Towards Resilience and Development for Bohol Communities in the Aftermath of Earthquake and Typhoon Haiyan PROJECT TERMINAL REPORT
TOWARDS RESILIENCE AND DEVELOPMENT FOR BOHOL COMMUNITIES IN THE AFTERMATH OF EARTHQUAKE AND TYPHOON HAIYAN
1 Executive summary 1 Background 2 Profile of project areas 4 Lessons learned 5 Conclusion 6 7
Project background Project areas
9 9 13
Project results Targets and results Issues and challenges
Project management and partnership
20 20 22
Recommendations and conclusions Santo rosario organic farmersâ€™ association Mag-aso organic farmers livelihood organization
Annex | story of change
TOWARDS RESILIENCE AND DEVELOPMENT FOR BOHOL COMMUNITIES IN THE AFTERMATH OF EARTHQUAKE AND TYPHOON HAIYAN
readiness of the communities and the success in the implementation of the economic interventions, the first phase concentrated on strengthening social components before activities in line with economic development were conducted. In this manner, the activities conducted in phase one of the project were designed to complement the capacity-building workshops and prepare for the sustainable livelihood interventions of the second phase. The activities in phase one consist of capacity-building and awareness-raising trainings and orientations, such as Participatory Post-Disaster Needs Assessment Workshops, CBDRRM workshops, development of an Early Warning System, Contingency Planning workshop, community drill, and psycho-spiritual support exercises.
The Center for Disaster Preparedness, with support from the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC), has led the twoyear implementation of a project entitled â€œTowards Resilience and Development for Bohol Communities in the Aftermath of Earthquake and Typhoon Haiyan.â€? The undertaking began in November 2014 as a 6-month project focused on awareness raising and capacity building in Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction and Management (CBDRRM) of affected communities in the Municipality of Antequera, Bohol. Since then, the project has elevated its approaches to increasing the resilience and preparedness of the covered communities, Barangays Mag-aso and Sto. Rosario, through capacity development in sustainable livelihood and agricultural practices. After the project established a solid foundation in CBDRRM in the affected communities, CDP The success of the project and the many gains conducted activities with the aim of building it has achieved can be greatly attributed to the the economic resilience of the barangay. In strategic process of implementation. Essentially, realization of this goal, the following outcomes this endeavor focused on recovery and were expected during phase two of the project: rehabilitation of the communities affected by the 2013 earthquake and super typhoon. In order 1. Adoption of sustainable agricultural to do so, the following components were given practices by farmers to ensure their food focus: rebuilding of social capital, increasing security at all times; community competence, community planning for 2. Realization of a family income that meets risk reduction, and economic development. Since the daily needs and savings for future needs CDP understands the importance of a holistic of families; approach to resilience, the project was divided 3. Setting up of a self-sustaining multiinto two distinct phases. In order to ensure the purpose cooperative that provides products
TOWARDS RESILIENCE AND DEVELOPMENT FOR BOHOL COMMUNITIES IN THE AFTERMATH OF EARTHQUAKE AND TYPHOON HAIYAN
and services that cater to the needs of the people in the communities; and 4. Enhanced social/organizational capacities to mitigate and prepare for disasters. In order to reach the aforementioned outcomes, phase two of the project included components such as sustainable agricultural production (the setting up of a demo farmer field school), alternative livelihood production, cooperative development, and social enterprise.
The residents of Barangays Mag-aso and Sto. Rosario have reached so much in the two-year span of the project. The experience and knowledge they gained through the different workshops on livelihood and sustainable agricultural practices have shaped them into a more empowered and self-sustaining barangay with values rooted in hard work, cooperation, and an understanding of the importance of community preparedness and resilience.
The residents of Barangays Mag-aso and Sto. Rosario have reached so much in the two-year
PROFILE OF PROJECT AREAS
span of the project. The experience and knowledge they gained through the different workshops on livelihood and sustainable agricultural practices have shaped them into a more empowered and self-sustaining barangay with values rooted in hard work, cooperation, and an understanding of the importance of community preparedness and resilience.
Bohol is famous for its beautiful tourist spots and some of these can be found in the municipality of Antequera, where the project was implemented. In 2013, Bohol became the center of international news when a 7.2 magnitude earthquake ripped through the region and caused severe damage to the municipality. It was through these circumstances that the project discovered the quiet villages of Mag-aso and Sto. Rosario.
In order to reach the aforementioned outcomes, phase two of the project included components such as sustainable agricultural production (the setting up of a demo farmer field and school), alternative livelihood production, cooperative development, and social enterprise.
Barangay Mag-aso is nestled 2.5 kilometers away from the center of Antequera. The small community is home to 99 families and has a total of 97 households. When Mag-aso was struck by the earthquake of 2013,
and subsequently by Super Typhoon Haiyan, the community was significantly affected and suffered substantial economic and infrastructural losses. These experiences prompted the residents of Mag-aso to welcome the recovery and rehabilitation assistance extended by the project through preparedness and capacitystrengthening workshops. Despite not having an extensive background in agriculture, the beneficiaries chosen during phase two of the project showed enthusiasm and the willingness to learn more about organic farming. Organic practices such as vermicompost production
Sto. Rosario is another barangay in Antequera that the project has partnered with. The village is home to 114 households. Majority of the people in the barangay are engaged in the bamboo furniture industry while others work as farmers or laborers in the field. Like many of the barangays in the province, the barangay of Sto. Rosario was heavily affected by the earthquake of 2013. The village suffered losses in economy and infrastructure and livelihood activities hit a standstill.
and backyard gardening were taught to the community members. On the other hand, they also learned about alternate livelihood approaches like charcoal briquette production and hog and chicken raising. And lastly, to ensure the sustainability of these practices the beneficiaries received trainings in organizational management and financial management. To date, one of the most substantial gains in the community is the establishment of the Mag-aso Organic Farmers Livelihood Organization (MOFALO), a community association that has successfully been registered at the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE).
CDP identified the need to aid in the recovery and rehabilitation of the barangay. Through the execution of various capacity building and CBDRRM sessions in phase one, the project was able to strengthen the preparedness capabilities of the village and its constituents. This objective was supported by the formation of a Barangay Disaster Risk Reduction and Management plan, Early Warning System, Contingency plan, and barangay hazard map. Much has taken place in Barangay Sto. Rosario since the earthquake and the launch of the project. In phase two, the residents of Sto. Rosario
were invited to participate as beneficiaries of the livelihood interventions proposed by the project. In line with the overall intention of the project to promote economic and livelihood sustainability, workshops and skills-based trainings with lens on organic approaches to farming were conducted in the barangay. Other activities implemented include hog dispersal, animal housing, vermicompost production, and organic composting. Eventually the recipients were able to establish an association called the Sto. Rosario Organic Farmers Association (SOFA). The members of SOFA have received organizational
management and financial management training to ensure the sustainability of the group. They have also started to put their financial management training to good use. Earlier this year, the association was finally able to set up a cooperative store in the barangay, which is not only an alternate source of income for the group but a physical product and reminder of the profound effort and partnership between the community and the project.
LESSONS LEARNED The involvement of different project stakeholders in the two-year implementation brought valuable lessons and experiences that enabled them to traverse the path toward disaster resilience and economic development. The value of working together as a team is one of the significant lessons from the project. The farmersâ€™ organizations organized under the project have realized the need for collaboration not only within the community, but also with
other external groups as they engage themselves in the various capacity building activities and livelihood ventures. The presence of unity, coupled with commitment and hardwork, is fundamental in accomplishing the planned activities since collective action, belongingness, and a clear system is put in place. Given their experience of working as an organized group, the beneficiaries from the villages of Sto. Rosario and Mag-aso were able to nurture their sense of community which is a key factor in the successful implementation of the project.
Along with teamwork, the project also underscored the importance of networking and partnership building at various levels. Linking with different individuals and groups from the government, civil society, academia, and private sector provided an opportunity for the beneficiaries to do resource mobilization, as well as, knowledge and technology sharing. Alongside networking, the project also enabled the beneficiaries to enhance their interpersonal skills and develop self-confidence. The beneficiaries were also taught how to socialize with others and were encouraged to be open to different attitude. The heightened awareness on Disaster Risk Reduction and Management (DRRM) is also one of the significant lessons brought about by the project. The two villages were able to participate in DRRM-related trainings which enabled them to learn basic concepts in DRRM, community risk assessment, early warning system (EWS), and DRRM planning. A simulation exercise was also conducted to test the effectiveness of their EWS and contingency plans for typhoon and earthquake. Psycho-spiritual sessions were organized for them as well, as a strategy to facilitate their recovery and strengthen their resilience from disasters and risks. Another invaluable lesson gained by the beneficiaries from the project is the knowledge on various sustainable agricultural practices. Prior to the implementation, the locals just know the concept of organic farming but are not able to apply it. The project became an avenue for them to practice organic farming and vermiculture. Because of the trainings and actual demonstration activities conducted for the beneficiaries, they learned how to produce organic fertilizer and pesticides. Organic feeds were also made since raising of hogs and chickens was also one of their economic endeavors. Although organic farming requires considerable time and effort, the beneficiaries showed interest in mastering and pursuing the practice. Organic farming enabled them to cut back expenses and save money since the materials used in the production of
farm inputs are recycled. Furthermore, apart from economic benefits, the practice of organic farming also encouraged them to embrace a healthier lifestyle since use of chemical-based fertilizers was avoided. Other than farming and livestock raising, the project also imparted to the beneficiaries relevant skills in leadership and cooperative management. Trainings on leadership, bookkeeping, and documentation were conducted for them to be acquainted with the processes that they have to deal with in the organization. CONCLUSION With the aid of the activities under the different components, namely sustainable agricultural production, alternative livelihood, cooperative development, and social enterprise, the project became instrumental in paving the way for the communities of Sto. Rosario and Mag-aso to achieve disaster resilience and economic development. Despite the challenges encountered on membership, monitoring, long dry spell, and household obligations, the project stakeholders were able to cope and put forward the realization of the project goals. Collective action and commitment toward the attainment of a common vision became fundamental driving factors in the successful project implementation. The lessons and experiences gained from the capacity building initiatives, livelihood activities, and partnerships would aid the beneficiaries, as well as other local partners, in continuing the gains of the project. To move forward and continuously enhance the current work of the project beneficiaries, sustainability mechanisms were identified which include exploring opportunities for funding; networking at various levels; commitment building among the organization members; knowledge sharing; and integration of agriculture into the academic curriculum.
In October 15, 2013, a 7.2 magnitude earthquake occurred in the Philippines, affecting several provinces in Region VII. The quake left 227 persons dead, 976 injured and over 3 million people affected across the region. The damages in structures, roads, bridges and other public facilities amounted to over Php 2 billion.
period of November 2014 to November 2016, was implemented in two communities, (1) Barangay Mag-aso; and (2) Barangay Sto. Rosario in the Municipality of Antequera with the goal of making them more resilient by increasing human, social, physical and natural finance assets without compromising the needs of future generations. The project has the following specific outcomes: 1. Adoption of sustainable agricultural practices by farmers to ensure their food security at all times; 2. Realization of a family income that meets the daily needs and savings for future needs of families in these communities; 3. Self- sustaining Multi-purpose Cooperative is set-up and is providing products and Among those that were severely affected by the services that cater to the needs of the earthquake was the Province of Bohol. It incurred people in the communities; and over Php 1.3 million of damages and also recorded 4. Enhanced social/organizational capacities the highest number of casualties and injured to mitigate and prepare for disasters. persons according to the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC). To attain the abovementioned outcomes, the project components included, (1) Sustainable In order to support the province in its rehabilitation agricultural production to help the farmers and recovery efforts following the earthquake, increase their income by reducing/eliminating and later on the impacts of Supertyphoon their use of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides, Haiyan, the Center for Disaster Preparedness ensure availability of food year round by increasing (CDP) with support from the American Jewish vegetable and livestock production, and promote Joint Distribution Committee (JDC), facilitated the the widespread use of herbal plants to cure implementation of a two-year project entitled, common ailments and prevent diseases; (2) â€˜Towards Resilience and Development for Bohol Alternative livelihood to increase the income Communities in the Aftermath of Earthquake and of the family through involvement in social Typhoon Haiyan.â€™ The project, which covered the enterprise development, make use
of existing resources in producing eco-friendly products that would benefit their community and society in general, and develop knowledge and skills in managing small community social enterprises; and (3) Cooperative development to enable the community residents to have the vehicle by which their need for credit and basic goods would be met and have a legal organization with trained personnel and members to manage the different social enterprises. The project concept was informed by the consultations facilitated by CDP in an earlier engagement with JDC in the same areas, which then focused on disaster awareness raising and capacity building in community-based disaster risk reduction and management. This earlier engagement involved activities such as courtesy calls to local government officials at the municipal and barangay levels, networking with other stakeholders in the recovery and rehabilitation of Bohol, participatory Post Disaster Needs Assessment Workshops, Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Orientation Seminar, Early Warning System Workshop, Contingency Planning Workshop, Community Drill and two Psycho-spiritual Seminar for each barangay. PROJECT AREAS The project area is situated in the Municipality of Antequera, a 4th class municipality in the province of Bohol. Antequera lies 18.5 kilometers away from Tagbilaran City, the provincial capital. It has 21 barangays, and a total of 107 puroks (sub-barangay zones), with an estimated total area of 6,446.67 hectares. The Municipality has a rolling and rugged terrain and the lowlands are used for agricultural purposes. Its main agricultural products are rice, coconut, and corn. The people rely on farming, carpentry, retail trade, and handicraft making for livelihood.
It is interlaced with networks of rivers, brooks and creeks, the most prominent of which is the Abatan River that cuts through five towns including Antequera. The town is proud of the following tourist attractions: the Mag-aso Falls, Inambacan Spring and Cave, Esteban and Hagakhak Caves, Snake Watching at Camantong Cave, Abatan River Firefly Watching Tour and Community Life Tour at Barangay Sto. Rosario. The strong earthquake that jolted Bohol province on October 15, 2013 wrought great damage to the 21 barangays comprising the municipality. A total of 700 houses were totally destroyed and 2, 710 houses were partially destroyed. The big
and food-for-work provided by various groups and the financial support from relatives who are working outside town or out of the country. Some resort to obtaining loans from micro-financing organizations.
old Catholic Church in town was also partially destroyed. The Municipal Office was partially destroyed and the employees hold office in a covered gymnasium just across the Municipal Hall while the Mayor temporarily holds office in the Tourism Center just beside the Hall. Barangay Sto. Rosario The village of Sto. Rosario is home to 114 households. The total land area is 144.09 hectares and the distance from the town center is 5 kilometers. The people live a very simple life, majority are farmers while others are carpenters, bamboo furniture makers or basket weavers. A few are government employees. The earthquake in October 2013 caused partial damage to 52 houses and total damage to 62 houses. Typhoon Haiyan did not cause much damage to Barangay Sto. Rosario. The community was battered by strong winds and rain but, fortunately, no one died and nothing was damaged. However, as an effect of Typhoon Haiyan, the village was without electrical power until December of that year. The economic activities like farming, carpentry, vending, basket weaving, and eco-tourism business were impacted by the earthquake. People survived through the relief assistance
Assistance from international organizations through the cash-for-work scheme and shelter assistance from the government and nongovernment organizations have helped families build a new house or repair their partially damaged homes. The trainings, forum, and psycho-social seminars that CDP has conducted brought a higher level of community solidarity, thus strengthening their social capacities to weather the challenges brought by the earthquake impact. Barangay Mag-aso The barangayâ€™s land area is 92.89 hectares and it is divided into 3 puroks (sub-barangay zones). It lies 2.5 kilometer away from the town center. It is home to 99 families and there are 97 households. The people earn their living from farming, basket weaving, carpentry, raising of livestock, and working as employees or laborers. The earthquake caused the total destruction of thirty-six (36) houses. Forty-eight (48) houses were partially damaged. Those with totally damaged houses now live in makeshift houses or tents. The barangay hall, chapel, and the day care center were all destroyed by the earthquake. Thirteen families still stay near the area where the ground has ruptured. Similar to the situation in Barangay Sto. Rosario, the livelihood activities of the people were affected by the earthquake. The food and nonfood relief items as well as cash assistance or loans from various groups and relatives helped the people meet their daily needs.
TARGETS AND RESULTS In pursuit of the project’s objectives, several activities have been targeted. However, in the actual implementation, some innovations and adjustments to the pre-identified activities were employed taking into consideration the available resources, the preference of the communities, and the context of the initiatives. The table below shows the target activities in line with the project goals vis-à-vis the actual activities conducted during the two-year implementation.
Training on Sustainable Three (3) batches of Training Agricultural Practices with on Sustainable Agriculture Experimental Demo Farm were conducted
Highlights • Concept of organic farming was introduced • Production of organic fertilizers and pesticides is adopted by the community • Study tour to a bigger organic demo farm by the community members • The training led to the identification of their alternative livelihood in consideration of climate-smart and readily available materials • Unexpectedly, the production of organic fertilizers and pesticides provided additional income to the farmers • Both Mag-aso and Sto. Rosario were able to establish a demo farm in their community
Two (2) experimental demo farms were set-up
• Each demo farm had set-up a multi-animal housing • The farm is collectively maintained by the member beneficiaries • It facilitated the establishment of MOFALO and SOFA
Target Activities Animal Dispersal (Hogs and Calves
Actual Activities Livestock raising through Demonstration in the Multi-Animal Housing (Hogs and Chickens)
Highlights • Organic feeding and formulation of organic feeds in a collective manner • Dispersal of hogs started in early semester of 2016 • Acquisition of chickens from the provincial office of the Department of Agriculture • Dispersal of chickens started in August 2016
Alternative Livelihood: Soap and herbal tea production
Charcoal briquettes production and backyard banana plantation
• Changes in the activities were made during the first semester after a series of consultations with the partner communities • Trainings and feasibility study were conducted along with the acquisition of equipment • Counterparting was done. The base materials for the briquettes such as coconut shells, sawdust, rice hulls and dried leaves were provided by the community members • Dispersal of banana seedlings to every member • Through partnership with the LGU, it was agreed that seedlings will be bought by them for dispersal to the whole municipality of Antequera • Linkage to the local trade and industry • Linkage to other civil society organizations (CSOs) in Visayas • Involvement in the Fair Trade Exhibit
Coco Coir Production
• in the capacity and number of active members in Sto. Rosario, the idea of coco coir was shelved out. Most of the members preferred to have a simple and manageable livelihood activity. • The drive to set-up a cooperative store was rooted in the desire to cater to the daily needs of the community • The women, who comprise the majority of SOFA’s membership, are currently engaged in the management of the cooperative store
Target Activities Training on Cooperative Management
Actual Activities One (1 ) batch of cooperative orientation was conducted
Highlights • Introduced the relevance of entrepreneurship • The importance of values was emphasized • Building sustainability among community members • Linkage to government agencies such as Agricultural Training Institute (ATI-DA) and Department of Trade and Industry (DTI)
Enterprise Management Training
One (1) batch of Cooperative Management Training
• The training provided valuable knowledge and skills in developing a business plan. • • The basic concepts and processes of financial management were introduced.
One (1) batch of Training on Entrepreneurship
• It facilitated the conduct of feasibility studies for the charcoal briquettes production of MOFALO and the establishment of cooperative store of SOFA
Two (2) batches of Training on Bookkeeping One (1) batch of Training on Costing and Pricing Project Evaluation
Lessons Learned Workshop
• Conducted with the active participation of the two covered communities
Focused Group Discussions
• Gains and challenges were raised • Recommendations and ways forward were identified through group workshops
Project Management Transition
Leadership Training Project Culmination and Evaluation
Various considerations relating to capacity, human resource, and time led to some changes in the original list of proposed activities. The necessary adjustments were made after close consultation with the partner communities. Furthermore, significant factors such as practicality and appropriateness to the local context were also considered. Amid the deviations from the original proposal, JDC remained open and has manifested steadfast support toward the realization of project goals.
In addition to the alternative livelihood opportunities provided by the project, organic As in any endeavor, the project aimed at providing farming has become a supplementary source of skills and knowledge that can be sustained for long income. One association member from Barangay term utilization. This can only be achieved through Sto. Rosario has shared how she sells vermin building on the collaboration and relationship compost to farmers from other areas at five between the project team and the partner pesos per bag. communities. Given its two-year timeframe and the menu of activities conducted, it is no surprise Both associations of Mag-aso ad Sto. Rosario that the project has made a significant impact on have undertaken the management of the multiits partners. These significant outcomes result animal housing in the demo farm. Sto. Rosario from the partnership that was carefully fostered has already started the dispersal of piglets and between the CDP, the partner barangays, and chickens and have earned a substantial amount from their sales. In Mag-aso, at least 4 families even the local government unit of Antequera. are practicing hog-raising. These good practices should be documented not only as evidence of the projectâ€™s success but as a Organizational Capacity basis for future engagements and endeavors. The project did not originally include Adoption of Organic Farming in the Household organizational development activities when it was first conceptualized. However, throughout the Level implementation of the project, CDP recognized The main objective of the demo farm was realized the need for organizational management and through the adoption of organic gardening by the financial management training. Community community members. Several members currently organizing was also recognized as an essential maintain small organic gardens in their backyards. part of realizing the project goals and objectives. Organic farming practices do not only provide For this reason, trainings and capacity building health benefits but several health gains as well. activities on leadership and organizational Other community members have also developed management were conducted in the middle of a means for additional income through selling the project implementation. their organic fertilizers and pesticides such as vermi, vermicast, and fermented plant and fruit Through different capacity-building measures juices. The association members who practice undertaken in the duration of two years, organic farming are confident that they can re- community members of Mag-aso and Sto. echo and share these practices to other farmers. Rosario have acquired skills in entrepreneurship Some of these farmers have already began and organization management. For many of the informally communicating their knowledge and community member, this experience counts as have shared these practices to relatives and a first in organizational management. In this manner, the project has provided an avenue for neighbors. the community members to acquire new skills in leadership and management. Additional income for the Families Initially, the practice of organic farming was viewed through the lens of health and environmental responsibility. However, that perspective has gradually developed and the farmers have devised ways in which to earn additional income for their families.
Linkages to Government Agencies and other CSOs The project has paved the way for the community to link with other stakeholders in the area. It has facilitated the partnership between community people and the local government agencies in Antequera. In a way, the project has paved a way for farmers to learn how to communicate, coordinate, and build partnerships with the institutions who are responsible and capable of providing certain services. The established community organizations are now duly registered to the Department of Labor and Employment or DOLEâ€”another significant milestone for both barangays as none of the other local CSOs in the areas have yet to formally register. These activities have paved a way for stronger and more substantial partnerships between the community, the LGU, and other outside agencies.
opportunity, widening their experience, and empowering their status and capabilities as providers for the family. Inclusivity CDP has always been adamant in its stance for inclusive and participative processes. As such, the project made sure to engage with different sectors within the community and become an avenue for open and more elevated discussion amongst marginalized sectors. Women, older persons, and children took important roles
Empowering Women in the Community Most of the community members who are actively involved in the project are women. These women experienced the gradual process of adjusting from life of mainly managing their households and children to engaging in barangay and project activities that require their attendance, participation, and active energy. Initially, it was a struggle for the women to manage their time between homemaking and their responsibilities in the association and the project. The lack of proper time management has even led to several domestic arguments between the association members and their husbands. However, the women were gradually able to adjust to the demands and responsibilities of their homes and their organization. In time, their husbands have also had some involvement in the project activities and were able to see and appreciate the gains of the project. These developments have enriched the lives of women in the community through opening doors for
in the project implementation and were always invited to take part in the different livelihood activities. In this manner, the project was able to foster a socially healthy and inclusive environment where people from all sectors are given the opportunity to work, learn, and grow. ISSUES AND CHALLENGES Just like any other projects, the two-year engagement of CDP with the villages of Sto. Rosario and Mag-aso also encountered manifold issues and challenges. These challenges
were effectively addressed during meetings, consultations, and assessments conducted by the project team together with the partner communities. Furthermore, the guidance from CDPâ€™s Management Committee helped the team in identifying valuable recommendations to better handle the concerns relevant to the project. Moreover, JDC consistently showed support to the project through conduct of regular visits and consultations with the beneficiaries. Conflict of schedules
One of the significant challenges that the project had to deal with was conflict of schedules. Since the beneficiaries had other responsibilities to fulfill at home, in the barangay, and in other organizations they are affiliated with, some were not able to demonstrate full participation in the project. There were instances that the activities of different groups were conducted simultaneously, leaving the beneficiaries with no choice but to compromise their participation in some of the project activities. A concrete example of this challenge was the cash-for-work program of the local government. Because the beneficiaries were also expected to engage in the said program, it affected their focus and involvement in the project for a period of time.
Household Responsibilities Given that majority of the beneficiaries from Barangays Mag-aso and Sto. Rosario are women, they are expected to fulfill domestic responsibilities such as housekeeping and child nurturing. Apart from these domestic obligations, the female members have to take part in economic activities to support the needs of their families. Many of them are pre-occupied with other livelihood activities, thus affecting their participation in the project activities. In
fact, this issue caused some of them to be inactive in the organization. Furthermore, some of the women beneficiaries come into conflict with their husbands due to their active engagement in the project. Since they get busy with the project activities, the women could no longer do the household chores in a timely manner. To deal with the abovementioned issues, adjustments in the schedules of various project activities were made by the project team to ensure the beneficiariesâ€™ commitment and availability.
Extreme weather condition The extreme weather condition also caused delays not only in the implementation of project activities but also in the cropping season. Because of the prolonged drought that affected Bohol in the first half of 2016, the planting and harvest seasons have changed. Because of this situation, most of the farmers diverted their focus to other economic activities. To address the problem, the project provided a water pump in Barangay Sto. Rosario to lessen the impact of drought in the contour farm. The types of crops planted were also changed to drought-resistant ones to endure the effect of too much heat. Furthermore, since farming work requires a great deal of energy and exposure to sun, the temperamental weather made the members susceptible to health problems such as cough and colds.
Considering that the organizations in the covered barangays are comprised of diverse individuals, it was inevitable for them to have varying perceptions and views on situations and issues. Some exhibit individualistic attitude which oftentimes lead to misunderstandings and disagreements between the members. Because of this reality, there were times that the workload in the farm was concentrated to only few members. In response to this concern, the project team provided an avenue for them to put their personal differences aside and learn to work collectively through consultations and dialogues. Furthermore, a leadership training was also conducted for the members to realize their roles and responsibilities and become agents of change in their respective communities.
Project Management and Partnership
PROJECT MANAGEMENT The project in Antequera has come to a close, and CDP has reaped two yearsâ€™ worth of growth, successes, and lessons learned. As with any endeavor, CDP has also had to adjust to different people, schedules, and circumstances without compromising the quality of its execution and losing sight of the overall goals of the project. Some of these adjustments are changes in the composition of staff, alterations in the original plan of activities, and schedule amendments to suit the availability of the communities and beneficiaries. CDP held the reins in the management of the project through the formation of a team composed of one project manager, one project officer, and, later in the project, one project assistant. Because of the number of agriculture-related activities conducted, an agriculturist was also hired. Since the project area is located in the Visayas and is largely a Bisayaspeaking population, CDP deemed it an advantage to tap locals who are fluent in the language. Thus, two of those who were part of the project team are natives of the Bohol region.
Aside from the core team, the project also received assistance from Management Committee through regular consultations and updates. The team was also supported by the various programs in the organization to address specific needs, namely the Projects and Partnerships program in terms of direction, planning, monitoring, and evaluation; the Training and Capacity Development program for capacity-building activities and community training, and the Research, Knowledge Exchange and Management program in terms of research, communications, and the development of visibility materials. And lastly, the team worked closely with staff and representatives from the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC) for support and updates throughout the two-year span of the project. Experiencing challenges and difficulties is par for the course in any project. One of the more significant obstacles for the project team was preparing and organizing the communities for the implementation of livelihood interventions. Most of the beneficiaries and cooperative members of both barangays are housewives or have other sources of livelihood that are not related to farming. This baseline made the learning process for the beneficiaries more challenging. But through the consistent guidance, encouragement, and partnership of the project staff and the projectâ€™s comprehensive training and workshop designs, these community
to other community members and barangays in the municipality. PARTNERSHIP
members h a v e developed into capable farmers with extensive knowledge on organic practices. The project has especially made a significant impact on the women of the community. Housewives who mainly focused on duties at home have been empowered through the opportunity of learning new skills, earning for their families, and cutting costs through the practice of organic approaches. The project team continually sites the value of community integration and partnership as a significant factor of success for the project. The process of community integration was a challenge in its own right. There were some logistical challenges such as the distance of the community area and the difficulty of the project manager and project officer to fully immerse in the communities. Despite this, the project team was still able to build a secure relationship with the beneficiaries through barangay and purok visits, consistent communications via SMS and mobile calls, and immersion of some of the field staff in the area. Earlier activities that focused on CBDRRM training were also fertile ground for the fostering of strong friendships and partnerships between the community and the project staff. Through these interactions and participatory approaches, the project was able to shape the perspective of community members on the importance of community preparedness, unity, and being environmentally friendly. Lastly, this partnership has also developed a sense of responsibility and ownership in the beneficiaries to ensure that the gains and learning attained from the project are sustained and even shared
The implementation of the two-year project in the municipality of Antequera has provided an enabling environment for the establishment and cultivation of internal and external partnerships. The formation of such partnerships contributed in realizing the goals of the project that are geared toward economic development, increased resilience, and enhanced social capital. Internal Partnership One of the significant achievements of the project was the partnership built between the farmers’ organizations and Barangay Council members of Sto. Rosario and Mag-aso. The strong collaboration between the two groups was evident in the different project activities which involved capacity building on DRRM and agriculture, organic farming, livestock dispersal, and cooperative store. With the aid of organizing work done by project, each covered barangay was able to formally put up an organization-the Sto. Rosario Organic Farmers’ Association (SOFA) and Mag-aso Organic Farmers Livelihood Organization (MOFALO). Each of the farmers’ organizations in the covered areas has a set of officers comprised of purok (zone) residents and Barangay Council members. Both groups have exhibited support and commitment in accomplishing the tasks and responsibilities expected of them. They managed to run the organization since its formation in 2014 with respect for each other. Rapport building was easy since the purok residents and council members have known each other prior to the commencement of
the project. They are members of other existing community-based organizations which relate to women, senior citizens, farmers, savings, and loans. Furthermore, it has been a part of their culture to practice collective action which is locally known as tabo (bayanihan). Specifically, such a practice is observed when there are clean up activities, medical emergency, and burial of a community member. Forging closer relationships among the residents of both villages also happened through the aid of the project. The trainings conducted during the first phase of project implementation provided an opportunity for them not only to learn but also bolster their sense of community toward disaster resilience, economic growth, and sustainable development. CBDRRM orientation-workshop, simulation exercise, and psycho-spiritual session were among the activities carried out that provided an enabling environment for the locals to develop and nurture friendships. The bond that the project built over the last two years was one of the contributing factors which allowed them to collaborate and succeed in the farming and livestock activities, as well as, in the social enterprise venture. External Partnership On the other hand, the project also became a channel to build partnerships with individuals and groups outside the villages of Mag-aso and Sto. Rosario. At the municipal level, the Local Government Unit (LGU) of Antequera has demonstrated staunch support by being open and receptive to the goals and activities of the project. The Municipal Mayor showed commitment to the project by being present in the major activities when invited. The LGU also provided free transportation for the beneficiaries from the covered villages to attend trainings and workshops organized under the project.
Furthermore, two LGU departments were also closely engaged in the project and these include the Municipal Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Office (MDRRMO) and Municipal Agriculture Office (MAO). The MDRRMO participated in the CBDRRM orientationworkshop while the MAO provided seedlings and chickens to the two farmersâ€™ organizations. Apart from the local government, the project was able to mobilize partners from the national government, academe, and non-government organization to extend assistance and collaborate with the farmersâ€™ organizations in the covered communities. For capacity building, the Philippine Center for Postharvest Development and Mechanization (PhilMech) was engaged to provide training on charcoal briquettes production for the beneficiaries in Barangay Mag-aso. On the other hand, Engr. Loquillano was instrumental in introducing the technology of coco coir production to the beneficiaries in Brgy. Sto. Rosario. However, the said livelihood venture was not pursued because
of its labor-intensive nature. Representatives from the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) also played a commendable role in assisting the beneficiaries to improve their bookkeeping and documentation skills through a training on entrepreneurship. On the other hand, for the provision of seedlings, the University of the Philippines Los BaĂąos National Seed Foundation and the Peopleâ€™s Fair Trade Action Center (PTAC) were tapped. The multiple partnerships nurtured over the last two years provided a great opportunity for the beneficiaries not only to mobilize the needed resources for the project, but also to broaden their networks and improve their socialization skills. It enabled them to move out of their comfort zone and build their self-confidence as they relate with individuals and groups from public and private institutions. The experience of the project proved that partnership building does not only facilitate resource mobilization, but it also creates a venue for communities to hone their social and interpersonal skills toward holistic and sustainable development.
Recommendations and Conclusions
SANTO ROSARIO ORGANIC FARMERSâ€™ ASSOCIATION The two-year project brought about significant outcomes to achieve its goal of building community resilience through disaster risk reduction, economic development, and rebuilding of social capital. The series of capacity building activities, livelihood ventures, and networking initiatives played a valuable role in realizing the set targets of the project. Amid the challenges and hardships encountered by the beneficiaries and implementers, the project yielded lessons and results that helped the beneficiaries to recover from the disaster and improve their lives. To sustain and further build on the gains of the twoyear engagement, relevant project stakeholders have conveyed the following recommendations:
government agencies is deemed necessary since they already have contacts and networks. In addition to government agencies, civil society organizations (CSOs) like CDP and PTAC can assist SOFA in writing project proposals to seek funding opportunities for projects related to sustainable agriculture. Given that the members still lack the necessary technical skills in developing project proposals, the intervention of CSOs is considered to be beneficial to the organization.
Building the capacity of SOFA members to search for diverse funding sources on their own would help them develop and practice the value of self-sufficiency. Allowing the members to build networks with as many stakeholders as possible creates an opportunity for them to be Explore opportunities for funding independent and resourceful in managing not only their economic activities, but also the whole To further boost the economic activities of the Sto. operation of their organization. Rosario Organic Farmersâ€™ Association, exploring opportunities to access capital and additional Continue partnership building at varying levels funds is strongly suggested. The members of SOFA are encouraged to liaise with national and local The two-year project has demonstrated the government agencies such as DTI, Department beauty of collaboration. The presence of of Agriculture, and the Municipal Government of networks and partnership opened up prospects Antequera to look for possible funding sources for resource mobilization, capacity building, and which they can tap to support the operation and social cohesion. This reality prompted most expansion of their livelihood activities such as of the project stakeholders to recommend vermicompost production, cooperative store, and continuous forging of partnership with livestock raising. The assistance of the Barangay different stakeholders at varying levels. Council in doing coordination work with various The LGU, starting from the province
down to the barangay, has to be constantly tapped for technical and material assistance. Specifically, the Agriculture Office at the provincial and municipal levels, needs to be proactively engaged by SOFA in their activities. The said office could provide trainings and material resources for the strengthening of SOFA’s capacity on sustainable agricultural practices. Furthermore, the LGU’s engagement in SOFA’s activities would also offer an avenue for them to do community visit and better understand the needs and issues of the locals.
a challenge for SOFA. The dwindling membership had adversely affected the implementation of some activities. Because of this experience, the project implementers, as well as the active members of the organization, have emphasized the need for greater commitment and support from all the members. The hardwork and dedication of each member would contribute in advancing their economic and social resilience. Organizing work needs to be done continuously to further develop sense of responsibility, love for work, and commitment among the members.
Networking with CSOs is also reckoned as a valuable opportunity for SOFA to reach a greater market which is vital in sustaining their operation. The CSO may link SOFA to potential buyers of their products, especially the vermicompost. Apart from marketing, the CSOs may also provide technical assistance through trainings that can help the organization in improving its work in terms of management and systems.
Commitment and active participation of SOFA members During the course of project implementation, the inactive participation of many members became
Another sustainability mechanism recommended by the project stakeholders is for SOFA members to share their knowledge and expertise to other groups within and outside the village of Sto. Rosario. Given the different trainings on DRRM, sustainable agriculture, cooperative development and management, and charcoal briquettes production conducted for them, SOFA has the capacity to share to others what they have learned from the two-year engagement through formal and informal mechanisms.
To formally facilitate knowledge sharing, the members may serve as trainers on vermiculture and organic farming which has the potential of giving them extra income aside from improving their interpersonal skills. On the other hand, the members may also opt to informally share their experience and learning through conversation with neighbors and relatives who can also adopt organic farming practices.
to integrate organic farming into the academic curriculum. By doing this, the younger generation would better appreciate the value of farming and may be encouraged to enroll in agriculturerelated courses. The recommendations cited above are ways forward that would guide the members of SOFA as they continue to pursue their economic and social resilience toward sustainable development.
The production of information, education, and communication (IEC) campaign materials is also MAG-ASO ORGANIC FARMERS deemed as an effective channel to popularize the ORGANIZATION (MOFALO)
experience of SOFA. Among the recommended IEC materials to facilitate the sharing of SOFA’s lessons learned and good practices in sustainable agricultural practices and DRRM include case studies, pamphlets, and videos. Integration of organic farming into the academic curriculum Majority of the farmers in the communities are adults and the youth are no longer engaged in farming activities. The educational institutions, particularly secondary schools and universities, in the province of Bohol should be encouraged
In its two year run, the project has gone above and beyond the outcomes that were originally placed in its direction. Its overall goal—to strengthen the resilience and capacities of the partner communities—has also clearly been attained. As an institution, CDP continues to learn from its partners and engagements. It also continually strives to enhance its own strategic processes and capacities as an organization. The following recommendations aim to not only sustain the gains acquired during the project but can serve as guidance for future endeavors with a similar lens as the project.
Stronger Partnership with the Municipal LGU In order to ensure the sustainability of the project gains, there is a need for the involvement and investment of more actors in the livelihood activities of the community associations. In this case, the municipal LGU of Antequera can be a powerful and substantial partner for the organization. There are several ways the LGU can support MOFALO. The more usual means of support are financial or in kind, such as the provision of seedlings, equipment, or further capacity building through training such as workshops in financial and entrepreneurial management. There is also a need for the LGU to establish its support through improving its communication and strengthening its coordination with the barangay. Improvement in communication will lessen the likelihood of duplication in livelihood projects or activities, thereby allowing for a more diverse menu of economic interventions. Regular communication can also encourage a sense of ownership and accountability on the part of the LGU, further defining its role as stakeholders and duty bearers in the welfare of its communities. The municipal LGU can also push the project gains further through the reechoing of the agricultural approaches and trainings conducted in the project. Such an endeavor would require the LGU and community association of MOFALO to work hand in hand in order to ensure that the good practices and lessons gained in the project are shared with the other communities in Antequera. This form of partnership can also empower the organization and its members, ensuring that the relationship between LGU and the association is of a symbiotic partnership and not mainly beneficiary and benefactor.
housewives in the community were given the opportunity to be part of MOFALO. As members, they have a right to be heard and have their opinions voiced. However, since substantial membership of the association is composed of barangay officials, other members may not be able to get their ideas across. A participatory and inclusive approach to meetings can be conducted in order to ensure that all voices are heard. Regular consultations with the members of the group should also be practiced during the decision-making of the organization. Building Networks with Other Agencies Since the project has ended, one of the most pressing challenges for the organization is the lack of capital. The cooperative continues to search for a regular market for their organic goods and products. CDP has encouraged the organization to continue seeking out new partnerships and networks that can offer it support. During the trainings conducted on alternative livelihood, the project was able to tap several organizations and agencies, such as PhilMech, Fair Trade, Agricultural Training Institute, and the Department of Trade and Industry. The organization needs to continue developing and improving their organizational links with other agencies and organizations in the locality in order to widen their network and locate a possible market. Strengthening the Organizational Management of the Association
Two years is already a substantial amount of time for project. However, the two-year span of the project was still not sufficient to fully strengthen the organization. In order to sustain their gains, MOFALO needs to continue its organizational More Participatory and Inclusive Consultations development and improve the management of their association. One way to do this is through the and Meetings proper implementation of the organization’s rule As an institution, CDP advocates for the and policies. This will ensure that the alternative participation and inclusion of all sectors, livelihood activities of the association—its demo especially the marginalized groups in the farm, backyard garden, livestock, and briquette community. Through the project, women and production –are being executed correctly.
Another means of organizational improvement is the enhancement of the values formation of MOFALO. Many community organizations disband because of petty quarrels and personal rifts between members. Exercises and activities that strengthen the relationships between members of the organization will ensure that MOFALO will be able to sustain itself and that its members can work together for the good of the organization. Lastly, the organization needs to learn how to manage its resources and income wisely and with a clear perspective for the mid and long term objectives of the organization. The members of the organization were able to receive training in financial management during the implementation of the project. However, the project team believes that further knowledge in financial management will aid the organization to develop and grow more sustainably and securely. In conclusion, despite the numerous lessons and good practices gained from the project, MOFALO still has much farther to go. The silver lining is, despite the road ahead, MOFALO is definitely capable of reaching much more as long as it continues to grow and maintains its focus on the overall goal of the organizationâ€”the strengthened resilience and general welfare of its members and of the community of Barangay Mag-aso.
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Bringing organic farming at home A CASE STUDY ON THE APPLICATION AND DISSEMINATION OF ORGANIC FARMING PRACTICE AT THE HOUSEHOLD LEVEL
Jocelyn Saing, fondly called “Jojo” by her family friends, was born and raised in Barangay Sto. Rosario in the municipality of Antequera. Her barangay, being one of the affected areas of the earthquake in 2013, became a beneficiary of the recovery project jointly implemented by Center for Disaster Preparedness and American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee. Jojo became actively engaged in the project as the Secretary of Sto. Rosario Organic Farmers’ Association (SOFA), a community-based group organized in pursuit of resilience and food security through sustainable agricultural practices and livelihood ventures. Prior to joining SOFA, Jojo is already a member of different organizations involving women, Kalahi CIDS (a national poverty reduction program), and the local parish. To earn a living, she sells fried bananas, hotcakes, and biscuits. Due to her family’s impoverished state, she was not able to study college and had to work to support their needs. Jojo’s commitment and hardwork as an individual is very much evident in the project activities beginning its early phase of implementation where capacity building activities in disaster risk reduction and management (DRRM) and sustainable agriculture were conducted. To advance resilience and sustainable development, Jojo applied her learnings in the demo farm established by the project and adopted the organic farming practice in her household.
She built her own garden and planted a variety of vegetables such as eggplant, string beans, bell pepper, onion, spinach, and cabbage (pechay). To keep her garden healthy, Jojo also produced her own organic fertilizers and pesticides. Specifically, she used vermicast1 and fermented plant juice as fertilizer. Jojo was surprised that the use of such resulted in the healthy of growth of vegetables which, enabled her to have abundant harvest. Because of Jojo’s experience, her neighbors and friends were inspired to replicate the practice in their own household. Given the favorable outcome of organic farming, particularly the production of vermicast, Jojo continued the practice. She cultured vermin worms by mixing them with grasses, leaves of Madre de Cacao (Gliricidia sepium) and ipil-ipil (Leucaena glauca), rice stalks, and cow dung. This practice eventually became a source of income for her. Jojo sold the vermin worms at Php 500 per kilo to friends and neighbors. Jojo 1 Vermicast is an organic fertilizer that is created by using composting earthworms
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encouraged other SOFA members to get vermin worms from her garden and do the same for them to experience benefits that she is enjoying from the practice. In fact, she even recommended the use of vermicast to her uncle who owns a rice farm. To further improve her knowledge and skills in organic farming, Jojo manifested strong commitment to the project activities, especially the trainings and workshops related to sustainable agricultural practices. The different capacity building activities on agriculture, leadership, and management provided an enabling environment for Jojo to be an agent of change in her community. Up until now, Jojo continues to be a steadfast advocate of organic farming. Although she faced challenges that relate to conflict with familial obligations and relationship with other SOFA members, Jojo manifested unwavering commitment to prosper in the organic farming practice. She saw the value of using organic farm inputs and deviated from utilizing chemicalbased fertilizer and pesticides that make the soil acidic and require higher cost. Although organic farming is a laborious practice, it is cost-effective and safer to the human body and environment. Jojo remains grateful to the project and its implementers since her engagement has opened up opportunities not only for her to recover from the disaster, but also to explore novel things and learn new set of skills. The project also became instrumental in improving her relationship with other people and nurturing her sense of community. Furthermore, as a woman, Jojo also felt empowered since the project became a venue for her to digress from domestic roles and become an active actor in the economic sphere. Jojo deems that her gains from the project would back her up as she thread the path toward disaster resilience and sustainable development.
in the Aftermath of Earthquake and Typhoon Haiyan PROJECT TERMINAL REPORT