13th Biennial Miniature Print International Exhibition

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13th Biennial Miniature Print International Exhibition JUNE 6 ­— AUGUST 29, 2021

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Mathews Park 299 West Avenue Norwalk, CT 06850 203.899.7999 www.contemprints.org


TABLE OF CONTENTS Juror’s Statement


Juror Bio


List of Accepted Artists Index of Artists Glossary of Printmaking Terms

5 - 26 27 28 - 30

About CCP


Purchase Award Sponsors


All prints in this exhibition are available for purchase. Direct sales inquiry to info@contemprints.org. Be sure to include the Print Number, artist name and print title to correctly identify your purchase inquiry and a CCP Staff Member will get back to you as soon as possible.

13th Biennial Miniature Print International Exhibition JUROR’S STATEMENT Miniature prints have always fascinated me as a scholar of Atelier 17, the avant-garde printmaking studio with locations variously in Paris and New York City. Although artists affiliated with the workshop are primarily known for pushing the physical and technical boundaries of intaglio printmaking, many were also skilled makers of miniature prints! Beyond the common practice of sending miniatures as yearend and holiday greeting cards, professional organizations like the Society of American Graphic Artists (SAGA) sponsored miniature print competitions throughout Atelier 17’s time in New York City. The entry guidelines for SAGA’s Seventeenth Annual Exhibition of Miniature Prints held in 1956 are quite interesting in this regard: Miniature prints must not measure more than three inches in either dimension, and must not be priced at less than $5.00. NOTE CAREFULLY: A Miniature Plate is one in which the composition is as fully developed as that of a normal sized plate, but the execution conforms to (i.e., is in scale with) the miniature dimensions. The majority of entries submitted to miniature exhibitions are either executed at the same scale as larger plates, or have the appearance of being fragments of the latter. In an effort to limit this exhibition to the prints of the true workers in miniature, all prints submitted to this section, whether by members or non-members, will have to go before a specially selected Jury whose members will judge according to the above definitions. 1 Fast forward to 2021 and the CCP’s 13th Biennial International Miniature Print Competition, we see how much has changed in the field of miniature printmaking since SAGA’s midcentury intervention as arbiter of The Miniature Plate. Yes, the format remains tiny, but the CCP’s call allows artists to manipulate the proportions of their allotted four square inches (25.8 square cm) in ways that I am sure SAGA’s “specially selected Jury” would have completely rejected. The majority of entries to this year’s competition were 2 x 2 inches square, but it was delightful to see artists stretching the miniature format into irregular shapes -­or spreading their allotted area across two plates or blocks, as exemplified in the work of Eric Mummery and Anna Trojanowska. There were also gorgeous “traditional” miniatures, which conform largely to SAGA’s guidelines as “fully developed” compositions in “miniature dimensions,” as seen in DeAnn Prosia’s highly textured view of New York City buildings and Linda Adato’s color landscape. Channing Lefebvre, Takano Tamura, and Fanny Bazille each submitted extraordinary abstract intaglio prints, distinguished in their own ways. This year’s entries showcased a fascinating array of cut and collaged miniatures, including Amy Sands’s laser cut screenprints made to look like antique lace, Lujiang Li’s three-dimensional butterfly specimen, Adrienne Beacham’s subtle paper slits edged with red ink, and Ellen Roberts’s deconstructed intaglio monoprint. This year’s first place winner, Sinclair Ashman, boldly combined gold leaf and collaged thread to beautiful effect. Congratulations to all exhibitors and prize winners! The great diversity and international scope of this year’s 475 submissions show that “true workers in miniature” abound and that the format continues to develop in new and unexpected ways.

­— Christina Weyl Independent Scholar and Curator


Fortieth Annual Exhibition and Seventeenth Annual Exhibition of Miniatures,” SAGA clippings file at the New York Public Library, call no. MDAAZ.



Christina Weyl

is an independent art historian who writes about midcentury American printmaking and women artists. She earned a BA from Georgetown University and an MA and PhD in Art History from Rutgers University. Prior to graduate school, she was the director of Gemini G.E.L. at Joni Moisant Weyl, a gallery in New York City representing the print publications of the Los Angeles-based artists’ workshop, Gemini G.E.L. In 2019, Christina released the book The Women of Atelier 17: Modernist Printmaking in Midcentury New York published by Yale University Press which follows nine women, including Louise Bourgeois and Louise Nevelson, who worked at Atelier 17, the avant-garde printmaking workshop located in New York City between 1940 and 1955. She is currently working on a new book and exhibition project “Living in Color: The Explosion of Color in American Printmaking, 1935-65.”



13th Biennial Miniature Print International Exhibition LIST OF WORKS All dimensions listed in inches All prints are for sale. Email info@contemprints.org to inquire.

Karen Adrienne (57b) ME, USA Hope, 2021 Intaglio with hand coloring, Ed. 2/7 1 x 4, $75

Christine Aaron (80a) NY, USA Eventide, 2021 Monotype, Unique 1 x 4, $75

Sinclair Ashman (39a) England Wish I, 2021 Collagraph with chine collé, leaf and thread, VE 6/20 2 x 2, $50

Linda Adato (54c) NY, USA Lake View I, 2020 Monotype, Unique 1 7/8 x 2, $125

Kate Baillies (134b) Canada Current, 2021 Drypoint with chine collé, AP 1 7/8 x 1 7/8, $90




Carla Bauer (110c) NY, USA Orphan, 2012 Woodcut, AP 2 x 2, $50

Adrienne Beacham (180a) NY, USA Surface, 2021 Intaglio with hand coloring, Unique 2 x 2, $75 Gamblin Artists Colors Award

Fanny Bazille (149b) France Wood II, 2021 Engraving, Ed. 1/20 2 x 2, $85

Lionel Bras (12a) France Tibet No. 1, 2021 Etching and aquatint, Ed. 1/10 1 x 3 3/4, $40

Adrienne Beacham (180c) NY, USA Cracks, 2021 Intaglio collage with hand coloring and thread, Unique 2 1/2 x 1 1/2, $75

Therese Capal (55b) MD, USA Phoenix, 2021 Relief, Ed. 1/15 2 x 2, $15


Kyle A. Chaput (145a) TX, USA Rio Bravo VI, 2021 Photopolymer intaglio with hand coloring, Ed. 1/12 1 1/2 x 2 5/8, $50

Jane Cooper (79d) NY, USA Earthly, 2021 Monotype on silver leaf, Unique 1 5/16 x 3, $120

Diane Cherr (74a) NY, USA Wish Upon A Glove 2, 2021 Photopolymer intaglio, Unique 2 x 2, $100

Neal W. Cox (40b) TX, USA Grid 900 G.8, 2021 Screenprint, Unique 2 x 2, $35

Dorothy Cochran (100b) NJ, USA Secrets Within, 2021 Silk aquatint, Ed. 1/5 1 x 4, $75

Michael G. Crouse (98c) KY, USA River Flood IV, 2021 Lithograph, Ed. 1/11 1 5/8 x 2 1/4, $95




Anne Cushman (118a) OH, USA Leeks and Eggplant, 2021 Photopolymer intaglio with hand coloring, Ed. 1/4 1 3/8 x 2 3/4, $65

Viviane de Kosinsky (14c) VA, USA Tub, 2016 Etching with hand coloring, Ed. 10/50 1 7/8 x 1 7/8, $140 Honorable Mention

Cindy Davis (182b) CA, USA Farnese Garden, 2020 Drypoint, AP 1 7/8 x 1 7/8, $30

Beatrice del Perugia (23b) CT, USA Ecco, 2021 Monotype with chine collé and collage, Unique 2 x 2, $80

Cindy Davis (182a) CA, USA You Make Me Happy, 2017 Collagraph monoprint, AP 2 5/8 x 1 1/2, $50

Manon Denis (17a) Canada Lonely, 2021 Carborundum aquatint, Unique 2 5/8 x 1 1/2, $50


Adell Donaghue (183b) MA, USA Hic Svnt Dracones II, 2021 Aquatint, AP 1 x 4, $60

Sarah Donovan (97a) CT, USA Calm Beneath The Storm, 2021 Linocut, AP 4 x 1, $40

Melanie Dorson (24a) CA, USA Eve, 2020 Etching and aquatint with hand coloring, Ed. 1/6 2 x 2, $85 Honorable Mention

Sophie Drouot (45a) France Horse Chestnut Tree, 2020 Drypoint and mezzotint, Ed. 6/30 1 7/8 x 1 1/4, $50

Carol Dunn (148e) CT, USA Stuart’s Apple Tree, 2011 Photopolymer intaglio, VE 5/50 2 1/2 x 1 1/2, $70

Elaine Erne (131b) PA, USA We Need A Break, 2021 Etching and aquatint, Ed. 1/10 2 x 1 7/8, $100




Alanna Fagan (88b) CT, USA Le Marché III, 2021 Silkscreen monotype, Unique 2 x 2, $100

Charlotte Fleming (71a) NJ, USA In Between (Seawall), 2020 Etching and aquatint, Ed. 5/5 2 x 1 7/8, $80

Almudena Fernandez Vicens (150c) CT, USA Running Away, 2021 Monotype, Unique 1 x 4, $50

Lisa Flynn (5b) MA, USA River Rock II, 2020 Collagraph monoprint, Unique 2 x 2, $80

Birgit Fiedler (163b) Germany Slide-Archive 2, 2021 Photopolymer intaglio, Ed. 1/4 1 x 1 1/2, $40

Kath Frajbis (201a) MI, USA Guinea Fowl Feather I, 2021 Mezzotint, Ed. 1/20 2 x 2, $75


Ivana Gagić Kičinbači (194b) Croatia Rising Sun, 2021 Linocut and digital, Ed. 2/3 1 1/8 x 3 1/8, $70

Allan Greenier (18b) CT, USA Untitled (pink), 2021 Screenprint with leaf, Unique 2 x 2, $100

Jeanine D. Giddings (89a) CT, USA Freedom, 2021 Monotype, Unique 2 x 2, $30

Valerie Gudez (68b) Canada Fortune, 2021 Wood engraving with chine collé, Ed. 1/20 1 1/2 x 2 5/8, $80

Larissa Grass (67a) NY, USA Great Horned, 2021 Intaglio with chine collé, AP 2 x 2, $50

Mari Gyorgyey (33a) CT, USA Chalice, 2021 Etching, Unique 2 x 2, $75




Mari Gyorgyey (33c) CT, USA Fishbowl, 2021 Etching, Ed. 1/4 1 1/2 x 1 3/8, $65

Jennifer Harper (81a) FL, USA Share, 2021 Woodcut, VE 1/8 2 x 2, $50

Theresa Haberkorn (174c) CO, USA Bubbles, 2021 Monoprint, Unique 2 x 2, $80 Honorable Mention

Holly Hawthorn (94a) CT, USA Momma Said There’d Be Days Like This #1, 2021 Monoprint, Unique 2 x 2, $75

Jen Hamilton (204a) Canada They Will Be Fine, 2021 Drypoint monoprint with chine collé, VE 1/20 2 x 2, $90

Sharon Hayes (179b) MA, USA Tri Vision, 2021 Monotype and screenprint, AP 2 x 2, $50


Kelley Hedin (124e) NY, USA Spring, 2021 Linocut monoprint, Unique 2 x 2, $50

Angela Hennessey (205a) Canada Scrimshaw, 2021 Collagraph, Ed. 1/2 4 x 1, $60

Maria Heed (51b) Sweden Litet Berg/Small Mountain, 2021 Etching with hand coloring, Ed. 2/20 2 x 2, $76 Mary Holland (8a) VA, USA Head Stand, 2020 Linocut, AP 2 x 2, $80

Ariella Heise (127a) MA, USA Poke, 2021 Linocut, Ed. 1/5 2 x 2, $50

Ayako Iguchi (181a) Japan Rhythm-1, 2021 Woodcut, Ed. 1/10 1 x 4, $30



Yukio Ito (60c) Japan I and Other Kids, 2021 Mezzotint, Ed. 1/8 1 7/8 x 1 7/8, $70


Shari Jones (119a) CT, USA Drooping Lace, 2021 Linocut, Ed. 1/5 2 1/2 x 1 1/2, $50

Martha Ives (168a) NY, USA Winter, 2021 White line woodcut, AP 2 x 1 7/8, $60 Honorable Mention

Regina Kanter (103a) CT, USA Niwa, 2021 Monotype, Unique 1 x 4, $150

Villia Jefremovas (170c) Canada Hoian Evening, 2020 Intaglio, Ed. 1/12 1 1/2 x 2, $50

Regina Kanter (103b) CT, USA Tread, 2021 Monotype, Unique 2 x 2, $50


Selina Karim (106c) CO, USA Interpretation of Nature 3, 2021 Etching, AP 2 x 2, $125

Emilia Karwowska (173a) Poland The Sky, 2021 Etching and aquatint, AP 2 3/8 x 1 5/8, $70

Gali Katz (32b) CT, USA Ride, 2021 Silkscreen monotype with collage, Unique 2 x 2, $45

Alastair Keady (196c) Ireland Orbs 6, 2021 Screenprint, Ed. 16/26 2 x 2, $70

Marisa Keller (36b) Netherlands Acer, 2021 Monoprint, AP 2 x 2, $50

Maureen Keller Hebert (15a) MA, USA Hay, 2021 Monotype, Unique 3 3/8 x 1, $90




Audrey N. Kennedy (130b) CA, USA A Closer Look, 2021 Linocut, Ed. 3 1 3/4 x 1 3/4, $40

Melody Knight Leary (133a) CT, USA Isolation, 2021 Photopolymer intaglio, Ed. 1/5 1 7/8 x 2, $50

Marina Kim (109c) England Orchid, 2007 Mezzotint, Ed. 6/100 2 x 1 1/2, $95

Christina Krentz (195c) Canada Alive Time, 2021 Silkscreen monotype, Unique 2 x 1 7/8, $50

T. Klacsmann (176b) NY, USA Smallest Knight, 2018 Linocut, AP 2 1/4 x 1 3/8, $85

Julianna Kristoff (159c) CT, USA Lit Wheat, 2021 Cyanotype, Unique 2 x 2, $25


Julianna Kristoff (159e) CT, USA Together, 2012 Photopolymer intaglio, Ed. 2/9 1 3/4 x 1 3/4, $30

Channing Lefebvre (6a) NY, USA Minisorts, 2021 Steel stamp intaglio, VE 1/3 2 x 2 , $100 Renaissance Graphic Arts Award

Katharine A. Laird (96d) Canada Black Star Bright, 2021 Etching and lithograph, Ed. 1/10 1 x 4, $95

Lujiang Li (115a) NY, USA Flying Butterfly, 2021 Lithograph and screenprint, Unique 1 3/4 x 2 1/4, $70 Open Press Project Award

Katherine Larocca (104a) CT, USA Bowl (Still Life), 2021 Risograph, Ed. 1/2 1 5/8 x 2, $60

Pam Lindberg (34a) CT, USA Eye on Landscape, 2021 Monoprint, Unique 2 x 2, $100



Judith H. Long (65a) ME, USA Migration, 2021 Relief, Ed. 1/3 1 1/2 x 2 5/8, $50

Bernadette Madden (186c) Ireland Red, 2021 Screenprint, Unique 1 5/8 x 2 3/8, $75

Amy Lowey (177c) CT, USA Untitled #3, 2021 Photopolymer gravure, Ed. 1/3 2 x 2, $75

Katie Maier (146b) GA, USA Fragments of a Woman, 2021 Drypoint, Unique 4 x 1, $75 Honorable Mention Luanda Lozano (95b) NY, USA Nature Encounters II, 2021 Etching with chine collé and embossing, Unique 2 x 2, $100



Susan Martin (185c) NC, USA Flotation Device III, 2021 Drypoint with hand coloring and thread, Ed. 1/20 1 5/8 x 2 3/4, $40 Honorable Mention

CL McBeth-Collins (171a) PA, USA Harvest, 2021 Collagraph, Ed. 1/3 2 5/8 x 1 3/8, $40

Eileen McClellan (140b) TX, USA Ennui, 2021 Drypoint, Ed. 1/5 2 x 2, $60

Claudia Mengel (82b) CT, USA All That Jazz, 2021 Monoprint, Unique 2 x 2, $50

Michael Meskin (93c) NY, USA Midnight Radio, 2021 Mezzotint, Ed. 2/20 1 3/8 x 2 1/2, $80

Paul Michael (108a) CT, USA LIVE - Katy Perry, 2021 Intaglio, Ed. 1/25 2 1/2 x 1 3/8, $100




Meaghan Morrow (26a) CT, USA Tangled I , 2021 Cyanotype, Ed. 1/5 2 1/2 x 1 1/2, $30

Eric Mummery (161a) Canada Compartmentalize, 2021 Wood engraving, Ed. 1/5 1 3/4 x 2 1/8, $70 2nd Prize

James Mullen (46a) NY, USA Checked, 2021 Linocut, AP 2 1/4 x 1 3/4, $40

Danuta Muszynska (165a) OR, USA Lucid Dreams (the doll), 2021 Intaglio and chine collé, Ed. 1/5 2 x 1 7/8, $80

James Mullen (46e) NY, USA VK-B, 2021 Engraving, AP 2 x 1 1/2, $40

Jackie Newell (92b) England Detail From Inside Blackfriars Bridge 1, 2021 Etching and aquatint, AP 2 x 2, $125


Gunnar Nilmén (52c) Sweden The Drop, 2021 Etching and drypoint, Ed. 3/10 2 1/8 x 1 3/4, $85

Thom O’Connor (13c) NY, USA The Tower, 2020 Photopolymer intaglio, Ed. 6/20 1 7/8 x 2, $70

Ivan Ninov (125c) Bulgaria Imagined Scenery, 2020 Drypoint, Ed. 3/8 1 5/8 x 2 1/2, $60

Gina Palmer (158b) NY, USA Decay, 2021 Relief with collage, Unique 1 7/8 x 2, $75

Paloma Núñez-Regueiro (61c) MI, USA Variation III, 2021 Linocut, Ed. 1/6 2 x 2, $85

Karen Peters (166a) MN, USA Burn Out, 2021 Relief, Ed. 16/16 2 x 2, $40



Snezana Petrovic (207a) Serbia In The Field, 2021 Mezzotint, Ed. 5/50 2 x 2, $80

Kathie Pettersson (7c) Sweden Grid-Landscape, 2021 Etching, Ed. 1/10 2 x 1 7/8, $70

Michael Piotrowski (135a) NY, USA Nowhere, 2021 Woodcut with digital, Ed. 1/5 1 7/8 x 2, $40


DeAnn L. Prosia (43c) NJ, USA Towers Three, 2021 Etching, Ed. 2/25 2 x 2, $75 3rd Prize and Jerry’s Artarama Award

Julianne B. Ricksecker (120a) CA, USA Twilight, 2021 Intaglio, Ed. 3/10 2 7/8 x 1 1/4, $95

Ellen Roberts (184a) ME, USA Passage, 2021 Etching and monotype collage with stitching, Unique 2 x 2, $95 McClain’s Printmaking Award


Gervasio Robles (178a) South Africa The Wake Trail, 2021 Wood engraving, Ed. 5/40 2 3/4 x 1 3/8, $25

Rebecca T. Ross (101c) CT, USA The Bird Feeder, 2021 Monotype, Unique 2 5/8 x 1 1/2, $60

Samantha Salazar (153a) NJ, USA Hielo, 2021 Linocut, Ed. 5/10 3 7/8 x 7/8, $40

Amy Sands (141b) MN, USA Constellation LXXI, 2021 Screenprint with stencil and hand coloring, Unique 2 x 2, $100 Speedball Art Award




Ashley Schick (147b) GA, USA Hummingbird, 2021 Monoprint collage, Unique 1 3/4 x 2 5/8, $75

Sigrid Sperzel (25a) NY, USA And Still It Moves I, 2013 Etching, AP 2 x 2, $95

Kathleen Schroeder (121a) CT, USA Fig. 2, 2021 Lithograph with chine collé, Ed. 1/10 2 x 2, $50

Carol Strause FitzSimonds (91b) RI, USA Spotlight, 2021 Intaglio, Ed. 1/10 2 x 2, $60

Christopher Shore (21e) NY, USA Eider, 2021 Tetra pak, Ed. 3/6 1 3/4 x 1 7/8, $70

Roger Sutcliffe (20c) Canada Bones, 2021 Etching, Ed. 1/6 2 1/2 x 1 3/8, $40


Takako Tamura (38a) Japan Rhythm 1, 2021 Collagraph monoprint, Unique 2 x 2, $100 McClain’s Printmaking Award

Lara Vaienti (189a) Italy You Will Pay (To Be Beautiful), 2021 Transfer with distressing, Unique 2 x 2, $75

Anna Trojanowska (50b) Poland Gravity - 1, 2021 Lithograph, Ed. 11/12 2” diameter, $60 Awagami Paper Award

Magali Vandrisse (193a) France Origine, 2021 Etching and drypoint, Ed. 1/2 1 3/4 x 1, $100

Amber Tyler-Elliott (139a) NC, USA Air Potato Leaf Beetle, 2019 Intaglio, Ed. 3/3 1 x 1, $60

Karen Vogel (62a) CT, USA Hopskotch, 2021 Monoprint, Unique 2 x 2, $50




Michal Wasiak (172a) Poland Untitled, 2021 Mezzotint, Ed. 2/10 1 3/4 x 1 3/4, $70

MK Wynn (123c) CT, USA Infinity, 2021 Monotype, Unique 1 3/4 x 2, $85

Monica Wiesblott (72b) CA, USA Paramour, 2021 Photopolymer gravure monoprint, Unique 1 1/2 x 2 1/2, $100

Janet Yagoda Shagam (114a) NM, USA Monolith, 2021 Collagraph, Ed. 1/3 2 x 2, $50

Cleo Wilkinson (2c) Australia Murmur III, 2020 Mezzotint, Ed. 4/40 2 x 2, $120

Valerie Zeman (151c) NY, USA Skyward, 2021 Photopolymer intaglio with chine collé, Unique 2 1/4 x 1 3/4, $100




Florida, USA Jennifer Harper


SERBIA Snezana Petrovic

Georgia, USA Katie Maier Ashley Schick

CANADA Kate Baillies Manon Denis Valerie Gudez Jen Hamilton Angela Hennessey Villia Jefremovas Christina Krentz Katharine A. Laird Eric Mummery Roger Sutcliffe

SOUTH AFRICA Gervasio Robles

CROATIA Ivana Gagić Kičinbači ENGLAND Sinclair Ashman Marina Kim Jackie Newell FRANCE Fanny Bazille Lionel Bras Sophie Drouot Magali Vandrisse GERMANY Birgit Fiedler ITALY Lara Vaienti IRELAND Alastair Keady Bernadette Madden JAPAN Ayako Iguchi Yukio Ito Takako Tamura POLAND Emilia Karwowska Anna Trojanowska Michal Wasiak

SWEDEN Maria Heed Gunnar Nilmén Kathie Pettersson California, USA Cindy Davis Melanie Dorson Audrey N. Kennedy Julianne B. Ricksecker Monica Wiesblott Colorado, USA Theresa Haberkorn Selina Karim Connecticut, USA Beatrice del Perugia Sarah Donovan Carol Dunn Alanna Fagan Almudena Fernandez Vicens Jeanine D. Giddings Allan Greenier Mari Gyorgyey Holly Hawthorn Shari Jones Regina Kanter Gali Katz Melody Knight Leary Julianna Kristoff Katherine Larocca Pam Lindberg Amy Lowey Claudia Mengel Paul Michael Meaghan Morrow Rebecca T. Ross Kathleen Schroeder Karen Vogel MK Wynn

Kentucky, USA Michael G. Crouse Massachusetts, USA Adell Donaghue, Lisa Flynn Sharon Hayes Ariella Heise Maureen Keller Hebert Maryland, USA Therese Capal Maine, USA Karen Adrienne Judith H. Long Ellen Roberts

New York, USA Christine Aaron Linda Adato Carla Bauer Adrienne Beacham Diane Cherr Jane Cooper Larissa Grass Kelley Hedin Martha Ives T. Klacsmann Channing Lefebvre Lujiang Li Luanda Lozano Michael Meskin James Mullen Thom O’Connor Gina Palmer Michael Piotrowski Christopher Shore Sigrid Sperzel Valerie Zeman Ohio, USA Anne Cushman

Michigan, USA Kath Frajbi Paloma Núñez-Regueiro

Oregon, USA Danuta Muszynska

Minnesota, USA Karen Peters Amy Sands

Pennsylvania, USA Elaine Erne CL McBeth-Collins

North Carolina, USA Susan Martin Amber Tyler-Elliott

Rhode Island, USA Carol Strause FitzSimonds

New Jersey, USA Dorothy Cochran Charlotte Fleming DeAnn L. Prosia Samantha Salazar New Mexico, USA Janet Yagoda Shagam

Texas, USA Kyle A. Chaput Neal W. Cox Eileen McClellan Virginia, USA Viviane de Kosinsky Mary Holland




WHAT IS A HANDMADE PRINT? A hand-made print is created by the artist who prepares the plate from which the print is printed using a variety of methods depending on the type of print involved. A digital print is made on a computer using the computer to create a piece of artwork. Most prints are printed on dampened paper. The paper is soaked from fifteen minutes to several hours. When ready to print the artist dries the paper between blotters or towels until any wet areas are blotted away. This softens the sizing and makes the paper more receptive to the ink and in the case of intaglio or embossing allows the paper to be actually pressed into the plate. These papers are heavy rag papers like Arches or BFK. Light Japanese rice papers are not dampened usually. While oil based ink is necessary for lithographs, other prints can be done with either oil or water based ink. Water based ink will dry quickly which gives the artist less time to ink the plate, especially in a monotype or any plate using several colors. However the finished print will dry within a day. Oil based ink can be worked with for several hours before printing but the finished print will take several days to dry completely. In any case the plate must be cleaned thoroughly before storing as dried ink will distort future prints. A hand made print is not a finished piece of artwork that is copied and printed by mechanical means. Many purchasers of art work buy what they think is a hand-made print when what they really buy is a photocopy of a watercolor or oil painting frequently numbered and signed by the artist. Sometimes the signature is a printed one and is valueless as such. INTAGLIO: The image is cut into the material. Intaglio methods include: ETCHING: A copper or zinc plate, well polished, is coated on all surfaces with an acid resistant ground (a type of varnish). A sharp tool is used to scratch through the ground in the manner of a pen and ink drawing. The plate is then immersed in the acid bath (ferric chloride or nitric acid) and watched while the acid eats the metal wherever the scratched lines have been made. If some areas are meant to be lighter than others the plate is removed, rinsed and dried and the area painted with an acid-resistant coating, called “stopping-out varnish”, and the plate is returned to the acid as soon as the varnish is dry. This can be done several times, as the deepest lines will hold the


ink. The plate is then rinsed, dried and the varnish removed. Etching ink is then pressed onto the plated until all areas are covered. Then the ink is wiped off the plate with tarlatan - a stiff gauze fabric, which while cleaning the plate leaves the ink in the etched lines. Wiping the plate is an art in itself; too much wiping creates a pale print and too little a dark muddy print. Further polishing of light areas can be done with a page from an old phone book or unprinted newsprint. The plate is then placed on the bed of the press and the dampened paper over it. The paper picks up the ink from the acid bitten crevices and the finished product is an etching. DRYPOINT: The bare plate is scratched with a sharp tool straight into the plate, which can be copper, zinc or plastic. This is hard work as even a plastic plate is hard to scratch very deeply. Today electric tools are often used to aid in the incising of lines. In doing this a burr is formed which gives a slightly different quality to the finished print. As the burr wears off in printing the prints will vary a little. The plate is inked and printed in the same way as an etching. SOFT GROUND: The varnish ground is softened with Vaseline and then mesh, fabric, string, etc. can be put on the plate and run through the press, creating an impression of the items in the ground. The ground can also be marked with a pencil, toothpicks, etc. The plate is placed into an acid bath like an etching and stopping out varnish can be used. The plate is cleaned, inked and printed as is an etching and the result is a soft ground etching. The resulting images are softer rather than the linear crispness of an etching. AQUATINT: Powdered rosin is sifted evenly onto a clean polished metal plate and is then heated on a hot plate to melt the rosin enough so that it adheres to the plate. Too much heat and it will melt the particles into each other. The plate is put in the acid bath and removed each time that stop-out varnish is needed to create the image from light to dark areas. There is no line drawing, just wash areas, somewhat like a watercolor painting. The edges of the areas are burnished by rubbing with a metal tool to blend them. The cleaning, inking, wiping and printing are the same as an etching. COLOR and COLORED ETCHINGS: A color etching has the color inked into the plate with colored etching inks. It can be done by applying each color separately to the plate and carefully wiping or with a separate plate for each color requiring very careful registration for printing each plate on to one piece of prepared paper. Either method is time consuming and requires endless patience. A colored etching is an etching printed in the usual way that later has color added to it with paint or perhaps pastel. It’s a quick and easy way to color an etching but is not an integral part of the print. ENGRAVING: An engraving tool is used to cut a line into a plate. The cut is very cleanly made without any burr and without the slight roughness of acid biting. It is difficult and nerve-wracking work that requires precision and patience and the tools must be constantly sharpened. The deeper cuts are darker as they hold more ink and as the tools are apt to slip many an error has to be burnished out (rubbed with a metal tool) before proceeding. MEZZOTINT: Special expensive tools are used in “rocking” across the plate vertically, horizontally, and both diagonals. When the surface is completely scored, which may take a day or so, and then the design image is carefully burnished erasing the scored surface. The plate is inked, wiped and printed as in


an etching. The result is a rich velvety black with soft edges to the light image areas. PHOTOGRAVURE: A general term for any metal plate process in which an image has been transferred to a metal surface by photographic means. A corrosive bath is used to incise the image into the plate before inking and printing. Photo-etching is a term alternatively used. Any of the above ways of making an etching can be used in combinations to achieve very unique and interesting handmade intaglio prints. SOLARPLATE: is a simple approach and safer alternative to traditional etching and relief printing. Since Dan Welden’s development of the process in the 1970s, printmakers, painters, photographers, and art teachers interested in multiple impressions have utilized printmaking with Solarplates. Solar plates are steel-backed, light sensitive, photopolymer printmaking plates. After exposing with U. V. light, the plate is developed with water. Solar Plate may be exposed using sunlight, but an exposure system and vacuum frame gives more consistent results.Both positives and negatives can be utilized; intaglio and relief printing techniques can be applied. RELIEF PRINTS: A printmaking process in which the design remains on the surface and the unnecessary parts are cut away. Relief prints include: WOOD CUTS: A piece of wood is carved with wood carving tools (gouges) and the remaining surface is inked with an ink roller (brayer). Often the grain of the wood is incorporated into the pattern. It can be printed on a press or by hand rubbing with a baren or wooden spoon, etc. More than one color can be used, but more often a separate wood block is used for each color. Either oil based or water based ink can be used and a variety of different papers. WOOD ENGRAVING: The wood used has no grain as the blocks are made with the grain on the vertical. The end of the block is carved and fine detail can be achieved. Separate blocks are usually used for more than one color. WOOD ENGRAVING: The wood used has no grain as the blocks are made with the grain on the vertical. The end of the block is carved and fine detail can be achieved. Separate blocks are usually used for more than one color. REDUCTION WOOD ENGRAVING: All the colors of a design are left on the block and the whole block is inked in the lightest color. More than the required number of prints are made of that first color. Then the part of the block that bears only the first color is cut away and the next color is printed. This is repeated for each color cutting the color away after each set of prints. Precise registration is very important. In the end the block is destroyed and if fifty prints were made to begin with, perhaps thirty-five or forty might successfully carry all the colors in registration. LINOLEUM and SOFT PLASTIC: These plates are carved with special tools and are softer and easier to work with and have no grain. More than one color can be inked on one block or separate blocks can be carved for each color. The printing can be done with a press or by rubbing. Various papers can be used.

COLLAGRAPH: Similar to a relief print, but instead of carving into the plate, the image is built up on the surface of the plate. The base plate can be cardboard, plastic, metal, wood, or anything available. Then the design is built from cut out paper, card stock, fabric, string, netting, lace, feathers, drizzled and dried glue, etc. When everything is glued down and dried the whole plate is sprayed with spray paint or varnish so the plate can later be cleaned. Then the plate is inked with one or more colors using either water based inks or oil, and printed as a woodcut. The plate can be inked in various ways many times and cleaned for storage. EMBOSSING: A plate with a raised design somewhat like a collagraph is printed on heavy prepared paper using no ink. When displayed with appropriate lighting the embossed design can be very effective. LETTERPRESS: A relief technique for printing movable type (though blocks with images may also be used). Metal, wood, or polymer forms of a standard height are set in place in the bed of a press. Since ink is transferred from the surface of the blocks by the application of pressure, letterpress prints are recognizable for their embossed printed forms. LITHOGRAPHY: Printmaking based off of the principal that oil and water do not mix, if the plate is kept wet and the design has been done in oil, the wet plate can be inked in oil ink and printed on prepared paper. The oil based ink adheres only to the design area while rejected by the wet areas then printed on a special press. Lithography encompasses: STONE LITHOGRAPH: Lithograph translates to “Stone print” and all were originally done on specially prepared stones. The stones are heavy and expensive. The design is drawn on a stone with a grease crayon or painted with a grease-based ink (called tusche). When finished it is treated and cleaned and in appearance looks like a blank stone once again. However the design is there and while the stone is kept wet the ink is applied with a brayer. The oil-based ink adheres only to the design area and is printed on a lithography press. Separate stones are used for separate colors. ZINC PLATE LITHOGRAPHY: A specially treated zinc plate is used much as a stone, but is cheaper and easier to handle. The fine shading achieved on a stone is not quite as attainable on zinc. PAPER LITHOGRAPHY: A paper printed from a copy machine has an oil-based toner (computer ink is water based and will not work). Since wet paper is fragile the paper is sprayed with water and flattened onto a plastic plate. In order to keep the paper wet it is coated with liquid gum Arabic. A small amount is spread on the wet paper and allowed to rest about five or ten minutes. Then more water is sprayed on the paper and the ink is applied. Ordinary oil paint can be used as a substitute but must be modified. A few drops of linseed oil helps. Paint that is too stiff will tear the paper and if too soft will result in a pale print. The color is applied with a brayer and washed off. This step is repeated two or three times, after which excess water is gently blotted off, and the plate is ready to print on prepared dampened paper. An etching press works well. Any color or combination of colors can be used, but only applied with a brayer on very wet paper. The photocopied print can be constructed from anything - pen and ink drawing, a photo, cut outs, feathers, just about anything you can copy. The size is limited by the copy machine paper dimensions.



POLYESTER PLATE LITHOGRAPHY: (PRONTO plate printing), a new and nontoxic form of lithographic printing was developed by George Roberts while he was Professor of Printmaking at Boise State University. Polyester Plate Printing started as a low cost yet professional form of commercial offset lithography. The medium is capable of reproducing the full spectrum of lithographic marks such as: hand drawn brush strokes, ink wash, texture, crayon and pencil marks, and is equally well suited for digital imaging. Plates can be also imaged directly with a laser printer or a photocopier. The process is more straightforward than conventional lithography as the plate does not require chemical processing in the form of etching with acid. CHINE COLLÉ: The process of adhering one piece of paper to another by using a liquid adhesive and running them together through the printing press. Chine is French for “China,” which refers to the thin Asian paper originally used with this technique, and collé means “glued.” SCREEN PRINTING: In essence this comprises a hand-cut or photographic stencil with the silk mesh of the screen holding the stencil parts in place. A piece of silk mesh fabric is stretched onto a wooden frame. The frame is hinged on one side to a base. A drawing is placed under the silk, and any part of the silk that is not the color to be printed is stopped out with a glue or lacquer or a photo process can also be used. The bare silk that is not painted out will allow the ink to be squeezed through the silk. After the prepared screen is dry the paper to be printed is put in place. If more than one color will be used in the print, accurate placement of the paper is critical. The paint is placed on one end of the screen and dragged across the silk with a rubber squeegee. The frame is lifted enough to remove the paper and replace it with the next piece and the paint is dragged back again and so on until the full number of prints are made. The printing is very fast - a minute or so per print. The set up of the image on the screen takes a good bit of careful planning. The screen is then cleaned of the paint, thenthe stencil removed and the stencil for the next color is put on the screen. Many different colors can be combined on one print, and the stencil can be done in a painterly way or a crisp cut out stencil or with photography. Either water-based or oil-based paint can be used. MONOTYPES: A one of a kind print. A second print, called a “ghost” can be made but will look very much lighter. MONOTYPE: A plastic plate has ink applied to it with brush, sponge, brayer, etc. Any color or design can be used. Objects such as feathers, lace, string, etc. can be placed on the plate; ink on the plate can be manipulated with fingers, Q-tips, brushes, etc. Ink applied too thick will slide off in printing and if too thin, will dry out and not print. The plate is placed on an etching press and the dampened paper placed on top. After the print is made a second print can be made from the same plate, but they will look very different. Before cleaning the plate the design can be manipulated with added ink, etc., but the result is still a one of a kind impression. The CLAYPRINT MONOPRINT is an innovative process created by Mitch Lyons in the 1960’s and continually developed by him even today. The “plate” for the print is a leather hard slab of stoneware clay. The media is white slip mixed with house paint colorants and ceramic stains to produce a rainbow


of colors. The colored clays in the form of slip, moist clay, and powdered chalks are applied to the slab using a full range of painterly, printmaking, and ceramic techniques. Once the image on the slab is complete, a slightly dampened sheet of Reemay interfacing canvas is carefully laid on the slab, and light pressure is applied by hand to lift a thin layer of colored clay from the surface. The colored clays bond to the interfacing to produce an archival monoprint. STENCILS: Cut out pieces of card stock can be inked, arranged on prepared paper, and printed either on a press or by hand. The CLICHÉ VERRE: Process is a cross between art and photography. It Is a method created using photography equipment but can be done on pieces of art, not just photographs. The method consists of etching, painting or drawing on a transparent surface, such as glass, thin paper, or film and printing the resulting image on a light sensitive paper in a photographic darkroom. This process originated in France in the early 19th century. Contemporary cliché verre artists also utilize scanners and editing software to produce the images on acetate or as digital prints. WHAT ARE THE INSCRIPTIONS ON THE BOTTOM OF THE PRINT? Traditionally, signifying inscriptions are written in pencil at the bottom of a print. Reading from left to right, the inscriptions indicate the edition number, the title of the artwork, and the artist’s name (and sometimes the date), e.g. 2/30 Untitled #1 A. Smith, 2012 Artist’s Proof (A.P.) A print reserved for the artist and not included in the numbered edition. An artist’s proof can be identified by the inscription “A.P.” found in the lower left-hand margin instead of a number. Printer’s proofs are reserved for the printer and are inscribed “P.P.” Bon à Tirer (B.A.T.) A print that is not included in the edition, but which indicates the standard a printer tried to duplicate for the edition. A print which is bon à tirer (translated from French as “ready to pull”) can be identified by the inscription “B.A.T.” found in the lower left-hand margin. What is an Edition? A set of identical prints made from the same matrix (or set of matrices). Often a number of other prints – artist’s proofs, printer’s proofs, bon à tirer, and hors commerce (“not for trade”) prints – are made at the same time but are not considered to be part of the numbered edition. Each print in a limited edition is usually numbered in the lower left-hand margin. The form of this inscription is as follows: number in the edition/size of the edition (i.e. 15/50). To guarantee a limited edition, the artist or printer can “strike” or cancel the plate by incising an X on the printing face after completion. ATTRIBUTION The majority of the descriptions above are attributed to Elizabeth MacDonald with additional material by Julyen Norman.


ABOUT CCP The Center for Contemporary Printmaking is a nonprofit multimedia studio and gallery dedicated to the art of the print. At CCP artists can work independently, collaborate with master printers, or enroll in workshops conducted by nationally recognized artists. We provide studios, equipment, and technical expertise. Exhibitions of original prints are held regularly in the gallery, and diverse educational programs are offered for experienced and emerging artists. THE EXHIBITION PROGRAM AT CCP Each year, the Center for Contemporary Printmaking (CCP) hosts a series of exhibitions in the Grace Ross Shanley Gallery, including works by established professional artist/printmakers, the Biennial Footprint International Print Exhibition (on even numbered years), the Biennial Miniature Print International Exhibition (on odd numbered years), and an Annual Members’ Exhibition. We wish to acknowledge and thank the following foundations and organizations for their help and support in enabling the Center to service the community and the tri-state area.

City of Norwalk, CT | Fairfield County Cultural Aliance Connecticut Art Trail | The National Endowment for the Arts Shanley Family Foundation | Awagami Factory Gamblin Artist’s Colors | Renaissance Graphic Arts OpenPress Project | Jerry’s Artarama Speedball | McClain’s Printmaking Supplies



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