered Urban Disaster Risk Reduction Research aided the barangays in renewing their perception of a disaster-resilient community, by enabling them to see how the children and youth can be leaders and pioneers of change, a sector rich in potential and intellect that can invigorate the municipality and the barangay with their fresh outlook and contemporary views.

5.1 CITY LEVEL

5.2 BARANGAY-LEVEL

Policies • Ordinance on Child Friendly DRRM • Ordinance on the Management of the Dead and Missing

Programs and Projects • Conduct of Barangay Dev’t Planning workshop • Expansion of CBDRRM Programs • Further training to strengthen and ensure functionality of BDRRMC members with focus on child-friendly initiatives

Others • Urge the City Council to strengthen the laws that will anchor the protection of children against child abuse

Policies

Programs and Projects

Others

• Strict implementation of programs and policies • Continuity of programs and policies • Some good projects are abruptly stopped because of administration change • Launch a policy to limit children’s stay in computer shops. They shall be allowed to rent the computers for a short period of time [only] • Creation of law or ordinance which shall help (former) drug abusers to return to school • Strict implementation of new laws • Penalizing 18 years old and below youth who commit unlawful acts • Limited Private Car Act • Waste Segregation Act • No Smoking Act • Responsible Adolescent Program

• Proposed seedling project where beneficiaries of the barangay should bring seedlings and then the brgy can sell this to the Department of Agriculture • Day Care project – where working parents can leave their children • All the Barangay activities in regards to DRRM should be child centered • Projects [should be] effective and boost morale of children • Monitoring of existing projects and clientele/beneficiaries • Planning of BCPC and VAWC in regard to policies or existing laws • Continuation of sustainable livelihood projects especially for the ‘batang hamog’

• More help from concerned NGOs • There must be continuous support from organizations; • There must be commitment from both the government and the people; • The school is considered high risk and the government should be consistent to do their plan on relocating the school to prevent disaster; • Programs/activities in DRRM/Red Cross trainings should not be to selected students only but for all; • Disaster training should not be limited in scope but should cover all aspects. • Prohibit minors from purchasing cigarettes or alcoholic beverages from sari-sari stores


• Bantay Election Youth Activities • Bantay Kalamidad Program • Iwas Baha Program • Solid Waste Management (Stricter waste segregation law) • Law regarding the expression of the youth (feelings and ideas) • Laws regarding additional rights for children and youth (An example is rape victims. Pass a law to add protection to them) • Ordinance allowing authorities to arrest residents (especially minors) who go out of their houses shirtless. • Additional law against drugs on children and youth. • Law regarding equal rights with the third sex • Ordinance prohibiting residents from throwing their garbage to the river and imposing corresponding fine

• A sustainable livelihood project with continuous monitoring • Involvement of HOA and parents at the same time • Free Rescue Training • Assistance on securing Medical Equipments for the barangay • Training and awareness raising activities for the children and youth regarding Disasters • Creation of a Livelihood Training Center for the youth • Basura mo, Pahalagahan mo Program (Dispose your grarbage wisely) • Learning centers with free reading materials and educational books • Feeding Programs • A project that should cater malnourish children aged 4-10 y.o. • Shelter (A shelter for children who need parental attention. This is for the abused children same as that of the project “Sikap Mistah.” It should also conduct a feeding program. It is a social institution which focuses on helping children. • Housing Project • Strict implementation of CurfewHours • Involve children in tree planting activities • Involve children in cleanup drive activities • A movement should be launched to stop Political Dynasties • Establishing a PWD Center • Sex education • Responsible parenthood program • Equipment for the barangay • First Aid Program for parents (should be mandatory) • Engage children and youth in disaster training • BPSO should be knowledgeable of CPR, first aid and other emergency response mechanisms

• [Institute a] campaign for Awareness regarding Health • More Sports Activities for the Youth • Nurturing Child Day Care Programs • Awareness-raising activities for all existing ordinances • Establish a building which will purposely concentrate on catering the needs of the children/youth. • Build a counseling-center • Raise wages as it will help minimize theft and malnutrition • Barangay staff should be always present during seminars so that at least one person can relay the learnings to the council. • Build a decent evacuation area. • Correct teaching of children (parents and teachers) • Planning and cooperation inside evacuation centers • Disaster training for parents, teachers, youth/ children and community leaders. • Team Building Activities • To train potential youth leaders • Dance Workshop • Focus on OSYs to provide them with something to accomplish or to do. • Swimming lessons • Fund Raising activities • Leadership Development Programs • Children and Youth should not be just participants, they should also be leaders.

• Footbridge Project (An accessible and safe bridge to be used by student studying here near the river. Sometimes when it rains heavy, the children are not able to go to school because the bridge is just a hanging bridge so it is dangerous to pass through)

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• Seminar with Parents (They should be informed of various knowledge and awareness campaigns regarding their children’s welfare.) • • Good facilities (We hope to have complete facilities because we believe that we are ready in theory but not in facilities, yet) • • Develop programs for children and youth with special needs. • • Hold good simulations of disaster drills as some children do not take the drills seriously.

Looking at it closely, stakeholders who participated in the study centered their recommendations on additional livelihood, financial, and housing assistance; strict monitoring and evaluation of existing legislation and policies (i.e. curfews and solid waste management); furthering capacity-building initiatives to edify youth and children on disasters, more help from external organization; supplemental laws protecting children against sexual abuse and bolstering their right to self-expression; amending the Juvenile Delinquency Act to impose stricter sanctions for young criminals; implementing an ordinance to strengthen the management of the dead and missing during disasters; and the sustainment of capacity-building initiatives for barangay and municipal government staff. In quintessence, it can be deduced that a huge improvement remains to be seen in the crusade towards a child-centered community. Much of the problems and their corresponding recommendations still revolve around the dismal state of the economy and livelihood in their localities, neglecting the plight of the children particularly in the achievement of sustainable development. Albeit their enthusiasm in further education and assistance in making their community child-centered, the stakeholders involved still need to realize that there is limitless potential in the children and youth, and much like the core principle of Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction, people can better attain and govern their own development if they are empowered, educated, and capacitated. Then will they realize that the path toward development is not in the hands of their government, but in their own.

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San Juan City


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I. Overview of local context 1.1 GEOGRAPHY

Figure 7. A digital location map of San Juan City

One of the smallest and congested political areas in Metro Manila is San Juan City. Its land area of 5.94 square kilometers is less than one percent of the total area of the National Capital Region. The 2010 census showed a densely populated area of 121,430 inhabitants compared to 204,382 in the year 2006. It is located at the very center of the metropolis and is bounded by Quezon City in the North, Manila in the West and Mandaluyong in the East and South at coordinates 12º 36’ latitude due north and 121º 02 longitude due east (San Juan City Government, 2015). San Juan City has 21 politically subdivided barangays, to wit: Addition Hills

Batis

Ermitano

Balong Bato

Corazon De Jesus

Greenhills

St. Joseph

Onse

Salapan

Isabelita

Pasadena

St. Perfecto

Kabayanan

Pedro Cruz

Sta. Lucia

Little Baguio

Progreso

Tibagan

Maytunas

Rivera

West Crame


This urbanized city is highly elevated compared to the nearby areas. San Juan used to have a much larger land area compared to what it has now since parts of Caloocan and Quezon City were once inside its territory.

1.2 SOCIOECONOMIC CONTEXT

Although the City of San Juan is considered to be free of much earthquake damage risks because of its geographical location, the area is small for further commercial and business expansion. The place is now congested and densely populated by inhabitants. Male population predominates women, from 53% (64,537) to 47% (56,215) respectively. The city is made up of mostly residential with spread out commercial and manufacturing businesses. San Juan has attracted many migrants because of its highly accessible location, which results in the growing number of informal settlers. At present, the local government continuously finds measures to address the issue of escalating informal settler families (ISF) population. Though small in land area, San Juan City was awarded as 2nd Top Performing Highly Urbanized City in the Philippines in 2011. In 2011, the city became the Top Performing Urbanized City in the Philippines (San Juan City Government, 2015).

1.3 DISASTER SITUATION

The area is geographically situated in the region’s central plateau with little risk from earthquake damage. Along the western boundary, however, is the San Juan River that causes floods to the following barangays: Salapan, Balong Bato, Progreso, San Perfecto, Batis, Rivera, and Kabayanan. The identified areas prone to flooding because of low-level slope, which is about 10%, have been declared unfit for further development. The entire basin of San Juan River, approximately 10.581 kilometers, has a catchment area of 90.4 square kilometers, covering the lower part of Quezon City, San Juan, part of Mandaluyong City, Pasig City, and Manila City (CENRO, 2015). The starting point of the river is in Quezon Avenue, Quezon City, passing through Manila and San Juan City ending at Mandaluyong City part of Pasig River. An estimated 2 kilometers of the river is in San Juan City, covering the five barangays near the river side, to wit: Barangay Batis • F. Manalo St. • Valenzuela St.

Barangay Balong Bato • • • •

F. Roman St. Luna St. Leyva St. Artiaga St. (creek)

Barangay Progreso • M. Cruz St. • J. Eustaquio St. • Atanacio St.

Barangay Salapan

Barangay Rivera • G.B. Santos St. (Libis) • Rivera St. • Katubusan St.

• • • •

A.Luna St. Callejon St. L. Asinas St. Tabing-Ilog St.

The two other barangays are likewise affected, namely: Barangay Ermitanyo

Barangay San Perfecto

• Grey St. • De Leon St.

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1.4. RESEARCH SITES

Source: www.kabeetmaps.com (2015)

The research was implemented in four out of the twenty-one barangays that comprise the city of San Juan and these are Batis, Corazon de Jesus, Salapan, and West Crame. The Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG)-San Juan Office and other concerned stakeholders from the City Government were involved and consulted by the team in the selection of project sites. The villages of Batis and Salapan were chosen since they are identified as highly vulnerable to flooding due to their proximity to the San Juan River. Both were greatly devastated by Typhoon Ondoy (International name: Ketsana) in 2009 as high floodwaters submerged most of the houses and properties of the people, especially those who are situated in high-risk areas and live below the poverty line. On the other hand, Barangay Corazon de Jesus was targeted as one of the research sites due to the great number of children and youth population in the locality. The community of West Crame was recommended to become part of the project given its high vulnerability to fire. Narrow roads; poor housing and congested living condition; and absence of unobstructed evacuation routes are among the factors contributing to their exposure to the risks of fire.

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109

II. Methodology and Stakeholders 2.1. TOOLS AND RESPONDENTS

Spatial Assignment. The youth of Barangay West Crame developed a multi-hazard map and identified the high-risk areas in their village.

Fundamentally, the CCUDRR research employed a qualitative approach, banking on methodologies such as key informant interviews (KIIs), focus group discussions (FGDs), and Writeshops to muster pertinent baseline data that will serve as significant input not only to the aforementioned research but also to the plans, programs, and activities of the Child-Centered Disaster Risk Reduction Project that was launched and carried out with the same objective. Much like the research, the project also targets to improve the welfare of the children and youth through various activities and capacity-building initiatives. On the other hand, the CCUDRR study will help to form a larger picture demarcating and depicting the milieu of the concerned barangays’ Disaster Risk Reduction and Management (DRRM) in the context of the children and youth sectors. Outlined in the next sections are the stakeholders involved in the study as well as the tools and methods that were utilized to gain vital information about their specific locale in Quezon City, particularly on the plight and situation of the children and youth in the outlook of urban resilience. Also featured in the subsequent sections is the exact number of attendees and respondents for each engagement in the four (4) barangays, in accordance to the list of stakeholders also highlighted in this section.


Mainly, the stakeholders deemed vital to the fruition of this study are those that possess a key role in the protection and preservation of children’s rights and welfare. Generally, the city-level stakeholders were selected because of their primary role in shaping the interests and welfare of the children and youth in their municipality, with their duty to safeguard the community by fostering and influencing policy as well as action at the national down to the municipal level. In contrast, the community-level stakeholders were selected because of their seminal role in inspiring and touching the lives of the children and youth not only in their responsibilities as duty-bearers, but also as the guardians and authority figures of the latter. As they have a greater hand in molding and shaping the minds and hearts of the children and youth on a more personal level, these stakeholders and the decisions they make have a dire impact on how the latter will grow up and what kind of environment they will be raised in. That said, their roles and functions as duty-bearers and stakeholders have all the more weight and significance as their every step greatly impinges on the future of the children and youth in their community, one which should not be taken lightly in today’s challenging times.

Senior Moment. An adult from the local government of Barangay Salapan shared their past and existing DRRM and CCA activities .

The tables below show the breakdown of participants by sex in the methods used: City San Juan

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Methods

Tools

• Focus Group • Perception of Urban Discussion Resilience • Writeshop • Rights of Children/ Youth • Hazard Assessment Matrix • Policies / Programs of the Stakeholders / Roles of Children/ Youth • Policies / Programs of Other Organizations / Roles of Children/Youth • Recommendations

Participants • City Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Office • City Social Welfare and Development Office • Department of Education • Department of Interior and Local Government • Sangguniang Panlungsod ng San Juan

M

F

4

3


Barangay Batis

Corazon De Jesus

Salapan

Methods • Focus Group Discussion • Key Informant Interviews • Writeshop

• Focus Group Discussion • Key Informant Interviews • Writeshop

• Focus Group Discussion • Key Informant Interviews • Writeshop

Tools

Participants

M

F

• Perception of Urban Resilience • Rights of Children/ Youth • Hazard Assessment Matrix • Policies / Programs of the Stakeholders / Roles of Children/ Youth • Policies / Programs of Other Organizations / Roles of Children/Youth • Recommendations

• Barangay LGU • Barangay Treasurer • Barangay Secretary • Barangay Kagawad (Councilor) • Barangay Captain • Barangay Staff • Record Keeper • Liaison Officer • • School Officials • • Parents • • Non-Government/FaithBased Organizations • • Youth Organizations • Task Force on Youth Development (TFYD)

13

0

0

0

0

7

0

0

4

12

• Barangay LGU • Barangay Secretary • Barangay Kagawad • Barangay Captain • • School Officials • Teacher • • Parents • • Non-Government/FaithBased Organizations • Right Start, Volunteer • Right Start, Coordinator • • Youth Organizations • Youth For Christ, Household Head • Red Cross Youth, Member

4

0

1

2

1

5

0

2

4

0

7

4

• Perception of Urban Resilience • Rights of Children/ Youth • Hazard Assessment Matrix • Policies / Programs of the Stakeholders / Roles of Children/ Youth • Policies / Programs of Other Organizations / Roles of Children/Youth • Recommendations

• Perception of Urban Resilience • Rights of Children/ Youth • Hazard Assessment Matrix • Policies / Programs of the Stakeholders / Roles of Children/ Youth • Policies / Programs

• Barangay LGU • Barangay Secretary • Vice chairman – Barangay Police • Barangay Tanod (Police) • Barangay Kagawad

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Barangay

Methods

Tools • of Other Organizations / Roles of Children/Youth • Recommendations

West Crame

• Focus Group Discussion • Key Informant Interviews • Writeshop

• Perception of Urban Resilience • Rights of Children/ Youth • Hazard Assessment Matrix • Policies / Programs of the Stakeholders / Roles of Children/ Youth • Policies / Programs of Other Organizations / Roles of Children/Youth • Recommendations

Participants

M

F

• School Officials • Assistant teacher • • Parents • • Non-Government/FaithBased Organizations

0

1

1

6

0

0

• Barangay LGU • Barangay Member • Barangay Kagawad • Barangay Official • • School Officials • Crame Day Care Center, Day Care Worker • Crame Day Care Center, Assistant Day Care Worker • • Parents • • Non-Government/FaithBased Organizations • OB Montessori Child of Community, Member • • Youth Organizations • TFYD, member

1

4

0

2

0

0

0

1

13

11

A total of 131 individuals were able to participate in the data gathering phase at the city and village levels. Female participants ruled in number totalling to 78. On the other hand, 53 male participants engaged in the process.

2.2. ANALYSIS APPROACH

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The research team employed thematic/ content analysis to draw out significant points that will inform the findings and recommendations. Categories on perceptions of urban resilience, child rights, hazards, DRRM/ CCA activities, child participation, and recommendations were used to guide the team in the analysis stage. For urban resilience component, five categories were used as follows: infrastructural; environmental; social/ attitudinal; political/ institutional; and economic. The categorization was adapted from the components of urban resilience developed by The World Bank (Jha, Miner, Stanton-Geddes, 2013). The classification of child rights was largely influenced by the existing themes developed by the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (Child Rights Alliance, 2015) and these are: survival, protection, development, and participation.


The disaster and climate hazards and risks identified were grouped in consideration of two aspects: frequency of occurrence and level of impacts. A scale was used for classifying the hazards and risks along with the two factors mentioned: low, moderate, and high. Three categories namely leader, participant, and beneficiary for child and youth participation were also utilized to determine the level of their engagement in each DRR/ CCA activity. The activities identified were also classified according to the four thematic areas of DRRM stipulated in the Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act of 2010 (RA 10121): preparedness; prevention and mitigation; emergency response; and recovery and rehabilitation.  

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III. Understanding of Risks, Urban Resilience, and Child Rights 3.1 AWARENESS OF VARIOUS HAZARDS AND RISKS IN THE COMMUNITY

One of the primary components of the research is to gauge the level of knowledge and familiarity of key stakeholders on the varying threats and risks that affect the lives of the people. Understanding of hazards and threats is a basic requirement for the city and barangays to identify their vulnerabilities and eventually think of measures to ensure their safety and promote resiliency. As the research endeavored to cover a comprehensive list of hazards and risks, the participants were able to determine threats other than those relating to environment and of natural cause. They were able to identify various threats of social, cultural, economical, political, and attitudinal origin.

3.1.1 City-Level

Hazards and risks in the City • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Out-of-school youth due to poverty Child labor due to poverty Drug use at a young age Lack of information especially about hazards and disasters Limited participation in issues pertaining to DRRM Sickness due to congested place Teen Pregnancy Child with behavioral problem Schools are exposed to all sorts of diseases when used as evacuation center Diseases caused by floods Typhoon and flood occurrences that hinder children from going to school Lack of decent houses Dropping out of school due to poverty Health problems due to lack of sustenance of the family Youth belonging to ISF are vulnerable to floods, fire, typhoon, accidents, and other hazards Absence of political will to effectively implement laws and ordinances for children and youth • Lawmakers lack knowledge and experience on the actual situation of poor children in the community • Poor parenting

The identified risks and predicaments affecting the inhabitants of the city, especially the young generation, are largely influenced by their social environment, economic condition, and political context. As shared by the CDRRMO, DILG, and DepEd representatives, due to poverty, the children and youth are forced to stop schooling to look for income generating opportunities. Because of impoverishment, child labor becomes evident as young people engage in potentially harmful jobs to support not only their personal survival but also the needs of their families. As they become exposed to different kinds of people, the children and youth also become victims of peer pressure. This concern was raised by most of the respondents as the youth in the city are encouraged to use drugs and join


groups that introduce them to undesirable vices such as drugs, smoking, and drinking alcohol. Along with these vices, the young generation tends to engage in pre-marital sex leading to the rising incidence of teenage pregnancy. When they become parents at an early age, they normally leave school, thus contributing to the continuous increase in the number of dropouts and out-of-school. Besides peer pressure, poor parenting was also raised as a pertinent issue that results to the apathy and futility of children and youth. The absence of guidance from parents, who are supposed to take on the role as care provider, makes the young people less driven to dream and strive hard for their future. Parents play a fundamental role in the formative years of the children as they provide great influence in the character and value formation aspect. When it comes to natural vulnerabilities, the occurrence of typhoons, which triggers flood events, was mentioned by many of them. Typhoons become frequent beginning June leading to loss of properties and livelihoods. In particular, the individual from DepEd shared that flooding inhibits children from going to school especially those who do not have access to decent housing. The participant from DILG supported this claim and shared that children and youth belonging to informal settler families are more at risk. Moreover, the classrooms are used as evacuation center that also exposes the young individuals to health risks since proper hygiene and sanitation is not observed. Apart from physical factors, the vulnerability of children to floods is further heightened by their limited participation in DRRM activities resulting to lack of awareness on risks that could likely bring detrimental effects. As children and youth are treated as docile objects of assistance, they are commonly neglected in planning and decision making processes. A representative from the Local Council shared that political issues further aggravates this reality. Some lawmakers and public officials lack political will to effectively implement laws relating to children’s welfare and protection. Since the authorities have minimal understanding on the concrete situation of children, the programs developed are not fit and responsive to their needs.

3.1.2 Barangay-Level

BARANGAY BATIS Adults

Frequency

High

Effects High

Hazard Assessment Output of Adults in Barangay Batis.

Moderate

• • • • •

Gossips Drugs Typhoon Floods Child abuse

Moderate • Rape • Fire

Low • Kidnapping • Murder

• Robbery

Low

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Children and Youth Frequency Effects

High • Having enemies

High

Hazard Assessment Output of Children and Youth in Barangay Batis

Moderate • Improper waste disposal • Gambling

Low • Earthquakes • Murder • Flood

Moderate Low

Flood is the only common hazard to adults and children of Batis. Given their geographical location and proximity to San Juan River, the community is susceptible to the risks of inundation especially during the wet season. Beginning the month of June, the village is at risk of flooding as typhoons become frequent. Their vulnerability to flood is also exacerbated by improper waste disposal as canals and creeks get clogged, impeding the continuous flow of water. Other than flooding, earthquake and fire are also identified as hazards that threaten the community. Earthquake is rated low in terms of frequency because of the city’s geographical location. On the other hand, fire is categorized under the moderate quadrant due to the presence of congested houses and narrow roads that could exacerbate their vulnerability. The Barangay Council identified socially influenced hazards such as gossips and presence of enemies. The council members particularly shared these hazards since they are mandated to mediate and prevent any conflicts from happening. The spread of rumors often results in misunderstandings among the community people, which is a barrier to forging healthy relationships, an essential ingredient for maintaining peace and unity. The adults shared that the use and pushing of drugs is a major risk in the community since it threatens the children’s future. This explains why this risk was identified as high both in frequency and effect. As they start using drugs, the young individuals are also introduced to activities that are detrimental to their welfare such as gambling. In the case of other users, when they are under the influence of drugs, they become prone to committing violent crimes such as rape, murder, and child abuse. Due to poverty, robbery, and kidnapping are also identified as risks in the area. Some engage in these acts out of desperation, as they need to provide for their families.

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BARANGAY CORAZON DE JESUS Adults

Frequency

High

Effects

High

Moderate

Low

• Vertical and horizontal expansion of ISF’s houses leading to congestion and narrow roads • Drug use and abuse of children and adults • Addiction to computer games • Unemployment of parents • Poverty

Moderate

Low Hazard Assessment Output of Adults in Barangay Corazon de Jesus

Diseases (i.e. tuberculosis) Improper waste disposal • Relocation of formal settlers out of the community • Fire • Typhoon • Rampant gambling in the streets • Bullying and fighting • Robbery

Children and Youth Just like the participants from Barangay Batis and the City Government, the residents of Barangay Corazon de Jesus conveyed the use and abuse of drugs as a pertinent risk that need to be addressed. This hazard is categorized as high in terms of frequency and effect. The representatives from the Barangay Council sees the urgency to address the issue of drug use since it is rampant in the community and endangers the lives of its constituency. In fact, the drug dealers corrupt the children and youth and once they are hooked, they will be offered to push drugs. Some respondents revealed that authorities are unable to control drug pushing in the area due to powerful figures behind it and the risk of death-threats. Although it is a form of recreation for some, both the adults and youth groups identified gambling as an important risk since it encourages laziness and leads to conflicts. Instead of searching for more sustainable economic opportunities, those who engage in this activity tend to forget the value of hard work and leave their fate to chance. Barangay Corazon de Jesus is one of the communities in San Juan that has the most number of inhabitants. This being the case, it is home to many ISF. Along with the continuous growth of ISF population, the houses built along the roads also expand vertically and horizontally. This makes the village crowded and is 117


a source of risk as the roads become congested making evacuation difficult in case of a fire or an earthquake. The Barangay Council has categorized this issue as a priority risk in terms of frequency and impact that needs attention. Alongside the proliferation of ISF, the Barangay Council also identified the relocation of formal settlers outside the community as one of the risks that affect them. This causes detrimental displacement to them since the families encounter problems on access to livelihoods, schools, and other basic facilities. Furthermore, as they move to other places, the families lose social relationships and sense of belongingness, which they have already established in the barangay for many years. Since parents are the primary individuals obliged to ensure the wellbeing and survival of their children, they considered unemployment, poverty, addiction Frequency

High

Effects • • • • High

Moderate

• • • • •

Smoking Bullying Cutting classes Improper waste disposal Drugs Child abuse Teenage pregnancy Robbery Gossips

• Gambling

Moderate • Fighting • Shouting within families • Cursing

Low

• Typhoon

• Demolition • Illnesses • Drinking alcohol

Hazard Assessment Output of Children and Youth in Barangay Corazon de Jesus

Low

• • • •

Earthquake Floods Fire Wearing of skimpy outfit/ flirtatious attitude

to computer games, and diseases as important risks. As shared by one of the mothers, unemployment and poverty make the parents unable to provide the survival and development needs of their children. This scenario poses a threat to the future of their children. Addiction to computer games is also considered a risk to their children’s future since too much playing of these often leads to poor performance in school. The spread of diseases as a result of poor hygiene is also a serious concern for the parents. When children get sick, they are inhibited from doing the activities that would contribute to their development such as education and socialization. Along with urbanization, strong competition among people looking for a job becomes a common scenario. Due to this condition, some are forced to engage in unlawful acts like robbery, which is also identified as a threat to the community’s safety. The adult participants from the school and the youth group identified bullying, which usually results in fighting, as a threat to children’s welfare. Bullying leads to low self-esteem, which hampers the young individuals from socializing and performing well in the school and community. Other than bullying, improper waste management is also regarded by both groups as a risk. As expressed by a youth participant, poor sanitation is a source of health risk especially among children.

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The youth shared specific risks that are normally prompted by peer pressure and these include smoking, cutting classes, gossips, and teenage pregnancy. Because they are currently in the stage of forming their identity, they are easily tempted to engage in vices and worldly acts to achieve belongingness and acceptance. In terms of natural hazards, the children and youth have identified typhoon and earthquake as threats that could likely impact them. Although both hazards are categorized as low in frequency, they are considered high in terms of impact as they may cause great destruction to people’s lives, livelihoods, and properties.

BARANGAY SALAPAN Adults

Frequency

High

Effects

High

Hazard Assessment Output of Adults in Barangay Salapan

Moderate

• Drug use • RA 7160 being abused by minors • Computer games • Smoking because of peer group pressure • Alcohol use because of peer pressure • Flood

Moderate

Low • Bullying in schools • Fire

• Lack of respect to family/ laws

• Gangs and fraternities

Low

Children and Youth The vulnerability of Barangay Salapan to flooding is evident in the responses of both adults and children since they categorized it as high in terms of frequency and effect. The area is prone to flooding primarily because of its geographical location as it is located near the San Juan River. Inundation is an annual occurrence in the community and is observed beginning June when typhoon season starts. Apart from their physical location, the presence of garbage in the river and canals contribute to their high exposure to flooding. The president of Tabing Ilog Neighborhood Association (TINA) shared her experience when Typhoon Ondoy hit the barangay in 2009. The flood water level was unimaginable at that time since it reached the second floor of most houses in the community. The disaster did not cause death in the area but brought havoc to properties and livelihoods. Besides typhoon, fire is considered as one of the hazards that could adversely affect children and adults. Due to the presence of ISF, congested houses made of light materials and narrow roads are evident in the community. These are identified as contributing factors that continuously expose them to fire risks. Both groups have considered drug use and engagement in vices as priority hazards. Since the Barangay Council is the responsible authority at the local level to curb drug use and pushing, its members emphasized the need to focus on these risks. At a very young age, children and youth start to use drugs leading to broader problems in the community. Among these predicaments are the 119


Frequency Effects

High

Moderate Hazard Assessment Output of Children and Youth in Barangay Salapan

High • Children/youth roam in the streets looking for fights (i.e. fraternities) • Vices (i.e. smoking and rugby) • Children and youth do not follow curfew • Dumping of garbage in the river • Bullying • Flooding • Typhoon • Drugs • Shouting • Disobedience to barangay rules • Cutting trees • Drinking alcohol in public • Rowdiness (“panggugulo”) • Fire

Moderate • Theft • Rape • Holdups

Low • Murder

• Killing of birds • Cursing/swearing

Low

following: dropping out of school; engagement in violence and crimes such as rape, robbery, and holdup; and join fraternities. Furthermore, along with drug use, the young individuals are also exposed to other vices such as smoking and drinking alcohol. The parents who joined the discussion also supported this claim. Many of them expressed anxiousness as these risks endanger the wellbeing and future of their sons and daughters. Most of the adult participants expressed that children and youth tend to abuse the presence of laws that protect them (i.e. Juvenile Justice Law , RA 7160). Actions such as curfew violation, fighting, shouting, and rowdiness are prevalent since the children and youth remain fearless and arrogant. The Barangay Council identified this as a barrier especially for parents and concerned authorities to discipline and apprehend them when they do not follow the rules. The teachers mentioned that bullying is a significant risk that needs careful attention. They shared that bullying becomes a concern for children at the elementary level and above. This issue persists because children and youth lack proper guidance and discipline from their parents or guardians. Peer pressure also triggers the proliferation of this concern. As shared by a homeowners’ association (HOA) member, the prevalence of bullying leads to fights not only between children but among parents as well.

BARANGAY WEST CRAME

The adults and children shared identical hazards that affect their community and these include fire, drugs, teenage pregnancy, traffic, and poor waste disposal. Fire is identified as a priority risk due to the narrow streets and congested housing evident in the area. This condition makes evacuation routes obstructed making people unable to reach safer places in times of emergencies (i.e. earthquake). Aside from blocked evacuation routes, heavy traffic is also a resulting hazard of narrow streets, which may lead to vehicular accidents.

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Poor waste disposal is also a common hazard to both groups. Residents lack discipline in managing their garbage and trash. This makes the community unsanitary and unhealthy especially for the children who are susceptible to diseases. The engagement of children and youth in vices such as smoking, drinking alcohol, and drugs is considered high both in frequency and effect. Due to parents’ neglect, peer pressure, and curiosity, they are easily enticed to try these vices especially with friends. Similar to the three previous barangays, drug use is a major concern to the people of Barangay West Crame since it triggers the perpetuation of crimes and places the young generation’s future in peril. Because of the pressure to belong, the youth are also encouraged to join gangs and fraternities making them at risk to hazing. Teenage pregnancy is identified as a pressing concern especially for the youth. Because of their impulsive attitude and absence of proper guidance from parents or guardians, the youth become parents at an early age. This often leads them to drop out of school and face the responsibility of rearing their child. Poverty is also a major risk confronting the residents of West Crame. This was validated by the responses of adults and youth. Since a tight competition for economic opportunities is evident in the city, the head of the households find it difficult to make both ends meet. This being the case, the needs of children for survival and development are not met. Some resort to gambling activities to provide food for their families. However, this worsens their already impoverished state as it results to more debts. Furthermore, poverty also pushes some of the residents to violate the laws and engage in cruel acts such as theft and holdupping. The prevalence of these predicaments is aggravated by weak implementation of security laws. The adults articulated the risk of coup d’etat given that the village is near Camps Aguinaldo and Crame where the head offices of the Armed Forces of the Philippines and the Philippine National Police are based.

Adults Frequency

High

Effects

Moderate

• Coup d’etat

• • • • High

Hazard Assessment Output of Adults in Barangay West Crame

Moderate

Low

Low

Fire Drugs Traffic Poor waste management • Teenage pregnancy • Non-implementation of security laws • Accessibility of school • Earthquake • Out-of-school youth • Disease outbreak

• Peace and order

121


Children and Youth Frequency Effects

High

Moderate Hazard Assessment Output of Children and Youth in Barangay West Crame

High • Hazing • Smoking • Early/ teenage pregnancy • Alcohol drinking • Traffic • Poverty • Lack of discipline of residents • Malnourishment • Parents’ neglect • Improper garbage disposal

Moderate

Low

• Illegal drugs • Theft/ hold upping incidents

• Gambling • Fire • Earthquake

Low

The adults and children shared identical hazards that affect their community and these include fire, drugs, teenage pregnancy, traffic, and poor waste disposal. Fire is identified as a priority risk due to the narrow streets and congested housing evident in the area. This condition makes evacuation routes obstructed making people unable to reach safer places in times of emergencies (i.e. earthquake). Aside from blocked evacuation routes, heavy traffic is also a resulting hazard of narrow streets, which may lead to vehicular accidents. Poor waste disposal is also a common hazard to both groups. Residents lack discipline in managing their garbage and trash. This makes the community unsanitary and unhealthy especially for the children who are susceptible to diseases. The engagement of children and youth in vices such as smoking, drinking alcohol, and drugs is considered high both in frequency and effect. Due to parents’ neglect, peer pressure, and curiosity, they are easily enticed to try these vices especially with friends. Similar to the three previous barangays, drug use is a major concern to the people of Barangay West Crame since it triggers the perpetuation of crimes and places the young generation’s future in peril. Because of the pressure to belong, the youth are also encouraged to join gangs and fraternities making them at risk to hazing. Teenage pregnancy is identified as a pressing concern especially for the youth. Because of their impulsive attitude and absence of proper guidance from parents or guardians, the youth become parents at an early age. This often leads them to drop out of school and face the responsibility of rearing their child. Poverty is also a major risk confronting the residents of West Crame. This was validated by the responses of adults and youth. Since a tight competition for economic opportunities is evident in the city, the head of the households find it difficult to make both ends meet. This being the case, the needs of children for survival and development are not met. Some resort to gambling activities to provide food for their families. However, this worsens their already impoverished state as it results to more debts. Furthermore, poverty also pushes some of the residents to violate the laws and engage in cruel acts such as theft and holdupping. The prevalence of these predicaments is aggravated by weak implementation of security laws. The adults articulated the risk of coup d’etat given that the village is near Camps Aguinaldo and Crame where the head offices of the Armed Forces of the Philippines and the Philippine National Police are based. 122


3.2 PERCEPTION OF URBAN RESILIENCE

3.2.1 City-Level

Another important area that the research delved on relates to urban resilience. Representatives from various government offices and departments of San Juan City cited in the methodology section engaged in a dialogue to share their views and definition of urban resilience. Two important points were highlighted from their responses as follows: (1) urban resilience pertains to the ability of a community to recover from the cataclysmic effects of disasters, and (2) disaster preparedness plays an important role for urban resilience to become evident in the local government and communities.

ABILITY TO RECOVER AFTER A DISASTER The representatives from various offices and departments have a common understanding of urban resilience, which largely evolves around the idea of communities being able to recover from disaster impacts. Based on their responses, urban resilience is defined as the capacity of a particular community to regain its sense of normalcy after the occurrence of a certain disaster, life-threatening event or any unexpected disturbances. Urban resilience is equated to the ability of communities to withstand and rise up from the detrimental physical, economic, social, and political impacts of disasters, may it be of driven by natural causes, anthropogenic activities, or combination of both. Given this definition, urban resilience is an all-encompassing concept as it covers structural, environmental, socio-cultural, organizational, and motivational aspects.

INVESTING ON DISASTER PREPAREDNESS Disaster preparedness is emphasized as a critical factor to achieving urban resilience. In particular, representatives from the CDRRMO, CSWDO, and DILG, mentioned the necessity of investing on proactive measures for people to really become resilient. Because these offices are legally mandated to carry out DRRM related tasks and responsibilities, they give premium on activities inclined to preparedness, prevention, and mitigation. These proactive disaster mechanisms are essential for communities to avoid loss of lives, huge destruction to properties, and damage to livelihoods. Specific proactive measures that local governments and communities can take on towards realizing urban resilience were shared. The participant from CDRRMO expressed the need for systematic and timely coordination among concerned authorities both from the city and barangay in times of disaster situations. One of the officers from the Local Council also supported this need 123


as he reiterated the importance of coordination through apt communication and efficient relay of information to prevent wanton destruction in times of disasters. Apart from coordination, planning is also recognized as a significant measure for urban resilience to materialize. In particular, the CSWDO and Local Council representatives conveyed the value of prompt planning for both the communities and local governments to identify concrete actions before, during, and after a disaster. Having a clear and updated contingency plan for varying hazards would serve as a guide for them to execute their actions effectively and efficiently. The contingency plan provides information on early warning system, evacuation strategy, and communication flow, which are all fundamental for securing people’s safety. Furthermore, the presence of such plan would enable concerned authorities to review their actions, identify the gaps, and discuss how they can improve existing efforts. Given the phenomenon of climate change that aggravates the frequency and scale of risks that communities experience in the past years, they recognized the essence of a multi-hazard contingency plan for the people to be equipped with knowledge and skills to prepare for and recover from any disasters.

URBAN RESILIENCE RATING With the current efforts of the local government and communities in San Juan on preparing for different hazards and facing the rising impacts of climate change as demonstrated in the increasing and unprecedented rainfall and occurrence of super typhoons, the city-level FGD participants provided an average rating of 8.4 to the City Government in terms of urban resiliency. This relatively high rating shows the confidence they have for the present administration. The performance of current leaders and officials are recognized to have played a valuable role in keeping the city safe from disaster risks while pursuing economic growth and greater development agenda. 10 8 6 4 2 Chart 1. Rating of Urban Resilience in San Juan City

124

0

Average

CDRRMO

CSWDO

DepEd

Local Council

DILG


3.2.2 Barangay-Level

BARANGAY BATIS Adults

Structural

Adults’ Perception of Urban Resilience in Barangay Batis

Environmental

Social/Attitudinal

Political/ Institutional

Economic

• Environment is protected

• Firm • Cooperation in times of disaster • People have discipline

• Leaders have the ability to develop plans for unexpected disasters • The Barangay Captain provides full support

• The community has sufficient income that can be utilized in times of disasters

The definition of adults, children, and youth on urban resilience encompasses all the identified aspects in the matrix. The adult participants in Barangay Batis, particularly the teachers, highlighted the need for community leaders (i.e. Barangay Captain) to demonstrate determination and political will in implementing projects for the welfare of the people. According to them, an urban resilient community is governed by leaders who are capable of responding to the needs and issues of its people. It is also necessary for these leaders to develop a plan that outlines the activities that people can do in case of emergencies. The leaders should be able to provide guidance on what to do before, during and after a disaster.

10 8 6 4 Rating of urban resilience in Brgy. Batis (Adults)

Furthermore, the adults emphasized the significance of having a vibrant economy to achieve urban resiliency. There is an equal opportunity for all to earn a living and the local government has adequate funds for their programs on disaster preparedness and beyond.

The children, on the other hand, mentioned that 2 for a community to be resilient, it should be equipped with adequate 0 facilities and services Average Barangay Council Teachers that can be utilized in times of need. For example, during disasters, it should have an evacuation center that can accommodate people from high-risk areas. Rescue equipment and facilities are also accessible. Furthermore, it is necessary for them to have the economic, social, and health services that would cater to the needs of the community. Both groups considered the importance of nurturing the environmental aspect in building an urban resilient community. Strategies to protect Mother Earth such as clean up activities and planting should be practiced. Engaging the children in these types of activities at a young age would help instill sense of responsibility and care for others. 125


Children and Youth Structural

Environmental

Social/Attitudinal

• Adequate equipment and facilities

• The community is safe from disasters

• Residents have discipline • People are united • Culture of preparedness exists • Good relationship/ friendship among community residents

Children and Youth’s Perception of Urban Resilience in Barangay Batis

Political/ Institutional

Economic

The adults and children recognized the need for fostering the social and attitudinal aspects of the people to promote resiliency. Both have identified attributes and values which they deem essential to realize a resilient community. Some of these include cooperation and unity especially in times of disasters; friendship and camaraderie; discipline; and being firm in making decisions. They also expressed how important it is to be prepared especially during disaster situations. Being able to respond accordingly and prepare for hazards or risks without compromising the safety and lives of the people are fundamental characteristics of a resilient community. The adults have an average rating of 8 in terms of urban resilience. Although the Barangay Council is able to provide the basic needs of its people, the council members through the Barangay Captain acknowledged that they still have to do a lot of work to provide more effective and efficient services. On the other hand, the teachers gave a perfect rating as they receive full support from the Barangay Council in meeting the educational and nutritional needs of children.

BARANGAY CORAZON DE JESUS Adults

Structural • Safe place and houses

Adults’ Perception of Urban Resilience in Barangay Corazon de Jesus

126

Environmental

Social/Attitudinal

Political/ Institutional

Economic

• Citizens are united • The city is organized • Ability of the community to recover from a crisis/disaster • Cooperation (Bayanihan) • Readiness in times of calamity or crisis • Fair and just • Stable and adaptable community • Productive • The community is prepared and ready for disasters

• Many projects are successfully implemented • Leaders have strong political will • Presence of open and efficient communication • Effective community planning • Systematic operation

• The community is progressive


10 8 6 4 Rating of urban resilience in Brgy. Corazon de Jesus (Adults)

2 0

Average

Barangay LGU

Parents

Schools

Organizations (i.e. faith based)

The adults and youth of Barangay Corazon de Jesus provided a comprehensive definition of urban resilience, which cuts across the various aspects identified. Both have emphasized the need for strong and stable housing to be safe from the risks of typhoon and earthquake. The two groups shared that the attitude of the community residents plays a vital role in realizing urban resilience. The culture of bayanihan or the spirit of working together is crucial in uniting the people towards a common goal. Open communication between the authorities and the citizens is a requirement to sustain collaboration. Active engagement, productiveness, and adherence to laws and regulations are also considered as salient features that contribute to resilience. Justice and fairness should become a norm in the community to ensure respect especially among public servants. The Barangay Council representatives described urban resilience as the ability of a group or a place to recover from a crisis or disaster situation. Furthermore, disaster preparedness is closely associated to resilience and this was mentioned a number of times. The readiness of the people from the risks of possible disasters is key to minimizing losses and saving lives. In the institutional aspect, both pointed out good governance as a chief element of urban resilience. Leaders should remain true to their words; have the political will in implementing laws and projects; and are able to step up for the benefit of its constituency. Ideally, the community is free from corruption and the members of the government administration remain obligated to do what is right. The economic aspect was also regarded as a significant determinant of urban resilience. A resilient community is progressive and its people have the ability to meet their needs. The younger generation shared the importance of having clean surroundings and environment-friendly initiatives such as recycling to build an urban resilient community. The adults provided a high rating ranging from 8 to 9 given that the current administration, through the leadership of the Barangay Captain, has exemplified dedication and commitment to improving the lives of the community people. It has implemented different projects and programs relating to livelihood, health, leadership, and youth empowerment. On the other hand, the children 127


and youth gave an average rating of 7.12 since they have witnessed the spirit of collaboration and good governance in Barangay Corazon de Jesus.

Children and Youth Structural • Stable houses

Environmental • Clean • Presence of environment friendly initiatives

Children and youth’s Perception of Urban Resilience in Barangay Corazon de Jesus

Social/Attitudinal • Cooperation within the community • Peaceful • God-fearing • United • People follow rules • Active • Disciplined citizenry • Helpful to others • Progressive • People respect each other • People are industrious • Open communication exists

Political/ Institutional

Economic

• Obligated to do • People what’s right are • Good leadership able • Absence of meet corruption their • Government basic officials are true necesto their words sities • The government • Prohas projects for gresthe people sive • True service

8 7 6 5 4 3 Children and Youth’s Rating of Urban Resilience in Barangay Corazon de Jesus

2 1 0

Average

Children

Youth

BARANGAY SALAPAN Adults

The adults of Barangay Salapan provided a limited definition of urban resilience, which primarily touches on the environmental and social/ attitudinal dimensions. The maintenance of good hygiene is identified as a prerequisite to a resilient community. The Barangay Council, parents, and teachers have agreed on the fundamental role that good values and right conduct play in making urban resilience happen. Among the identified positive attributes are cooperation and bayanihan; good communication; respect, understanding and love for one other; and peace.

128

Unlike adult respondents, the children and youth provided a broader understanding of what urban resilience is. In the infrastructural component, they communicated the necessity of sturdy houses made of quality materials and


8

Brgy. Salapan

San Juan City

7 6 5 4 3 2 Chart. Rating of urban resilience in Brgy. Salapan (Adults)

1 0

Average

Barangay Council

Parents

Schools

BDRRMO

HOA

the availability of equipment that can be used in times of emergencies such as boats and floaters. Based on their sharing, the environmental aspect is likewise important in promoting resilience. The practice of recycling is reckoned as a beneficial measure to curtail the volume of waste that goes to the river and creeks. Cleaning the debris and mud after flood events is also necessary to maintain proper hygiene. Tree planting should also be a constant practice among the residents to produce more oxygen and reduce global warming. The need for nurturing the social/ attitudinal aspect was validated by young participants as they conveyed the valuable role of cooperation and generosity; industriousness and patience; and love and peace. They also noted the importance of being able to prepare for any hazards or risks that may bring dreadful impact to the community.

Children and Youth Structural

Environmental • Cleanliness of the area

Children and Youth’s Rating of Urban Resilience in Barangay Corazon de Jesus

Social/Attitudinal

Political/ Institutional

Economic

• Unity or bayanihan among community members • Peace is existing • Good communication • Cooperation among the people • People respect, love, and understand each other

With regard to the institutional aspect, the children and youth mentioned that for a community to be resilient, the leaders should be responsive enough to the needs of the community people. An example given by children relates to the Barangay Council’s capacity to provide relief goods to alleviate hunger in times of disasters. 129


The availability of employment is also a significant consideration for urban resiliency to be achieved. The residents should be able to meet basic survival needs for the protection of their wellbeing. The adults provided a separate rating of urban resilience for Barangay Salapan and the City of San Juan. An average rating of 7 was given to the barangay because the adults feel the impact of the different projects and interventions currently implemented. These projects are able to support the people with their economic, health, environmental, and educational needs. The BDRRMO provided the lowest rating since they shared that some of the social attributes identified in the matrix to define urban resilience are missing in their locality due to politics. On the other hand, the City of San Juan garnered an average rating of 6. Although the city has ongoing initiatives to achieve development such as the 7K Program of Mayor Guia Gomez that covers cleanliness, peace and order, health care, livelihood and youth empowerment, continuous improvement still needs to be done to really achieve growth and development. In the case of children and youth, they gave an average rating of 7.25. While development efforts already exist, the young participants conveyed that there is a strong need for concerned authorities and the residents to collaborate further and strategize to put forward an urban resilient community.

Structural

Environmental

• Sturdy

Social/Attitudinal

• Cooperation among community residents ter flood events • Generosity • People are able • Patience to reuse, reduce, • Peace • People love and care and recycle for each other • Waste segregation is practiced • Industrious • Strong constituency by the commu• People pray nity • Preparedness • People plant trees

• Surroundings

houses and Youth are cleaned afChildren

Children and Youth’s Perception of Urban Resilience inBarangay Salapan

• Sufficient supply of boats, floaters, and other emergency response equipment

Political/ Institutional

Economic

• Relief goods are provided

• Availability of jobs

8 7 6 5 4 3 Rating of urban resilience in Brgy. Salapan (Children and Youth)

2 1 0

130

Average

Children

Youth


BARANGAY WEST CRAME Adult

Structural

Environmental

Social/Attitudinal

• Clean and order- • The barangay should be prepared in times ly surroundings of emergencies • The residents should be well informed of the possible modes of action to undergo in times of disasters. • The residents are resourceful • The community people have discipline • People care and trust each other • Unity • Children are protected

Adults’ Perception of Urban Resilience in Barangay West Crame

Political/ Institutional

Economic

• Strong-willed • Adequate Barangay chairre reman sourc• The residents es should be aware of possible disasters especially the barangay official • The city level should also be prepared • The leaders have clear plans

8 7 6 5 4 3 Rating of urban resilience in Brgy. West Crame (Adults)

2 1 0

Average

Barangay Council

Teachers

HOA

Children and Youth Structural

Environmental • Proper waste management

Children and Youth’s Perception of Urban Resilience in Barangay West Crame

Social/Attitudinal

Political/ Institutional

• Cooperation of different sectors in the community • Perseverance • Bayanihan • Social interaction with others • People love one another • Mutual understanding between community members

• Good governance • The rules and regulations implemented by the barangay should be followed faithfully

Economic

131


8 7 6 5 4 Rating of urban resilience in Brgy. West Crame (Children and youth)

3 2 1 0

Average

Children

Youth

The adults, children, and youth of West Crame have confined their definition of urban resilience on the social/ attitudinal and political/ institutional aspects. According to adults, an urban resilient community is a model of good governance. As such, it should be governed by leaders that are strong-willed and are knowledgeable and skilled in disaster risk reduction. These leaders should embody a culture of preparedness and be able to provide guidance to their constituents in times of emergencies. The residents of the community are expected to have a familiarity on the appropriate actions to be undertaken before, during and after a disaster. On the other hand, the children and youth articulated the value of cooperation and bayanihan among various sectors in the community; socialization and interaction; love and mutual understanding; and perseverance. For urban resilience to thrive, the people should be aware of their responsibility to follow the rules and regulations enforced in the community. They also shared that disaster preparedness should also be evident at the city level. The City Government, particularly the focal organization for DRRM, must be equipped with knowledge and resources that would help them in performing their jobs as responders and lifesavers. In terms of urban resilience rating, the teachers provided an average rating of 6. Since the community has a big population, the existing programs and projects of the Barangay Council could not effectively respond to the needs of the people. The need for better governance was also raised especially in terms of planning and decision making. In contrast, children and youth rated the resilience of their barangay with an average score of 8. They shared that the concerned authorities still have to improve their mechanisms and strategies especially during emergencies. Furthermore, the young participants revealed that there are problems in the community which are not given due attention.

132


3.3 PERCEPTION OF CHILDREN’S RIGHTS

3.3.1 City-Level

Perception of Children’s Rights at the City Level

To better understand the role and position of children and youth in the context of urban DRRM, the research examined the understanding of various stakeholders from the city and barangays on the rights of children. Adopting the UN CRC classification, the team grouped the rights as follows: survival, protection, development, and participation. Implementing a child-centered project need not only recognize the perception of adults about children’s rights but value the relative notion of children and youth as well.

Survival

Protective

Developmental

Participative

• Right to medical attention/ service • Right to basic needs (i.e. food, clothing, and shelter) • Right to live • Right to good nutrition

• Right to belong to a happy family that can provide love, care, and proper attention • Right to live normally in a safe and motivating environment • Right to priority attention in times of crisis or calamity

• Right to education and information

• Right to speak and voice their opinion • Right to information regarding what is happening around them

It can been seen that the city-level respondents are fully aware of the most basic rights of a child. The leading right, which is basically the first answer of each respondent, is the right to education and information. This data simply shows how the government really values the need for proper education. It is not just a right but also a privilege, which should be provided to and accessed by the children. For survival, the city level respondents cited that children have rights to proper medical attention and service, good nutrition, and other basic necessities for living. These are rights, yet, they are not properly or fully provided by the government and parents at times. As narrated by respondents, hospital servicing is still not a basic service for many children, as public hospitals remain limited while private ones are not accessible to most families because of the expensive cost. Good nutrition, which is strongly linked to basic necessities, is still a problem and remains a concern of the CSWDO. While feeding programs are done for malnourished kids, the problem of malnourishment still persists. 133


When it comes to protection, the respondents recognized the need of children for proper affection. They articulated that children have the right to belong to a happy family than can provide love, care and proper attention. They complemented it with the right to live in a safe environment and the right to be prioritized during disaster occurrences. It was also mentioned that children and youth need the right to be able to express their opinions and feelings. This right is deemed vital in the holistic growth of a child since they are able to articulate their needs to concerned stakeholders.

Survival

Protection

Development

Participation

20% 40% 10% Rights of Children and Youth in San Juan City

30%

When it comes to priorities, the graph shows how rights related to a child’s survival and protection are greatly focused on and discussed. Meanwhile, the developmental aspect is given minimal attention.

3.3.2 Barangay Level

BARANGAY BATIS Adults

Survival • Right to shelter • Right to clothing • Right to health care

Adults’ Perception of Children’s Rights in Barangay Batis

Protective

Developmental

• Right to safety • Right to defend himself/herself • Right to be cared for • Right o be respected

• Right to have a name • Right to enjoy and play freely • Right to education • Right to be disciplined • Right to mingle with peers

Participative

The rights mentioned by adult respondents from Brgy. Batis are closely related to those already cited by the city-level respondents. The survival aspect still composes the basic necessities and services, which should be rightfully provided to the children. Shelter and clothing again emerged as front runners for the most basic survival rights of a child. 134


In the aspect of protection, the concept of respect has been introduced which was not mentioned by respondents from the city. Another new introduction came up in the development aspect of children’s rights. It was the right to have a name, which is basically parents facilitating birth certificate and other related documents for their child. These are vital for a child to be able to start entering pre-school. The right to education was also highlighted as well as recreation rights of children. Interestingly, the right to be disciplined was mentioned, which is quite an important aspect of rearing a child. Many respondents deemed discipline as a fundamental measure for protecting child’s rights as well as exercising them lawfully.

Survival

Protection

Development

Participation

25% 42%

Rights of children and youth in Brgy. Batis (Adults)

33%

The graph above shows that the development rights of children are the ones which adult residents of the barangay are very aware of. On the other hand, it is quite alarming to see that the respondents failed to discuss or cite examples for children’s rights regarding participation. This somehow reflects that children’s involvement is undermined at the barangay level making them incapable of fulfilling their role as allies of adults to effect change and pursue sustainable development. 10 8 6 4 Rating of Barangay Batis’ capacity to protect child rights (Adults)

2 0

Average

Barangay Council

Teacher

135


Children and Youth Survival

Protective

Developmental

• Right to education • Right to food • Right to clothing

• Right to love one another • Right to be respected • Right to be protected from harm • Right to be cared for

• Right to have friends • Right to enjoy and play freely • Freedom of religion • Right to have a name • Right to have a good life • Right to the privileges of the government

Children and Youth’s Perception of Children’s Rights in Barangay Batis

Participative • Right to express feelings • Right to participate in children-related programs •

The rights cited by children and youth respondents from Barangay Batis are again closely related to the adults. Survival rights revolve around basic necessities; protection is about being loved, protected from harm and respected; development aspect talks about rights to recreation, good life and the like; and participation relates to personal expression. Notably, children and youth respondents have listed freedom of religion as a right, which shows the value they have with regard to respecting faith and beliefs of barangay residents. They also added the right to participate in children-related programs, which is generally what the projects aims to accomplish.

Survival

Protection

13%

Rights of children and youth in Brgy. Batis (Children and Youth)

40%

Development

Participation

20%

27%

The percentage of the responses provided by children and youth regarding their rights on the aspect of development has almost identical percentage to that of the response of the adults. The other categories have somewhat equal distributions noting the level of awareness of the children and youth in the barangay.

136


BARANGAY CORAZON DE JESUS Adults

Survival • Right to proper nutrition • Right to food • Right to clothing • Right to shelter Adults’ Perception of Children’s Rights in Barangay Corazon de Jesus

Protective

Developmental

Participative

• Right to a decent home/family • Right to a peaceful and healthy community • Right to privacy and confidentiality • Right to live in a safe community • Right to be protected from abuse, drugs, and exploitation,

• Right to education • Right to know the right values that will build their character • Right to religion • Right to information • Right to play and recreation

• Right to be involved in environmental projects • Right to be heard • Freedom of expression • Right to participate in matters concerning them especially in the community

For Barangay Corazon de Jesus, the answers of adult respondents are somewhat relative to that of the response gathered from the city level. Basic necessities are present in the survival category of rights and proper nutrition was given emphasis by the stakeholders. Privacy and confidentiality, meanwhile, emerged as a new answer in the protection category. This is the only right under such category not mentioned at the city level and Barangay Batis. The rights discussed under the participation category now include children’s participation and involvement to projects and matters concerning the community. This awareness shows the level of activity and immersion children and youth participate have in community affairs.

Survival

Protection

21%

Rights of children and youth in Brgy. Corazon de Jesus (Adults)

32%

Development

Participation

21%

26%

Developmental category remains as the top percentage like in the previous chart. Other categories are within 5% from each other. The well-distributed responses just show the extent of overall awareness of the community people regarding rights. 137


8 7 6 5 4 3 Rating of Barangay Corazon de Jesus’ capacity to protect child rights (Adults)

2 1 0

Average

Barangay LGU

Survival

Adults’ Perception of Children’s Rights in Barangay Corazon de Jesus

• Right to eat • Right to sleep • Right to a clean and safe environment • Right to a clean environment

Protective • Right to be respected (PWDs)

Parents

Schools

Developmental

Organization

Participative

• Right to go to church • Right to play

Children and Youth

Contrary to the trend from the previous barangay, in which children and youth respondents provided numerous responses on rights regarding participation, the young participants from Barangay Corazon de Jesus did not articulate any right related to participation. Survival category remains focused on rights regarding basic needs to be provided to the children and youth. The development category still focused on

Survival

Protection

Development

40%

Rights of children and youth in Brgy. Corazon de Jesus (Children and Youth)

138

60%

Participation


rights to recreation and religion. The response categorized under protection aspect is notable since they are the only group, which identified this right. Interviewed children and youth have expressed the importance of the right of children with disabilities (CWDs) to be respected. This is probably an offshoot of personal or second-hand experience where in CWDs are being bullied. Based on the figure above, only two categories of rights are shown. This reflects how children and youth of the barangay have limited awareness of their 8 7 6 5 4 3 Rating of Brgy. Corazon de Jesus’ capacity to protect child rights (Children and Youth)

2 1 0

Average

Children

Youth

rights. Contrary to the data from adult respondent, this chart depicts survival component is more prominent compared to the usual development aspect.

BARANGAY SALAPAN Survival

Adults’ Perception of Children’s Rights in Barangay Salapan

• Right to proper hygiene • Right to good health/ proper nutrition • Right to clean environment

Protective • Right to proper guidance • Right to be free from drugs • Right to peace and security

Developmental

Participative

• Right to education

• Right to freedom of speech

Adults

Good health and proper hygiene are some of the first few responses under survival rights provided by interviewed stakeholders from Barangay Salapan. The right to a clean environment also came up which generally translates to a community that values proper personal and environmental sanitation. The adult respondents from Barangay Salapan also introduced the right to proper guidance. This is a requirement that is often neglected by some parents as shared during the discussion. Lack of guidance leads to vices like drug use, which is a violation of another right stated by the adults – right to be free from drugs. Right to education, which is a universal answer, still emerged as well as the right to freedom of speech. 139


Survival

Protection

Development

Participation

15% 25%

12%

Rights of children and youth in Brgy. Salapan (Adult)

37%

8 7 6 5 4 3 Rating of Barangay Salapan’s capacity to protect child rights (Adults)

2 1 0

Average

Barangay Council

Parents

Schools/ Teachers

BDRRMO

HOA

The landscape of answers has greatly changed than that of the previous two communities. Now, the percentages of protection and survival rights dominate while development and participation rights carry only half of the two. Survival

Children and Youth’s Perception of Children’s Rights in Barangay Corazon de Jesus

• Right to eat • Right to have clothing • Right to be safe (i.e. able to evacuate) • Right to a clean and green environment

Protective

Developmental

Participative

• Right to have a loving family • Right to be happy

• Right to education • Right to have a name • Right to get a good job in the future • Right to play and have leisure time • Right to have friends

• Right to help in the community • Right to be free

Children and Youth 140


Children and youth respondents in Barangay Salapan have provided answers, which are closely related to that of their adult counterparts. Once again, cleanliness was mentioned on responses regarding rights on survival. Safety from disasters and access to evacuation were also discussed along the way. Protection and development rights still have not changed much from all the previous data presented so far. Noticeably, the children and youth stated a

Survival

Protection

Development

Participation

13% 20%

40%

Rights of children and youth in Brgy. Salapan (Children and Youth)

27%

right regarding actively helping in the community, which is an empowering right and helps in their development as an individual and as a resident of the community. 8 7 6 5 4 3 Rating of Barangay Salapan’s capacity to protect child rights (Children and Youth)

2 1 0

Average

Children

Youth

Interestingly, the chart shows a distinct difference of responses from children and youth compared to those of the adults. Developmental rights here are double that of the adults, while the protection was halved. The other two categories are comparably the same from the adults’ data.

141


Survival • Right to be born • Right to a good nutrition • Right to a decent house

Children and Youth’s Perception of Children’s Rights in Barangay Salapan

Protective

Developmental

Participative

• Right to have a secure environment • Right to have a good family • Right to be safe from abuse • Right to have parents • Right to be loved

• Right to have a name • Right to education • Right to know the responsibility of their rights

• Right to do the things they want to do • Right to express their ideas/sentiments

BARANGAY WEST CRAME Adults

The adults of Barangay West Crame shared a survival right, which was not raised by other communities and this is the right to be born. This right is also

Survival

Protection

Development

Participation

Rights of Children and Youth in Brgy. West Crame (Adults)

connected to teenage pregnancy, which is a known vulnerability of children and youth. Another right stated by adult respondents, which is important yet greatly neglected, is the right of children and youth to be informed of the responsibility they have on their rights. Respondents have expressed their dismay on children and youth who only know their rights but fail to live up to the responsibilities carried with these rights. 142


8 7 6 5 4 3 Rating of Brgy. West Crame’s capacity to protect child rights (Adults)

2 1 0

Average

Barangay Council

Teachers

Organizations

Other rights under development and participation components shared are similar to the ones mentioned by other communities. Some of these include Survival • Right to be born

Children and Youth’s Perception of Children’s Rights in Barangay West Crame

Protective • Right not to engage in illegal drugs • Right to have a good family • Right to go to church with their families • Right to spend time with their families

Developmental

Participative

• Right to education • Right to play freely

right to education and freedom of expression. As reflected in the chart, the biggest part goes to developmental rights while the other three categories stand equal. This shows the balanced awareness of the respondents regarding rights of children and youth.

Children and Youth

It is notable that the rights stated by children and youth respondents from Barangay West Crame do not include those related to participation. This somehow reflects the poor awareness of children and youth on their right to engage and become involved in community affairs, which is vital for empowerment. 143


Survival

Protection

Development

Participation

Rights of children and youth in Brgy. West Crame (Children and Youth)

8 7 6 5 4 3 Rating of Brgy. West Crame’s capacity to protect child rights (Children and Youth)

2 1 0

144

Average

Children

Youth


145

IV. DRRM and CCA Policies and Activities 4.1 DRRM AND CCA POLICIES

The study examined existing legislations and political instruments that relate to DRRM, CCA, and children in the research areas. Having a concrete picture of the legal environment where adult and children stakeholders move is vital in identifying lawful mechanisms and channels that can be tapped in promoting a child-centered DRRM and CCA agenda.

4.1.1 City-Level

Child Related • RA 9344 CICL Law • Special protection against child abuse cases, exploitations, discrimination (RA 7610) • Anti-pornography Act (RA9775) • Anti-trafficking in persons Act (RA9802) • Memorandum circular re: institutionalization of local council for the protection of children (LCPC) • Barangay executive order creating the Brgy. Nutrition Council • Children’s code • Magna Carta for PWD (RA 7277 amended 9442)

DRRM/ CCA Related • An act organizing the CDRRM office (EO 66609) • An act reorganizing the CDRRM Council (EO 66613) • The Philippine DRRM Law (RA10121) • Forced evacuation ordinance

Others • Women related laws • Bottom up Budgeting (BUB) • Ordinance accrediting NGO partners of the City

At the city level, relevant policies on DRRM and children were shared. In particular, the CDRRMO mentioned two executive orders that assisted the city government to reorganize its CDRRM council (EO 66613) and create its CDRMM office (EO 66609). The enactment of RA 10121 in 2010 paved the way for these legal actions to transpire. As a matter of fact, the city of San Juan was the first to establish a DRRM office in 2011, after the implementation of the said national law. Furthermore, RA 10121 also provided an avenue for transforming the response-oriented nature of DRRM work in the city to a more proactive and inclusive one. The presence of this legal instrument provided an enabling environment to institutionalize the DRRM agenda in the mandate of the local government. The CSWDO representative articulated a number of national laws that uphold


the rights of children and youth. These include RA 7610 (An act providing for stronger deterrence and special protection against child abuse, exploitation and discrimination); RA 9344 (Juvenile Justice Welfare Act); RA 9775 (An act defining the crime of child pornography); RA 9208 (Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act); Children’s Code; RA 9442 (Amended Magna Carta for Disabled Persons). A memorandum circular institutionalizing the Local Council for the Protection of Children (LCPC) was also passed to further establish a mechanism that will put forward the security of children’s wellbeing. As expressed by the Department of Education (DepEd), the presence of these national laws guides the city in crafting their local programs and interventions for children and youth especially those identified as most vulnerable like the impoverished, children with disability, out-of-school youth, and those in conflict with the law. With the aid of rightful sanctions and penalties stipulated in the mentioned laws, the future of younger generation is secured from hostility and jeopardy. Other existing laws concerning women, bottom-up budgeting, and accreditation of NGO partners were also shared by representatives from the Sanggunian and DILG during the discussion. Women-related laws (i.e. anti-violence) are believed to be fundamental in securing children’s welfare. A bottom-up budgeting approach is deemed important to conceptualize and develop interventions that are fit to children and youth since local needs are taken into account. Accreditation of NGO partners is also recognized as essential since it provides an avenue for better coordination and resource mobilization in implementing development projects and program for the younger generation and beyond.

4.1.2 Barangay Level

BARANGAY BATIS Children and Youth

Child Related • RA 7160 • Anti-domestic Violence • Curfew for 18 years below

DRRM/ CCA Related

Others

• Philippine Air and Water Act • Tapat ko, linis ko!

In the aspect of DRRM and CCA, the children and youth of Barangay Batis focused on the existing environmental laws implemented at the national and barangay levels. The legal instruments they mentioned involve the preservation of clean air and water. On the other hand, at the barangay level, the maintenance of a clean and sanitary community is also being advocated through the Tapat ko, Linis ko ordinance. With regard to child-related laws, the young participants conveyed the significance of RA 7160 for them to be protected from the perils of child abuse, exploitation, and discrimination. This legal instrument particularly defends their protection rights, which are crucial in their growth and development as individuals. In support of the RA 7160, they also shared the existence of an ordinance on curfew for minors, which the Barangay Council implements in adherence to the City Government’s order. On the other hand, the adult participants failed to identify relevant laws on the research topic during the discussion. 146


BARANGAY CORAZON DE JESUS Adults

Child Related • Curfew • Ordinance that prohibits selling of cigarettes and liquors to minors

DRRM/ CCA Related

Others

• Ordinance that prohibits urinating and spitting in public places • Waste disposal and segregation • Ordinance requiring the conduct of earthquake and fire drills • All establishments and schools should be equipped with fire, medical, and other related emergency equipment

• No parking in one-way streets • People with no t-shirt or clothes are not allowed to stay outside the house • Drinking in public places is not allowed • Responsible animal care (no stray animals should be allowed)

DRRM/ CCA Related

Others

Children and Youth Child Related • Law prohibiting violence against women and children (VAWC) • Ordinance creating the Barangay Council for the Protection of Children

• No Smoke-belching • BDDRMC • Waste management

The adults and children of Barangay Corazon de Jesus identified DRR/ CCA related laws that are focused on cleanliness and sanitation. They articulated the significance of proper waste management through segregation. This is supported by their existing recycling initiatives such as production of accessories out of newspapers and magazines. The passage of a law prohibiting smoke belching was also shared as it serves as a measure to lessen air pollution in the community. The young participants have particularly mentioned the ordinance creating the Barangay Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Committee (BDRRMC). The presence of this committee is vital for defining tasks in relation to safety from disasters and risks. Participants from the schools shared the presence of a memorandum circular requiring the conduct of earthquake drill among children and youth. Furthermore, they also added the presence of an order that requires schools and establishments to have fire, medical, and other emergency-related equipment. Like the community of Batis, Barangay Corazon de Jesus is also conscious with securing the safety of children through the implementation of curfew for minors. Other than curfew, the community has an ordinance that prohibits selling of cigarettes and liquors to minors to keep them away from these harmful vices which are detrimental to their education. Specific laws on child protection were also articulated and these include the law prohibiting violence against women and children and the ordinance on creating BCPC. 147


Other legal instruments shared by adults and youth are as follows: no parking in one-way streets to prevent traffic and accidents and prohibition of drinking alcohol in public.

BARANGAY SALAPAN Adults

Child Related

DRRM/ CCA Related

Others

• RA 7610 which covers physical, psychological, and social abuse • Curfew for children 18 years old and below at 10 pm

• Local ordinance on solid waste management • Clean and Green ordinance (planning and planting) • Ordinance on Enviro- Kidz

• National ordinance on noise pollution • Ordinance that prohibits riding motorcycles in tandem without helmet • Animal Act: Residents should be responsible to house their animals. Stray animals are not allowed.

DRRM/ CCA Related

Others

Children and Youth Child Related • Curfew

Similar to Barangay Corazon de Jesus, the adults and children of Barangay Salapan mentioned ordinance on curfew as well as anti-child abuse law as among those that are implemented in their community to protect children from harm. On the other hand, DRRM and CCA-related policies still revolve around cleanliness mechanisms like solid waste local ordinance and clean and green projects. One of the prominent ordinances on DRRM and CCA shared relates to organizing the Enviro-Kidz through the leadership of the Environment and Natural Resource Office of the City Government. This ordinance encourages school children to engage in solid waste management and urban gardening initiatives. The adult respondents conveyed other legal instruments that assist in ensuring the safety and welfare of the younger generation. Some of these are as follows: law that prohibits noise pollution; ordinance that forbids riding motorcycles in tandem without helmet; and an act aimed at minimizing stray animals in public places.

BARANGAY SALAPAN

In the DRR/ CCA aspect, the adults of Barangay West Crame shared laws that are mostly implemented at the national level and these are RA 10121, Solid Waste Management Act, Environmental Audit, and Anti-smoke Belching Act. Majority of the legal instruments mentioned are focused on conserving the environment through proper waste management and penalizing those that contribute to air pollution.

148


Adults Child Related

DRRM/ CCA Related

• • • •

RA 7610 Curfew Anti-hazing law Law on information dissemination on HIV • Anti-child abuse law

Others

• RA 10121 • Solid Waste Management Act • Environmental Audit (Commission on Audit) • Anti-smoke belching law

• • • •

No double parking Anti-illegal drugs act Anti-spitting law Ordinance No. 54 (prohibits liquor drinking among children and youth)

Children and Youth In the DRR/ CCA aspect, the adults of Barangay West Crame shared laws that are mostly implemented at the national level and these are RA 10121, Solid Waste Management Act, Environmental Audit, and Anti-smoke Belching Act. Majority of the legal instruments mentioned are focused on conserving the environment through proper waste management and penalizing those that contribute to air pollution. The responses of adults and children with regard to child-related policies are again common to the previously discussed barangays. The participants from Barangay West Crame highlighted RA 7160; ordinance on curfew for minors; and anti- child abuse law. In response to the issue of early pregnancy due to pre-marital sex, the barangay has an ordinance encouraging information dissemination on HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. A law, which prohibits hazing, also exists to protect children and youth from physical harm as a result of their membership to gangs and fraternities. The respondents articulated other laws, which they reckon necessary for the protection of children and youth such as Ordinance no. 54 that prohibits drinking alcohol among young individuals; law that prohibits illegal drugs; anti-spitting law; and ordinance that prohibits double parking to avoid traffic congestion. Meanwhile, the young generation did not identify any policies or ordinances relating to DRR, CCA, and children.

4.2 DRRM AND CCA ACTIVITIES

4.2.1 City-Level

Since the research seeks to understand and gauge the level of children’s engagement, the team asked the city and barangay participants to identify different activities and interventions relating to DRRM and CCA wherein children and youth engage either as leader, participant or beneficiary. Projects and programs that relate to the protection of children and youth welfare were also considered in the study PREPAREDNESS Activity

Initiating Organization

Training on basic life support and first aid seminar

CDRRMO

Role of Children and Youth Leader

Participant

Beneficiary X

149


Information, education, and communication (IEC) campaign: “Naiba na ang panahon”

X

Provision of first aid kits in the barangay

X CCDRRMO

Conduct of disaster preparedness seminars for schools Formation of Batang Emergency Response Team

X

X

EMERGENCY RESPONSE Activity

Initiating Organization

Rescue operation for senior citizens and school children

CSWDO/ CDRRMO

Role of Children and Youth Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

X

RECOVERY AND REHABILITATION Activity

Initiating Organization

CISD or Critical Incident Stress Debriefing

Role of Children and Youth Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

CSWDO

X

X

Initiating Organization

Role of Children and Youth

GENERAL WELFARE Activity Assistance to individuals in crisis situations (AICS) for persons/ children with disability (i.e. financial and medical assistance; counselling)

150

Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

X

X

CSWDO

Educational assistance for children with solo parent

X

Issuance of PWD/CWD Discount Card

X


Grief management for bereaved family members

X

Family therapy under Parent Effectiveness Sessions (PES)

X

Supplemental feeding program

CSWDO

X

Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program 4P’S

X

Search for Child-friendly LGUs

X

Bottom-up Budgeting

X

The DRRM and CCA activities shared by adults from the city are concentrated mainly on preparedness and emergency response components. As the lead organization in DRRM related affairs, the CDRRMO plays a chief role in capacity building and rescue operations. The CDRRMO is legally mandated to acts as trainer, advocate, and responder. They often spearhead the conduct of trainings and awareness raising activities on disaster preparedness and management for different sectors including the schools. The CSWDO, on the other hand, is the lead department in emergency response. This delineation of tasks is in accordance with the provisions of RA 10121. Having the said role, they are in charge of relief distribution, coordination to facilitate rescue, monitoring the status of evacuation centers, and conduct of psychosocial activities such as Critical Incident Stress Debriefing for disaster survivors. When they do their operation, the CSWDO also prioritizes the most vulnerable groups such as children, elderly, and persons with disability (PWD) in their operation. At the school level, the CSWDO also initiates the formation of Batang Emergency Response Team (BERT) to instill among school children the value of being prepared and responsive in times of emergencies. Apart from basic orientation on DRR, the children are also taught of skills, which they can utilize to respond effectively in case of an earthquake, typhoon, or fire. It is notable in the matrix that many of the identified activities and efforts of San Juan City Government for the children and youth are inclined towards the protection of their physical wellbeing and development. The existing interventions are focused on providing assistance to meet their nutritional, educational, medical, and psychological needs. In particular, the CSWDO representative had emphasized the significance of these needs since it is the focal agency that deals with issues and concerns relating to children and youth welfare. This reality reflects that the city provides less attention on empowerment and development-related programs for the benefit of young generation. The table above shows that in most activities implemented, the children’s role is limited to being a beneficiary. This reveals the passive engagement that children and youth have in their existing programs since the adults largely decide for them. Furthermore, it was revealed that there are few activities identified under emergency response and recovery and rehabilitation aspects. This may be an 151


indication of the city government’s shift from a reactive frame into a proactive approach to DRRM. The city’s initiative to develop plans such as Solid Waste Management Plan (2012-2022) and Climate Change Action Plan are concrete efforts that testify their commitment to a proactive approach towards safety and resilience. One of the prominent city initiated programs that caters to the wellbeing of both adults and youth is the 7K Program (Kalusugan, Kaunlaran, Kalinisan, Kabuhayan, Katahimikan, Kalikasan, at Kalinga sa Pamilya). This initiative is popular in the barangays and covers myriad of physical, social, and economic needs of the populace

4.2.2 Barangay Level

BARANGAY BATIS Adults

PREVENTION AND MITIGATION Activity

Initiating Organization

Canal cleaning

Urban gardening

Role of Children and Youth Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

Barangay Council

X

X

City Government/ Barangay Council

X

X

EMERGENCY RESPONSE Activity

Initiating Organization

Evacuation

Provision of food in the evacuation center Provision of rescue equipment (i.e. ropes)

Role of Children and Youth Leader

Participant

Beneficiary X

Barangay Council

X

X

In the case of Barangay Batis, adult respondents identified activities mainly on prevention, mitigation, and emergency response. However, they did not cite any project or intervention related to preparedness. This shows their limited grasp on proactive approach and the need for local government to intensify their efforts on DRRM-related capacity building and awareness raising. As reflected in the table, children and youth are both participants and beneficiaries of disaster prevention and mitigation activities such as canal cleaning and urban gardening. Apart from reducing the threat of flooding, these activities are also aimed at adapting to climate change phenomenon which is manifested in the continuous warming of the globe. Among the organizations that spearhead these activities are the Barangay Council and the City Government. Emergency response programs, meanwhile, only have children and youth as beneficiaries, a concrete sign that the younger generation has limited avenues to exercise their empowering role. These programs are mostly focused on evacuation, relief provision, and rescue. 152


Children and Youth GENERAL WELFARE Role of Children and Youth

Activity

Initiating Organization

Summer Basketball League

Barangay Council

Feeding program

Grain New Wine and Oil Ministries

Palarong Pambata

Youth Builders Society

X

X

Bible study

Grain New Wine and Oil Ministries

X

X

Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

X

X

X

X

The former statement regarding lack of youth empowerment in the barangay resurfaced in the discussion with children and youth respondents. Having no answer for DRR or CCA-related activities marks that children and youth are not actively and constantly engaged by the barangay in implementing its activities. This somehow reflects the minimal efforts of the barangay on DRR and CCA related programs, as these remain unnoticed by children and youth respondents. All the programs and interventions identified by children and youth respondents fall under general welfare. Among these activities are designed to nurture their sportsmanship and camaraderie; spiritual growth; and sustenance. Conduct of summer basketball league, feeding program, sports fest for kids, and bible study are among the engagements of children and youth.

BARANGAY CORAZON DE JESUS Adults

PREPAREDNESS Role of Children and Youth

Activity

Initiating Organization

First Aid and BLS Training

Philippine Red Cross/ CDRRMO/ CFC Global Walk

X

Training on Leadership and Volunteerism

Red Cross/ CDRRMO

X

Development of work plan on climate change

Barangay Council

Fire Olympics

Barangay Council/ BFP San Juan

Organizing of Enviro- Kids

City Government/ Barangay Council

Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

X

X

X

153


Mr. and Ms. EcoSaver Competition

Barangay Council

X

X

Organizing of Red Cross Youth

Philippine Red Cross/ Barangay Council

X

X

DRRM trainings and drills for youth

Barangay Council/ CFC Global Walk

X

X

PREVENTION AND MITIGATION Activity

Initiating Organization

Urban gardening

Role of Children and Youth Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

Barangay Council

X

X

Clean up Drive

Barangay Council/ Army Reservist

X

X

Waste segragation and management

CENRO/ Barangay Council

X

Eco Livelihood (use of old newspapers and magazines for making beads or accessories)

Youth/group Barangay Council

X

X

GENERAL WELFARE

154

Role of Children and Youth

Activity

Initiating Organization

Inter-barangay sports competition

Barangay Council

Provision of school supplies

Barangay Council

X

Guitar Lessons

Barangay Council

X

Guhit kulay, atbp.

Barangay Council

Feeding and Operation Timbang

Barangay Council/ Cardinal Santos Hospital

Teen sexuality Seminar

POPCOM NCR – KATROPA

X

X

Teen sexuality and value formation seminar

Couples for Christ

X

X

Free medical assistance

Cardinal Santos Hospital/ CARITAS

Library for the youth

Barangay Council

Kids/Youth/Single for Christ

Catholic Church

Leader

Participant

X

X

X

Beneficiary

X

X

X X

X X


Barangay Anti Drug Action Council (BADAC)

PNP San Juan

X

VAWC Seminar

PNP San Juan

X

Peace and Order Seminar

Barangay Council

Seminar on TB for BHW

USAID-DOH

X

Scholarship

CARITAS

X

Livelihood Program

CFC Global Walk

X

Stress debriefing

CFC Global Walk

X

X

X

The adult respondents of Barangay Corazon de Jesus were able to identify activities concerning two major thematic areas of DRRM: preparedness and prevention/ mitigation. Along with DRR and CCA-related interventions, they also cited activities that protect the welfare of young generation. As illustrated in the table, children and youth are usually participants in disaster-related programs and activities. In some of the identified activities like organizing of Red Cross Youth and Enviro-Kidz, the children and youth are given avenues to showcase and enhance their leadership skills. This is a manifestation that adults in the community recognize their role as an ally in pursuing development and they offer an avenue for young generation to exercise meaningful engagement. This deviates from the traditional approach of development where the capacities of children and youth are underestimated. Meanwhile, in the general welfare-related activities, children and youth are mostly beneficiaries. Some of the identified disaster preparedness activities include first aid training; leadership and volunteerism training; CCA planning; Fire Olympics; earthquake drills; youth organizing; and installation of CCTV for monitoring. The Barangay Council leads majority of these activities since it is the legally mandated body at the local level to coordinate and manage DRRM-related affairs. Some undertakings are made possible with the assistance of concerned non-government organizations (NGOs) such as Philippine Red Cross. On the other hand, disaster prevention and mitigation activities focused solely on maintaining cleanliness and sanitation of the barangay vicinity. Recycling activities, such as production of accessories out of newspapers and magazines and pots from empty PET bottles, are also carried out by the residents. Tree planting is also a common activity in the community and schools as a mitigation measure for flooding and an adaptive mechanism for climate change impacts. In the implementation of these actions, the children and youth act as leaders, participants, and beneficiaries. This further reiterates that adults in Barangay Corazon de Jesus give premium to the meaningful participation and empowering position of children and youth. The identified general welfare activities had various scopes. These include sports promotion; educational assistance; health and wellness; spiritual growth; and public awareness programs to combat child-abuse issues. Numerous external organizations such as Right Start, Caritas and universities as well as private individuals also extend help to the community through collaborating with the Barangay Council in accomplishing worthwhile activities for children and youth. 155


Children and Youth PREPAREDNESS Role of Children and Youth

Activity

Initiating Organization

Disaster preparedness seminar

Philippine Red Cross/ CDRRMO/ CFC Global Walk

Earthquake and fire drills

School/ Barangay Council

Integration of DRRM related topics in the academic curriculum

School

X

CCTV installation

Barangay Council

X

Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

X

X

X

X

X

PREVENTION AND MITIGATION Activity

Initiating Organization

Role of Children and Youth Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Clean up drive: “Tapat ko, linis ko” Tree Planting: “Putol ko, palit ko”

Barangay Council

Urban gardening Recycling and waste segregation

CENRO/ Barangay Council

X

GENERAL WELFARE Activity Community service Anti-dengue campaign

156

Initiating Organization

Barangay Council

Role of Children and Youth Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

X

X X

Bible study

Right Start/ San Beda/ Ateneo/ ICA

Feeding program

Right Start

Sports competition

Barangay Council

Scholarship

Caritas

X

Provision of school supplies to indigent children and youth

Barangay Council

X

X

X X

X

X


Just like adults, the responses of children and youth in Barangay Corazon de Jesus fall under the following components: disaster preparedness; prevention and mitigation; and general welfare activities. While there are activities where children and youth act as leaders, majority of them still engage as mere recipients. With regard to disaster preparedness, the identified activities are carried out through the tutelage of the Barangay Council, school and concerned NGOs. Among the activities cited are disaster preparedness seminars, disaster drills, integration of DRRM topic in academic curriculums, and CCTV installation. On the other hand, prevention and mitigation activities still revolve around cleaning, recycling, and greening initiatives led by the Barangay Council. In some cases, children and youth also take on leadership roles in these undertakings. Interventions aimed at protecting the wellbeing of children and youth offer them a passive role as beneficiaries.

BARANGAY SALAPAN Adults

PREPAREDNESS Activity

Initiating Organization

Disaster drills (flood, earthquake, and fire)

Role of Children and Youth Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

DRRNet Phils/ Barangay Council/ BFPSan Juan

X

X

Training on disaster preparedness (i.e. CBDRRM)

DRRNet Phils/ Red Cross

X

X

Mapping of risks and threats in the area

DRRNet Phils

X

Early warning devices are installed in selected areas of the barangay

Barangay Council

X

Installation of CCTV

Barangay Council

X

Boat making

De La Salle University

X

PREVENTION AND MITIGATION Activity

Initiating Organization

Urban Gardening

Barangay Council/ Miriam College

Role of Children and Youth Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

X

X

As for Barangay Salapan, adults were able to share responses relating to three thematic areas in DRRM: preparedness; prevention and mitigation; and emergency response. Similar to the previous barangays, they did not identify any activity or project that fall under rehabilitation and recovery component. In the identified disaster preparedness activities, children and youth simply 157


EMERGENCY RESPONSE Role of Children and Youth

Activity

Initiating Organization

Relief provision

GMA 7

X

Medical mission

Red Cross

X

Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

GENERAL WELFARE Role of Children and Youth

Activity

Initiating Organization

Sports activities

Youth group/ Barangay Council

Awareness raising on responsible sex

KATROPA

X

UBAS (Ugnayan ng Barangay at Simbahan)

Church/ Barangay Council

X

DBVS –Daily Bible Vocation School

School

Operation Tuli/ Medical Mission

City Government/ Red Cross

Tutoring of Poor Students

Xavier School

X

X

Free skills education

TESDA

X

X

Feeding program

Barangay Council/ Day Care

X

Provision of school supplies

Phil Jaycees

X

Provision of rice

Tzu Chi Foundation

X

Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

act as beneficiaries and are not able to exercise active and dynamic form of engagement. Among the activities under this component are flood and earthquake drills; trainings on Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction and Management (CBDRRM) and risk assessment; hazard mapping; placing of early warning devices in strategic locations; and CCTV installation for regular monitoring. The organizations that provided assistance to Barangay Salapan to successfully carry out the activities include the Disaster Risk Reduction Network Philippines (DRRNet-Phils), Bureau of Fire Protection (BFP), and Philippine Red Cross. One of the notable external initiators is the De La Salle University who has helped in the boat making activity. The respondents cited urban gardening as the sole activity under prevention and mitigation where children and youth are both participants and beneficiaries. Meanwhile, activities under emergency response are mainly initiated by outside organizations such as the media and the role of children and youth is limited to being beneficiaries. 158


The general welfare activities are somewhat identical to the results in other barangays. These activities dwell on the following: sports, awareness raising, educational assistance, and health and wellness. Children and Youth PREPAREDNESS Activity

Initiating Organization

Earthquake and fire drills

School/ BFPSan Juan

Integration of disaster- related topics in school curriculum

School

Organizing of Batang Emergency Response Team

School

Role of Children and Youth Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

X

X

X

X

X

X

PREVENTION AND MITIGATION Activity

Initiating Organization

Imposing fines to those caught throwing trash around

Barangay Council

Enviro-Kidz clean the streets

City Government

Clean up activities

CENRO

Role of Children and Youth Leader

Participant

Beneficiary X

X

X

X X

EMERGENCY RESPONSE Activity

Initiating Organization

Relief distribution

Red Cross

Role of Children and Youth Leader

Participant

Beneficiary X

GENERAL WELFARE Activity

Initiating Organization

Anti-drug campaign: Ako’y San Juaneno, Ayaw ko sa Drugs

City Government

Supreme student/pupil government

School

Role of Children and Youth Leader

Participant

Beneficiary X

X

X

X

Children and youth respondents of Barangay Salapan have provided responses for the same categories where their adult counterparts gave answers. This is a reflection that adults and children in the community are likely to have the same level of awareness on activities relating to DRRM, CCA, and children. It is quite notable that activities cited on disaster preparedness such as drills, 159


organizing, and integration of DRR subject in the academic curriculum are identified as those initiated by schools. They failed to mention activities led by the Barangay Council. This shows how schools become effective channels in enhancing the knowledge and skills of children and youth in DRRM. At a young age, the children are already taught to embrace a culture of preparedness and safety. In these activities, children and youth are able to assume the role of leaders, participants, and beneficiaries. The identified prevention and mitigation activities still revolve around community cleaning as well as rules penalizing violators of laws on waste management in the barangay. The children and youth still take the role of leaders, participants and beneficiaries. On the other hand, emergency response is solely about distribution of relief goods, which is usually led by external organizations. Again, in the general welfare category, respondents were not able to provide answers for activities initiated by the Barangay Council. According to children and youth, they mainly engage as recipients of the assistance provided.

BARANGAY WEST CRAME Adults

PREPAREDNESS Role of Children and Youth

Activity

Initiating Organization

Seminar on disaster preparedness

Barangay Council

X

Purchase of equipment and tools for emergencies (i.e. fire) are available

Barangay Council

X

Earthquake and fire drills

School/ BFPSan Juan

X

X

Fire Olympics

BFP-San Juan

X

X

Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

PREVENTION AND MITIGATION Role of Children and Youth

Activity

Initiating Organization

Operation Linis

Barangay Council/ HOA

X

Urban gardening

City Government

X

Waste segregation

Barangay Council/ HOA

Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

X X

EMERGENCY RESPONSE

160

Activity

Initiating Organization

Clearing operations

Barangay Council

Role of Children and Youth Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

X

X


GENERAL WELFARE Role of Children and Youth

Activity

Initiating Organization

Free tutorials and summer classes

Right Start

Provision of school supplies

Day Care

X

Women’s Desk

Church/ Barangay Council

X

Barangay Council

X

Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

X

X

Sports Fest

Barangay Council

Feeding program

Day Care/ Barangay Council

Special Program for Employment of Students (SPES)

Barangay Council

Medical Mission

Jaycees/ Rotary/ Caritas

X

Educational Programs

Sacred Heart and Immaculate Concepcion Parish Church

X

X

X

X X

X

X

X

Majority of the activities articulated by adult respondents in Barangay West Crame fall under preparedness and mitigation/ prevention. Although this reflects a shift from a response-oriented frame to a proactive one, the engagement of young generation remains limited as beneficiaries and participants. In the aspect of preparedness, one of the initiatives of the barangay is the conduct of training and seminars to increase people’s awareness on the importance of safety. They also mentioned that they have purchased equipment and tools for emergency response. To further educate the people on preparedness, the barangay also engaged in drills and other public awareness activities such as Fire Olympics initiated by the Bureau of Fire Protection. In fact, Barangay West Crame was declared as the overall champion in the said event. Similar to other communities covered by the research, among the activities mentioned under prevention and mitigation include cleaning, urban gardening and waste segregation. Children and youth get themselves involve either as participant or beneficiary. In the conduct of these activities, the HOA plays an important role as one of the initiators. The barangay residents also identified clearing operations as one of the common activities, which they usually do in times of disasters. This involves clearing of debris and collection of garbage when typhoon and flooding strike in the locality. In the general welfare activities mentioned by adult respondents, the children and youth primarily act as beneficiaries. These activities are implemented with the aim of contributing to the young generation’s education, health, spiritual, and livelihood needs. It is notable that the barangay also collaborates with 161


external organizations to successfully implement activities for the wellbeing of children and youth.

Children and Youth GENERAL WELFARE Role of Children and Youth

Activity

Initiating Organization

Feeding Program

Barangay Council/ Day Care

X

Free Circumcision

Barangay Council/ Barangay Health Center

X

Medical mission

Jaycees/ Rotary

X

Anti-Rabies Campaign

Barangay Council

X

Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

The responses of children and youth in Barangay West Crame primarily focused on general welfare activities. As articulated by respondents from other covered barangays, these programs are implemented to assist the nutritional and medical needs of young generation. The Barangay Council, organized committees at the local level, and NGOs are among the identified initiators of these initiatives. Similar to the observation in other research sites, the young generation is largely treated as beneficiaries who are in need of care from others. There was no mention of any projects or engagements designed to achieve safety from hazards and risks. This reflects that children and youth have minimal participation in DRRM and CCA work, which further exacerbates their vulnerability.

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163

V. Recommendations Given the gaps and limitations that confront the city and its covered barangays in realizing an inclusive DRRM and CCA agenda, the representatives from various departments of San Juan City Government and sectors in the barangay shared some insights and recommendation on how to create an enabling environment that would encourage greater, more active, and meaningful children and youth engagement. The participants’ suggestions were largely linked to programs and projects implementation and policy development.

5.1 CITY LEVEL

Policies

Programs and Projects

• Allow children and youth to engage in worthwhile activities • Provide support to existing children and youth organizations • Prioritization of child and youth- related programs and projects • Proper networking and linkages with different government agencies and NGOs • Volunteer program for youth and PYAP (PAG-ASA Youth Association of the Philippines) - San Juan Chapter • Mobilization of child protection committees in schools with active participation of the Barangay Council

• Creation of Youth DRRM Council • Creation of children’s council in private and public schools • Institutionalization of Citizen Satisfaction Index System (CSIS)

The responses at the city level revolve around support and protection of children and youth. But a noteworthy recommendation was the proposition of having children and youth engage in worthwhile and productive activities in the community such as value formation seminars, skills training, and sports. The presence of these activities will enable the concerned stakeholders to prevent children from engaging into activities that are potentially harmful and risky. As confirmed by the gathered data, one of the reasons why children engage in vices and other unwanted acts because of lack of activities to keep them occupied. In order to achieve a child-centered community, the respondents also suggested prioritization of child and youth-related programs in planning and budgeting processes. This coincides with another recommendation pushing for support to existing children and youth organizations. This is a welcome proposal since it is evident that communities under the study seemed to be lacking children and youth empowerment mechanisms. Another good recommendation by city-level respondents related to children and youth empowerment is a volunteer program among youth and members of PAG-ASA Youth Association of the Philippines (PYAP).


The respondents also suggested strengthening of partnership with different government and non-government organizations (NGOs) to mobilize support and resources for child and youth-related programs. Collaborating with NGOs opens opportunities for the city to tap partners who can assist them with implementation. Since child abuse and child bullying are among the pertinent concerns in the communities, the proposal of mobilizing child protection committees in schools with active participation of the barangay councils was also raised. The active operation of these committees plays a vital role in monitoring and coordinating issues on abuse, exploitation, and discrimination that confront children and youth. For the discussion regarding policies, arising responses were somewhat inclined upon fostering children and youth involvement. They suggested for the creation of a Youth DRRM Council to nurture a sense of responsibility and appreciation among young generation on the significance of preparedness and safety from disasters. The formation of children’s council in both private and public schools will also be an avenue for young generation to exercise leadership and convey their specific needs in planning and decision making processes. To constantly monitor the performance of the local governments in program and project implementation, the city level respondents also suggested the institutionalization of Citizen Satisfaction Index System (CSIS).

5.2 BARANGAY LEVEL

BARANGAY BATIS Adults

Policies • Strict implementation of laws • Jail offenders

Programs and Projects • Provision of bigger budget • Presence of good leaders • Assign a barangay tanod (police) to guard the area near the creek for the protection of children and youth

The adult respondents of Barangay Batis were very specific of their recommendation to have better services. On top of their priority list is the availability of bigger budget. The Barangay Council has long grieved about the inadequacy of budget or resources resulting to “prioritized projects” and neglecting smaller or deemed “less important” issues in the barangay, which include children and youth concerns. Another good but vague suggestion was the presence of good leaders. Though it may be ambiguous, it makes sense for a country like the Philippines that patronizes popular politics. This may also mean that respondents are not satisfied with former or incumbent leaders expressing the need for better ones with this suggestion. They also suggested for better child protection mechanisms by mobilizing and strengthening the capacity of barangay police.

164

As for policies, the respondents suggested the need for stricter implementation of laws. Numerous laws have been passed in the country but many of them are not enforced effectively. One of the laws they mentioned that need priority is focused on detaining the offenders and violators. This is reckoned to be a promising measure that may help curb the escalating crime rate.


Children and Youth Policies • Proper waste segregation • Curfew reinforcement

Programs and Projects • Sports-related programs • Members of the community should be more active

Children and youth respondents have limited recommendations. They suggested implementing more sports-related programs, which is quite similar to the need for worthwhile activities recommendation given by the city-level respondents. They also have a general project recommendation, which says that members of the community should be more actively engaged. This reflects the need for implementing projects that will encourage members of the community to participate. Furthermore, this reveals the need for residents to faithfully follow the ordinances and policies implemented by the Barangay Council and the City Government. In terms of policies, a suggestion, which is somewhat similar to that of the adults’, is the reinforcement of curfew. An ordinance on curfew exists which is implemented through the leadership of the City Government but remains violated on numerous occasions. They also expressed the need for proper waste segregation. Given the pervasiveness of clogged canals and creeks in urban areas, this recommendation is deemed necessary for the reduction of their vulnerability to floods.

BARANGAY CORAZON DE JESUS Adults

Policies • Humane housing assistance for poor families • Humane salary for those employed • Advocacy on Climate Change • Save Water Program • Out-of-School Youth Program • Seminars or programs on disaster preparedness (i.e. awareness raising)

Programs and Projects • Amend ordinance on video karera • Ordinance on hygiene in eatery/restaurant/ canteen (i.e. use of hairnet, apron, etc.) • Policies that prohibit selling of unsafe foods (i.e. junk food) and dangerous toys like ‘trumpo’ to children • Laws/policies on continuous education • Laws on equality of opportunities • Policies on relocation (it should be in-city relocation so families will not be disoriented in terms of children’s schooling and work)

The adult respondents in Barangay Corazon de Jesus have recommended quite a lot of programs and policies. Much of the suggestions shared under programs and projects were related to DRRM and these are: advocacy on climate change; “Save Water” program; and seminars on disaster preparedness. Apart from disaster-related recommendations, the adult respondents also expressed their concern on proper housing assistance and minimum wage, which are significant contributing factors of rampant poverty in the Philippines. Both are also essential elements that exacerbate the vulnerability of people to disasters. 165


When it comes to policies, the respondents are concerned with various aspects of the society. They highlighted gambling through video karera and suggested to amend the existing ordinance on this matter. For children’s welfare, respondents also lobbied for an ordinance that will push for the implementation of hygiene standardization in restaurants and canteens. This is believed to be essential in securing the safety of food products and good for adults and children. The way they value education also played a key role in the discussion as respondents expressed the need for continuous education and financial support for families incapable of sending their children to school.

Children and Youth Policies • • • • • • • • •

Seminar on Basic Life Support (BLS) Budget and manpower augmentation Apprehend gamblers Penalize those taking drugs Placing of signage for proper waste management Guidance for bullying More sports programs (i.e. basketball and volleyball) Volunteers to help those who are frequently inundated and who frequently experience fires Link with foundations to develop projects for those who are frequently inundated and who frequently experience fires

Programs and Projects • Enforcement of curfew • Protection/respect/non-discrimination of the rights of persons with disability

On the other hand, the children and youth respondents in Barangay Corazon de Jesus had the bulk of their answers under projects and programs. Their policy recommendations are simple. First, enforcement of curfew, the same suggestion children and youth from the previous barangay offered, and protection of the rights of children/person’s with disability, the individuals who usually suffer from bullying. As for the projects and programs, suggestions were of various scopes. Some are for violators like recommendations of apprehending gamblers and penalizing drugs users. The usual suggestion of implementing sports programs is also evident. Having experience various devastating fire incidences, respondents also called for volunteerism and seeking help to foundations in extending help to the victims of fire disasters.

BARANGAY SALAPAN Adults

The adult respondents in Barangay Salapan identified a single policy recommendation and this relates to amending the RA 7610 (Anti-child abuse, exploitation, and discrimination Act) and conduct of awareness raising campaign to prevent abuse of the law. Public awareness was also suggested as one of the priority programs to help the community to become familiar and knowledgeable on existing ordinances 166


along with their penalties. The existing implementation mechanism of laws relating to drugs and gambling was also an issue for adult respondents as they expressed the need for stricter enforcement. An interesting proposition relates to the psychological welfare of children and youth. The emotional state of children is very important in school since it also influences their behavior and communication towards other people. Policies

Programs and Projects

• Community awareness on existing ordinances through information campaign • Program that will strictly enforce drug and gambling laws and ordinances • Guidance to children since they have different temperaments/behavior in school and at home • Proper communication and implementation: Children will follow as long as you communicate with them well

• Amend RA 7610 and make proper information campaign to prevent the abuse of the law

Children and Youth There were no recommendation presented by children and youth under policies. All their suggestions evolve around projects and policies, which are basically law enforcement and violence control. They proposed to apprehend fraternity members who usually instigate fights with other groups and drug users who are among the perpetrators of criminal acts in the area. Since bullying is identified as a priority risk, they also suggested that children and youth be provided with guidance to prevent such incidence. The problem with regard to curfew was also addressed and stricter parental guidance among children and Policies • • • • •

Apprehend fraternity members Apprehend those who take drugs Guidance for children who are victims of bullying Parental guidance for minors who do not follow curfew More police

youth is one of the recommendations.

BARANGAY WEST CRAME Adults

Policies • Training against fire disasters • Regular garbage collection • Awareness raising for children and youth on their rights and responsibilities

Programs and Projects • Strict implementation of curfew

167


The adult respondents of Barangay West Crame only had one recommendation falling under policies. It was the strict implementation of curfew, which is repeatedly violated and has become a huge problem to many barangays especially those covered by the research. When it comes to projects and programs, recommendations were mainly on two topics: disaster risk reduction and protection of children. They suggested that residents should undergo training on fire preparedness because fire occurrences are frequently observed in the community. Garbage collection is also a problem resulting to pollution and other health risks. Regarding protection of children, many parents and residents are really not aware of the rights of children and youth. It was suggested that everybody Policies • Strengthen anti-drug campaign • Installation of CCTV in strategic places in the barangay • Arrest jaywalkers • Recognize the complaints of community members

Programs and Projects • Strict implementation of curfew

should undergo a seminar in which all sectors concerned are to be made aware of these rights and the responsibilities that go with having them.

Children and Youth

Similar to their adult counterparts, the children and youth respondents of Barangay West Crame also had one simple policy recommendation: strict implementation of curfew. It has been a universal issue so far and can be quite alarming if looked into deeply. Regarding projects and programs, the children and youth respondents focused more on addressing unlawful acts. The recommended activities are as follows: strengthening campaign against drugs; installation of CCTV in strategic places for monitoring; arresting of jaywalkers; and recognition of complaints from community members. These propositions are all directed towards preventing infringement of laws and alleviate crimes prompted by these identified violations.

168


Valenzuela City


170

I. Overview of local context 1.1 GEOGRAPHY

A digital location map of San Juan City

The City of Valenzuela comprises one of the 16 cities in Metro Manila located in the northwestern end of the region. The city has a land area of 47.02 km2 that is populated by 575,356 as of the August 2010 estimate.It is considered as the 13th most populous city in the country (Climate and Development Knowledge Network, 2015).

Valenzuela City is bordered by Quezon City in the east and the province of Bulacan at its north and western boundaries. Tullahan River meanwhile bounds the south of the city while Caloocan City borders it along parts of the eastern and southern limits. Being divided into 33 barangays, Valenzuela is further sliced into two congressional districts. The 24 barangays found in the northern portion of Valenzuela comprise District 1, while the other 9 barangays in the southern half of the city comprise District 2. District 1

Table showing the two congressional districts of Valenzuela City.

• • • • • • • •

ArkongBato Bisig Coloong LawangBato Malanday Pariancillo Villa Polo Tagalag

• • • • • • • •

Balangkas Canumay East Dalandanan Lingunan Malinta Pasolo Punturin VeinteReales

• • • • • • • •

Bignay Canumay West Isla Mabolo Palasan Poblacion Rincon WawangPulo

District 2 • Bagbaguin • MapulangLupa • Parada

• Gen. T. de Leon • Marulas • Paso de Blas

Source: City Government of Valenzuela. (2011b).

• Karuhatan • Maysan • Ugong


1.2 SOCIOECONOMIC CONTEXT

Through the years, Valenzuela has been considered a progressive city being home to various factories producing a variety of commercial products. It was officially declared as a highly urbanized city through the Republic Act Nos. 7160 and 8526. It was also acknowledged as a first-class city on the basis of its income classification and number of population. The city has reached such feat when a large number of industries relocated to the city coupled with years of continuous influx of migrants (Catapat, 2005). Among the services offered by the LGU are education through programs like “WIN ang Edukasyon Program” (Cayabyab, 2013); healthcare through free medical operations and missions in the city as well as health facilities in barangays; leisure through shopping centers and utilities; business through banking institutions offering services to businesses and residents; waste management through several recycling facilities; and justice management through its multitude of departments. With its vision towards “a modern Valenzuela City in the 21st century”, the city seems to be on track with this goal, as in 2011, in terms of structural facilities, it contains a total of 301 educational facilities, 81 health facilities, and 79 recreational facilities (Tayona Valenzuela!, 2011).

FACTS & FIGURES

Valenzuela City Facts and Figures: Educational, Health, and Recreational Facilities.

1.3 DISASTER SITUATION

Educational Facilities

Public

Private

Total

Day Care Centers

80

23

103

Preparatory

41

75

116

Secondary

19

41

60

Tertiary

2

7

9

Technical

1

12

13

Health Facilities

Public

Private

Total

Hospitals

2

5

7

Health Centers

47

0

47

Lying-In Clinics

3

24

27

Recreational Facilities

Total

Parks & Playgrounds

1

Covered Courts

50

Open Courts

4

Resorts

14

Hotels/Motels

3

Cinemas/Theaters

6

Cockpit Arena

1

Aside from its political legal borders, the city is also surrounded by three rivers: Tullahan, Polo and Meycauayan. Being situated along these bodies of water compounded by the country’s climate situation, vulnerabilities of the city related to flooding are high and continue to grow exponentially because of 171


Photo depicting the Tullahan River and affected areas.

climate change, as well as stagnant urban planning and poor drainage/solid Source: www.kabeetmaps.com (2015)

waste disposal system. Flooding is a common phenomenon for the residents and has been part of their yearly calendars. Heavy rainfall and even high tides result in flooding in certain barangays of the city. These flooding events stay for as long as four weeks at times causing breakouts of diseases such as dengue, leptospirosis and other flood-related illnesses. Residents and work force from all fields of expertise suffer from these complications. As such, income generation suffers setbacks and progress is hindered (Climate and Development Knowledge Network, 2015). Apart from climate vulnerability, there have been cases of fires in the city due to the industries and factories located in the area. The latest of which is the Kentex slipper factory fire, which became a highly publicized affair due to the sheer number of casualties involved (Saunar, 2015). At least 72 people were killed in the fire. This incident highlights the existing fire hazard in the city as well as working conditions of labor force in factories, which are mostly residents of the city.

1.4. RESEARCH SITES

172

For Valenzuela City, it was decided that two of the barangays would be considered due to their participation in the project funded by Australian Aid and headed by the Disaster Risk Reduction Network Philippines entitled “Technical Assistance for Securing the Safety of Informal Settler Families in Metro Manila”, while two of the barangays that would be chosen would be communities which have not participated in the said program. Upon consultation with the Valenzuela City Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Office and research into the background of the barangays in the City of Valenzuela, the chosen research sites for the project include Barangay Arkong Bato, Barangay Gen. T. De Leon, Barangay Punturin, and Barangay Ugong (Barangays Gen. T. De Leon and Ugong were selected from the list of barangays which had participated in the Australian Aid project). These four barangays


were recommended due to the risks of natural hazards such as flooding and fire, and the abundant population of children and youth within the community. Barangays Arkong Bato and Punturin are located in District 1 of Valenzuela City, while Barangays Gen. T. De Leon and Ugong are located in District 2. The latter two are considered the two largest barangays in the City, with Barangay Gen. T. de Leon covering 366.90 km2, and Ugong 307.2 km2.

Â

173


174

II. Methodology and Stakeholders 2.1. TOOLS AND RESPONDENTS

Utilizing a qualitative methodology, the research aimed to elicit the perceptions of various participants about the risks and hazards within their community especially those affecting the children and youth; the concept of urban resilience; the programs and projects within their community pertaining to disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation and the roles of the children and youth within these; and their recommendations towards fostering a child-centered city. Prior to the commencement of the data gathering process in each barangay, participants were asked to sign attendance sheets, after which consent forms were distributed and the rights of the participants within the research were explained. Then, the participants were introduced to the research, its background, aims, and objectives. Subsequently, the two-pronged mechanics of the data gathering process were explained: a writeshop with research tools catered to adults, and another writeshop with tools catered to the children and youth to engage them into active participation in the research activities. In case of individual or only a few respondents, key informant interviews or focus group discussion were conducted upon appointment with the target participants. The adult stakeholders from Valenzuela City were comprised of: city government officials including members of the Valenzuela City Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Office, Department of Interior and Local Government, Division of City Schools / Department of Education, Community Planning Office, Public Information Office, City Social Welfare and Development Office;

Â


residents from the barangays including barangay council members, school officials, parents, and members of non-government, faith-based, and youth organizations; while the children stakeholders consisted of school children and youth, out-of-school children and youth, and children and youth-with-disabilities aged 10-12 and 13-15 respectively.

A total of 169 respondents from Valenzuela City participated in the study: 12 adults from the city-level engagement; 26adults, 19 children and youth from Barangay Arkong Bato; 23 adults, 9 children and youth from Barangay Gen. T. De Leon; 37adults, 16 children and youth from Barangay Punturin; and 27 adults from Barangay Ugong. City Valenzuela

Barangay Arkong Bato

Methods

Tools

• Focus Group • Perception of Urban Discussion Resilience • Key Informant • Rights of Children/ Interviews Youth • Writeshop • Hazard Assessment • Matrix • Policies / Programs of the Stakeholders / Roles of Children/ Youth • Policies / Programs of Other Organizations / Roles of Children/Youth • Recommendations

Methods

Tools

• Focus Group • Perception of Urban Discussion Resilience • Key Informant • Rights of Children/ Interviews Youth • Writeshop • Hazard Assessment Matrix • Policies / Programs of the Stakeholders / Roles of Children/ Youth • Policies / Programs of Other Organizations / Roles of Children/Youth • Recommendations

Participants

M

F

• Valenzuela City Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Office • Department of Interior and Local Government • Division of City Schools / Department of Education • Community Planning Office • Public Information Office • Sanggunian • Community Social Welfare and Development Office

8

4

Participants

M

F

• Barangay LGU • Barangay Police • Barangay Treasurer • Barangay Health Worker • Barangay Staff • • School Officials • Teacher • Master Teacher • • Parents • • Youth Organizations

6

7

1

2

0

6

3

1

175


Barangay Gen. T. de Leon

Punturin

176

Methods • Focus Group Discussion • Key Informant Interviews • Writeshop

• Focus Group Discussion • Key Informant Interviews • Writeshop

Tools

Participants

M

F

• Perception of Urban Resilience • Rights of Children/ Youth • Hazard Assessment Matrix • Policies / Programs of the Stakeholders / Roles of Children/ Youth • Policies / Programs of Other Organizations / Roles of Children/Youth • Recommendations

• Barangay LGU • District Supervisor • • School Officials • Assistant SDRRMC • Teacher • • Parents • • Non-Government/FaithBased Organizations • SPED SPTCA, Member • Neighborhood Organization, President • Neighborhood Organization, Federation President • LIPS, Member • GDTC VAW-C, President • GDTC VAW-C, Crisis Worker • GDTC VAW-C, Crisis Worker Principal • GDTC VAW-C, Crisis Worker President • • Youth Organizations • TFYD, member

0

1

2

0

2

7

1

8

• Barangay LGU • Barangay Treasurer • Barangay Secretary • Barangay Official • Barangay Kagawad • • School Officials • • Parents • • Non-Government/FaithBased Organizations • Northville 1-B HOA, Member • HCSCCO, Member

8

5

2

3

3

12

2

0

• Perception of Urban Resilience • Rights of Children/ Youth • Hazard Assessment Matrix • Policies / Programs of the Stakeholders / Roles of Children/ Youth • Policies / Programs of Other Organizations / Roles of Children/Youth • Recommendations

2

0


Barangay Ugong

Methods • Focus Group Discussion • Key Informant Interviews • Writeshop

Tools

Participants

M

F

• Perception of Urban Resilience • Rights of Children/ Youth • Hazard Assessment Matrix • Policies / Programs of the Stakeholders / Roles of Children/ Youth • Policies / Programs of Other Organizations / Roles of Children/Youth • Recommendations

Barangay LGU • BDDRMC Head • Barangay Police • School Officials • Daycare teacher • Teacher • • Parents • Non-Government/Faith-Based Organizations • BBPHDAI, President • Youth Organizations • TFYD, Member • TFYD, Secretary • TFYD, Treasurer • Win Youth Club, Member • Win Youth Club, Treasurer • Win Youth Club, President • Youth Task Force Development Council, Member • Youth Task Force Development Council, President

0

2

0

3

1

3

1

0

10

7

177


Barangay

Methods

ArkongBato • Focus Group Discussion • Key Informant Interviews • Writeshop

Gen. T. de Leon

Punturin

178

• Focus Group Discussion • Key Informant Interviews • Writeshop

• Focus Group Discussion • Key Informant Interviews • Writeshop

Tools

Participants

M

F

Age

• Urban Resilience Race • Rights of Children and Youth / Vision for Children and Youth • Hazard Assessment Matrix • Policies/ Programs/ Roles of Children/ Youth • Social Venn Diagram • Hazard Map • Recommendations

• School children • PRSES • • School youth • ALS • ABHNS • PNHS • • School children • PRSES

4

2

10-12

3

4

13-15

4

2

10-12

• Urban Resilience Race • Rights of Children and Youth / Vision for Children and Youth • Hazard Assessment Matrix • Policies/ Programs/ Roles of Children/ Youth • Social Venn Diagram • Hazard Map • Recommendations

• School children • Gen T De Leon NHS • Gen T De Leon Elem • • Children with disability • Gen T De Leon Elem (SPED) • • School youth • Gen T De Leon NHS

2

2

10-12

1

3

10-12

0

1

13-15

• Urban Resilience Race • Rights of Children and Youth / Vision for Children and Youth • Hazard Assessment Matrix • Policies/ Programs/ Roles of Children/ Youth • Social Venn Diagram • Hazard Map • Recommendations

• School children • Punturin Elem School • LawangBato NHS • • Children with disability • Bignay NHS (SPED) • • School youth • Vicente P Trinidad NHS • Punturin Elem School • • Youth with disability • Bignay NHS (SPED)

5

4

10-12

1

0

10-12

2

3

13-15

0

1

13-15


2.2. ANALYSIS APPROACH

Using a content analysis approach, the responses of participants regarding their awareness of hazards and risks, perception of urban resilience, perception of child rights, awareness of DRRM and CCA policies and activities, and recommendations were classified into different categories. Awareness of hazards and risks were analyzed according to the participants’ perceptions of their level of frequency and effect within the city and the covered communities. As regards the stakeholders’ perception of urban resilience, their responses were categorized based on the Components of Urban Disaster Resilience by Jha, Miner, and Stanton-Geddes (2013): Infrastructural resilience, Institutional resilience, Economic resilience, and Social resilience. According to the aforementioned authors:

• • •

“Infrastructural resilience refers to a reduction in the vulnerability of built structures, such as buildings and transportation systems. It also refers to sheltering capacity, health care facilities, the vulnerability of buildings to hazards, critical infrastructure, and the availability of roads for evacuations and post-disaster supply lines. Infrastructural resilience also refers to a community’s capacity for response and recovery. Institutional resilience refers to the systems, governmental and non-governmental, that administer a community. Economic resilience refers to a community’s economic diversity in such areas as employment, number of businesses, and their ability to function after a disaster. Social resilience refers to the demographic profile of a community by sex, age, ethnicity, disability, socio-economic status, and other groupings, and the profile of its social capital. Although difficult to quantify, social capital refers to a sense of community, the ability of groups of citizens to adapt, and a sense of attachment to a place (Cutter, Burton, and Emrich 2010).”

Through further analysis, the researchers modified several terms to better fit the myriad of responses by the participants: an Attitudinal aspect was merged with Social resilience; a Political aspect was added to Institutional resilience; and the Environmental aspect was further included. Perception of child rights were grouped based on the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Survival rights, Developmental rights, Protec179


tion rights, and Participation rights are defined by the Children’s Rights Alliance (2015) as follows:

• •

• •

Survival rights: These include the child’s right to life and the needs that are most basic to existence, such as nutrition, shelter, an adequate living standard, and access to medical services. Protection rights: These ensure that the children are safeguarded against all forms of abuse, neglect and exploitation. These include: special care for refugee children, safeguards for children in the criminal justice system, protection for children in employment, and protection and rehabilitation for children who have suffered exploitation or abuse. Development rights: These rights include the right to education, leisure, and cultural activities; access to information; and freedom of thought, conscience and religion. Participation rights: These encompass children’s freedom to express opinions, to have a say in matters affecting their own lives, to join associations and to assemble peacefully. As their capacities develop, children should have increasing opportunity to participate in the activities of society, in preparation for adulthood.

Awareness of DRRM and CCA activities were arranged under the four thematic areas based on the Philippine DRRM Law of 2010: Preparedness, Prevention and Mitigation, Response, and Rehabilitation and Recovery. Answers not related to these areas were sorted under the theme General Welfare. Awareness of DRRM and CCA policiesas well as Recommendations were categorized into two: DRRM/CCA-related policies in general and those which are Child/Youth Related; other miscellaneous answers were placed under Other.

180


181

III. Understanding of Risks, Urban Resilience, and Child Rights 3.1 AWARENESS OF VARIOUS HAZARDS AND RISKS IN THE COMMUNITY

3.1.1 City-Level

The city-level participants, as well as the participants from the different barangays, were asked as to what hazards they experience within the city and their respective communities. Upon identifying these, they classified the hazards according to their effect, from low impact to high impact, and their frequency of occurrence, from low frequency or rare to high frequency or common. It was noted that the hazards do not necessarily have to be natural hazards, but can be social, political, etc.

Frequency Effects High

Hazard assessment output of City-Level stakeholders in Valenzuela City.

Moderate Low

High

Moderate • Flash flooding

• •

Low • Earthquake • Ground shaking • Liquefaction

Fire Flooding

Biological hazards

• Tidal flooding

• Bomb threats

The city officials identified hazards that range from having a low effect to a high effect and from a low frequency to uncommon hazards. There were no common or high frequency hazards identified. All hazards mentioned were disaster related, from natural hazards such as flooding, earthquakes, and fires, to artificial ones such as biological hazards and bomb threats. Flooding was categorized into medium frequency and impact. It has varying levels of effects: from the low effect of a tidal flood, to the moderate effect of regular floods, to the high effect of flash floods. Fires were also indicated to be as common and as frequent in occurrence as flooding. Earthquakes and related hazards such as ground liquefaction have a high effect even if they rarely occur. Human-caused hazards such as biological hazards and bomb threats are rare and have a medium effect at most. This implies experience in such hazards that they are found to have such impacts, despite the rarity. The city officials did not include behavior-related hazards and instead only listed DRR/CCA related hazards and artificially caused hazards. This shows their knowledge of the nature of resilience as primarily being disaster-related, what this resilience is measured against, and why this kind of resilience is needed.


Valenzuela City is implementing several actions to address the risks/hazards cited in the findings. Some of these programs are parental supervision in controlling vices, encouraging frats and other gangs in Valenzuela to work in unison, and training for emergency response (Valenzuela Against Drug Addiction Council).

3.1.2 Barangay-Level

BARANGAY ARKONG BATO Adults

Frequency Effects

High Table.

High

Hazard assessment output of adult stakeholders in Barangay Arkong Bato, Valenzuela City.

Low

Low

• Unemployment resulting to other problems • Addiction and/or Abuse of prohibited drugs • Floods • Lack of livelihood

Moderate

Moderate

• Family (poor relationship of husband and wife resulting to poor values and domestic violence, single parenthood) • Lack of discipline • Out of School Youth and or students drop out of school due to financial reasons (cannot afford to buy materials for projects, no ‘baon’) • Health/Medical Condition • Failure to join religious groups which sometimes result to weak faith

The adults volunteered hazards for all ranges while the children and youth classified all the hazards they identified as having high effect. The hazards the youth and children identified were mostly social and behavior related hazards, bar floods, and while the adults are the same in this respect, they are greatly concerned specifically with the hazards relating to livelihoods. The adults are heavily concerned with unemployment and addiction/abuse of drugs, as both are indicated to having a high frequency and a high impact as far as hazards in their community go. Floods are identified as having high frequency and impact while the lack of livelihood, lack of discipline, students dropping out, and domestic issues also occur more often with the same effect. The adults ranked health problems and weak faith as having both a rare occurrence and a low effect. 182


Children and Youth Frequency

High

Effects

High Hazard assessment output of children and youth stakeholders in Barangay Arkong Bato, Valenzuela City.

• • • •

Bullying Smoking Floods Teenage relationships • Computer addiction • Littering

Moderate • Littering • Robbery • Drug addiction

Low • • • •

Jealousy Crimes Corruption Land razing

Moderate Low

The children and youth identified all the hazards as having a high effect. The most common hazards are bullying, smoking, flooding, teenage relationships, computer addiction and littering. This shows that the children and youth consider flooding to be a greater hazard compared to how the adult participants recognize the hazard whereas the children and youth do not consider addiction to and abuse of drugs to be as common as the adults. They also do not consider the lack of livelihood or unemployment as a hazard, which is understandable as most of them are still dependents. The less common hazards identified by the children and youth are littering, robbery, and drug addiction. The rare hazards are jealousy, crimes, corruption, and land razing. These may be identified as such due to these hazards having lower visibility, as opposed to smoking, teenage angst, and other small things outside of the flooding hazard.

BARANGAY GEN. T. DE LEON Adults

Frequency Effects

High

Hazard assessment output of adult stakeholders in Barangay Gen. T. De Leon, Valenzuela City.

Moderate

High • Drug pushing where residents especially children are used as runners. They have corrupt protectors. • Drug use and abuse • Disaster hazards such as fire and minor accidents • Floods

Moderate • Stores selling students cigarettes • Teenage pregnancy

Low • Gambling

• Illegal electrical connection mostly among the informal settlers • Crime like theft and robbery where minors are used • Petty crimes

183


• Waste disposal practice where residents throw garbage in the river • No discipline among the residents

Low

The adults identified drug use and drug pushing, along with disaster hazards such as flood and fire and minor accidents as common high effect hazards. Gambling was identified as a rare but high effect hazard. Stores that sell minors cigarettes, teen pregnancy are medium frequency hazards that have a high effect, while petty crimes, theft and illegal electrical connection are just as uncommon but have a medium effect. Lack of discipline and the throwing of garbage in the river are rare hazards that have a low effect. All economic and environmental hazards are rare while the more common hazards are behavioral, although natural calamities and accidents have been identified.

Children and Youth Frequency Effects

High

Moderate Hazard assessment output of children and youth stakeholders in Barangay Gen. T. De Leon, Valenzuela City.

High •Computer addiction •Alcohol addiction

Moderate

Low

•Smoking •Drug addiction •Starting fights

•Bullying •Earthquakes •Floods •Shootouts

•Fires •Robberies •Storms

•Riots •Gambling •Vehicular accidents

Low

• •Gossips • •Rape • •Murder

The hazards the youth and children identified were mostly low frequency hazards with a few common hazards, the most common being behavioral hazards, although hazards such as storms, fires, floods, and other natural calamities and accidents are also indicated. The hazards identified by both groups show some similarities, but their rankings of the hazards vary. Violent activities such as fights, shootouts, riots and murders are surfacing more with children than adults. It is inferred that these could be the result of differences in perception and priorities.

BARANGAY PUNTURIN Adults

The adults, children and youth volunteered hazards for all ranges. The hazards identified were mostly social and behavior related hazards, although some hazards such as fires, health related hazards, livelihood hazards and stray animals were indicated. These other hazards, aside from fire hazards and hazards dealing with livelihood, are uncommon at best and are considered to have a medium effect at most. The adults identified all of these non-social related 184


hazards apart from fires, which were identified by the youth and children sector participants. The least common hazards that have the least effect identified by adults are out of school youths and stray animals, followed by lack of funding for livelihoods and students skipping classes as having moderate effect, and juvenile delinquency and fraternities as having high effects. The most common hazards that have high effects are gambling, drugs abuse, public works hazards, poverty, unemployment, poor waste management, and peer or social pressure to conform. This is followed by rioting, theft and robbery, population boom, overcrowding of schools, online games or the internet, and teenage pregnancy opposing family values. These hazards describe a community where the greatest concerns of the members are social and behavioral issues. Frequency

High

Effects

High

Hazard assessment output of adult stakeholders in Barangay Punturin, Valenzuela City.

• Peace and Order situation is not good • Public Works (clogging of drainage, road damage to high risk areas) • Gambling • Drugs use and abuse • Poverty because of unemployment • Waste management (illegal waste dumping area where they burn waste with toxic, the area is between 2 municipalities) • Peer pressure or doing things considered ‘ in’ by the group • Noise and air pollution

Moderate

Low

• Love life

Moderate

Low

• Crime

• Fire • Usage of solvents

• Flooding • Abortion • Gambling • Fighting • Child labor • Prostitution

• Out of school youth

• Out of school youth •Stray dogs/animals

The hazards indicated to have moderate effects and are uncommon are the lack of recreational activities for the youth, poor sportsmanship, poor health, irresponsible neighbors, and vagrants

Children and Youth The youth and children identified fire and gambling as the most common hazards with the highest impact, followed by smoking as having a moderate impact. Family problems, drugs, alcohol abuse, robberies, playing with fire and financial problems are uncommon hazards that have a moderate to high effect. The least common hazards identified, street fights, riots, killings, and cock 185


Frequency Effects High

Hazard assessment output of children and youth stakeholders in Barangay Punturin, Valenzuela City.

Moderate

High • Fires •Gambling •Smoking

Moderate

Low

•Taking drugs •Alcohol addiction •Family problems •Robberies •Playing with fire •Financial problems • Street fights •Riots •Killings • Cockfighting

Low

fighting, also have the lowest impact. This simply shows that the perspectives of the children and youth are similar albeit differing in some areas compared to those of the adult participants. The common hazards between the groups of participants are behavior-related or social-related hazards, showing that such are common place in the community, or, at least, very visible.

BARANGAY UGONG Adults

Frequency Effects

High

High

Moderate

Low

• Cigarette smoking • Bad peers • Drugs • Online games • Usage of computers • Alcohol/liquor drinking • Social media • Jumper boys • Broken families • Lack of discipline at home • Residency issues • Informal settlers • Disorganized council • Children are not treated as the priority of their parents

•Youth encounter/ riots • Theft and robbery and the children involved in this problems are drug users • Population boom which affects the school • Online games or internet used which sometimes caused students cutting class • Teenage pregnancy sometimes not only because of wrong family values but also of group pressures

• Juvenile delinquency • Presence of fraternities

•Flooding •Abortion •Gambling •Fighting •Child labor •Prostitution

• Out of school youth

• Noise and air pollution Hazard assessment output of adult stakeholders in Barangay Ugong, Valenzuela City.

Moderate

•Love life Low

186

• Typhoons • Gender-related problems


The adults volunteered a multitude of risks that include social hazards, environmental hazards, and other hazards. They are heavily concerned with social hazards that have a great impact on children such as vices like drug usage, cigarette smoking, liquor drinking, excessive gaming and computer use (focused on social media). Usage of drugs was noted to be the most hazardous considering that the children and youth become at risk for neglect and abuse, and at times, due to the influence of their peers, some children and youth are pushed into taking drugs at an early age. There were also instances mentioned where youth are taken advantage of and used as drug runners since they are minors and are able to avoid prosecution from the police. The participants mentioned that while they recognize the efforts of their city and barangay to resolve this problem, they note that the drug traffickers seem to be protected by some powerful connections. Alongside these vices problems, there were also grave delinquency issues cited such as “jumper boys� or boys who loot unsuspecting delivery trucks. They believe that the root of these issues are truly familial issues such as broken families, lack of discipline at home, and children not being prioritized by their parents. They believe that the parents themselves lack parenting skills to properly discipline their children and would need to attend values education seminars along with their children. Other community-related concerns involve: residency issues which pose a threat to children due to non-registered and potentially dangerous residents; informal settlers in some areas of the barangay; and a disorganized council coupled with lack of proper information dissemination along the lines. These hazards are indicated to have a high frequency and a high impact as far as hazards in their community go. Other hazards that may not be as frequent but have high impact are general crimes, fire, and the usage of solvents. Noise and air pollution are also indicated as common but only have a medium effect while excessive focus on love lives are considered a common hazard that have a low effect. The hazards identified with medium frequency and medium effect are abortion, gambling, fighting, child labor, and prostitution. The rare hazards are out of school youths, typhoons, and gender-related problems. These hazards and crimes may be identified as uncommon to rare due to these hazards having lower visibility or are simply rarer in occurrence, as opposed to social hazards.

187


Preparedness

3.2 PERCEPTION OF URBAN RESILIENCE

• • • • •

• • •

3.2.1 City-Level Perception of urban resilience of city-level stakeholders in Valenzuela City.

Capacity to recover after calamities and disaster Capability to prepare, respond and recover Presence of Strategic Plan for Disaster and other threats Enough knowledge on Disaster Management and capacity to respond The people have the right attitude, proper knowledge, ability and preparedness to face and conquer any eventualities brought about by disaster or crisis situation Ability of the Urban Community to recover from both natural and man-made disaster Ability to prepare, respond and recover from any disaster Despite of the experience of disasters and calamities, they can go back to their pre-disaster phase They can cope easily, or it may not be easy but they can cope effectively to go back to their pre-disaster phase

City level officials are all in agreement that urban resilience can be equated to preparedness; that is, the capacity to prepare, respond, and recover after disaster events, whether they be natural or man-made. This includes having enough knowledge on disaster management, and the formulation of strategic plans for disasters and other threats. However, beyond these measures, these officials believe that people with the right attitude are the true key to urban resilience. Overall, the officials agree that resilience is the ability to cope effectively enough with any disaster or situation and be able to go back to their pre-disaster phase. This can be achieved when people have the right attitude, proper knowledge, ability, and preparedness. The officials took into consideration both natural and man-made disasters, and included them in their concept of resilience through preparedness. Given their conceptualization of the term urban resilience, the city officials rated the city’s urban resilience an average of 6.4 out of 10. This rating represents an average of the participants’ views about the resilience of their cities in terms of different hazards. While they gave a higher rating for their resilience in terms of floods and fires due to their comprehensive preparedness measures addressing these hazards, they gave a much lower rating in terms of earthquakes as they believe there is still room for improvement for these. To add further context, a participant has noted in a separate forum that from their perspective, Valenzuela City is disaster-prepared and it has been cited as the 12th livable city in the world. In fact, one of the recent incidents, the Kentex fire proved that Valenzuela is indeed disaster-prepared. For instance, the Bureau of Fire sent many of its staff to quell the fire. The city, especially the CSWDO, also did its part. The participant emphasized that this recent incident was an eye-opener, not only to Valenzuela City, but to other areas as well. 188


In addition, the participant noted that the different barangays in Valenzuela City and their citizens are exerting conscious and active effort to prepare each family for disasters. There are barangay volunteers to watch their areas. Partnerships have been forged with different organizations and government offices such as the Department of Education. More so, there are disaster drills and orientations conducted in public schools and a few private schools.

3.2.2 Barangay-Level

BARANGAY ARKONG BATO Adults

Structural

Environmental

Social/Attitudinal

Political/ Institutional

Economic

• Coordination of all sectors with one another • Open communication and deliberations • Unity among people • Gratitude of people • Cooperation of the community • Understanding one another • Helping one another • Social Concern (Pakikipagkapwa Tao) • Sympathetic citizenry

Perception of urban resilience of adult stakeholders in Barangay Arkong Bato, Valenzuela City.

Preparedness • • • •

Readiness in giving prompt warning in time of disaster Preparedness and helping one another in time of crisis Preparedness of every family Readiness of the citizenry

Representatives of Arkong Bato – from the barangay councilmen and local government unit officers to parents and teachers, and members of different organizations – understood the concept of urban resilience as being mostly a social aspect, noting coordination and unity as the main contributors to urban resilience. Open communication and deliberation, unity, social concern and social citizenry, and understanding among members of the community were likewise identified as parts of the concept of urban resilience. Similar to the city-level conceptualization of urban resilience, preparedness and readiness stood out as the primary aspects in the perceptions of urban resilience. Other definitions of urban resilience are: preparedness on individual and household level; readiness of the citizenry as a whole; demonstration in helping one another in times of crisis; and the prompt warnings from authorities in times of disasters. Unlike the children and the youth, the adult representatives focused on the social/attitudinal aspect and the preparedness aspect in their description of urban resilience with respect to their barangay.

189


Children and Youth

Perception of urban resilience of children and youth stakeholders in Barangay Arkong Bato, Valenzuela City.

Structural

Environmental

• Not flooded • High ground • Sturdy houses • Tall houses • Sturdy buildings

• Clean community • Beautiful community • Orderly

Social/ Attitudinal • Cooperation among the people • Peaceful community • United people/ community • Understanding • Survive all community problems • Strong family • No discrimination • No addiction problems • Helping each other in times of crisis • There are organizations helping the progress of the community • People helping one another • No trouble • Everybody friendly

Political/ Institutional

Economic

• Good community • Good governance • Good leaders / good management of leader • Presence of many community projects • All about the DRRM project in the community

• Community members enjoy proper housing, enough food and clothing • High economy • Equality in opportunities • Presence of different service institutions • High quality of living of the members • Good quality of education in the area • Peaceful living

Similarly, the children and youth’s perception of urban resilience regarding social and attitudinal aspects is composed of cooperation and unity, general peace, accepting help from external organizations, strong family unites regardless of community problems, absence of discrimination, and equality among the residents. In terms of infrastructural aspects, the children and youth believe that tall, sturdy buildings and houses on high ground can mitigate risks such as flooding, but other possible hazards were not mentioned. The children believe that, for the political and institutional aspect, the focus should be all on the DRRM project in the community. The youth on the other hand believe that good governance, good leaders along with the formulation and implementation of many projects exemplify the characteristics of an urban resilient community. It must be noted that the youths also consider the economic aspect of resiliency. They described economic urban resiliency as having proper housing, having enough food and clothing, an overall strong economy, peaceful surroundings, equal opportunities, high quality of living and education, and the presence of sufficient service providers/institutions. This is reflected in the hazards prioritized by the adults and in the policies they suggested, but they consider this a minor part of resiliency.

190

A clean and orderly environment caps off the participants’ characterizations of a resilient city/community. This is reflective of the hazards indicated by the youth and children, as well as the adults. The children and youth defined an orderly and peaceful community as one that has leaders that govern well and that serve to benefit their constituents. Good governance is described by the


children as having a good leader. A good leader is described as one who sets a good example for others to follow. High quality of education is identified by the participants as the means to address the rampant drug addiction and corruption. The participants placed a heavy emphasis on cooperation, supported by the children’s and youths’ belief in the adage that “no man is an island.” The youth described social resilience as the members of the community being united, cooperative, and understanding. The children agree with this view and added that nothing can be achieved without cooperation in the barangay. The children also agree that there is no discrimination in a resilient community. In their words: “We are all equal, we should take consideration of those with disabilities.” 10 8 6 4 Chart. Rating of Urban Resilience in Brgy. Arkong Bato (Adults)

2 0

Average Barangay/LGU Parents

Teachers

Children

Youth

On a scale of zero to ten, the participants gave an average rating of 7.95 in rating the urban resilience of their barangay based on their understanding of the concept. Parents gave the highest rating of 10, inferring strong belief in the existing mechanisms and policies implemented in their barangay to protect the children and youth. The youth did not agree, as seen in the low rating they gave, the lowest of all groups, inferring the lack of confidence in the measures that they observed, either in the policies themselves, or in their implementation. It is implied that there is still room for improvement in terms of the urban resilience within Arkong Bato, even if just to improve visibility so that it may be appreciated more by the youth and children.

BARANGAY GEN. T. DE LEON

Adults

The adult representatives of Gen. T. De Leon – from the barangay councilmen and local government unit officers to parents and teachers, and members of various organizations –understood the concept of urban resilience as a mix of the social or behavioral aspect, political or institutional aspect, economic aspect and preparedness. There is heavy emphasis on the strong religious trait of the people as it is the only characteristic identified under the social aspect of resilience, specifically the unifying nature of religion as reflected in the characteristics listed under the political and economic aspects. 191


Structural

Environmental

Social/ Attitudinal • Strong religious trait of the people

Perception of urban resilience of adult stakeholders in Barangay Gen. T. De Leon, Valenzuela City.

Political/

Institutional

Economic

• Good gover• Equal access – nance presence • Active people’s of equal participation opportunity • United citizens to everyone and local gov• Healthy ernment citizens • Good leaders • Well represented sectors • Empowerment of the youth sector • Quality basic education or good educational system

The political aspect has the most characteristics identified, followed by the preparedness aspect. In this barangay, the social aspect has the least characteristics, focusing only on the religious trait of the members of the community. The political aspect contained characteristics that focused on good governance, participation of the people, representation, education, and empowerment of the youth. The characteristics the participants identified for the preparedness aspect concentrated on household level of preparedness, specifically in family units and the individual preparedness, through training and seminars. Individual preparedness includes the survivability of the people in any crisis situation. The resilience of the area overall is also considered a factor of the barangay’s resilience. Preparedness Perception of urban resilience of adult stakeholders in Barangay Gen. T. De Leon, Valenzuela City.

• • • • • •

Presence of Household preparedness plan of all family Strength and ability of the area to face disaster Preparedness of the people to survive any crisis Conduct of training and seminars in the community Presence of mind of the citizen during disaster Disaster prepared citizens

Children The characteristics of a resilient community that the children and youth identified fall under the social aspect, environmental aspect and economic aspect, in descending number of occurrence. The characteristics under the social aspect focused on cooperation, respect between the members of the community, absence of conflict, good attitude, patriotic, and religious. Under the environmental aspect, the characteristics identified, despite their number, all boil down to cleanliness and proper waste disposal, apart from having pleasant surroundings. The characteristics under the economic aspect of resilience are focused on the health of the residents, a working population, and adequate food supply. The children primarily gave importance to the value of proper disposal of waste and respect towards each member of the community, citing these as the two most important characteristics of an urban resilient community. 192


Overall, the definition of resilience of the members of Barangay Gen. T. De Leon does not include the infrastructure aspect, and heavily focused on the social and political aspects, with some consideration towards livelihood and the environment. The consideration towards the environment only comes from youth and children. Structural

Environmental • Cleanliness • Cleaning efforts • Cleaning of houses • Cleaning of trash • Fixing of hanging materials • Pleasant view • Proper disposal of waste * • Washing of dishes

Perception of urban resilience of children and youth stakeholders in Barangay Gen. T. De Leon, Valenzuela City.

Social/ Attitudinal • Generosity to fellow persons • Respect * • Usage of ‘po’ and ‘opo’ • Nice residents • No fighting / conflicts • Cheerful • Filipino-oriented • Down to earth • Humanitarian • God-oriented • Happy • Good temperament • Cooperation • Caring for their barangay • Going to church

Political/

Institutional

Economic

• Good gover• Healthy residents nance • Working • Active people’s populace participation • Provision of • United citizens food and local government • Good leaders • Well represented sectors • Empowerment of the youth sector • Quality basic education or good educational system

10 8 6 4 Chart. Rating of Urban Resilience in Brgy. Gen. T. De Leon (Adults)

2 0

Average Barangay/LGU Parents

Teachers Organizations Children

The average rating of the urban resilience of the community is 7.8 out of 10. The highest rating given is 9 by organizations while the lowest is 6 by the children. In the case of one of the parents, the mother of a child with a disability pointed out that, despite rating the resiliency of the area as 10, she believes that there is a need for livelihood programs for parents or families with children with special needs. The children noted that there is still a need for improvement in the different aspects of the community, as indicated by the low rating that they awarded.

193


BARANGAY PUNTURIN Adults

Perception of urban resilience of adult stakeholders in Barangay Punturin, Valenzuela City.

Structural

Environmental

• Road accessibility • Wide roads that make travel easier • Additional Elem buildings and additional High School classrooms erected

• The place in terms of land is considered rocky (ma-adobe) • The place is clean • The place has beautiful scenery • Peaceful environment • Safe environment

Social/ Attitudinal • Good communication system • Unity among the homeowner officers down to the members way up to the rest of the existing homeowners associations • The residents should be aware and knowledgeable on issues • There is unity and understanding • There is Bayanihan or Cooperation/Unity among the residence • Active involvement of citizens in issues and groups • Ability to adjust to existing situation • Extensive knowledge on issues and readiness to share knowledge

Political/

Economic

• All services are now delivered within the barangay and they don’t have to go to city hall • Provision of free school supplies up to grade 6 • There is good and strong leadership • Proper and strong leadership of every existing groups • Good Governance where the officials serve as guide, educator and leader to constituent

• Continuous progressive development of the barangay • Prosperous living condition of people • Active in the groups in regards to health issues • Good health conditions of members

Institutional

Preparedness • During disasters they are united and focused to assist since only one area is always affected by flood. • There are ready equipment needed in any possible disaster • Enough equipment should be available in time of crisis or disaster • Ability to recover after any crisis or disaster • The place is Disaster Ready • High Quality disaster equipment

The adults of barangay Punturin view urban resilience as the amalgamation of the following aspects: infrastructural, environmental, social or behavioral, political or institutional, and economic; and a preparedness component. There is heavy focus on the social or behavioral aspect, as it contains the most characteristics identified by the adults as considerations for resilience, followed by the environmental aspect and the political or institutional aspect, each having 20% of the characteristics identified. The aspect with the least number of characteristics is the infrastructural aspect, followed by the economic aspect at 12% and 16% respectively. 194

Regarding infrastructure, there is heavy emphasis on roads for accessibility,


followed by school buildings. This implies that there is a need for more access roads, or that the existing roads are vulnerable to crisis events, creating a need for alternative roads. The environmental aspects contained characteristics that describe a clean, peaceful, beautiful and safe environment. The participants also included the context of the environment being rocky and composed of adobe rocks for better structural integrity of the area. The characteristics of resilience identified under the economic aspect tend to focus on health and development of the barangay. The political or institutional aspect of resilience is described by the adult participants as having a good strong leadership, where good governance is practiced, and the officials serve as guides, educators, and leaders to their constituents. In addition, the adult participants indicated that further decentralization, by having the barangay deliver services normally delivered by the city hall in addition to their mandated duties, is a characteristic of resilience. They also indicated that the provision of school supplies for free for up to the 6th grade should be part of basic services. The participants identified cooperation, or bayanihan as the key characteristic of resilience under the social or behavioral aspect, followed by active involvement through groups, good communication systems, knowledge and awareness of issues, and the ability to adjust to situations. Knowledge on issues must be readily shared among the members of the community. Aside from these aspects, the participants also cited preparedness characteristics of an urban resilient community which include available high quality disaster equipment in crisis events, and the ability to recover after crisis or disaster. During disasters, areas that are always affected adversely by floods should be focused on by the barangay.

Children and Youth Structural

Environmental • Clean community • Beautiful

Perception of urban resilience of children and youth stakeholders in Barangay Punturin, Valenzuela City.

Social/ Attitudinal

Political/

Institutional

Economic

• United • Equal • Collecting thoughts for the good of the community • Active residents • Disciplined • Compassionate • Respected • Self-kindness • Good conduct • Cooperation

The children identified characteristics only under the environmental and the social or behavioral aspects of urban resilience. There is heavier focus on the social and behavioral aspect compared to the environmental aspect, similar to the perception of the adult participants, although characteristics under other aspects of resilience were not mentioned. 195


Under the environmental aspect, the children described resilience as having a clean and beautiful community. The youth sector did not indicate any characteristic of resilience outside of the social and behavioral aspect. The emphasis of the characteristics of resilience under the social aspect as identified by both the children and youth is unity of the community. There is focus on being united, equal, focus on the good of the community as a whole, discipline, compassion, respect, self-kindness, good conduct, and active participation of the members. This is equally shared by the participants that are part of the youth sector. The children and youth subscribe to the belief that when there is cooperation, there would be unity, which is attained because of the good nature of the residents leading them to respect each other. This respect would lead to discipline, a characteristic necessary for urban resilience. 10 8 6 4

Chart. Rating of Urban Resilience in Brgy. Punturin (Adults)

2 0

Average Barangay/ Parents LGU

Teachers Organization Children

Youth

On a scale of zero to ten, the participants gave an average ratingof 8.25 in rating the urban resilience of their barangay. Children gave the highest rating of 9, inferring strong belief in the existing mechanisms and policies implemented in their barangay to protect the children and youth. The youth did not agree, as seen in the low rating they gave of 7, the lowest of all groups, inferring the lack of confidence in the measures that they observed, either in the policies themselves, or in their implementation. The youth stated that there are misunderstandings despite the attempts to be united, that there is effort but it is lacking. The relatively high average ranking is due to lesser hazards because the place is not affected by floods and they believe that they are not vulnerable to earthquakes due to the dearth of high rise buildings

BARANGAY UGONG Adults

Representatives of Barangay Ugong—from the barangay councilmen and local government unit officers to parents and teachers, and members of varying organizations—understood the concept of urban resilience as being mostly a social aspect, with 50% of the characteristics given attributing to it. The remaining half consists of the political aspect, the economic aspect, the preparedness aspect, and the environmental aspect. Among the latter group, the 196


Structural

Environmental • Safe

Perception of urban resilience of adult stakeholders in Barangay Ugong, Valenzuela City.

Social/Attitudinal • Harmony between residents and council • Peace • Unity • Orderly • Cooperation • Coordination • Openness to religion • Competitiveness • Understanding for one another • Organized • Voluntarism

Political/ Institutional

Economic

• Good gover• Stable Job / Livelihood nance • Good leadership • Progressive • Complete • Strong leaderequipment ship - no worries • Constituents of lacking follow facilities • Communication and equipin each department ment • Cooperation between different sectors

Preparedness • Always prepared

political aspect has the lion’s share of the characteristics at 27%, followed by the political aspect at 14%, with the remainder being divided between the environmental and the preparedness aspects. The adult participants emphasized safety under the environmental aspect of resilience, and a constant state of readiness under the preparedness aspect. The characteristics given by the participants that fall under the economic aspect are focused mostly on the livelihood of the members of the community, progressiveness, and having access to complete equipment as needed. Under the political and institutional aspect, the characteristics given emphasized having good governance, through good leadership, inter-department communication, and inter-sector cooperation. Under the social and behavioral aspect of resilience, the adult participants identified characteristics that emphasize cooperation and unity, as well as discipline, openness to religion, and participation. 8 7 6 5 4 3 Rating of Urban Resilience in Brgy. Ugong (Adults)

2 1 0

Average

Barangay/LGU

Parents

Teachers

Organization

197


The conceptualization of urban resilience by the adult participants identified unity as the primary aspect in their perceptions of urban resilience, with allowance to enhance it further through harmony and discipline. The adult representatives focused on the social/attitudinal aspect in their description of urban resilience with respect to their barangay. It is inferred that the perception of the environmental aspect of the participants is limited to their immediate surroundings. The average rating of the urban resilience given by the adult participants of the barangay is 6.4 out of 10. The highest rating of 8 was given by the parents while the lowest rating of 5 is given by the teachers. This shows that while the parents are satisfied with the current level of resilience of the community, this view is not shared by the teachers, and the barangay representatives who gave an average rating of 5.75. The overall opinion on the matter is that there is progress but it is being stalled by party politics in the city. In their own words: “We are already seeing the progress. We are not yet satisfied with what’s happening in Valenzuela City because party politics is still happening.�

198


3.3 PERCEPTION OF CHILDREN’S RIGHTS

3.3.1 City-Level

Perception of children’s rights of city-level stakeholders in Barangay Arkong Bato, Valenzuela City.

Survival • Right to good health • Right to life • Right to proper nutrition • Right to medical assistance • Right to live in a good place

Protective

Developmental

• Right to safe living • Right to protection from abuse • Right to clean environment • Right to be free from drugs • Right to have equal access to Basic Services and Protection During time of Disaster • Right to have a better future in terms of environment • Right to safety and security at all circumstances

• Right to play • Right to education • Right to good home • Right to liberty • Right to recreation • Right to development

Participative • Right to participate

The city officials identified the rights of the children and youth that must be protected. In order of decreasing number of rights identified, the rights fall under the following categories: protective, developmental, survival, and participative. Under the protective rights, there is emphasis on the protection of the potential of the children in youth by ensuring their safety in all circumstances. These include physical protection, protection from abuse, and protection from drugs. The participants also included the rights that protect the environment for the future generations. The developmental rights identified included the right to recreation as well as the right to education. The participants also included the right to a good home and the right to liberty as aids in the children’s and the youths’ development. The survival rights identified focused on the quality of life of the children and youth. These include good health, shelter, and medical assistance. The city officials also included the right to participate as a necessary part of the development of the children and youth. The city officials rated the city’s protection of children and youth’s rights an average of 8.5 out of 10 believing that there are strong measures by the city level government in terms of safeguarding these rights, particularly by the City Social Welfare and Development Office. A participant provided additional con199


text noting that Valenzuela City is child-centered and safe as it has several programs oriented towards their development and welfare: Bantay Eskwela, Bantay Salakay, Bantay Sunog, Bantay Bayan, Bantay Ilog, Bantay Lansangan. As reflected in the chart above, city-level participants deem protective rights Survival

Protective

Developmental

Participative

Rights of Children and Youth (Valenzuela City Level)

as those that must be safeguarded the most (37%), closely followed by developmental rights (32%), survival rights (26%), and participative rights (5%).

3.3.2 Barangay Level

BARANGAY ARKONG BATO Adults

Survival • Good health • House

Perception of children’s rights of adult stakeholders in Barangay Arkong Bato, Valenzuela City.

Survival

Rights of Children and Youth in Brgy. Arkong Bato (Adults)

200

Protective • Be taken cared of • Be loved • Clean and safe environment • Be free from drugs and other addictions

Protective

Developmental • Education • Recreation (play) • Be guided and know the right values • Be taught about God

Developmental

Participative • Right to participate in decision making or get involved in issues • Be heard

Participative


The adults placed emphasis on the children and youth’s rights to a good life, to a prosperous or better living, and to a good family. Most of the rights they identified fall under protective and developmental categories, while survival and participative rights only have a pair each. It must be noted that they emphasize Christian values as part of the children and youth’s developmental rights, while they added the freedom from drugs and addictions as part of the latter’s protective rights. As can be seen in the chart above, developmental and protective rights each share 33% of the responses, while survival and protective rights each share 17% of the responses.

Children and Youth Survival • To shelter/ have good a house • To have food

Perception of children’s rights of children and youth stakeholders in Barangay Arkong Bato, Valenzuela City

Protective

Developmental

• To have complete equipment for disaster • To be protected from drugs • To be protected from using alcohol • To be protected from using cigarettes • To be protected from early teenage pregnancy • To have the attention of parents

• To watch television • To play • To read • To have friends • To travel • To education • To have complete set of school materials • To honor • To exercise religion

Participative

Both the children and youth agree that their developmental rights need to be protected the most, citing education as a top priority. They likewise highlighted the importance of the role of the parents in protecting their children and preventing them from engaging in vices such as drinking alcohol, taking drugs, and smoking cigarettes. They also believe that the right to have shelter and food are basic considerations towards fulfilling the other rights and needs of the younger generation. The youth especially pointed out that these survival and protective rights should be kept safeguarded especially during times of disasters—children and Survival

Protective

Developmental

Participative

Rights of Children and Youth in Brgy. Arkong Bato (Children and Youth)

201


youth’s rights to proper nutrition and safe shelter are considered to be of utmost importance during these events. 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 Rating of Protection of Rights of Children and Youth in Brgy. Arkong Bato

1 0

Average

Barangay/LGU

Parents

Teachers

Organization

As can be seen from the chart, a big chunk of the rights children and youth believe should be protected are their developmental rights (53%), followed by their protective rights (35%), and finally their survival rights (12%). The participants gave their community an average rating of 7.7 out of 10 in terms of their community’s protection of the rights of the children and youth, showing general satisfaction with the existing rights that the children and youth enjoy. The youth gave a ranking of 8 implying that they feel that their community is showing concern and help for both the children and youth, and that the community is willing and able to provide food and other relief goods during disasters. The children gave an average ranking of only 5.5, the lowest average ranking among the participants. This implies that the children are slightly less satisfied than their parents are concerning the protection of their rights, unlike the youth who are more satisfied, as seen in the higher ranking that they gave, with the existing protection mechanisms in place. The barangay officials and the teachers both gave the highest rank of 9, implying that they are confident in the mechanisms in place that protect the mentioned rights.

BARANGAY GEN. T. DE LEON Adults

The rights the adult stakeholders value are mostly developmental and protective rights. They hold highly the right of children and youth to be guided and raised properly by their family as well as in their education. This education includes knowledge in regards to calamities. Right to play and expression are also deeply prized by adults as rights of children to be protected.

202

The importance of parents in the lives of children was also reflected in the protective rights cited by the adults, particularly the right to concern and love of parents. This also includes the overall right to safety, and specifically, the right to be protected from abuse, discrimination, bullying, and calamity. The right to privacy was also included as a fundamental protective right.


Survival • Right to proper nutrition • Right to good health • Right to live • Right to proper food Perception of children’s rights of adult stakeholders in BarangayGen. T. De Leon, Valenzuela City.

Protective

Developmental

Participative

• Right to the concern and love of parents • Right to be protected from abuse, discrimination and calamity • Right to safety • Right to privacy • Right to be protected from bullying

• Right to be guided and raised properly by the parents • Right to education • Right to be guided in their education • Right to play • Right to information in regards to calamity • Right to expression

• Right to be heard and participate

Rights pertaining to basic needs were likewise identified by theadult participants, particularly the right to live and the rights to proper nutrition and good health. The right to be heard and participate was also identified as a critical right under the participative rights. Survival

Protective

Developmental

Participative

Rights of Children and Youth in Brgy. Gen. T. De Leon (Adults)

Children and Youth Survival

Perception of children’s rights of children and youth stakeholders in Barangay Arkong Bato, Valenzuela City.

Protective

Developmental

Participative

• Have an ambition – even after disasters • Have a good job in the future • To study – difficult to exercise this right since it might compromise the safety of children • To finish schooling – to get a good job in the future • Exercise religion / go to church

203


The rights identified by the children all fall under developmental rights. They are the right to have an ambition despite disasters, the right to a good job in the future, the right to study despite the possible risk to the children, the right to finish schooling, and the right to exercise their religion. The rights identified by the children are similar to the rights highlighted by the adults in that they share the same concern over the welfare of children and the youth. Both groups also heavily value education and religion. Survival

Protective

Developmental

Participative

Rights of Children and Youth in Brgy. Gen. T. De Leon (Children)

As can be seen in the chart above, all rights mentioned by the child participants from Barangay Gen. T. De Leon fall under developmental rights. 10 8 6 4 Rating of Protection of Rights of Children and Youth in Brgy. Gen. T. De Leon

2 0

Average

Barangay

Parents

Teachers Organizations Children

The participants gave an average rating of 7.6875 out of 10 in rating the barangay’s protection of the rights of the children and youth. The barangay gave an average rating of 8.25 due to some street children in the area who are not protected as well as other children. The members of the homeowners association justified their answer stating that they believe that parents in the lower economic sector should undergo attitudinal/capacity building training. A parent of a child with special needs attributed the lower rating given to the presence of discrimination and bullying from both the children and adults. The children gave the highest rating of all the groups, with a rating of 9, implying a strong belief in the protection of their rights being sufficient. Overall, the lowest rat204


ing is 7.5 implying that while there is room for improvement, there are polices that implement protection of the rights of the children and the youth.

BARANGAY PUNTURIN Adults

Survival • Right to proper nutrition • Right to a good health • Right to live and be born

Perception of children’s rights of adult stakeholders in Barangay Punturin, Valenzuela City.

Protective

Developmental

• Right to security • Right to be protected from abusive words • Right to be protected from harm, molestation and abuse • Right to live in a nice free pollution area • Right to a good and loving family • Right to be free from sickness, troubles, harm and accidents • Right to be raised properly and taken cared of • Right to belong to a complete family and not ‘broken’

• Right to education • Right to learn the correct values • Right to play/recreation • Right of the children to be taught about disaster and crises • Right to additional scholarship even to those who are not equally intelligent as the scholars • Right to express freely what they feel…freedom of expression • Right to information • Right to a good life • Rights to free expression especially to family

Participative

The adult participants identified rights that are developmental, protective, and that deals with survival, with developmental having the most rights, followed by protective rights by 5%, and finally with survival rights at 15%. This shows that the adults are concerned with the development and protection of the children and youth more than they are concerned with allowing them to participate. The rights that promote the survival of the children and youth identified by the parents focus on the right of the child to be healthy and to exist. This includes the right to be born and to live, betraying anti-abortion leanings, as the only beings that need such protection are those that are yet to be born. The rights that protect the children and youth extend to protection against abuse, be they in form of words, violent actions, sexual abuse, and psychological abuse. They advocate the rights of the children and youth to be protected from pollution, sickness and accidents, despite the latter being beyond the control of any governing body. They also focused on the right of the children and youth to a good, loving, and complete family that will properly raise them and take care of them. The emphasis of the adult participants, the developmental rights, focused on the children and youth to have a good life. This is to be achieved through equal access to education, learning the correct values, lower standards for scholarships, and a general right to information. Having a good life is not limited 205


to education, however, so the adults included the right to recreation and the right to freely express themselves. In addition, the adults included the right to knowledge specifically on disasters and crises. Survival

Protective

Developmental

Participative

Rights of Children and Youth in Brgy. Punturin (Adults)

The adults place a premium on developmental rights (45%) and protective rights (40%), with survival rights following behind (15%).

Children and Youth Survival • Right to shelter

Perception of children’s rights of children and youth stakeholders in Barangay Punturin, Valenzuela City.

Protective • Right to be informed about hazards to aid in protecting themselves • Right to have clean surroundings • Right to have a good environment

Developmental

Participative

• Right to study

In the case of the children and youth, most of the rights identified by the children and youth are protective, although they can be classed under participative as well, specifically the right to be informed about the hazards to aid in protecting themselves under the former. The children and youth recognize their need for education and are similar to the response of the adults in indicating their right to education, although it is the only right they indicated under their development.Likewise, under survival rights, the children and youth only indicated their rights to shelter. The protective rights that the youth and children indicated focused on a good environment and being informed about potential hazards so that they may conduct themselves appropriately. The former includes clean surroundings.

206

In comparison, the adult participants indicated a more comprehensive set of rights to protect the youth and children. Regarding participative rights, the children and youth do not seem to be clamoring for such rights similar to the


adults, so greater focus is given to the protective, developmental and survival rights of the children and youth Survival

Protective

Developmental

Participative

Rights of Children and Youth in Brgy. Punturin (Children and Youth)

As depicted in the chart above, protective rights are the most prized by the children and youth (60%), followed by survival and developmental rights (20% each). 10 8 6 4 Rating of Protection of Rights of Children and Youth in Brgy. Punturin

2 0

Average

Barangay

Parents

Teachers

Organizations

Children

Youth

The participants gave their community an average rating of 8.2 out of 10 in terms of their community’s protection of the rights of the children and youth, showing general satisfaction with the existing rights that the children and youth enjoy. The children gave the highest ranking of 10, while the lowest ranking of 7 was given by the participants from the barangay officials. This implies that the children, and the youth, parents, and teachers (who gave the ranking of 8, 8, and 9 respectively) are satisfied with the existing protection of the rights of the youth and the children. However, it may be cause for concern that the barangay officials gave the lowest rank among the participating sectors, as they are the ones to formulate, implement, and enforce said policies. The low ranking given by the barangay officials may be, in part, due to the minors abusing said rights themselves. The relatively low rank that the youth gave is due to the fact that not everything is accomplished and that the existing mechanisms that protect their rights are still lacking, be it in policy or enforcement. 207


BARANGAY UGONG Adults

Survival • • • • • •

Right to be born Right to nutrition Right to housing Right to food Right to shelter Right to medicine

Perception of children’s rights of adult stakeholders in Barangay Ugong, Valenzuela City.

Protective

Developmental

• Right to be protected from harm • Right to be disciplined • Right to live in a safe community • Right to be protected from child labor • Right to be protected from child abuse • Right to be protected from alcoholism

• Right to be sent to school • Right for recreation and participation in Sports • Right for Freedom of expression • Right for Freedom to Love • Right to know what is right and wrong • Right for awareness • Right to education

Participative

The adult participants identified the rights of the children and youth using the definitions stated above. Their enumeration included rights under survival, protection, and developmental, and did not include rights that encourage participation. The number of rights was distributed almost equally among the three kinds. The rights that enhance and protect the survival of the children and youth are basic rights. These include the right to nutrition, shelter, food, and medicine. These also include the right to be born, indicating the anti-abortion leanings of the participants. Under the protective rights, the participants enumerated the right to be protected from harm, to live in a safe community, to be protected from child labor, and to be protected from child abuse. They also included the right to be disciplined and to be protected from alcoholism. It is implied that the participants are concerned with their authorities to discipline children and youth. The developmental rights the adult participants seek to protect are focused on education and personal freedoms. These include the right for recreation, Survival

Rights of Children and Youth in Brgy. Ugong (Children and Youth)

208

Protective

Developmental

Participative


freedom of expression, and the right to know what is right or wrong. The participants included the right for the children and youth to be informed under this group. When it comes to their rights that must be protected, the children and youth deem developmental (37%), protective (32%), and survival rights (31%) almost equally. 8 7 6 5 4 3 Rating of Protection of Rights of Children and Youth in Brgy. Ugong

2 1 0

Average

Barangay

Parents

Teachers

Organization

The average rating of the protection of rights given by the adult participants is 6.4 out of 10. The lowest rank is 4.5 given by the teachers followed by 6.5 which were given by the barangay representatives and the organizations’ representatives showing their dissatisfaction in the current mechanism that protects these rights. In contrast, the parents gave the highest ranking of 8, implying their confidence or perception that the rights are being protected adequately. It must be noted that some of the participants claim that the rights are being abused by the minors.

209


210

IV. DRRM and CCA Policies and Activities 4.1 DRRM AND CCA POLICIES

Child Related

DRRM/ CCA Related

Others

• Comprehensive Land Use Plan (2009-2018) • Solid Waste Management Related Ordinances/Policies • 10 year Solid Management Plan approved by NSWC • Contingency Plan • Local DRRM plan • Urban planning

4.1.1 City-Level

The city officials identified DRR and CCA related policies only; they did not indicate child or youth development related policies. The policies the participants identified focus on planning and preparation, with only the solid waste management related policies dealing with environmental protection. These include the local DRRM plan and incorporates the land use plan, urban planning, and the formulation of contingency plans.

4.1.2 Barangay-Level

BARANGAY ARKONG BATO Adults

Child Related • R.A 7610 – child abuse • Barangay Council for Protection of children -BCPC

DRRM/ CCA Related

Others • Anti-violence against women

The adults are aware of anti-violence policies that include the laws against child abuse and abuse of women. They are also aware that the local ordinance, the BCPC, to safeguard against acts of violence.

Children and Youth In contrast to the adults, the children and youth are aware of not only the law concerning child-abuse and violence against women, but also other minor ordinances such as curfew, prohibition of using videoke, prohibition of smoking, and prohibition of parking in select areas. They are also aware of the


Child Related

DRRM/ CCA Related

• Curfew to minors • Stopping child abuse

Others • Prohibition of videoke use during nighttime • No smoking in prohibited areas • No parking in prohibited areas • Anti-corruption • Anti-gambling • Anti-violence against women

laws against corruption and against gambling despite being more general and having a larger scope. None of the participants indicated awareness of policies related to DRR or CCA. This may imply either a lack of implementation or a lack of visibility of such measures.

BARANGAY GEN. T. DE LEON Adults

Child Related

DRRM/ CCA Related

• Curfew hours for the youth • RA 7610 - Juvenile Justice, Right of a child

Others • No gambling • No Smoking in Public/ Private place • RA 9208 - Anti-human trafficking

The adults identified policies that protect children and youth such as the ordinance setting curfew hours and the act against child-abuse, as well as laws that prohibit gambling, smoking, and human trafficking;however they did not identify a DRR/CCA related policy.

Children and Youth Child Related

DRRM/ CCA Related • Prohibition to throw waste in the river

Others • Prohibition to drink alcohol • Prohibition to gamble • Prohibition to smoke • Prohibition to steal • Prohibition to cockfight

The children and youth identified a myriad of community policies including those against drinking alcohol, gambling, smoking, stealing, and cockfighting. It is heartening to know that the children and youth show awareness of a DRR/ CCA related policy in the prohibition against the throwing of waste in the river, showing either good awareness of their environment, or good knowledge of the local ordinances. 211


BARANGAY PUNTURIN Adults

Child Related • Curfew hour for the youth • M.A.D – Mamamayan Ayaw sa Droga (Residents Anti Drugs) • Ayoko sa Bawal na Droga

DRRM/ CCA Related

Others

• 825 Anti Littering related to garbage collection • Clean Air Act • Clean and Green

The adult participants are aware of some DRR/CCA related policies and Child/ Youth related policies. The DRR or CCA related policies that the adult participants are aware of are laws related to environmental protection, specifically anti-littering, clean air act, and the clean and green movement. The Child or Youth related policies that they are aware of are the policies against drugs and curfew for the youth.

Children and Youth Child Related

DRRM/ CCA Related

Others

• No littering • No urinating in public places • No picking of flowers • No smoking in public areas • No spitting in public areas • No illegal logging

• No gambling • No drinking in public areas • Careful on slippery roads • No starting of fights

The children and youth are aware of several DRR and CCA related policies in the form of ordinances against littering, urinating in public places, picking of flowers, smoking in public areas, spiting in public areas, and the law against illegal logging. The other policies the children and youth are aware of are the policies against gambling, drinking in public places, the starting of fights, and notices to take care on slippery roads. These policies are minor in scope and scale when compared to the policies indicated by the adult participants, except for the laws against illegal logging and gambling. Both groupsof participants indicated awareness of policies related to DRR or CCA. However, their knowledge is limited to minor policies, apart from the clean air act and the clean and green project, both limited in scope and in terms of what they address.

212


BARANGAY UGONG Adults

The adult participants are aware of both DRR and CCA policies and of Child and Youth related policies. For the former, they cite a littering ordinance, waste segregation laws, and celebration of World Water Day. The Child and Youth related policies they identified focus on curfew, anti-bullying, prohibition of liquor and cigarettes in the vicinity of schools, the banning of junk food in schools, implementing an age limit during certain hours in computer shops, and preventing those who did not attend daycare from being accepted in schools. These imply that the adults are concerned with the heath, discipline, and general welfare of the children and youth. The other policies that the adult participants are aware of are the laws against gambling in public and policies that prioritize vulnerable sectors. Child Related

DRRM/ CCA Related

• Anti-Bullying • No Liquor and cigarette within 1km away from a school • No junkfood in school as implemented by Dep-Ed • Curfew • Implementing age limit during certain hours inside computer shops. • Curfew for below 18 at 11pm • Rule in school that those who did not attend daycare are not accepted

4.2 DRRM AND CCA ACTIVITIES

4.2.1 City-Level

Disaster risk reduction and management and climate change adaptation activities, classified under DRRM thematic areas, identified by city-level stakeholders in Valenzuela City.

• No Littering ordinance • Waste segregation • World Water Day

Others • Law disallowing gambling in public • Policy to prioritize vulnerable sectors

PREPAREDNESS Activity

Initiating Organization

Basic Emergency First Responder Training (BEFR Training) Disaster Preparedness and Drill Orientation (DPDO) Water Emergency and Life Saving Techniques Training Center

Role of Children and Youth Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

X

City Government

X

X

X

Basic Fire Safety Prevention Suppression Training

213


Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Orientation Wemboree

Training on disaster preparedness and response

City Government

Barangay • TAFFGIP • VALPOLY-RAPIDS • FATIMA L-FACTORS • SHIELD –PLV • CCW (CRIME CITIZEN WATCH) • PHMI • SCAN INTERNATIONAL • COMPASSION INTERNATIONAL • BOYS SCOUTS OF THE PHILIPPINES • GIRL SCOUTS OF THE PHILIPPINES • RED CROSS YOUTH

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

PREVENTION AND MITIGATION Initiating Organization

WAQMA/ Marilao-Meycauayan-Obando (MMO) river system

City Government

Tree planting

City Government, Barangay

X

May pera sa basura

City Government, Barangay

X

Proper waste disposal

City Government, Barangay

X

X

X

X

Ecosaver Flood control projects

214

Role of Children and Youth

Activity

Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

X

Barangay X

Climate proofing of school buildings and facilities

School

X

Waste segregation program

HOA

X

Geo tagging of industries

CENRO

X


EMERGENCY RESPONSE Role of Children and Youth

Activity

Initiating Organization

Leader

Participant

Barangay/ Batang Emergency Response Team

Barangay

X

X

Beneficiary

DRR Activity

Initiating Organization

Role of Children and Youth Leader

Participant

Alert/3S Center

Beneficiary X

Boyscout/ Girlscout

X

X

Red Cross Youth

X

X

GENERAL WELFARE Role of Children and Youth

Activity

Initiating Organization

Millennium Development Goals - Family Based Actions on Children and their Environs in the Slums

City Government

X

In City Relocation

City Government

X

Job website

City Government

X

Olympic skills

City Government

Bench marking

City Government

X

Seal of Good Local Governance

City Government

X

Brigadaeskwela

School

Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

X

X

The participants identified activities that were initiated in the city that improved urban resilience. Activities that dealt with prevention and mitigation had the greatest number at 33%, followed by activities that promote preparedness and general welfare with both at 26%. Activities that dealt with emergency response had the least number at 4%, followed by general DRR related activities at 11%. Most of the activities under preparedness were initiated by the city government, while the trainings on disaster preparedness and response were initiated by various organizations, among them are the Red Cross Youth, Boy scouts of the Philippines, and the Girl Scouts of the Philippines.In all activities un215


der preparedness, the children and youth served as participants, and some of them have the children and youth as beneficiaries as well. In the training conducted by the organizations however, the children and youth were able to serve as leaders of the activities. The activities themselves are in the form of seminars and drills for disaster and crisis events. In prevention and mitigation activities, the children and youth serve as leaders and participants, although in the big activities such as the geotagging of industries and climate proofing of school buildings and facilities, they are the beneficiaries. The activities where the children and youth are allowed to participate in and sometimes allowed to lead in are tree planting activities, proper waste disposal, pera sa basura, and ecosaver. These activities were initiated by the city government and barangay, at times cooperating with each other, while the activities where the children and youth as mostly beneficiaries only were initiated by the barangay, the schools, CENRO, and HOA. These activities are a mix of protecting the environment and enhancing existing facilities to lessen probable damage in disaster and crisis events. The primary emergency response activity mentioned was the Barangay/Batang Emergency Response Team where the roles of the children and youth are as leaders and participants. Spanning the four thematic areas were the 3S Action Centers set up by the city government. These structures were built to provide quick and reliable service to residents of the city during disaster situations and even beyond. Apart from activities falling under the four thematic areas, the participants cited general welfare activities mostly initiated by the city government, apart from the Brigada Eskwela which was initiated by the school. Apart from the Olympic skills activity and the Brigada Eskwela where the roles of the children and youth were as participants, the general welfare activities target the children and youth as beneficiaries. The activities themselves vary fromthose catering to children’s welfare and education to those dealing with issues of economics, livelihood, and good governance. To provide more context, as cited by a participant in a separate forum, other examples of partnerships, organizations, and programs implemented in Valenzuela City to reflect their efforts in upholding the safety, security, and disaster-preparedness of the city and in upholding children’s welfare include: conduct of Youth Development Office of palaro among the youth; formation of Task Force Youth in barangays; programs on maintenance of cleanliness (in cooperation of DSWD); Red Cross—information dissemination, disaster preparedness and training; continuous training of volunteers, Knight of Columbus, etc; Citizen Crime Watch (DILG), Special task force, Community Crime Watch; Philippine Coast Guard Auxiliary; training of many NGOs; continuous Disaster Preparedness Skills Olympics and Drills; and DepEd activities (e.g., Yearly programs on school disaster and risk management, BERT, Red Cross Youth, trained Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts, new buildings for ALS and SPED).

4.2.2 Barangay Level

216

BARANGAY ARKONG BATO

It is observed that most of the programs in the community identified by the adults are oriented only towards children as the beneficiaries of these projects. There is a noticeable lack of participation and leadership of children in both internal and external programs. Most of the projects fall under general welfare, with only 25% shared by projects that deal with preparedness and preventive or mitigating projects.


PREPAREDNESS Role of Children and Youth

Activity

Initiating Organization

DRR seminars

Barangay

Earthquake drill

School

X

X

Fire drill

School

X

X

Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

X

X

PREVENTION AND MITIGATION Activity

Initiating Organization

Tree planting

City government

Putting up fence along the creek

Barangay

Role of Children and Youth Leader

Participant

X

X

Beneficiary

X

GENERAL WELFARE

Disaster risk reduction and management and climate change adaptation activities, classified under DRRM thematic areas, identified by stakeholders in Barangay Arkong Bato, Valenzuela City.

Role of Children and Youth

Activity

Initiating Organization

Summer basketball league

Barangay

Free circumcision

Barangay

X

Oplan sagip mata

Barangay

X

Quarterly medical mission

Barangay

X

Feeding program

Barangay

X

Daycare project

Barangay

X

Scouting

School

Feeding program

School

Summer camp

School

Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

X

X

X X

X

X

The children and youth similarly identified a majority of the projects to fall under general welfare, although they identified 22% of the projects that fall under preparedness and 14% under prevention and mitigation. Most of the projects where the children and youth participate as leaders are initiated by the schools while none of the activities initiated by the barangays have the children or youth participate as leaders, and few of their activities have the youth and children as participants, but most indicate that the youth and children are the primary beneficiaries. 217


BARANGAY GEN. T. DE LEON PREPAREDNESS Role of Children and Youth

Activity

Initiating Organization

Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

Seminar workshop on Leadership, Climate Change and Disaster Preparedness

Barangay

X

X

X

Drills (earthquake)

School

X

X

Seminar on disaster preparedness

Red Cross Youth

X

X

X

Seminar on basic life support

Red Cross Youth

X

X

X

PREVENTION AND MITIGATION Activity

Initiating Organization

Tree planting

School

Role of Children and Youth Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

X

EMERGENCY RESPONSE Activity

Initiating Organization

Provision of relief goods

Role of Children and Youth Leader

Participant

Beneficiary

Barangay

X

X

Provision of food, canned goods, clothing, mats, pillows, water, umbrella, arinola during disasters

Barangay

X

X

Feeding program

Ladies in Public Service (LIPS)

X

Response during disasters

Ladies in Public Service (LIPS)

X

Relief operation

Holy Cross Parish

X

Relief and rescue

GTDLFHNAI neighborhood association

X

It is observed that most of the programs in the community identified by the participants have the children and youth as the beneficiaries of these projects. There is a noticeable lack of participation and leadership of children in both internal and external programs. Most of the projects fall under general welfare, with only 25% shared by projects that deal with preparedness and preventive or mitigating projects. 218


GENERAL WELFARE Activity

Initiating Organization

Role of Children and Youth Leader

Participant

Task force on youth development

X

X

Barangay youth leadership

X

X

Feeding program

X

X

Barangay

Free medical check up

X

Free medicines

X

Aids awareness program Brigadaeskwela Disaster risk reduction and management and climate change adaptation activities, classified under DRRM thematic areas, identified by stakeholders in Barangay Gen. T. De Leon, Valenzuela City.

Beneficiary

X School

Values formation training/catechism Medical Mission

X

X

X

X

Holy Cross Parish

X

Free circumcision

X

The organizations that initiated the activities are the barangay, school, Red Cross Youth, Ladies in Public Service (LIPS), the Holy Cross Parish, and the GTDLFHNAI neighborhood association, with the barangay initiating most of the identified activities. Most of the activities were focused on general welfare, followed by emergency response, with preparedness and prevention/mitigation activities being the least in frequency. This shows that the most of the activities deal with further development of the youth and the children, as well as responding in crisis situations. Mitigating activities as well as training for such situations however are far fewer. The children and youth are identified as participants in most and leaders in some of the activities identified, showing a great degree of inclusion for allowing this level of participation from that sector.

BARANGAY PUNTURIN PREVENTION AND MITIGATION Activity

Initiating Organization

Putting up fence along the creek

Barangay

Earthquake Drill

School

Role of Children and Youth Leader

Participant

Beneficiary X

X

219


GENERAL WELFARE

Disaster risk reduction and management and climate change adaptation activities, classified under DRRM thematic areas, identified by stakeholders in Barangay Punturin, Valenzuela City.

Activity

Initiating Organization

Quarterly medical mission

LGU / Barangay

Role of Children and Youth Leader

Participant

Beneficiary X

Feeding Program

X

Daycare project

X Barangay

Blood donation

X

Street light project

X

Outpost of volunteer tanod

X

Homeowners

It is observed that most of the programs in the community identified by the adults are oriented only towards children as the beneficiaries of these projects. There is a noticeable lack of participation and leadership of children in both internal and external programs. Most of the projects fall under general welfare, with only 25% shared by projects that deal with preparedness and preventive or mitigating projects. Only the earthquake drill, which was identified by the children and youth, qualifies as a preparedness activity. Even the activities the children and youth identified did not place them in positions of leadership and are allowed only to participate in the earthquake drills. All of the activities indicate the youth and children as the primary beneficiaries.

BARANGAY UGONG PREPAREDNESS Role of Children and Youth

Activity

Initiating Organization

DRR seminars to adults

Action Center, Red Cross

DRR seminars to children

Schools

X

Seminars about fire

Bureau of Fire Protection

X

Leader

Participant

Beneficiary X

The adult participants indicated that most of the activities are targeted at general welfare with 58% of the listed activities, followed by emergency response activities at 18%, prevention and mitigation activities at 15% and preparedness activities at 9%. The preparedness activities were initiated by the Red Cross, schools, and the bureau of fire protection. The involvement of the children and youth in these activities were at most as participants and as beneficiaries only. These activities are in the form of seminars, with two being disaster risk reduction seminars targeting adults and children while the other is a seminar on fires. 220


PREVENTION AND MITIGATION

Disaster risk reduction and management and climate change adaptation activities, classified under DRRM thematic areas, identified by stakeholders in Barangay Ugong, Valenzuela City.

Activity

Initiating Organization

Street lighting

City Government, Barangay

Gulayan sa paaralan Planting of vegetables in plastic bottles

Leader

Participant

Beneficiary X

X

Tree planting Waste segregation

Role of Children and Youth

X

Barangay

X School X

The activities under prevention and mitigation are mostly initiated by the barangay, and the school. The children are participants in these activities, apart from the street lighting activity where they are the beneficiaries. The children and youth are also leaders in the tree planting activity. The emergency response activities are initiated by the DSWD, CSWDO, the Bureau of Fire Protection, the Tzu Chi foundation, private citizens and churches. These activities mostly involve the provision of relief goods and materials. The children are beneficiaries in these activities, although they are allowed to participate in the provision of food and clothes that is initiated by private citizens. The activity of the Bureau of Fire Protection is the putting out of fires.

EMERGENCY RESPONSE Role of Children and Youth

Activity

Initiating Organization

Relief goods

DSWD

X

In Kentex fire: helped in funeral expenses; aid people with disability, provision of wheelchairs; clean and green projects; aid daycares; financial and medicinal aid

CSWDO

X

Put out fires;

Bureau of Fire Protection

X

Materials/ equipment

Tzu Chi Foundation

X

Provision of food, clothes

Private citizens

Provision of food

Churches

X

Provision of school supplies to indigent children and youth

Barangay Council

X

Leader

Participant

X

Beneficiary

X

221


The general welfare activities are initiated by the city government, the barangay, the schools, Tau Gamma Phi, UNTV, the Lion’s club, Dong-A, Rebisco, Sagip Bata, and Bahay Kalinga, alone and in conjunction with other organizations listed. The children and youth are allowed the roles of leadership, participative and beneficiary in these activities, some of them allowing them multiple roles, such as the feeding program of the city government and the barangay. The activities range from housing, to recreational activities, to vocational programs, to assistance to juvenile delinquents. GENERAL WELFARE

222

Role of Children and Youth

Activity

Initiating Organization

Housing

City Government

Feeding program

City Government, Barangay

Seminar regarding the right of children

Barangay BCPC

X

Anti-rabies vaccination

Barangay

X

Free circumcision

Barangay

X

Balik eskwela program

Barangay, school

X

Sports programs

Barangay, school

Livelihood programs

Barangay

Musical programs

Barangay, school

Cooking contest

Barangay

Art contest

Barangay, school

Free circumcision and medical mission

Tau Gamma Phi

Teaching camp

Division Office

Free haircut

Barangay kagawad

Palarong pambata

UNTV

X

Bowling games

Lion’s Club

X

Art workshop

Dong-A, Rebisco

X

Shelter and rehabilitation of street children

Sagip Bata

X

X

Assistance to juvenile delinquents

Bahay Pagasa/ Kalinga

X

X

Leader

Participant

Beneficiary X

X

X

X

X

X

X X

X

X

X X

X

X X

X

X X


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V. Recommendations

5.1 CITY LEVEL

Policies • Creation of Policies that safeguard the Rights of the Children and Youth • Standard Monitoring Tool

Programs and Projects • • • • • • • • •

Recommended policies and programs and projects by city-level stakeholders in Valenzuela City.

• •

Score card/ bench marking Gather Database of Children and Youth Provide Incentive for Best implementor Awareness Campaigns for Climate Change and its Effects (within the community) Institutionalized activities Sports Parenting sessions Like skills sessions Guide/indicators for contingency plan/response to be more child focused especially in evacuation centers Suggested activities to do in evacuation center that simple people can do Special focus on vulnerable groups

The city officials put forth recommendations to improve urban resilience. Policy recommendations included policies that safeguard the rights of the children and youth as well as a standard monitoring tool, for the development of the children and youth and urban resilience respectively. The programs suggested include both developmental activities and resilience building activities. For the latter, the participants suggested, score card/ bench marking, gathering a database of children and youth in the city, sports activities, parenting sessions, and livelihood-related activities. These focus on the education, health and welfare, and recreation of the children and youth. The programs suggested that would help build resilience include incentives for the best implementers, awareness campaigns for climate change and its impacts, institutionalized activities, guides and indicators for contingency plans and responses with greater focus on the welfare of the children in crisis and disaster events, activities for people in evacuation centers, and a focus on the more vulnerable sectors.

5.2 BARANGAY LEVEL

BARANGAY ARKONG BATO Adults

The adults of Barangay Arkong Bato prefer livelihood and community projects, as indicated in the hazards that they are concerned about and in the projects and programs they identified. They specifically point out community livelihood


Policies • Waste Segregation law in every household • Law on Irresponsible Parenthood Recommended policies and programs and projects by adult stakeholders in Barangay Arkong Bato, Valenzuela City.

Programs and Projects • Seminars/Trainings for Adult and Youth • Additional community projects like livelihood both for men and women • Gardening/planting of vegetables even in cans only • Put up a Cooperative

projects for men and women, like gardening and planting of vegetables and putting up cooperatives as viable recommendations. They are also asking for more seminars and trainings for adults as well as the youth and for the formation of a cooperative in the barangay. The adult participants recommended enacting waste segregation laws as a disaster risk reduction measure as well as laws against irresponsible parenthood, to promote a child-centered community, all to improve the resilience of Barangay Arkong Bato.

Children and Youth Policies • • • • •

Recommended policies and programs and projects by children ad youth stakeholders in Barangay Arkong Bato, Valenzuela City

Stop child abuse Abide the curfew Stop bullying Paid parking area Anti-corruption - those people in authority not to use their power to oppress and rob the poor; they should be true to their professions • Continue to make policies for the barangay • Strict implementation of the law

Programs and Projects • • • • • • • • •

Lower tuition fees Feeding program for malnourished children Conduct summer reading camps Clean/unclog the canals to prevent floods/ sickness More garbage disposal places in the streets Active Participation of people Additional feasible projects in the community Create groups where youth can join Participation and involvement of youth in projects

The children and youth are greatly concerned with a large number of issues with child abuse and bullying topping that list. They recognize that there must also be action on the part of the adults, from policies implementing a curfew to anti-corruption policies. They assert that people in authority should not to use their power to oppress and rob the poor; they should be true to their positions. They advocate the strict implementation of the law. They suggested programs on education from lower tuition fees to summer reading camps, programs in general welfare such as feeding programs for the malnourished children, cleaning of the canals and the placement of more garbage disposal receptacles in the streets. They also push for greater participation of the community in community projects as well as allowing the participation of the children and the youth in such projects.

BARANGAY GEN. T. DE LEON Adults

The adults of Barangay Gen. T. De Leon prefer policy changes, or at least better implementation, as indicated in the hazards that they are concerned about and in the projects and programs they identified. They want better implementation of the RA 9262 or the Anti-Violence Against Women and Children Act and to have positive discipline made mandatory through law.The adult participants 224


Policies

Programs and Projects

• Better implementation of RA 9262 • Positive discipline should be made into law

• Review and amend the law since children are used by criminal elements as the latter cannot be jailed and prosecuted • Parents who are out of work should be given livelihood assistance • Harap mo linis mo – promote cleanliness of areas in front of citizens’ houses • Responsible parenthood to instill the right values in forming a family • Right approach to discipline and value formation • Give assistance to uplift economic condition of the family with disabled child

Recommended policies and programs and projects by adult stakeholders in Barangay Gen. T. De Leon, Valenzuela City.

recommended that amendments to existing laws be made to take into account criminal elements using children in illicit activities as they believe that the children cannot be jailed or prosecuted against. The adult participants also advocated the giving of livelihood assistance to parents who are out of work, as well as giving assistance to families with children with special needs to uplift their economic conditions. This is to ensure the development of the children in the care of such families. This is to be augmented by policies that promote responsible parenthood to instill values in forming a family, and the right approach to discipline and value formation guided by policy. In terms of environmental concerns, the adults recommended a “Harap mo linis mo” approach to promote the cleanliness of the areas in front of the houses of the citizens.

Children and Youth Policies • Intensify prohibition on gambling, drinking, drugs, stealing, throwing of waste in the river Recommended policies and programs and projects by children and youth stakeholders in Barangay Gen. T. De Leon, Valenzuela City.

Programs and Projects • • • • • • •

Free medicine Free checkup Free food Free water Free clothes Free canned goods Free toys

Others • • • • • • •

More police More firemen More barangay patrol More traffic enforcers More doctors More teachers Have wider roads

The children and youth seek to address the problems on gambling, drinking, drugs, theft, and environmental concerns. They recommended intensifying the prohibition onacts of gambling, drinking, taking drugs, and stealing. They also recommended intensifying the implementation of the ban on the throwing of waste in the river to further preserve it. The children and youth suggested programs that provide free goods and services in the form of medicine, check-ups, basic needs such as food and water, clothing, canned goods, and toys. They also indicated the need for more service personnel such as more policemen, firemen, barangay patrolmen, traffic enforcers, doctors, and teachers. They acknowledge the need for wider roads as well. These address potential issues regarding the capacity of the barangay to react and provide services in disaster or crisis events. The recommendations of both groups of participants focus on increasing development capacity as well as adaptive capacity of their barangays. By implementing their suggested policies, they increase the capacity of the family units to respond well to crisis situations. 225


BARANGAY PUNTURIN Adults

The adults of Barangay Punturin prefer livelihood and community projects, as indicated in the hazards that they are concerned about and in the projects and programs they identified. They specifically recommend curfew for parties, more cleanliness policies, and stricter implementation of the anti-drug laws and anti-bullying. The adult participants recommended programs focusing on social assistance. These include those focused on livelihood such as follow-up assistance of livelihood seminars, livelihood assistance for women and additional livelihood Policies • • • •

Curfew for parties, noise (limit time) Cleanliness Strict implementation of Anti Drug Laws Stricter implementation of anti-bullying

Recommended policies and programs and projects by adult stakeholders in Barangay Punturin, Valenzuela City.

Programs and Projects • Follow up and assistance after conduct of livelihood seminars • Livelihood for the women that will be pay off quick to prevent women from gambling and gossip that makes gambling a habit • Sustainable livelihood for women • Free school supplies for high school students • Free Anti Rabies for animals • Additional Livelihood Opportunities for mammals • Additional scholarship slots also for not so intelligent students • Additional Hospitals • Additional Schools • Additional Job opportunities • Give capital assistance • Construct Public Cemetery • Book Donations for school libraries • Seminars and Workshop for Advancement • More information awareness about anti-bullying

opportunities, and seminars and workshops to enhance these livelihood opportunities. Moreover, there are suggestions for economic assistance such as more job opportunities and capital assistance for business ventures. There were structural recommendations such as building additional facilities,for example hospitals and schools,and a public cemetery. Some recommendations were made regarding the education, development, and welfare of the children and youth such as providing for additional scholarship slots with lower prerequisites, free school supplies for high school students, book donation drives for public libraries, and more information dissemination programs to enhance awareness about bullying.

Children and Youth The children and youth are concerned with protecting the environment as the policies they recommend are to prevent the harming of the environment, to ban littering, to ban the burning of trees, and to pick flowers. They suggested programs on education, from free tuition and school supplies. They also suggested blood drives, housing projects, food donations, and free circumcision. The children and youth also recommended bolstering the number of soldiers, police stations and hospitals. 226


Policies No harming of environment No throwing of garbage anywhere No burning of trees No picking of flowers Recommended policies and programs and projects by children and youth stakeholders in Barangay Punturin, Valenzuela City.

Programs and Projects • • • • • • • •

Free education Scholarships Free tuition Blood donation Free school supplies Free circumcision Housing projects Food donations

Others • More soldiers • More police stations • More hospitals

BARANGAY UGONG

The adult participants from Barangay Ugong recommended several policies to push for a more child-centered and resilient community. They suggested the passage of a law on public toilets, a better anti-drug policy, improved anti-illegal gambling laws, a three strike rule against bullying, and a law against littering. In terms of recommended programs and projects, they prefer livelihood and community programs. They specifically point out programs that produce stable jobs, career orientation, youth counseling, vocational programs, and livelihood programs in support of this. They also advocate additional leisure activities in the form of a basketball league, the Palarong Pinoy Caravan, and other sports programs. The adult participants also included in their recommended programs a flood control project and the provision of disaster equipment. This also includes a seminar workshop for disaster management for the youth as well as child rights. They also recommended activities that promote education such as activities Policies Passage of a law about public toilets Anti-Drugs Policy Anti-illegal gambling Make 3-offense rule in bullying No littering law

Recommended policies and programs and projects by adult stakeholders in Barangay Ugong, Valenzuela City.

Programs and Projects • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Stable Jobs Better Livelihood Program Basketball League Flood Control Project Provision of Disaster Equipment Youth Counseling Palarong Pinoy Caravan “Gulong ng Karunungan” Proper Career Orientation Seminar workshop for Disaster Management for the Youth Newspaper bag making Proper information dissemination Conduct open fora Assistance from NGOs Initiate more livelihood programs Sports programs More seminars on DRRM and child’s rights Focus on education Teach parents livelihood programs Moving library Support for young athletes Free circumcision Home-schooling program Housing Financial help Help for children with disability especially in times of disasters like flooding

227


that endorse proper information dissemination and the Moving Library. They included suggestions on getting assistance from NGOs and the conduct of open forums. Furthermore, they proposed programs on education and general welfare including support for young athletes, free circumcision, home schooling programs, housing and financial assistance, and help for children with special needs, especially in crisis or disaster events. Truly, these proposed recommendations come from the hearts of the participants as they themselves aspire for a child-centered and urban resilient community. Hopefully, this goal can be attainedthrough the continuous efforts of barangay officials and their various constituents.

228


Conclusion The children and youth in Quezon City, San Juan City, and the City of Valenzuela are significantly confronted by everyday risks that are shaped by a multitude of physical, social, economic and political factors. Since the urban environment is more heterogeneous and complex in nature, the young individuals are at a greater risk of being put into a situation that would adversely impact their wellbeing. The interconnectedness of their varying vulnerabilities is obvious as they influence one another. Addressing the physical vulnerability to flooding alone would not guarantee the safety and resilience of children and youth. It requires a comprehensive approach that would address other underlying causes of their exposure especially those that relate to poverty, poor participation, and weak governance. This study also puts a spotlight on the underlying threat that has been deeply ingrained not only in the culture of these localities but in the whole Filipino society, the perennial challenge of poverty. Just by taking a gander at the community and the problems they shared in the conduct of this research, it can be deduced that the reason why the general welfare and safety of the children and youth are not particularly bolstered is because of poverty. Most, if not all, stakeholders in the community have long been focused on how to simply appease the persistent problem of poverty and the difficulties that ensue (i.e. hunger, unemployment, familial conflict), that they fail to see how development isn’t achieved by merely hurling out ‘band-aid’ solutions, but by capacitating and empowering all the sectors to contribute in the achievement of progress in the community. Most parents and households are caught up with the everyday struggle of getting food on the table for their families, neglecting the importance of their children’s holistic development and wellbeing. As pointed out in this study, far more upsetting is the prevalence of social, political, and economic hazards as these exacerbate the fundamental threats and vulnerabilities which, if continually overlooked, lead to recurring, everyday disasters that become part of the norm – rendered an irrevocable component of everyday life. Moreover, the barangays have to be further oriented on the term urban resilience since it is relatively new to them. During the data gathering process, the research team had to translate the term in Filipino language for them to easily understand the concept. The team equated urban resilience to the Filipino term “matatag na siyudad”. It was necessary for the team to provide an explanation for the communities to grasp the idea and allow them to engage in the discussion. Urban resilience is a comprehensive concept as it covers structural, environmental, socio-cultural, organizational, and motivational aspects and the communities need continuous awareness regarding the concept to ensure sustainable and effective programs and policies.


Based on the DRRM/CCA interventions and general welfare activities, it is evident that children and youth primarily act as beneficiaries or participants and are seldom given a leadership role. Given this scenario, it is obvious that the young generation is mainly treated as individuals who need to be nurtured and provided with care, thus their role is restricted as mere recipients or beneficiaries of assistance. Local concerned authorities primarily speak and decide on their behalf without proper consultation. Although this kind of orientation espouses the advancement of the children and youth’s survival rights, their protective, development, and participation rights are however neglected since the adults still dominate the planning, policy-making, and decision-making processes. Albeit this situation, stakeholders in authority are enthusiastic and eager to learn from these new findings, willing to bolster and improve the measures in place to improve the plight and welfare of children and youth alike. As the Filipino culture is accustomed to caring and rearing the young until they are in the “right age” to make their own decisions, authorities are quickly learning to adapt to a new way of thinking where the youth are viewed as the future movers and leaders of society. Essentially, the children and youth have rich, untapped potential that can help provide a fresh outlook in the planning, policy-making, and decision-making processes of the government. As with all other sectors in society, people can better attain progress when they are empowered, educated, and capacitated. Indeed, it is only then that they’ll realize that the path toward development is not in the hands of others, but in their own.

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Profile for Center for Disaster Preparedness

Strengthening resilience to disasters among vulnerable urban poor communities in Manila  

Strengthening resilience to disasters among vulnerable urban poor communities in Manila  

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