Page 1

The Book of Abstracts

College of Design

26 - 27 November, 2012


‫بسم اهلل الرحمن الرحيم‬


Sustainability through Biomimicry 2012 Book Of of Abstracts


Table of Contents

1

Foreword Dr. Sumayah Al-Solaiman

10

Synopses of Keynotes

11

Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature Taryn Lee Mead

13

Biomimicry and the ecological age Michael Pawlyn

15

Nature as Design Precedent - Expanding Mimicry Amber Bartosh

17

Biomimicry, Biophilic Design & Sustainability Carlos Alberto Montana-Hoyos


Table of Contents

22

19

Sustainability through biomimetics: Lessons from Attenborough, Loos and Biornametics Ille Gebeshuber

Abstracts of Proceedings

23

Patterns in Nature, Emergent Urbanism and the Implicate Order Maria Guerreiro

25

Between mimetics and metaphors: Urban Sustainability Abid Mehmood

29

27

A new contract for sustainable solutions in the tropics: Biology & Architecture Stathis Eleftheriadis

Some insights for sustainable urban design: Ant, Bee and Spider Hapits in the Qur’an Aliyu Salisu Barau


Table of Contents

35

31

The integration of nature into design: Selected Study of Architectural Envelopes Controlling Sun Radiation Barbara P. Jekot; Tomasz Jekot

New Concepts in Architecture through Biomimicry (Arabic) Alaa El-Dien El-Alfy; Akram Zayan

37

Drawing from Ornithology: Informing architectural design Danelle Briscoe; Travis Laduc

41

Applying Biomimicry Concepts in Teaching Design for Sustainability ÂŤThe most powerful design ideas are present in natureÂť

45

Carlos Fiorentino

47

Learning from Nature Towards a reaserch-based bio-mimicry approach to ecologically sustainable design Arosha Gamage; Ranjith Dayaratne

Biomimicry as a model for building systems: Building Organisms Amber Bartosh


Table of Contents

51

Applying Bioimimicry in Architecture:- A critical examination Sumayah Al-Solaiman

53

Autopoietic BioDigital Design and Architecture Dennis Dollens

57

Comparison of Carbon Capture & Storage (CCS) and an innovating biomimetic approach to sequester carbon

61

Caroline Zaoui; Pierre-Jean Valayer; Gauthier Chapelle

Breaking the Habits of Unsustainability Amandine Johnson; Robert Crocker

65

Sustainability in Science, Architecture and Design: Lessons from attenborough, loos and biornametics Ille C. Gebeshuber; Petra Gruber; Barbara Imhof


Foreword Dr. Sumayah Al-Solaiman

Head of the organizing committee Vice Dean, Quality, Development and Academic Accreditation Chair, Graphic Design and Multimedia College of Design


The College of Design has organized the conference on Sustainability through Biomimicry out of a deep concern and commitment to sustainability. We recognize that decisions taken at the design stage have great effects on the environment and its users. We therefore actively explore the potential of biomimicry as a design strategy that could aid in achieving sustainable environments. The College of Design therefore sets itself at the forefront of such explorations in the Middle East and the wider region in the hope that it can plant the seed for further explorations of not only Biomimetic solutions but also sustainable design practice at large. Although Biomimicry is thought of here as a design strategy or tool, it is in reality a paradigm that cuts across many disciplines. The concept is an overarching one that is inherently inter- and multi- disciplinary in nature. As such, the conference focused on aspects of biomimicry in design in the widest sense possible. Papers therefore cover a range of disciplines such as urban design, architecture, industrial design, design education and more. The scientific committee received a total of 90 abstracts from two calls for papers. All abstracts were initially reviewed by the local scientific committee and a total of 59 were accepted. Of those, we received 35 full papers. These were in turn reviewed by at least two scientific committee members; one international and another local and eventually only 15 were chosen for presentation at the conference.

2


‫ﺗﺤﺖ رﻋﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺣﺐ اﻟﺴﻤﻮ اﳌﻠيك اﻷﻣري ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻓﻬﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ آل ﺳﻌﻮد‬ ‫أﻣري اﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ اﻟﴩﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ اﻟﻔﺨﺮي ﻟﺠﺎﺋﺰة ﻋﺒﺪاﻟﻠﻄﻴﻒ اﻟﻔﻮزان ﻟﻌامرة اﳌﺴﺎﺟﺪ‬

‫ﻳﴪﻧﺎ إﻃﻼق ﺟﺎﺋﺰة ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﻠﻄﻴﻒ اﻟﻔﻮزان ﻟﻌامرة اﳌﺴﺎﺟﺪ ﻟﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﻣﻨﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ اﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﻌامرة اﳌﺴﺎﺟﺪ اﳌﻌﺎﴏة ﰲ اﻟﻌﺎمل‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﺨﺼﺺ اﻟﺪورة اﻷوﱃ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺠﺎﺋﺰة ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﺟﺪ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺷﻴﺪت ﰲ اﳌﻤﻠﻜﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ اﻟﺴﻌﻮدﻳﺔ ﻣﻨﺬ ‪1389‬ﻫـ )‪1970‬م(‪ .‬وﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈن أي ﻣﺴﺠﺪ ﺗﻢ ﺑﻨﺎؤه‬ ‫ﰲ اﻟﺴﻌﻮدﻳﺔ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺗﻠﻚ اﻟﺴﻨﺔ وﺣﺘﻰ اﻟﻮﻗﺖ اﻟﺤﺎﴐ ميﻜﻦ ﺗﺮﺷﻴﺤﻪ ﻟﻠﺪورة‬ ‫اﻷوﱃ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺠﺎﺋﺰة‪.‬‬ ‫وﻳﺠﻮز ﻷي ﺷﺨﺺ أن ﻳﺮﺷﺢ ﻣﺴﺠﺪا ً مبﺎ ﰲ ذﻟﻚ اﳌﻌامر اﳌﺴﺆول ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻤﻪ وﺻﺎﺣﺐ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪ ،‬وﺳﺘﻘﻮم ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎر اﳌﺸﺎرﻳﻊ اﻟﻔﺎﺋﺰة ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺗﺤﻜﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺘﺔ ﻣﺨﺘﺼني ﻋﺎﳌﻴني ﰲ ﻣﺠﺎﻻت ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌامرة‬ ‫واﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ‪ .‬وﺗﺒﻠﻎ اﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ اﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺎﺋﺰة ﻟﻬﺬه اﻟﺪورة‪:‬‬ ‫‪ 2,000,000‬رﻳﺎل‬


‫أعضاء التحكيم جلائز ة عبداللطيف الفوزان لعمارة املساجد‬ ‫الدورة األوىل ‪3102 -‬م‬

‫شارلز كوريا معمار وخمطط إبراهيم مبارك النعيمي معمار صاحل اهلذلول أستاذ وناقد‬ ‫وناشط ومنظّر هندي‪ .‬وقد درّس وخمطط سعودي‪ ،‬وهو رئيس سعودي‬

‫يف‬

‫جمال‬

‫العمارة‬

‫وحاضر يف عديد من اجلامعات‪ ،‬قسم العمارة يف جامعة الدمام‪ ،‬والعمران‪ ،‬له اهتمامات يف‬ ‫يف اهلند وخارجها‪ ،‬مبا فيها وكان قد تقلّد فيها عدة جماالت علوم املعرفة والتغريات‬ ‫معهد‬

‫ماساتشوستس مناصب أكادميية مبا فيها نائب اهليكلية للمجتمعات البشرية‬

‫للتكنولوجيا وجامعات هارفارد العميد للشؤون األكادميية‪.‬‬

‫ودراسات استشراف املستقبل‪.‬‬

‫ولندن وكامربدج‪.‬‬

‫حسن الدين خان أكادميي غْلِن لوري مؤرخ للفن من سهل احلياري معمار وفنان‬ ‫ومعمار‬

‫وكاتب‬

‫أمريكي الواليات املتحدة‪ ،‬وهو مدير أردني‪ ،‬وهو املعمار الرئيسي يف‬

‫باكستاني‪ .‬وهو أستاذ متميّز يف متحف‬

‫احلديث‬

‫الفن‬

‫يف مكتب سهل احلياري‪ .‬عمل يف‬

‫العمارة واحلفاظ على الرتاث يف نيويورك‪ .‬والدكتور غلن باحث السابق مع دار اهلندسة وقد‬ ‫جامعة روجر ويليامز‬

‫معروف‬

‫يف‬

‫جمال‬

‫والعمارة اإلسالمية‬

‫الفنون عرضت أعماله يف مؤسسة خالد‬ ‫شومان‬

‫يف‬

‫عمّان‬

‫املعماري يف نيويورك‪.‬‬

‫واملركز‬


THE CUSTODIAN OF THE TWO HOLY MOSQUES HM KING ABDULLAH BIN ABDULAZIZ AL SAUD while presenting the Award of Outstanding Support to King Fahad University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM) to: Engineer Abdullah Ahmad Bugshan, The Founder of ACEC, the 80% shareholder in ACEC Co. and A KFUPM Graduate.

“ACEC was founded in 1979 with head office in Riyadh and branches in Al-Khobar and Jeddah.

In 2009, this branch was converted to a Company with 80% shareholding by ACEC. ACEC Co. was recently set-up as a professional licensed Company.

The Eastern Province Branch of ACEC specialized in engineering and design services to the oil & gas (on/offshore), chemicals/petrochemicals, refining, power/cogeneration, desalination, industrial and infrastructure sectors.

Today ACEC Co. operates with a staff of over 200 professionals and support personnel out of its Al-Khobar offices.

Arabian Consulting Engineering Centre (ACEC) is a 100% Saudi owned consulting firm with a wealth of experience in multi-disciplinary engineering, architectural design & construction management.

Moreover, an ACEC Co. associate entity is in the final stages of forming a JV with Snamprogetti (owned by Italian Saipem Group) in order to support the IK-EPC initiative. “ P.O. Box 3790, Al Khobar 31952, Saudi Arabia Tel.: +966 3 895 8210, Fax: +966 3 895 8258/882 5452 Email: email@acec-sa.com, www.acec-sa.com


‫خادم الحرمين الشريفين الملك عبدهللا بن عبدالعزيز آل سعود يقدم درع المساندة المتميــــــــزة‬ ‫لجامعة الملك فهد للبترول والمعادن لسعادة المهندس عبدهللا أحمد بقشان المالك الرئيـــــــــــس‬ ‫لشركة المركز العربي لإلستشارات الهندســيـــــــة ‪ .‬وهـــو أحد خريجـــــي جامعـة الملك فهـد ‪.‬‬

‫أســـــس المهنــــدس عبــــدهللا أحمـــــد بقشــــان المركــــــز‬ ‫العـربــي لإلستشـــــــارات الهـنــدسيــــة بعـــــد تخـــــرجـــه‬ ‫مـــــن الجـــــامعـــــة ‪ 1979‬م وأصــبـــح لـهـــا مــكــاتـــب‬ ‫بالرياض وفرعيــــــن بكل من الخبــر وجــــدة ‪.‬‬ ‫تخصص فرع المنطقــــة الشرقيـــة باألعمـــــال الهندسيـــــة‬ ‫والتصاميم لقطاعــــات األعمـــــال البـــريــــة والبحـــريــــــة‬ ‫لصنـــــــاعة الـــنــــــــفــــط والــــــغـــــــاز والكـيـمـيـائـيـــــة‬ ‫والكـيـمـــــاطـية والتكرير وتوليـد الكهربـاء وإستعذاب الماء‪.‬‬ ‫وأن المركز العربي لإلستشارات الهندسية سعــودي بالكـــامــل‪.‬‬ ‫ص‪.‬ب‪ ، 3790 .‬الخبر ‪ ، 31952‬المملكــــــــة العـــربية السعودية‬ ‫ت‪ ، +966 895 8210 /‬ف ‪+996 3 895 882/8258 5452 /‬‬

‫البريد اإللكتروني‪email@acec-sa.com, www.acec-sa.com :‬‬

‫هذا ولقـد تم تحويل فرع المنطقـة الشرقية إلى شركة يمتلك‬ ‫المركز العربي لإلستشارات الهندسية نسبة ‪ %80‬من‬ ‫أسهمها‪.‬‬

‫وتعـد شركة المركز العربي لإلستشــــارات الهندسيـــــة‬ ‫صــــرحـــــا ومعلــــــــــــما بعــــــالم الصنـــــــاعة وبقــــــدرة‬ ‫تتجاوز ‪ 200‬من العاملين ذوي التخصصات والخبـرات‬ ‫المتميزة ‪.‬‬ ‫وبات من المؤكد إنهاء إجرائات التسجيل لمشاركة عاليمـة‬ ‫بالمجاليين الهندسي واإلنشائي مع شركة سنامبروجيتي‬ ‫المملوكة لمجموعة سايبم اإليطاليـة‪.‬‬


2102 yrcimimoSynopses iB hguorht of ytilKeynotes ibaniatsuS stcartsbA fO kooB


Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature Taryn Lee Mead Biomimicry 3.8


Taryn Mead, Biomimicry Certified Professional and strategy consultant will present an introduction to the principles and concepts of biomimicry as they relate to various disciplines. Her lecture will include an overview of what biomimicry is, examples of how it has been used in the world of design, tools that can be used in a design setting and resources for further exploration of the subject. Her examples will include projects with several corporate clients that she has worked with through her years as a biomimicry strategist. Tools will include several developed by Biomimicry 3.8 to help connect beginning and intermediate biomimics to the natural world and to inspire us all to create a human world that functions more like the biological world.

12


Biomimicry and the ecological age Michael Pawlyn

Exploration Architecture


The next three decades are likely to be the most challenging that humans have faced to date and will involve dramatic change. Michael Pawlyn will argue that there are three major changes that we need to bring about if the grand project of humanity is to endure: achieving radical increases in resource efficiency, shifting from a fossil fuel economy to a solar economy and transforming from a linear, wasteful and polluting way of using resources to a completely closed loop model in which all resources are stewarded in cycles and nothing is lost as waste. None of these will be easy but if we choose to embark on these linked journeys then there are few better sources of innovation than biomimicry to help reveal many of the solutions that we need. This talk will describe a number of architectural and technological projects that demonstrate how these ideas can produce beautiful, high performance solutions. The talk will conclude that the ecological age is a completely achievable destination and that there is much to be gained from accelerating that transformation.

14


Nature as Design Precedent Expanding mimicry Amber Bartosh

Syracuse University


The word «Biomimicry» currently describes multiple facets of many design methodologies ranging from formal duplication to direct scientific application. When one looks to nature as a visual design precedent, inspiration can be found at every point along that spectrum. Nature has long engaged in the pursuits which contemporary designers are finding the most pressing, productive and interesting. Sustainability, collaborative endeavor, affectation, and interactive systems describe both biologically and architecturally relevant topics. This presentation, attempts to illustrate how referencing nature as a precedent leads to novel and innovative design thinking. Specifically it will explore how referencing nature›s capabilities and properties as models to develop rather than purely imitate encourages design solutions which aggregate, expand, and potentially surpass the paradigmatic organic exemplars. Through synthesis, adaptation, exaggeration, and technical application, methods for engaging «biomimicry» in the design process will be explored, illustrated and expanded.

16


Biomimicry, Biophilic Design & Sustainability Carlos Alberto Montana-Hoyos

University of Canberra


This lecture explores relationships between current “bio-inspired” design with “ecodesign” and “design for sustainability”. Over-simplifying it, design as a human activity is mainly our conscious action to modify our environment. Design affects our context (environment) at different levels and in different scales, from “micro” to “macro”. Design inspired by nature is not new. As such, diverse approaches in arts, architecture and design, as well as fields of research such as “bionic, and “biomimetics” are explained from a historical perspective. Recently, “Biomimicry”(Benyus, 1997) proposes using nature as “model”, “measure” and “mentor”, while “Biophilic Design” (Kellert, Heerwagen & Maador, 2008) proposes the benefits of nature in the built environment.The influence of bio-inspired design in design for sustainability is discussed through examples from industrial design, architecture and urbanism, arguing that imitation of 1) form, 2) function, 3) process and 4) systems from nature can help in creating designs which are more sustainable.

18


Sustainability through biomimetics: Lessons from Attenborough, Loos and Biornametics Ille Gebeshuber

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia


Biomimetics is per se not sustainable. It is a design method, and as such, it is free from values. However, when we are learning from nature for our engineering and artistic endeavours, why should we just be constrained to patterns, structures, materials or processes – why not transfer the most amazing property of life itself – sustainability?! This keynote address is dealing with sustainability on three interdisciplinary levels: first, to set the stage, the state of the planet is described. Earth’s biosphere is approaching a critical state shift. We humans are currently causing a 6th mass extinction of species. In the 5th, 55 millions of years ago, %80 of all species died out. Second, Adolf Loos’s famous 1908 article “Ornament and Crime” is critically dealt with regarding its inspirational potential regarding sustainability. Loos›s famous article builds the bridge to the third level: Biornametics, architecture defined by natural patterns, a new methodology that interconnects scientific evidence with creative design in the field of architecture. It takes on the history of one of the composed parts of this word “ornament” referring to Loos and extends into another, “biomimetics”, the strategic search for nature’s solutions in order to gain innovation. The emergence of patterns in nature at all scales of existence of organisms as one of the most important signs of life – order – is not arbitrary, but highly interconnected with boundary conditions, functional requirements, systems requirements, material and structure. In bringing all these three levels together the authors show that the exploration of aesthetic and functional interpretation for a new sustainable architecture, contributing to improving the state of the planet, is indeed possible. 20


2102 yrcimAbstracts imoiB hguoof rhtProceedings ytilibaniatsuS stcartsbA fO kooB


Patterns in Nature, Emergent Urbanism and the Implicate Order Maria Guerreiro

ISCTE - Lisbon University Institute


Absract This research is about the scientific understanding of the concept of ÂŤlifeÂť in urban space and its main purpose is to explain the underlying order that is present in organic cities. It was found that this order is emergent (bottom-up), a product of a self-organization, a fractal geometry that characterizes the geometries of Nature which is substantially different from the visual order (top-down) we are used to look at our cities. The biological metaphor in city planning has been used since the sixteenth century. However, this analogy has been made mainly because of its shape and appearance rather than by the investigation of their geometric properties and laws of formation. Checking the parallel between the geometries of Nature and the geometries of the organic city, through the recognition of a set of patterns and emergent properties I conclude with this work that these forms and structures emerge for the same reason: the constraints of physical space and the laws of nature are the same everywhere. These fundamental laws which govern all live-systems phenomena show that in spite of apparently amorphous growth of urban sprawl, resilient patterns emerge. Once we know the principles we can use them to improve our plans and designs. We should trust to the self-organizing principles of cities rather than impose ideas of what they should look like.

Keywords Patterns in nature, Order, Life, Emergence, Selforganization, Construtal law

24


Urban Sustainability

Between mimetics and metaphors Abid Mehmood

Cardiff University


Absract This paper looks at urban sustainability by means of biological mimetics and metaphors. The scope and scale of discussion and analysis is holistic and urban. A critical view of mechanistic and developmental modes of urban sustainability is offered with some case examples. It is argued that while mimetics can help explain the ecological attributes and resilience in urban sustainability, a metaphorical standpoint can best describe social-technical and systemic functions. A hybrid between biological mimetics and metaphors allows understanding how to develop a sustainable urban form. Top-down eco-towns developments and bottom-up Transition Towns initiatives in the UK are briefly discussed to illustrate such hybrid modes.

Keywords Sustainability science, organicism, vitalism, urban design, metaphors.

26


Ant, Bee and Spider Hapits in the Qur’an

Some insights for sustainable urban design

Aliyu Salisu Barau

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia


Absract Half of humans live in urban areas as urbanization becomes one of the 21st century top challenges. Some of the physical and social urban challenges stem from unsustainable urban land use management. Sundry planning concepts,policies, and models fail to generate optimum solutions to the rising urban sustainability risks. This paper looks at the verses of the Quran on the scenarios of habitats of ant, bee and spider. We reffered to the relevant verses of the Quran on the habitats of the three insects to develop a conceptual model for sustainable urban design. We combined the Quranic verses along side 15 principles of contemporary sustainable urban design(Lehmann, 2010b). The 15 principles of sustainable design are embedded with inherent do›s and dont›s of sustainable habitat design. The Quran portrays the socio-ecological, behavioral and spatial dimensions of the three insects› habitats. The spatial and non-spatial elements of this conceptual model are compatible with principles of Green Building Index, Space Syntax, Cellular Automata, and Geographic Information System. The integration of spatial and social components of the model give it a unique mosaic that most contemporary urban design systems lack. This conceptual model could serve as a broad based sustainable urban design support tool. It supports urban design that upholds preservation of the ecosystem, low carbon emissions, social responsibility, low crimes, security and safety, good governance, inclusiveness and respect for human rights and dignity.

Keywords Ant, Bee, Spider, Urban Design, Sustainability, Qur´an 28


Biology & Architecture

A new contract for sustainable solutions in the tropics

Stathis Eleftheriadis

Architectural Association School of Architecture


Absract This paper is a research of the relationship that can be developed between Biology and Architecture in order to propose innovative design solutions to the existing environmental issues. The theoretical research outlines the transition from the natural phenomena to a manmade application within the biomimetic framework, focusing on a specific environmental issue: Humidity control in the Tropics. The paper proposes a dehumidification “membrane” made of an aggregate material – a mixture of Kaolin and Calcium Chloride – whose composition derives from inspirations of natural phenomena, absorbing moisture from the air. The experimental research of the created material identifies parameters that are related to its moisture absorption properties, creating the potential for it to be used as the main element of a passive dehumidification system, improving the efficiency of the ventilation systems in the Tropics. This system can be integrated within a building’s façade, supplying the interior spaces with dehumidified air and absorbing the humidity generated by the indoor human activity to provide occupants’ comfort.

Keywords Humidity control, Tropics, Biomimetic Membrane

30


Selected Study of Architectural Envelopes Controlling Sun Radiation The integration of nature into design

Barbara P. Jekot

University of Pretoria

Tomasz Jekot

Deloitte Consulting


Absract This research investigates light control devices in architecture and tries to find solutions for it through the observation of nature searching for possible improvements and inspirations in architectural design. The intention of this article is to do a basic review of architectural envelopes in terms of light control devices allowing for adjustment and adoption to changing weather and seasonal conditions and to compare them with selected objects that are not man-made but found in nature. This study briefly evaluates sun breakers and louvers as well as comment on both the reaction of leaves and plants to sun radiation as well as the reaction of eyes to light. The most popular and obvious of these is plant leaves, with their evident adaptation to seasonal and weather changes, and eyes, which regulate light. Could architectural envelopes do the same? How innovative have we been so far? What could we learn from nature and how could we implement nature into architecture? These questions are the core of this study. The appreciation of natural devices illustrating physical/ mechanical characteristics extends to nature and its sensual richness. This study of nature identifies possible improvements in light control design and encourages the integration of plants into architectural envelopes enriching the overall experience. Collaborative research

32


Selected Study of Architectural Envelopes Controlling Sun Radiation The integration of nature into design

Barbara P. Jekot

University of Pretoria

Tomasz Jekot

Deloitte Consulting


- learning not only what can be achieved but also how such collaborations should work - provides special platform for holistic solutions. Exposure to sun and how we bring light into are the major questions of architecture - questions about sunlight that is given to us at a certain place and time and how it stimulates our activities and restricts them, how much we rely on materials and technology when bringing the light into architectural spaces. Light brings the meaning to our lives, moods, feeling of presence, well-being, harmony and beauty. Passion is the creation of architectural envelopes that produce this kind of effect may bring us closer to nature. There is the desire to analyze and understand nature but this should not prevent us from expressing and inventing something. Cloning and repetition of the same architectural ideas across the world shrink the world. We have to evolve to create differences, not for the sake of it but differences as signs of deeper understanding, interpretation and integration of nature and human beings. It is necessary to emphasize the integration of the physical and spiritual experience when creating architectural envelopes.

Keywords Sun radiation and light control, Architectural envelopes, Nature

34


‫اجتاهات جديدة فى العمارة من خالل‬ ‫علم حماكاة الكائنات احلية‬ ‫عالء الدين �ألفي‬ ‫جامعة أم القرى‬

‫أكرم زيان‬

‫جامعة اإلسكندرية‬


‫امللخ�ص‬

‫البيوميماتي��ك ‪ : Biomimatic‬ه��و فرع��ا ًعلمي��ا ًجدي��دا ًيدر���س الت�صميم��ات‬ ‫املوج��ودة يف البيئ��ة الطبيعي��ة وتتخ��ذ ه��ذه الت�صميم��ات كنم��اذج لتنت��ج احلل��ول‬ ‫ال�رضوري��ة ‪ ,‬وه��ذه الت�صامي��م املوج��ودة يف البيئ��ة الطبيعي��ة تق��دم الإله��ام‬ ‫للتكنولوجي��ا لت�ص��ل �إىل نتائ��ج باه��رة ت�ؤث��ر فى �ش��تى املج��االت الهند�س��ية والطبية‬ ‫وال�صناعي��ة‪.‬‬ ‫كلم��ة ‪ Biomimicry‬تنق�س��م م��ن الناحي��ة اللغوي��ة �إىل جزئ�ين اجل��زء الأول ‪Bio‬‬ ‫وه��و تعن��ى احلي��اة و اجل��زء الث��اين وه��و ‪ Mimicry‬وتعن��ى تقلي��د �أو حم��اكاة ‪,‬‬ ‫وه��و عل��م جديد ن�س��بيا ً وهو يدر���س العنا�رص الطبيعة من حي��ث مناذجها و�أنظمتها‬ ‫وعملياتها الوظيفية واحليوية وعنا�رصها وبعد ذلك يحاكى �إبداعها حلل امل�شاكل‬ ‫التي تواجه الب��شرية بوجه دائم ‪ .‬معظم الإخرتاعات هي يف �أ�صلها تقليداً للطبيعة‬ ‫‪ ،‬والي��وم يع��ود العلم��اء لإ�س��تلهامها يف �إبتكاراته��م بع��د عق��ود م��ن الع��زوف عنه��ا‪،‬‬ ‫فم��ا تقدم��ه الطبيع��ة من طرق وحلول ميكن �إ�س��تثماره لتح�س�ين املخرتعات احلايل‪،‬‬ ‫لا كربوني� ًا ع��ن الطبيعة ‪ ،‬ولكن��ه ابتكار جديد م�س��توحى من‬ ‫والبيوميميت��ك لي���س نق� ً‬ ‫�أمثل��ة طبيعية ‪.‬‬

‫الكلمات الدالة‬

‫علم حماكاة الطبيعة‪ ،‬العمارة‪ ،‬النظام االن�شائى‪ ،‬اخلامات الطبيعية‪ ،‬التقليد‪.‬‬

‫‪36‬‬


Drawing from Ornithology

Informing architectural design Danelle Briscoe

University of Texas

Travis Laduc

Texas Natural Science Center


Absract Ornithology is the branch of zoology focused on the biology of birds. Specific within that field are the migratory flights of birds that follow specific routes over long distances, while structure and feathering colors and patterns have well defined meaning and purpose. This paper presents design-applied research that investigates the migratory birds of the Central Flyway route, a biannual path of flight that runs through Texas, from North America to Central and South America. A core curriculum Visual Communications II course coordinated with the Design Studio II at The University of Texas at Austin School of Architecture utilizes Central Flyway bird specimens from the Texas Natural Science Center’s Vertebrate Teaching Collections as an experimental, cross-disciplinary design and drawing approach. Geographic factors and ecological conditions determine such routes and the distinctive characteristics of the migratory birds, therefore students have the potential to begin to understand how architecture, like a bird species, can be responsive to its environment. The course is taught to undergraduate,

38


Drawing from Ornithology

Informing architectural design Danelle Briscoe

University of Texas

Travis Laduc

Texas Natural Science Center


first year architecture students whereby different drawing media and physical modeling focus on bird specimens as the subject. Each student is given a single bird specimen to research and document in depth by way of such media such as charcoal, color pencil, photography and watercolor to understand its overall structure, migration pattern, feathering and proportion. Particular details of the feathering pattern and color are drawn in series to develop. Later studies in pattern making via watercolor lead to consequences in the design of a bird-blind. The proposal is an exploratory approach to teaching fundamental design and drawing whereby the sciences are heightened as a way-finding device for generative architectural design. To this end, the use of ornithology as a subject for drawing and design generation demonstrates a process that can provoke the applicability of nature’s solutions to the built environments’ problems.

Keywords Studio, ornithology, biomimetic, representation

40


Applying Biomimicry Concepts in Teaching Design for Sustainability

ÂŤThe most powerful design ideas are present in natureÂť Carlos Fiorentino

University of Alberta


Absract The inclusion of sustainability as a subject of study in design programs has been increasingly in demand by educators and students. Today signs of change can be seen all around the world, with the inclusion of new concepts that integrates design and nature in a more concrete manner. Biomimicry is one of these conceptual tools adopted by design. This paper addresses the inclusion of Biomimicry at the University of Alberta. In 2008 I exhibited the results of my Master’s thesis project, concerned with the development of a curriculum dedicated to Design for Sustainability (DfS) at the undergraduate level [1]. The project investigated potential content, methods and tools for a course, or course component, framed in the context of the Visual Communication Design (VCD) program at the University of Alberta. The DfS curriculum included first steps in the implementation of Biomimicry through observation, theory, case-studies and exercises were considered as a core project-oriented content for a potential course. The content, methods and tools for teaching DfS used in this project were tested and results analyzed, in

42


Applying Biomimicry Concepts in Teaching Design for Sustainability

ÂŤThe most powerful design ideas are present in natureÂť Carlos Fiorentino

University of Alberta


order to evaluate appropriateness and performance, determine effectiveness, the level of comprehension of the general structure, and the level of engagement of students with the concepts included. The final proposal consisted of a curriculum plan and teaching strategies, which are supported by materials and graphics, and are meant to be implemented in the teaching of DfS. In 2010 a DfS senior level course was taught for the first time at the University of Alberta and hosted by the Human Ecology program (Hecol 2[ )493]. In 2011 the enrollment for this course was doubled. This presentation shows the structure of DfS courses in which Biomimicry is integrated, and includes examples of class work involving Biomimicry done for and by students of DfS-Hecol 493 in 2011-2010, as a part of an ongoing research, development and implementation of a more extended inclusion of Biomimicry in DfS curriculum at the University of Alberta.

Keywords Biomimicry, Design, Sustainability, Education

44


Learning from Nature

Towards a reaserch-based bio-mimicry approach to ecologically sustainable design

Arosha Gamage

University of Sydney

Ranjith Dayaratne

University of Bahrain


Absract Despite the present day interest in learning from Nature for sustainable design, attempts that delineate principles of Nature and engage the students in employing them in design activities is hard to come by. In addressing this issue, the first author offered an experimental design studio at the Department of Architecture of the University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka titled ‘Nature Studies’ focused on investigating natural phenomena and employing them in understanding the fundamentals of architectural design. This paper presents the insights gained in this experiment and discusses the methodologies adopted in research and to teach the studio. It offers a critical reflection on the architectural principles that can be delineated from Nature and argues that what sustainable design requires are precisely these fundamental principles. It demonstrates that architecture students can immensely benefit from observing Nature both intuitively and systematically and argues for engaging them to develop an approach to architecture based on bio-mimicry which will lead to ecological sustainability. Through a number of students’ projects, the paper demonstrates the effectiveness of this teaching approach and articulates the principles and ideas that can be delineated from Nature in conceptualizing forms and compositions in architecture.

Keywords Nature, bio-mimicry, ecological sustainability, design fundamentals, studio-teaching.

46


Building Organisms

Biomimicry as a model for building systems Amber Bartosh

Syracuse University


Absract Previous attempts at applying principles of biomimicry in architecture may have been unsuccessful in creating influential change perhaps because they consisted less of biomimicry and more of biomorphism: biomimicry at its most superficial, i..e large-scale (and not unbeautiful) construction that celebrates natural forms but not natural functions. This paper explores how approaching design and construction with a philosophy of deep and systemic integration might transform a building from an engineered machine of interlocking parts to a sustainable and interactive organism. Specifically, the necessary but often overlooked aspects of construction which are required by code and are frequently handled through clumsy and traditional methodologies will be re窶親xamined and more efficient but redundant systems in nature will be looked to for their potential to inspire a more effective and green solution. The mechanical, electrical, structural, plumbing and information aspects of buildings can all benefit aesthetically and functionally from a reconsideration of their purposes as independent systems. Ideally, they would coexist as mutually beneficial organisms and to this end the natural world can be looked to for preexisting designs and methods of meeting their needs. Like the links within the webs of every ecosystem, the

48


Building Organisms

Biomimicry as a model for building systems Amber Bartosh

Syracuse University


building’s physical and circulatory make�up might be broken down into a series of relationships like those between plants/animals, predator/ prey, and parasite/ host. For example, lighting systems within typical office buildings consume the largest percentage of building energy use and contribute to heat gain which must be accounted for in the cooling load of HVAC systems. (Michaels, 2000) A biomimical solution which makes the lighting and climate control cohabitate more symbiotically might not only be more efficient, but also more stable and responsive. Furthermore, an examination of additional building parts will be made with an eye to the seemingly paradoxical task of MORE complexity; such as an insistence that no one single element be allowed to function completely independently. In other words, every single component will be interwoven into the overall organism with the belief that this complexity will ultimately result in an efficiency, integration, sustainability and aesthetics of a depth, breadth and beauty not previously encountered.

Keywords Organism, complexity, interdependence, biomimicry, building systems

50


Applying Bioimimicry in Architecture A critical examination Sumayah Al-Solaiman

University of Dammam


Absract The application of biomimicry in architectural practice is not only limited but its methods are ambiguous to the vast majority of architects. Biomimicry in architecture is therefore mostly limited to the application of forms in zoomorphic design and processes in the application of materials and planning processes but rarely goes beyond that to the level of systems. This paper examines some of the difficulties in implementing biomimetic designs at the level of architectural practice in order to help overcome them. These difficulties are mostly discipline-specific in the sense that they stem from the manner in which architecture is practiced, in the way it is thought about and the traditional role of architects. Determinism and the indoctrination of a man-vs.-nature-attitude are some of the characteristics that have led some architects to favor the design of parallel self-sufficient habitats over sustainable harmony with the natural environment. The paper discusses the complexity of multi-disciplinary practice and examines the role of the biologist as an addition to the design team. Their capacity as mediators and gate-keepers of information not only increases this complexity but also shifts the boundaries of practice and control in an unprecedented manner. The loose application of biomimetic design concepts are revealed as being closer to traditional architecture than to science and may be the result of misunderstandings of biological processes. Given the heavy reliance on knowledge outside architecture, the research capacity required for biomimetic design is beyond the capabilities of commercial practices.

Keywords Biomimicry, architectural practice, application of biomimicry 52


Autopoietic BioDigital Design and Architecture Dennis Dollens

ESALA, University of Edinburgh


Absract As technology and biology merge, the possibility of metabolizing, intelligent architecture mediated by cognition, synthetic biology, and environment becomes thinkable for biomimetic design and educational methodologies. While the use of AI is common in research aids (Google, Bing, Wolfram, Twitter, etc.), the parallel rapid development of biodigital, synthetic, and biological technologies — AL or artificial life — presents new frontiers for design. (Venter 2012.) Rephrased, Alan Turing’s question, “Can machines think?” now echoes: “Can buildings think/act?” (Turing 1950.) My central thesis thus recognizes theoretically hybridized new technologies — particularly smartphones, tablets, and apps — as technological connective tissues developable between student/ designer and urban/natural environments. Such membranes buffer animate/inanimate research processes for cognitive interchange. Considering the above and looking to emerging science and philosophy, I propose articulating theoretical sub-structures (a design OS so to speak), supporting m-learning and/or in-field biomimetic studios. Perhaps the most unusual and difficult aspects for this hybridized system are my extrapolations from autopoietic cell theory and its fusion with extended cognition theory. (Maturana & Varela 1980. Clark 2008. Thompson 2010.) Nevertheless together they critically underpin a design and m-learning methodology (OS). And this fusion subsequently supports a non-dualistic working framework (below). Over the past academic year I have researched, written,

54


Autopoietic BioDigital Design and Architecture Dennis Dollens

ESALA, University of Edinburgh


designed, and tested a -60page student handbook for deploying smartphones, apps, and GPS mapping in an online class (left.) Participating students were located in Japan, Korea, USA, Jamaica, Barcelona, and Edinburgh. It was conducted through the Moray House School of Education’s MSc in e-Learning (University of Edinburgh), from 22-2 July 2012. From this experiment, I am confident the system may be scaled-up and extended. And, I am currently scouting possibilities for further academic tests. While the Urban Drift (uDrift) e-studio provided live data defining how m-design might be taught, evaluated, and electronically tutored, it also illustrated how complex 3D digital space, social media, and experimental-app assignments can function, be mixed, and digitally communicated. Questions arise regarding physical modeling and materialization, pointing out affinities relating digital design to digital fabrication. Further, I investigate how virtual space, classrooms, web apps, and studio software interface for design production. The uDrift demonstration class functioned with skeletal underpinnings of autopoietic-extended cognition supporting m-learning pedagogy. It allied theory, place, and learning assignments with technology as a cognitive collaborator — sometimes instigator. Continued, theoretical development with specific links to empirical class and project performance is where I anticipate advancing research and synthesis.

Keywords Generative Design, Biomimetic, Computation, Design Theory

56


Comparison of Carbon Capture & Storage (CCS) and an innovating biomimetic approach to sequester carbon Caroline Zaoui; Pierre-Jean Valayer; Gauthier Chapelle; all Biomim-Greenloop SA


Absract The unprecedented rate of increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide, with its dramatic climate change and ocean life threatening impact, is considered as the most urgent challenge within the sustainability realm. Carbon sequestration is presented as one of the major avenues to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions. The sequestration technology focus for the coming decades is known as Carbon Capture & Storage (CCS). It currently consists in concentrating the CO2 produced by big emitters before storing it at very high pressures in former gas & oil reservoirs. Increasingly significant budgets are devoted to those techniques. Hence, CCS presented a perfect opportunity to test the relevance of a biomimetic approach on this major sustainability issue. Accordingly, as an SME, Biomim-Greenloop has launched a biomimetic CCS project, CO2SolStock, funded by the European Commission to explore the potential of microbiology for carbon sequestration in the form of lime precipitation. Calcium carbonate

58


Comparison of Carbon Capture & Storage (CCS) and an innovating biomimetic approach to sequester carbon Caroline Zaoui; Pierre-Jean Valayer; Gauthier Chapelle; all Biomim-Greenloop SA


constitutes of course, the main constituent of shellfish as well as other marine group’s skeleton. Furthermore, the process of lime precipitation can be triggered by the metabolism of bacteria and other micro-organisms. One microbial process is at the source of about %40 of the world chalks (calcite) cliffs, in addition to the remains of calcareous plankton. CO2SolStock is studying a variety of such microbial processes to be found in natural habitats as a potential tool for carbon sequestration. In this paper, we will confront the CCS and biomimetic approaches, both from a theoretical point of view and from the already available data. Amongst the parameters to be compared are the types of carbon source, the energy demand, the stability of the sequestered carbon, the mass balance and flows and the up-scaling challenges.

Keywords change, biomimicry, carbon sequestration, microbial precipitation, calcium carbonate

60


Breaking the Habits of Unsustainability Amandine Johnson; Robert Crocker all University of South Australia


Absract Mass-produced consumer products can shape human behavior over time; developing into unconscious routines with unsustainable consequences. The refrigerator, a standard appliance that we expect to find in all modern homes, is a good example of this. They demand more energy than many other appliances found in the home, generate an excess of heat, and are not always very efficient in fulfilling the tasks we expect of them. Despite these issues, very little has been done by designers over the last century to change what appears, at first sight, to be such a commercially successful, useful and well regarded appliance. This paper will consider the refrigerator through a methodological approach by exploiting Biomimicry in a broader socio-behavioral context. From this perspective, refrigerators are part of the ecology of the modern kitchen, involving food storage, preparation, cooking and cooling or freezing, to preserve the shelf life and of course to enjoy the many faceted pleasures of food.

62


Breaking the Habits of Unsustainability Amandine Johnson; Robert Crocker all University of South Australia


By incorporating design strategies such as Biomimicry, a refrigeration system could be designed with an embedded fluttering action, found in many common birds to address thermoregulation. With these strategies, it may be possible to achieve a much lower level of net energy usage and redirect heat loss in the refrigerator, creating a more symbiotic relationship with other products in the room. This approach places the refrigerator not as a stand-alone box but as an integral part of a ‘natural system’; which must maximize product efficiency and user interaction and be modeled to strive for symbiotic survival. Through behavioral interactions and Biomimetic strategies, this proposed paper aims to target the coordination and orchestration of tasks in the kitchen, and the semantics embedded in its relevant products.

Keywords Consumer habits, product design, refrigerators, Biomimicry, interactions

64


Sustainability in Science, Architecture and Design Lessons from attenborough, loos and biornametics Ille C. Gebeshuber

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Petra Gruber transarch

Barbara Imhof

LIQUIFER Systems Group


Absract Biomimetics is per se not sustainable. It is a design method, and as such, it is free from values. However, when we are learning from nature for our engineering and artistic endeavours, why should we just be constrained to patterns, structures, materials or processes – why not transfer the most amazing property of life itself – sustainability?! This paper is dealing with sustainability on three interdisciplinary levels: first, to set the stage, the state of the planet is described. Earth’s biosphere is approaching a critical state shift. We humans are currently causing a 6th mass extinction. In the 5th, 55 millions of years ago, %80 of all species died out. Second, Adolf Loos’s famous 1908 article “Ornament and Crime” is critically dealt with regarding its inspirational potential to sustainability. Loos builds the bridge to the third level: Biornametics, architecture defined by natural patterns, a new methodology that interconnects scientific evidence with creative design in the field of architecture. It takes on the history of one of the composed parts

66


Sustainability in Science, Architecture and Design Lessons from attenborough, loos and biornametics Ille C. Gebeshuber

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Petra Gruber transarch

Barbara Imhof

LIQUIFER Systems Group


of this word “ornament” referring to Loos and extends into another, “biomimetics”, the strategic search for nature’s solutions in order to gain innovation. The emergence of patterns in nature at all scales of existence of organisms as one of the most important signs of life – order – is not arbitrary, but highly interconnected with boundary conditions, functional requirements, systems requirements, material and structure. In bringing all these three levels together the authors show that the exploration of aesthetic and functional interpretation for a new sustainable architecture, contributing to improving the state of the planet, is indeed possible.

Keywords architecture, biomimetics, biornametics, ornament, science, sustainability, the state of the planet, tipping point

68


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