2014 CCP FootPrint Exhibition Catalog

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FOOTPRINT International Exhibition

Our mission is to support, preserve, and advance the art of original prints. The Center for Contemporary Printmaking is a nonprofit workshop and gallery recognized by the Internal Revenue Service as a 501(c)(3) organization.

Mathews Park 299 West Avenue Norwalk, CT 06850 203.899.7999 info@contemprints.org www.contemprints.org























ABOUT THE EXHIBITION The 4th Biennial Footprint International 2014 results from a competition for fine-art prints that are exactly one foot square. The square format was uncommon in art until the advent of 20th century abstraction. Rectangular horizontal and vertical shapes for landscape and portraiture, respectively, were, and in fact still are, the norm. For one thing, composing in the square is an artistic challenge. Footprint International 2014 presents an opportunity for contemporary printmakers to address the square in 12 inches by 12 inches (30.5 x 30.5 cm). Footprint International is held every other year, alternating with CCP’s Biennial International Miniature Print Competition.



JUROR’S STATEMENT As a print curator with a vested curiosity in how the medium continues to evolve, it was a great pleasure to spend a day looking at outstanding prints from all over the world that celebrate the continued vitality and relevancy of the medium. The submissions to CCP’s 2014 Footprint Competition encompassed a broad array of both traditional media (woodcut, etching, lithography, monotype) and newer innovations (direct gravure, digital). I was particularly struck by the high degree of talent and the wide range of subject matter. There appeared to be a near-even balance of abstraction and representation. The square format (in the case of this competition, 12 x 12 inches) is a notoriously difficult one, whether an artist is working in paint or print. It is an awkward format that denies perception as either portrait or landscape, and renders traditional perspective null and void. And yet the square format provides a marvelous equalizer in a print competition: the strictly-imposed size demands parity for all submissions, thus making it possible to focus solely on creativity and technique. Given the high quality of so many of the submissions to this competition and exhibition, it was exceedingly challenging to make a selection. Ultimately, there were thirteen artists who received Honorable Mentions, two artists who received Juror’s Prizes, and one who received Best in Show. The three artists whose submissions resonated most with me were Miriam Rudolph (U.S./Canada), Anne Desmet (U.K.), and Josef Werner (Germany). Curiously, all three used the square format as a stage for fantastical compositions — visual narratives set in mysterious gardens, desolate landscapes, or eerie kaleidoscopic realms. Though very different in style and execution, these prize-winning prints share a penchant for the surreal, and for charting the interiority of the soul. This exhibition of 112 “footprints” was chosen from a group of 300 submissions from 168 artists in 19 U.S. states and 19 foreign countries—an impressive group in both numbers and quality. Beautifully conceived and rendered, these works are testament to the range and scope of international talent of artists working in print, and their continued inventiveness and commitment to the medium. —ELISABETH HODERMARSKY Sutphin Family Senior Associate Curator of Prints, Drawings, and Photographs, Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven CT.




BEST IN SHOW Miriam Rudolph MN, USA

Waving Goodbye Intaglio and chine collé with hand coloring, ed. 19/20

Return, Intaglio and chine colle, ed. 2/20





Anne Desmet United Kingdom

Josef Werner Germany

Cavemen/Kaleidoscope, Collaged wood engraving

Silence, Etching, drypoint and embossing, ed. 1/10

Cavemen/Kaleidoscope, Collaged wood engraving

The Great Expectation, Etching, drypoint and embossing, ed. 1/10




Christine S. Aaron NY, USA Whisper, Lithograph, rust and encaustic on copper

Jean Allemeier Boot MI, USA Lazio Town II, Etching, aquatint and chine collé, ed. 3/10



Daemon Baldwin Canada Structure in Decline, Etching and aquatint, ed. 1/6

Peter Barron Canada Among Those Left Behind, Woodcut, ed.2/6

Betty Ball CT, USA Playlist for a Rainy Drive Track 3, Monotype

Christine Beneman ME, USA Highline XXIV, Collagraph monoprint




Marcelle Benhamou France Anatomy 1, Mixed media

Binnie Birstein) CT, USA Interference, Encaustic collagraph

Marian “Bing” Bingham CT, USA Year of the Horse 2, Mixed media

Marie-Ange Brassard Canada Entre-Deux No. 1, Etching and relief, ve 1/3


Karen Brussat Butler CT, USA Foot Loose, Lithograph with hand coloring, ed. 15/15

Angus Buchanan South Africa Head Space (Reading Between the Lines), Etching and collage, ve 1/30

Karen Brussat Butler CT, USA Foot in Both Camps, Lithograph with hand coloring, ed. AP 1/4

Angus Buchanan South Africa Head Space (Any Colour But Red), Etching, embossing and monotype, ve 2/30




Raul Ceville Italy Sun Rise, Collagraph, ed. 3/10

Jane Cooper NY, USA The Climb, Monotype

Daniel Chiaccio, Honorable mention NH, USA Where I Want to Live, Intaglio, ed. 1/10

Bo Cronqvist Sweden A Happy Home, Etching and aquatint, ed. 2/150


Anne Cushman OH, USA Land Fall, Solarplate intaglio with chine collé, ed. 1/4

Adam Czech, Honorable mention Poland Omphalos and Phytia, Lithograph, ed. 2/4

Kathleen DeMeo CT, USA Moon Splash, Monotype

Paula DeSimone MA, USA Whispering Fauna, Monotype with chine collé 2014 FOOTPRINT INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION



Lysandre Donaldson Canada Gamme Chromatique I, Carborundum aquatint with silk collĂŠ

Katharine Dufault NY, USA From Behind, Monotype

Katharine Draper CT, USA Captured,, Monotype

Aidan Flanagan Ireland Dappled Laneway, Carborundum aquatint, ed. 2/20


Oi Fortin CT, USA Vigilare, Monotype

Brenda Giegerich CT, USA Oaxaca Dos, Monotype

RM Gallinari NY, USA Square Pegs Rounds Holes, Etching, ed. 2/6

Neala Glass New Zealand Architecture of my Imagination, Monotype




Neala Glass New Zealand Finding Form, Monotype

Hanneke Goedkoop CT, USA Sound Waters, Monotype

Joan Gleeson Ireland Defender, Aquatint, ed. of 12

Mindy Green CT, USA Be Happy, Monoprint


Lou Hicks CT, USA Dark Sea, Monotype

Kate Higley NH, USA Passage, Monotype

Kate Higley, Honorable mention NH, USA Dance, Monotype

Andrew Jagniecki MI, USA A Murder of Crows, Woodcut, AP 2014 FOOTPRINT INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION



Ingeborg Jurgensen Hiscox Canada Black Water Series Var. VI, Woodcut with collage

Ruth Kalla Ungerer CT, USA Closer Look, Etching and aquatint

Karen Kalkstein, Honorable mention CT, USA Bark Work 2, Lithograph with collage

Ruth Kalla Ungerer CT, USA Squaring Off, Etching and aquatint, ed. 1/4


Katerine Kyselica NY, USA Sharpsburg Ln. I, Etching, ed. 2/10

Aoife Layton, Honorable mention Ireland Fledgling, Mezzotint, ed. 10/10

Katerine Kyselica, Honorable mention NY, USA Sharpsburg Ln. II, Relief Etching, ed. 2/10

Ellen Lazarus NY, USA Water Glory, Monotype




Karl LeClair ID, USA Germinate, Drypoint monoprint, ve 1/3

Lenny Librizzi NY, USA Fading Strength, Mezzotint, ed. 3/25

Lynne Lederman NY, USA Manor Park, Larchmont, Lino cut with hand coloring, ed. 1/8

Lenny Librizzi NY, USA No Escape, Mezzotint, ed. 4/25


Annette Lieblein NY, USA Voices, Encaustic collagraph

Evie Lindemann CT, USA Falling and Rising, Encaustic collagraph

Annette Lieblein NY, USA A Complex Story, Monoprint

Adiana Lucaciu Romania Looking for the Light, Monotype




Liz Lyons Friedman CA, USA Sunflowers, Lino cut, ed. 1/25

Bernadette Madden Ireland In the Woods, Screenprint with hand painting, ve 1/20

Cynthia MacCollum CT, USA Clockwise, Collagraph monoprint

Bernadette Madden, Honorable mention Ireland Sunlight and Shadow, Screenprint with hand painting, ve 1/20


Savina Mantovska Bulgaria Footsteps, Drypoint, ed. 5/12

Steven Matthews MD, USA Zoe Annabelle: All Wrapped Up!, Reduction linocut, ed. 2/20

Christa Manz-Dewald, Honorable mention Germany Time for Change, Intaglio

Allison Meyler CT, USA Magent - O, Monotype




Susan Miiller NY, USA Cosmic Background, Etching, ed. 1/4

Cecilia Moy Fradet CT, USA Continuum, Monotype

Susan Miiller NY, USA Cosmic Dream, Woodcut, ed. 4/20

Cecilia Moy Fradet CT, USA Reverberation I, Monotype


Gerda Muehl Germany Compact Power, Etching, ed. 2/3

Susan Newbold CT, USA Cambodian Memory, Monoprint

Dakota Nanton CO, USA Venus Redux, Screenprint, ed. 1/5

Kristina Norvilaite Lithuania Room of Personal Development, Lino cut, ed. 1/5 2014 FOOTPRINT INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION



Carrie O’Coyle OR, USA A Fish in the Wave, Woodcut, ed. 44/75

Liz Pagano CT, USA Hear & There II, Encaustic monotype, relief and collage

Kirsty Olivier, Honorable mention South Africa The Parting of Sorrow II, Etching with silver leaf, AP II

Paula Pohli Ireland Still Life Tree, Lino cut, ed. 1/10


Joan Potkay NM, USA Midnight Moonlight, Monotype

Sigita R Pranevicius, Honorable mention NY, USA Rutabaga Inside-Out, Intaglio, ed. 7/100

Joan Potkay NM, USA Shimmer Light, Monotype

Ellen Price, Honorable mention OH, USA Walker I, Intaglio, ed. 1/5 2014 FOOTPRINT INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION



Ellen Price OH, USA Dark Walker, Intaglio, ed. 1/5

Marianne Riss Germany Wanderer in the City II, Etching, ed. 1/10

DeAnn Prosia, Honorable mention CT, USA Homebound, Etching, ed. 2/60

Gervasio Robles South Africa Who Am I?, Etching and aquatint, ed. 2/10


Margot Rocklen CT, USA After the Deluge, Moku hanga, ed. 2/12

Christine S. Aaron NY, USA Whisper, Lithograph, rust and encaustic on copper

Michele Rolstone South Africa The Red Shoes, Etching with hand coloring, ed. 1/25

Renee Santhouse CT, USA C250-1, Digital print with pochoir 2014 FOOTPRINT INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION



Scott Schnepf ME, USA Fruit and Snake, Engraving, ed. 1/6

Sal Sidner FL, USA Peace is Possible, Etching and aquatint, AP

Roland Shneevays Bulgaria The Aliens, Lino cut, ed. 1/10

Nomi Silverman CT, USA Stone Thrower, Etching and relief, AP


Louise Simard Canada Before the Wave, Drypoint, ed. 2/8

Richard Sloat NY, USA Shadows in the Night, Etching and engraving, ed. 1/2

Robin Smith Peck Canada Inclement Weather #1, Digital print and relief, ed. 1/10

Robin Smith Peck Canada Inclement Weather #2, Digital print and relief, ed. 1/10 2014 FOOTPRINT INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION


Anita Soos CT, USA Squall, Carborundum aquatint monoprint

Karen Sorensen (102) CT, USA The Golden Girl, Monotype 32


Thomas Stavovy CT, USA Filaceous, Etching, AP

Cheryl Sutton Adams MA, USA Attitude, Collagraph, ed. 13/25

Toshinori Tanuma Japan An Association, Monotype

Rachele Unter NJ, USA Hawaiian Series (Mini) A, Monotype

Mitchell Visoky NY, USA Ocean’s Night, Encaustic collagraph

Mitchell Visoky NY, USA Navigating Currents, Encaustic collagraph 2014 FOOTPRINT INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION


Karen Vogel CT, USA Target I, Monoprint

Cleo Wilkinson Wilkinson Australia Conclusion, Mezzotint, ve 2/10 34


Daniela Zekina, Honorable mention Canada Impossibilite, Drypoint and embossing, ed. 1/7

Sergey Zlotnikov PA, USA Summer on the Pond, Photogravure, ed. 1/20

Sergey Zlotnikov PA, USA NYC Dwellers, Photogravure, ed. 1/20






Kathleen DeMeo, CT

Jean Allemeier Boot, MI

Cleo Wilkinson Wilkinson

Toshinori Tanuma

Katharine Draper, CT

Andrew Jagniecki, MI

Oi Fortin, CT

Miriam Rudolph, MN



Brenda Giegerich, CT

Savina Mantovska

Kristina Norvilaite

Hanneke Goedkoop, CT

Daniel Chiaccio, NH

Mindy Green, CT

Kate Higley, NH

Roland Shneevays CANADA


Lou Hicks Hicks, CT

Neala Glass

Karen Kalkstein, CT

Daemon Baldwin

Ruth Kalla Ungerer, CT

Peter Barron


Evie Lindemann, CT

Marie-Ange Brassard

Adam Czech

Cynthia MacCollum, CT

Lysandre Donaldson

Joan Potkay, NM

Allison Meyler, CT

Jane Cooper, NY

Ingeborg Jurgensen Hiscox


Cecilia Moy Fradet, CT

Katharine Dufault, NY

Louise Simard

Adiana Lucaciu

Susan Newbold, CT

RM Gallinari, NY

Liz Pagano, CT

Katerine Kyselica, NY


DeAnn Prosia, CT

Ellen Lazarus, NY

Angus Buchanan

Margot Rocklen, CT

Lynne Lederman, NY


Kirsty Olivier

Renee Santhouse, CT

Lenny Librizzi, NY

Marcelle Benhamou

Gervasio Robles

Nomi Silverman, CT

Annette Lieblein, NY

Michele Rolsteon

Anita Soos, CT

Susan Miiller, NY

Karen Sorensen, CT

Sigita R Pranevicius, NY

Robin Smith Peck Daniela Zekina

GERMANY Christa Manz-Dewald


Thomas Stavovy, CT

Christine S. Aaron, NY

Gerda Muehl

Bo Cronqvist

Karen Vogel, CT

Richard Sloat, NY

Marianne Riss Josef Werne

Mitchell Visoky, NY UNITED KINGDOM

Sal Sidner, FL

Anne Desmet IRELAND Aidan Flanagan


Joan Gleeson

Liz Lyons Friedman, CA,

Aoife Layton Bernadette Madden

Anne Cushman, OH Karl LeClair, ID

Ellen Price, OH

Paula DeSimone, MA

Carrie O’Coyle, OR

Cheryl Sutton Adams, MA Dakota Nanton, CO

Paula Pohl

Sergey Zlotnikov, PA Steven Matthews, MD

Betty Ball, CT, ITALY

Marian “Bing” Bingham, CT

Christine Beneman, ME

Raul Ceville

Binnie Birstein, CT

Scott Schnepf, ME

Karen Brussat Butler, CT,


Rachele Unter, NJ


G LO S SA RY O F P R I NT M A K I N G T E R M S A N D T E C H N I QU E S WHAT IS A HAND MADE PRINT? A hand-made print is created by the artist who prepares the plate from which the print is printed using a variety of methods depending on the type of print involved. It is not a finished piece of artwork that is copied and printed by mechanical means. A digital print is made on a computer using the computer to create a piece of artwork. Many purchasers of art work buy what they think is a hand-made print when what they really buy is a photocopy of a watercolor or oil painting frequently numbered and signed by the artist. Sometimes the signature is a printed one and is valueless as such. Most prints are printed on dampened paper. The paper is soaked from fifteen minutes to several hours. When ready to print the artist dries the paper between blotters or towels until any wet areas are blotted away. This softens the sizing and makes the paper more receptive to the ink and in the case of intaglio or embossing allows the paper to be actually pressed into the plate. These papers are heavy rag papers like Arches or BFK. Light Japanese rice papers are not dampened usually. While oil based ink is necessary for lithographs other prints can be done with either oil or water based ink. Water based ink will dry quickly which gives the artist less time to ink the plate, especially in a monotype or any plate using several colors. However the finished print will dry within a day. Oil based ink can be worked with for several hours before printing but the finished print will take several days to dry completely. In any case the plate must be cleaned thoroughly before storing as dried ink will distort future prints.

INTAGLIO: The image is cut into the material. Intaglio methods include: ETCHING: A copper or zinc plate, well polished, is coated on all surfaces with an acid resistant ground (a type of varnish). A sharp tool is used to scratch through the ground in the manner of a pen and ink drawing. The plate is then immersed in the acid bath (usually diluted nitric acid) and watched while the acid eats the metal wherever the scratched lines have been made. If some areas are meant to be lighter than others the plate is removed, rinsed and dried and the area painted with an acid-resistant coating, called “stopping-out varnish”, and the plate is returned to the acid as soon as the varnish is dry. This can be done several times, as the deepest lines will hold the most ink. The plate is then rinsed, dried and the varnish removed. Etching ink is then pressed onto the plated until all areas are covered. Then the ink is wiped off the plate with tarlatan - a stiff gauze fabric, which while cleaning the plate leaves the ink in the etched lines. Wiping the plate is an art in itself; too much wiping creates a pale print and too little a dark muddy print. Further polishing of light areas can be done with a page from an old phone book or unprinted newsprint. The plate is then placed on the bed of the press and the dampened paper over it. The paper picks up the ink from the acid bitten crevices and the finished product is an etching. DRYPOINT ETCHING: The bare plate is scratched with a sharp tool straight into the plate, which can be copper, zinc or plastic. This is hard work as even a plastic plate is hard to scratch very deeply. Today electric tools are often used to aid in the incising of lines. In doing this a burr is formed which gives a slightly different quality to the finished print. As the burr wears off in printing the prints will vary a little. The plate is inked and printed in the same way as an etching. SOFT GROUND ETCHING: The varnish ground is softened with Vaseline and then mesh, fabric, string, etc. can be put on the plate and run through the press, creating an impression of the items in the ground. The ground can also be marked with a pencil, toothpicks, etc. The plate is placed into an acid bath like an etching and stopping out varnish can be used. The plate is cleaned, inked and printed as is an etching and the result is a soft ground etching. The resulting images are softer rather than the linear crispness of an etching. AQUATINT ETCHING: Powdered rosin is sifted evenly onto a clean polished metal plate and is then heated on a hot plate to melt the varnish enough so that it adheres to the plate. Too much heat and it will melt the particles into each other. The plate is put in the acid bath and removed each time that stop-out varnish is needed to create the image from light to dark areas. There is no line drawing, just wash areas, somewhat like a watercolor painting. The edges of the areas are burnished by rubbing with a metal tool to blend them. The cleaning, inking, wiping and printing are the same as an etching. COLOR and COLORED ETCHINGS: A color etching has the color inked into the plate with colored etching inks. It can be done by applying each color separately to the plate and carefully wiping or with a separate plate for each color requiring very careful registration for printing each plate on to one piece of prepared paper. Either method is time consuming and requires endless patience. A colored etching is an etching printed in the usual way that later has color added to it with paint or perhaps pastel. It’s a quick and easy way to color an etching but is not an integral part of the print. ENGRAVING: An engraving tool is used to cut a line into a plate. The cut is very cleanly made without any burr and without the slight roughness of acid biting. It is difficult and nerve-wracking work that requires precision and patience and the tools must be constantly sharpened. The deeper cuts are darker as they hold more ink and as the tools are apt to slip many an error has to be burnished out (rubbed with a metal tool) before proceeding. MEZZOTINT: Special expensive tools are used in “rocking” across the plate vertically, horizontally, and both diagonals. When the surface is completely scored, which may take a day or so, and then the design image is carefully burnished erasing the scored surface. The plate is inked, wiped and printed as in an etching. The result is a rich velvety black with soft edges to the light image areas. PHOTOGRAVURE: A general term for any metal plate process in which an image has been transferred to a metal surface by photographic means. A corrosive bath is used to incise the image into the plate before inking and printing. Photo-etching is a term alternatively used. Any of the above ways of making an etching can be used in combinations to achieve very unique and interesting handmade intaglio prints.



SOLARPLATE: is a simple approach and safer alternative to traditional etching and relief printing. Since Dan Welden’s development of the process in the 1970s, printmakers, painters, photographers, and art teachers interested in multiple impressions have utilized printmaking with Solarplates. Solar plates are steel-backed, light sensitive, photopolymer printmaking plates. After exposing with U. V. light, the plate is developed with water. Solar Plate may be exposed using sunlight, but an exposure system and vacuum frame gives more consistent results.Both positives and negatives can be utilized; intaglio and relief printing techniques can be applied.

RELIEF PRINTS: The design remains on the surface and the unnecessary parts are cut away. Relief prints include: WOOD CUTS: A piece of wood is carved with wood carving tools (gouges) and the remaining surface is inked with an ink roller (brayer). Often the grain of the wood is incorporated into the pattern. It can be printed on a press or by hand rubbing with a baren or wooden spoon, etc. More than one color can be used, but more often a separate wood block is used for each color. Either oil based or water based ink can be used and a variety of different papers. WOOD ENGRAVING: The wood used has no grain as the blocks are made with the grain on the vertical. The end of the block is carved and fine detail can be achieved. Separate blocks are usually used for more than one color. REDUCTION WOOD ENGRAVING: All the colors of a design are left on the block and the whole block is inked in the lightest color. More than the required number of prints a are made of that first color. Then the part of the block that bears only the first color is cut away and the next color is printed. This is repeated for each color cutting the color away after each set of prints. Precise registration is very important. In the end the block is destroyed and if fifty prints were made to begin with, perhaps thirty-five or forty might be successfully carry all the colors in registration.. LINOLEUM and SOFT PLASTIC: These plates are carved with special tools and are softer and easier to work with and have no grain. More than one color can be inked on one block or separate blocks can be carved for each color. The printing can be done with a press or by rubbing. Various papers can be used. COLLOGRAPH: Similar to a relief print, but instead of carving into the plate, the image is built up on the surface of the plate. The base plate can be cardboard, plastic, metal, wood or anything available. Then the design is made up of cut out paper, card stock, fabric, string, netting, lace, feathers, drizzled and dried glue, etc. When everything is glued down and dried the whole plate is sprayed with spray paint or varnish so that the plate can later be cleaned. Then the plate is inked with one or more colors, either water base or oil, and printed as a woodcut. The plate can be inked in various ways many times and cleaned for storage. EMBOSSING: A plate with a raised design somewhat like a collograph is printed on heavy prepared paper using no ink. Displayed with good lighting the embossed design can be very effective. LETTERPRESS: A relief technique for printing movable type (though blocks with images may also be used). Metal, wood, or polymer forms of a standard height are set in place in the bed of a press. Since ink is transferred from the surface of the blocks by the application of pressure, letterpress prints are recognizable for their embossed printed forms. LITHOGRAPHY: Since oil and water do not mix, if the plate is kept wet and the design has been done in oil, the wet plate can be inked in oil ink and printed on prepared paper. The oil base ink adheres only to the design area and is rejected by the wet areas and is printed on a special press. Lithography encompasses: STONE LITHOGRAPH: Lithograph translates to “Stone print” and all were originally done on specially prepared stones. The stones are heavy and expensive. The design is drawn on a stone with a grease crayon or painted with a grease base ink (called tusche). When finished it is treated and cleaned and in appearance looks like a blank stone once again. However the design is there and while the stone is kept wet the ink is applied with a brayer. The oil base ink adheres only to the design area and is printed on a lithography press. Separate stones are used for separate colors. ZINC PLATE LITHOGRAPHY: A specially treated zinc plate is used much as a stone, but is cheaper and easier to handle. The fine shading achieved on a stone is not quite as attainable on zinc. PAPER LITHOGRAPHY: A paper printed from a copy machine has an oil base toner (computer ink is water based and will not work). Since wet paper is fragile the paper is sprayed with water and flattened onto a plastic plate. In order to keep the paper wet it is coated with liquid gum Arabic. A small amount is spread on the wet paper and allowed to rest about five or ten minutes. Then more water is sprayed on the paper and the ink is applied. Ordinary oil paint works well as the ink must be soft since the wet paper is fragile. A few drops of linseed oil helps. Paint that is too stiff will tear the paper and if too soft will result in a pale print. The color is applied with a brayer and washed off. This step is repeated two or three times and then excess water is gently blotted off and the plate is ready to print on prepared dampened paper. An etching press works well. Any color or combination of colors can be used, but only applied with a brayer on very wet paper. The photocopied print can be constructed from anything - pen and ink drawing, a photo, cut outs, feathers, just about anything you can copy. The size is limited by the copy machine paper. POLYESTER PLATE LITHOGRAPHY: (PRONTO plate printing), a new and nontoxic form of lithographic printing was developed by George Roberts while he was Professor of Printmaking at Boise State University. Polyester Plate Printing started as a low cost yet professional form of commercial offset lithography. The medium is capable of reproducing the full spectrum of lithographic marks such as: hand drawn brush strokes, ink wash, texture, crayon and pencil marks, and is equally well suited for digital imaging. Plates can be also imaged directly with a laser printer or a photocopier. The process is more straightforward than conventional lithography as the plate does not require chemical processing in the form of etching with acid.



CHINE COLLÉ: The process of adhering one piece of paper to another by using a liquid adhesive and running them together through the printing press. Chine is French for “China,” which refers to the thin Asian paper originally used with this technique, and collé means “glued.” SCREEN PRINTING: In essence this comprises a hand-cut or photographic stencil with the silk mesh of the screen holding the stencils parts in place. A piece of silk mesh fabric is stretched onto a wooden frame. The frame is hinged on one side to a base. A drawing is placed under the silk and any part of the silk that is not the color to be printed is stopped out with a glue or lacquer or a photo process can also be used. The bare silk that is not painted out will allow the ink to be squeezed through the silk. After the prepared screen is dry the paper to be printed is put in place. If more than one color will be used in the print the placement of the paper is critical. The paint is placed on one end of the screen and dragged across the silk with a rubber squeegee. The frame is lifted enough to remove the paper and replace it with the next piece and the paint is dragged back again and so on until the full number of prints are made. The printing is very fast - a minute or so per print. The set up of the image on the screen takes a good bit of careful planning. The screen is then cleaned of the paint and the stencil removed and the stencil for the next color is put on the screen. Many different colors can be combined on one print and the stencil can be done in a painterly way or a crisp cut out stencil or with photography. Either water base or oil base paint can be used.

MONOTYPES: a one of a kind print. A second print, called a “ghost” can be made but will look very much lighter. MONOTYPE: A plastic plate has ink applied to it with brush, sponge, brayer, etc. Any color or design can be used. Feathers, lace, string, etc. can be placed on the plate; ink on the plate can be manipulated with fingers, Q-tips, brushes, etc. Thick paint will slide off in printing and too thin paint will dry out and not print. The plate is placed on an etching press and the dampened paper on top. After the print is made a second print can be made from the same plate, but they will look very different. Before cleaning the plate the design can be manipulated with added paint, etc., but the result is still a one of a kind impression. The CLAYPRINT MONOPRINT is an innovative process created by Mitch Lyons in the 1960’s and continually developed by him even today. The “plate” for the print is a leather hard slab of stoneware clay. The media is white slip mixed with house paint colorants and ceramic stains to produce a rainbow of colors. The colored clays in the form of slip, moist clay, and powdered chalks are applied to the slab using a full range of painterly, printmaking, and ceramic techniques. Once the image on the slab is complete, a slightly dampened sheet of Reemay interfacing canvas is carefully laid on the slab, and light pressure is applied by hand to lift a thin layer of colored clay from the surface. The colored clays bond to the interfacing to produce an archival monoprint. STENCILS: Cut out pieces of card stock can be inked, arranged on prepared paper and printed either on a press or by hand. The CLICHÉ VERRE Process is a cross between art and photography. It Is a method created using photography equipment but can be done on pieces of art, not just photographs. The method consists of etching, painting or drawing on a transparent surface, such as glass, thin paper or film and printing the resulting image on a light sensitive paper in a photographic darkroom. This process originated in France in the early 19th century. Contemporary cliché verre artists also utilize scanners and editing software to produce the images on acetate or as digital prints.

WHAT ARE THE INSCRIPTIONS ON THE BOTTOM OF THE PRINT? Traditionally, signifying inscriptions are written in pencil at the bottom of a print. Reading from left to right, the inscriptions indicate the edition number, the title of the artwork, and the artist’s name (and sometimes the date), e.g. 2/30 Untitled #1 A. Smith, 2012 Artist’s Proof (A.P.) A print reserved for the artist and not included in the numbered edition. An artist’s proof can be identified by the inscription “A.P.” found in the lower left-hand margin instead of a number. Printer’s proofs are reserved for the printer and are inscribed “P.P.” Bon à Tirer (B.A.T.) A print that is not included in the edition, but which indicates the standard a printer tried to duplicate for the edition. A print which is bon à tirer (translated from French as “ready to pull”) can be identified by the inscription “B.A.T.” found in the lower left-hand margin. What is an Edition? A set of identical prints made from the same matrix (or set of matrices). Often a number of other prints – artist’s proofs, printer’s proofs, bon à tirer, and hors commerce (“not for trade”) prints – are made at the same time but are not considered to be part of the numbered edition. Each print in a limited edition is usually numbered in the lower left-hand margin. The form of this inscription is as follows: number in the edition/size of the edition (i.e. 15/50). To guarantee a limited edition, the artist or printer can “strike” or cancel the plate by incising an X on the printing face after completion.

ATTRIBUTION The majority of the descriptions above are attributed to Elizabeth MacDonald, with additional material by Julyen Norman.



ABOUT CCP The Center for Contemporary Printmaking is a nonprofit multimedia studio and gallery dedicated to the art of the print. At CCP artists can work independently, collaborate with master printers, or enroll in workshops conducted by nationally recognized artists. We provide studios, equipment, and technical expertise. Exhibitions of original prints are held regularly in the gallery, and diverse educational programs are offered for experienced and emerging artists. THE EXHIBITION PROGRAM AT CCP Each year, the Center for Contemporary Printmaking (CCP) hosts a series of exhibitions in the Grace Ross Shanley Gallery, including works by established professional artist/printmakers, the Biennial Footprint International Print Exhibition (on even numbered years), the Biennial International Miniature Print Exhibition (on odd numbered years), and an Annual Members’ Exhibition. We wish to acknowledge and thank the following foundations and organizations for their help and support in enabling the Center to service the local community: City of Norwalk, CT Connecticut Art Trail Frederic R. Coudert Foundation The Daphne Seybolt Culpeper Memorial Foundation Fairfield County Community Foundation Helen Frankenthaler Foundation Wolf Kahn & Emily Mason Foundation Mr. & Mrs. Charles P. Kontulis Fund Norwalk Advisory Commission on the Arts & Culture TD Bank Wescustogo Foundation Xerox Foundation



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