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A Journal for Tyrolean Americans Winter 2014

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An Introduction . . .

The Filò is to be published and distributed on a quarterly basis and is targeted to the children of our immigrant parents. The Filò (pronounced fee-lò) was the daily gathering in the stables of the Trentino where the villagers met and socialized. The intent is to provide a summary of our culture, history, and customs in plain English to inform and provide you with the background of your roots and ancestry.. If you wish to contact us, call Lou Brunelli at 914-402-5248. Attention: Your help is needed to expand our outreach to fellow Tyrolean Americans. Help us identify them, be they your children, relatives or acquaintances. Go to and register on line to receive the magazine free of charge. You may also send your data to Filò Magazine, PO Box 90, Crompond, NY 10517 or fax them to 914-734-9644 or submit them by email to Front Cover: Val di Ledro




Remedy-The Cooperative Movement

t the start of the 20th century, the Trentino region found itself with manyproblems both economic and social. Politically, this area was part of the Hapsburg Monarchy, and remained so until after the First World War. The economy was principally agricultural, while industry played a minor role and consisted mainly of artisanal products.

Commerce was poorly developed. The area was mountainous and unyielding - three quarters of the land is at altitudes of over 1000 meters (3900 feet). The underlying rock makes it difficult to sustain a large population it was a region of poverty and uncertainty. In order to improve their living conditions, many families resorted to the collective use of large portions of the land - especially that which lay on the steeper slopes. Such land did not belong to a single owner, but to the community, or in some cases to an extended family, working together to use the resources for the common good. At the beginning of the Nineteenth Century, a growing population made it ever more difficult to maintain this precarious economic balance. The situation became more unstable due to a series of events giving rise to more social tension. Two vine diseases, oidium or vine mildew ( a fungal disease) and phylloxera (a disease attacking the roots), drastically reduced wine production. And an epidemic of prebane, a parasite which attacks silk worms, caused the shutdown of many already struggling silk mills. The floods of 1882 and 1885 caused extensive damage to farms, while a financial crisis in Vienna negatively impacted the Trentino, though not as much as in other parts of Europe. In short, the economy of the Tyrol was impoverished, centered on individual owners who did not have the know how to deal with the market and its changing demands.An immediate response to the situation lay in emigration, which increased dramatically in the late 1890's and changed its direction.

No longer was the flow of emigrants directed to the countries of central Europe, but to the Americas -North, South and Central. Emigration was effective in improving the lot of the individual emigrant, and ultimately also helped those who were left behind. But the real remedy to the economic situation had to come from measures to improve the local productive system. The path taken in the Trentino, as in other similar situations was to launch cooperatives to help the peasant world with three basic needs: easy access to credit, the possibility of buying groceries and agricultural supplies at reasonable cost and on credit when necessary, and the ability to sell their produce at competitive prices, getting fair recompense for their labor. Thus, in 1890, the first consumer cooperative was organized in Santa Croce in Bleggio.Its founder, Don Lorenzo Guetti, called it a 'family cooperative', implying that it would be managed with the same spirit of solidarity which is found in a family. Two years later in 1892, another cooperative was born in the town of Larido nella Quadra, also in the Bleggio area and also sponsored by Don Lorenzo, now known as the father of the cooperative movement.

The furrow had been traced! The movement spread from these two pioneering cooperatives to include fruit growers' depots, communal wineries and cooperative dairies for cheese-making , etc. all helping to organize the farm world. 5

Written by Professor Alberto Ianes, Museo Storico


The Use of Wood by Our People s in the rest of the world, in Italy, and especially in the Trentino, whose territory is 56.6% forest land, wood was widely used in the building of homes up until 1900. But there were many other uses for wood - in furnishings, utensils, and in a wide variety of other items. However, with the passage of years, wood has been replaced by other materials such as cement and brick for housing, or steel and plastic for commonly used household objects. Additionally, wood has been used more sparingly - massive solid wood furniture has given way to lighter pieces using plywood and veneers.

Il Museo degli Usi e Costumi della Gente Trentina, ( that is The Museum of the Ways and Customs of the People of the Trentino), memorializes how widely wood was used in pre-industrial society, in every aspect of the daily life of the Alpine people. A series of exhibits gives the viewer a glimpse of this world, rich in imagination and creative ingenuity. The displayed pieces dazzle the viewindispensable fuel for the smithies and copper foundries. er both because of the technical virtuosity and the artisAnd each of these products was made from a different tic uniqueness used in their creation. species of tree - almost as if each plant's destiny was preordained. Throughout the galleries of the Museum, wood is displayed in many different applications: in the construction The exhibits at the Museum are organized so that the visand equipment of entire structures such as a water mill itor may make his way down a 'Road of Wood', designed and a Venetion saw-mill; being worked into furniture or by Sebesta, the founder of the Museum. The road begins into agricultural implements; in use at a textile mill or at with a room dedicated to the stilt houses of Ledro, with a milk processing station; being transformed into carniphotographs of the excavations by Battaglia in 1937, a val masks or into clogs and shoes; painted, carved and few acual pilings excavated at the site and tools used in turned on a lathe; woven into baskets of various shapes building the houses, e.g. adzes of polished stone. This and uses; in the staves of casks used to store the 'nectar exhibit reminds the visitor that wood was used in buildof the gods'; and in the form of charcoal, that ing homes even in prehistoric times. Next stop on the Road is in the woods. Here we see the tools thewoodsman used to fell the trees, remove the branches, peel off the bark and finally move the logs from the woods to the valley below. The move was accomplished by using natural or man-made channels. Once the wood arrived in the valley, it was transported along what we might call the 'highways' of the past - the rivers. Using the Adige and other rivers of the Trentino, the logs were floated on giant rafts - a method of transportation which, thanks to the fast current, was economical and quick, and required little labor. In some cases, carts and sleds were used for transporting the logs. These were of various types, depending on the material being carried and the terrain being traversed. These are displayed in the next room on 6

the Road. Moving down the Road, the visitor enters the Venetian sawmill, recreated in its entirety. Here the tree trunks are cut into boards and beams, using a small, hydraulically driven wheel to turn the gears of the saw. This setup is typical of the sawmills of the area. The next few displays on the Road are dedicated to the wood itself in all its various uses. Here are the tools and the products of the carpenter and the cabinet maker, the workbench and tools of a carriage maker, the turner's equipment as he worked on his lathe, and the tools of the woodcarver. A small display shows the production of whips, as they were formerly made in Taio, in the Val di Non. The last exhibit in this room is an example of inlay-work on a cradle. A final stop on the Road is dedicated to 'nuptial customs'. Two rooms of a home are reproduced. A 'stua' or family room from the Val di Fiemme is panelled with painted, decorative wood designs. The master bedroom shows off inlaid furniture from the Val di Noce.

The Museum also has a collection of about forty bridal chests, all of high quality. These were made from the mid 1600's to the late 1800's and are excellent examples of Alpine workmanship. These were the chests a woman brought with her when she moved into her husband's home. They contained all of her dowry, her linens and her finer dresses. Often there were some more valuable items, like jewelry, prayer books, or devotional statues. Looking back at the end of the Road, we have seen wood in all its uses, noting its great functionality - at times for essential items, at other times for less serious purposes, but always solid and adequate for the task at hand. Written by Daniela Finardi, Museo dei Usi e Costumi della Gente Trentina. 7


Family Stories: Fedrizzi he story of the GIUSEPPE FEDRIZZI FAMILY of Coltura; There is more than one Fedrizzi family line. We are of the “CORTES” line. There are also the “BETUS”, “JESEPIN”, and “PICAT” families with inter marriage relationships. I was able to trace the (Federizzi, Federici, Fedrizzi) Family names to the mid 1600 in Struz, Val di Non. Our family history starts in Coltura (as far back as I could research) with GIUSEPPE FEDRIZZI, my Bis, Bis, Bis Nonno circa 1735. A side note, the walls of my Nonno’s house in Coltura have been dated by archeologists to 1200 AD or before. With the need to support his family, my Nonno, Emanuele, sailed from Le Harve France in 1903 to work in Steubenville OH, in the coal mines to support his family. In 1907 my Nonna Maria Sala died in Coltura and my Nonno returned home. In 1908 my Papa, Pietro Primo, at the age of 14 came to Ohio with my Nonno, Emanuele, to work in the coal mines until 1914, then returned to Coltura. WWI started and my Papa was conscripted into the Austrian army and fought as part of the Austro-Hungarian Tiroler Kaiserjager.

Zio Luigi and My Papa Pietro (circa 1926)

McKinley). Zio Luigi Fedrizzi (Connie Armani) also moved to Solvay and raised a family. In 1936 my Mamma became a citizen and in 1939 they built a house at Lakeland NY.

We had a wonderful garden with everything you would want to eat, and raised chickens and rabbits. We ate well. My Papa was from the old school, he and Zio Luigi made red Wine and Grappa. Zio Luigi made Salamini. In Solvay they were considered the best and everyone wanted to buy them. We made Polenta and Salamini con Peverada or con coniglio on a regular basis. My Mamma was a cook of the highest order and her Risotto con funghi, Canederli con pezzi di salame and of course, homemade pasta, was to die for. Mamma died in 1963 in Lakeland NY, at the age of 68. In 1972 we took my Papa back home to Coltura, the first time he had returned in 42 years. It was quite a reunion with his family and friends of his youth. As a boy my Papa would spend his summers in the mountains of the Val d’Algone tending the cows at the Malga Movlina making butter and cheese. In 1980 my Papa died at age 86 in Syracuse NY. The memories of my family and relatives while growing up, and the stories of the old country that my Mamma and Papa would tell are still fresh in my head and heart. They started with little and worked hard to create a wonderful life for themselves and their children here in America.

Pietro Fedrizzi, third from left, middle row Austro-Hungarian Tiroler Kaiserjager (circa 1915)

In 1922, my Nonno died in Coltura. Two years earlier in 1920, my Papa, along with his only brother, Zio Luigi, had returned to Steubenville OH and worked in the coal mines together. My Papa got his citizenship in 1928, and returned to Italy in 1929. Later that year, he married my Mamma, Erina Maffei, in Stenico. My Mamma’s Brother, Zio Pietro Maffei, moved to Youngstown Ohio and raised a family. In November 1929 Mamma and Papa left Genoa and settled in Solvay NY, just outside of Syracuse. He worked at the Solvay Process Co. along with other emigrants from the Trentino. They started a family Written by Emmanuel Fedrizzi, Pownal, Maine beginning with my sister Nostra (Robert De Lucia), my brother Rudolph (Patricia Bates) and me, Emanuel (Julia 8


La Me Baita. . .My Mountain Hut his is lovely song of the Val di Ledro captures the ever present love and fascination for the mountains of our people. Our emigrant forebearers could never forget their beloved mountains no matter where they came to live. The lyrics are a love song that recounts not just the hut but the entire enviornment of its place and its meaning in the solititude among the mountains: the silence, the various birds singing and nesting, the sundown, the mist, the skies, the aloneness, the chill. With the fire spent, the poet uses a metafor for his beloved hut, the heart of his lover, a heart where one finds understanding and comfort.

My Mountain Hut

La Me Baita

Se fa sera`ntorna la me baita Co le ombrie che le scondi `l bel dei Moc co na foschia spessa e scura Che ai me oci `l ciel fa smorza.

Evening gathers around my hut With the shadows of evening which hides the beauty of the mountains with a mist dense and dark That does not allow my eyes to see the sky.

Ormai l`è sera e sto cor en po solengo El se `ntrista al vadar el di che mor. Zito zito `l se cucia. `l se remena Ma per scaldarse no ghe` brase.

It is already evening and my heart is lonely It becomes sad seeing the fading day Quiet! Quiet! One huddles e is agitated But to warm oneself there is no more wood

There are the crows who are talking to themselves Recalling the things that happen the past day Birds who twitter e join their nests To gather together and warm themselves.

Grii che ciacera e parla lu co l`alter N` del contarse del di che e`passa. Osei che ciacola e che po n`del ni sgola Per gatarse per scaldarse.

The fire has gone out My hut is empty and cold My hut is your heart.

`L foc è mort Freda e vota l`è la baita La me baita l`è `l to cör.

Coro Cima d`Oro

The choir Cima d`Oro (Choir of the Golden Peak) was established in 1967 and is directed by Cristian Ferrari. It has 38 singers and an affiliated choir of 30 children. It has recorded two CD’s Ledro Canta (Ledro Sings) and Tasi e Scolta (Be Quiet and Listen). The lyrics were written by Luciano Daldoss and the music by Giorgio Bartoli, both members of the choir. They have sung throughout Italy and Europe. Visit their website: To hear this lovely song, go to the Filo’s website: 9

Coro Cima D’Oro


Our Cuisine: Gnocchi dei Boemi

he people of the Ledro Valley were trapped between fronts in the Italian Theater of World War I. The Ledro and Chiese valleys were caught in the advance of the Italian army attempting to come up and thorugh their valleys. Their villages were heavily bombarded and burned. As citizens of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ledro Valley was evacuated. The residents of the Chiese Valley were move up above Tione, while those from Ledro repopulated in Bohemia and Moravia (now the Czech Republic). During this time, they integrated in the life and culture of Bohemia. During this sojourn, the Trentini women learned new dishes and one of them was Gnocchi dei Boemi (Bohemian Dumplings). This dish is a reminiscence of their exile much as the matzoh, the unleavened bread of the Israelites reminded them during their own exile. Despite their sweetness, they can be served as a “primo piatto” - first dish - with either sauerkraut or spezzatino or goulash. Here are the ingredients: 4¼ cups of lour, 2¼ of milk, ¼ cup of vegtable oil, two eggs, one packet of dry yeast, dry pitted prunes and salt. For the topping, one melts butter (burro fuso) along with a mixture of sugar, cinnamon, and poppy seeds (optional). Create a “sponge,” place the yeast in a small bowl, add ¾ cup of lukewarm milk, wait 10 minutes and then add ½ cup of flour. Allow the sponge to rise for ½ hour. Then, combine all the ingredients (except the butter) either by hand or machine. Cover with a wet cloth and let the dough rise in a greased bowl for two hours. Then, roll and cut into strips and roll the strips into pieces about 6 inches in diameter, place one or two pitted prunes, seal and roll into a sphere. Cover the spheres and let rise for an hour.

Place the spheres into boiling water adding salt and 2 tablespoons of oil.Boil for for 7-9 minutes. Remove them with a slotted spoon. Sprinkle them with sugar and cinnamon and then laddle the melted but ter (burro fuso

Many thanks to Valeria of the Hotel Maggiorina ( in Bezzecca of thei Ledro. She provided me with a tutorial of how to make this special dish of the Val di Ledro. 10


Chini: Renaissance Man

o fully appreciate the career of Eusebio Chini, one must know a little about the Jesuit Order in the 17th century. Today, there are mostly known for their high schools and universities, but at the time they were the Catholic Church’s “best and brightest” playing the role of scientist, scholar, linguist, explorer and missionary. The Society of Jesus was the world’s first international organization with outposts from Japan and China in East Asia to the series of missions in the New World that Chini played a central role in creating. The Jesuits were often the critical link to spreading European culture throughout the world and bringing the knowledge of foreign cultures and lands back to Europe. While their religious function wasl central, they were the “Peace Corps” of its day. An excellent example is Chini’s cousin, Martino Martini (another Trentini), an important missionary to China, and is considered the “Father of Chinese Geography.”

Chart of the Comet’s Transit from Chini’s Research

Map of Chini’s First Exploration

responsible for making both astral and geographical measurements for the Spanish viceroy. Soon after arriving in Mexico’s Atlantic Coast, he joined the expedition of Admiral Atondo y Atillòn to Yaqui on the Pacific Coast. Inspired by this journey, Chini became one of the first to suggest the possibilty of a man-made waterway across the Central American isthmus to join the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, foreshadowing the construction of the Panama Canal. Chini would spend the rest of his life evangelizing the Yaqui, Seri and Guayama tribes of Mexico’s Pacific Coast and the American Southwest. During his ministry, this “Renaissance Man” showed the diversity of his talents and knowledge. He introduced animal husbandry, particularly cattle, to the American Southwest. It is no small exaggeration that the American cattle culture built on Chini original efforts as Spanish longhorns migrated north. Chini also introduced cereals and fruits from the Val di Non to the first cooperative communities he established among the tribes.

Chini’s mission to Mexico and the American Southwest was serendipitous. After completing his university edu- However, his greatest contribution was his skill as a carcation, excelling in science and mathematics, the King of tographer. At the time, Europeans knew little of the Bavaria offered him a university teaching position. Pacific Coast. Just as other explorers searched for a However, Chini, inspired by his cousin Martino, wished “Northwest Passage” through the Arctic, it was unknown to go to China. His superiors had a different idea: whether Baja California was a peninsula or an island. Mexico. He left the Tyrol in 1678 to join 17 Jesuit mis- Chini was the first to establish its geographical form and sionaries. During this time, he conducted and published his original maps were copied throughout Europe. pioneering astronomical work on comets. In addition, during his first few years in Mexico, he served as the Written by Alberto Chini. President, Museo di Padre Eusebio Chini. Segno, IT “royal cosmographer” for the Spanish government, 11


El Popo . . . The Gentle Giant

He wasn't the tallest man in the history of mankind - at least, not if it is true that the Biblical giant Goliath was six cubits and a palm tall, or ten feet, 6 inches. And Robert Wadlow of Alton, Illinois measured in at eight feet, eleven inches. But from all we know, Bernardo Gilli of Bezzecca was a giant of a man. Born in 1726, at twenty, he stood eight feet, six inches tall. He was a gentle giant, so much so that the people of Bezzecca called him “el popo” - in the local dialect, an affectionate term for a little boy. From his youth, he would amaze his fellow townspeople with his strength, lifting a cartload of hay with one hand. At nineteen, he joined the circus. He was engaged by a high wire artist from Nomi, Giambattista Perghem, known as Carattà who had returned home from a long circus tour through the cities of central Europe. Hearing that there was a “giant” living in the Ledro valley, he investigated and persuaded the young man's parents to entrust their son to him, as a sort of apprentice.

cardinals and even the Roman pontiff. This was the Age of the Enlightenment when witch trials and burnings at the stake were no longer happening, and the world was transitioning to an Age of Reason.

With the money earned in the plazas of Europe, the giant Gilli bought farmland and pasture land in his valley. He dispensed charity to his fellow townspeople, he lent money and he rented out some of his property. He was well liked because of this generosity. He reached a weight of 386 pounds and to support his great mass, he had a sturdy lounge chair constructed to measure. He greeted all with a smile. “His face,” wrote his contemporaries, “never showed any anger, but only reflected the good humor of a mountain man.” He wandered through Europe with two servants and was treated as a nobleman. Aware of his great size and his uniqueness, he left instructions that at his death, all his flesh was to be removed from his corpse and his skeleton was to be given to science, “to preserve a perpetual memory of my extraordinary size.” He added that science should study the skeleton's structure and hand down its findings to posterity. El Popo of Bezzecca died in 1791, at 55, and a surgeon of Riva was immediately called to remove the flesh from the cadaver. His skull (gigantic, needless to say) and a femur ended up at the civic museum of Rovereto. These were displayed in a case (not built until 1872!). Along with the bones were a single extra large silk stocking, his passport and a few other personal documents. The First World War and a bomb which fell on the museum, provided final, posthumous burial of this gentle giant. What remains are only the memories and a few drawings executed over the course of a century.

In those days, “freaks of nature” excited great interest and curiosity and the various circuses paid very dearly for the opportunity to exhibit them in their sideshows. In fact there was cut-throat competition as to which circus could obtain the most deformed or the strangest examples - from a bearded lady to a furry ‘dog-man,’ to a pretty dwarf - a young lady who, at the age of twenty, weighed just under twenty pounds and was all of twenty two inches tall. The American circus of P.T. Barnum, boasted of its Siamese twins and of its “Venus de Milo,” a beautiful young woman who had been born without arms. In short, these vagaries of nature aroused the interest of the crowds who eagerly paid to view them and the circuses were most happy to exhibit them. Bernardo Bernardo Gilli had a rather famous predecessor. Gilli, docile from his youth, started to roam through Bartolomeo Bon, a peasant from Riva del Garda, who Europe at the age of twenty - from Madrid to Warsaw, was as large as “el popo.” He lived in the mid-1500's at from Rome to St. Petersburg. In every city, he attracted the court of Archduke Ferdinand II of the Tyrol. He was paying crowds; at every exhibition he received applause called Bartlmà and a wooden effigy of him, eight feet six and tips. Because the strangeness of his height called for inches in length, can still be seen in the Hall of an exotic presentation, Carattà dressed “el popo” as a Armaments of the castle of Ambras near Innsbruck. Turk and he himself adopted oriental attire. Dressed in silks and brocades, they appeared before princes, queens, Written by Alberto Folgheraiter, Trento, Italy 12


Family Stories: The Bellotti’s y Nono and Nonna came to the United States to seek a better life for themselves. One sad day, a nine year old chimney sweep in Balbido, Austria, young Mario Bellotti was told that his mother had died. He wept briefly and returned to work. Born on August 30, 1893 in Balbido, Austria he emigrated through Ellis Island at the age of 17. He boarded at the home of Luigia Farina in Yatesboro, PA. where he had found work in the coal mines. There he met Ottavia Angeline Calieri, the sister of Luigia and a cook from Milan. Ottavia was born on October 5, 1887 in Cavrasto, Austria. She and Mario were married August 4, 1923 in St. Mary’s Church in Yatesboro. They lived their entire lives there. First residing in a company house owned by the mining company, they later moved down the hill to the house that their daughter, Adelaide Bellotti lives in today. Together they raised three children during the Great Depression, Leviana, Adelaide and Alexander. Emma passed away as an infant. Mario worked as a coal miner and enjoyed Tyrolean music. Massolin de Fiori was his favorite song. He made homemade sausage and wine. He enjoyed bocce, playing morra under his arbor and made tamburello to play with his grandchildren. Calf-skin was stretched over a wooden round circle to form a tambourine shaped racquet. A tennisball was hit back and forth outside. The crack of the ball against the tamburello still echoes in my ears. He loved to tease us, by stealing our “noses” and playing a simple string game with his fingers. He would remind us

Rear: Julia Farina, Tabia. Front: Mario Bellotti & Ottavia Bellotti

to “take off our gloves” before we ate; his way of asking us to wash our hands. Each time my mother told him she was pregnant he would make a small Adirondack chair for the yard and stencil our names on them. He made seven chairs; one for Guido, my dad, Lee, my mom and Mary Lou, Bob, Nancy, John and Dan. After the mines closed he worked in Mario Bellotti with his dog, Alba a local Italian store, Roncher’s Cheese House making homemade salami. Mario won prizes for his gardens that were weed free and of great variety. He was an avid hunter and owned bird dogs. He was a member of the Yatesboro Hunting Club and was part owner of a hunting camp in Elk County. On my mother’s birthday every November he would present her with a woodcock or grouse.

Ottavia loved opera music as did my mother, Leviana. Once they were convinced to “demo” a radio before making the purchase. Ottavia found the opera channel and she convinced Mario that they could afford the purchase. Upon the death of her mother she shut the radio off for one year to mourn. Everyone was happy the day the music was put back on. She was strict and forbade her daughters to wear shorts for gym class. A woman of strong faith she walked to mass. Our Nonna was a wonderful cook. She had worked for rich people in Milan so her techniques in the kitchen were efficient and waste free. She made meat ravioli served in chicken broth from leftovers. She made bagna cauda at holidays. She made zabaglione by cracking eggs and measuring the Marsala in the eggshells. Every guest was offered a “coffee royal” made with a shot of whiskey and lots of sugar. One frequent guest was a missionary priest from Italy, Fr. Bonifacio Bolognani. He would say mass at St. Mary’s Church in Yatesboro and invite the Trentini. He would visit Adelaide at least once a year on his visits to the USA. Ottavia predeceased Mario. She passed on April 15, 1955, I was barely two years old. Our Nono lived on eleven years passing on February 28, 1966. Luckily for me, and my 4 siblings we all have fond memories of him. Written by Mary Lou DeRosa of Fairfield, CT Granddaughter of Mr. and Mrs. Mario Bellotti 13


The Churches of Ledro

hen our Tyrolean relatives moved about their fields, when they lifted their eyes from tilling their fields, when they looked to the distance of their valleys, what did they see and behold? They saw church steeples and lovely churches embellished with frescoes and artifacts contributed by many over the years. When they moved about their villages or led their cattle, they would meet lovely shrines‌capitelli or a crucifix. Looking up the mountainsides, they behold ancient castles replete with art from a variety of artists, castles where feudal lords meted out justice and exacted tithes on behalf of a higher authority. The Trentino countryside is marked by architectural works complete with sculptures and paintings by skillful artists. When the town dwellers moved about their cities and towns, when the people from the countryside came to these towns for services or to transact their affairs, they passed edifices and monuments that boasted of charming art and sculpture and communicated a sense of continuity and harmony. Poor as they were, they had the riches of so much art in their ordinary and everyday environments. So it is in the Val di Ledro.. Like most valleys, the Val di Ledro does not have museums of art but it has its churches where you have architecture, sculptures, frescoes and paintings.Whereas Ledro was associated with the Alta Garda and Riva, it became a separate municipality combining the municipalities of Pieve di Ledro, Bezzecca, Concei, Molina di Ledro, Tiarno di Sopra and Tiarno di Sotto. Similarly, the parishes with their churches were united as one pastoral entity with only one pastor. Beginning with top of the valley via Riva del Garda and descending down to Storo of the Val di Chiese, one encounters the following churches in order

Chiesa di Bezzecca

Pieve di Ledro

Pieve di Ledro

Chiesa di Mezzolago

Chiesa di Prè

Chiesa di Lenzumo

Pieve di Ledro (Pop. 380) shares a church with Mezzolago, the church of the Anunciazione di Maria, mentioned in the records in 1235 and rebuilt in 1750. It has 12 shrines in the interior, laden with silver, provided by the Ledro merchants living in Venice. Carlo Prati, the father of the poet Giovanni Prati of Dasindo of the Val delle Giudicarie Bezzecca (Pop. 600) has the church of San Stefano dedicated in 1521. Next to the church, there is a memorial to those who died in the battle with Garibaldi in 1866.


Mezzolago- Its church is dedicated to St Michael the Archangel and is noted in 1537

Molina di Ledro (Pop. 1180) has the church of San Virgilio, the patron of the Tyrol. The church was built in 1758. It is has a tall campanile of granite Pre` di Ledro (Pop. 200) has the church of San Giacomo Maggiore (St James the Great). It is mentioned in records of 1537. It adopted a baroque style in the middle of 1800’s, a style quite prevalent in many churches of the Tyrol. Outside, there stands a granite cross recalling the death of 27 of its inhabitants who died in the evacuation camps in Bohemia.C

Chiesa di Enguzio

Chiesa di Tiarno di Sopra

Chiesa di Tiarno di Sotto

Tiarno di Sotto (Pop. 691) has the church of San Bartolomeo, built in1862. Its bell tower is 72 m high and is distinquished in the Trentino. Tiarno di Sopra (Pop. 1060) has the church of San Pietro e Paolo, enlarged in 1740 and rebuilt in 1939 Biacesa (Pop. 230) has the ancient church of Sant`Antonio. It was rededicated in 1521 and rebuilt in the 1800’s. Legos has the church of SS. Trinità (Most Holy Trinity) Concei (Pop. 849) It constitutes one parish comprising the churches of Locca, Enguiso and Lenzumo. Their church is located in Enguiso and is dedicated to the Presentation of Mary. Written by Alberto Folgheraiter. A frequent contirbuer to the Filò, Alberto’s knowledge of the Trentino is extraordinary. He has just published a new book along with Gianni Zotta, a photo-journalist, I villaggi dai Camini Spenti, (Villages of the Empty Chimneys), detailing the evolution of once vibrant villages into veritable ghost towns. It can be purchased by contacting the publisher, Curcu & Genovese.

Help us find Tyrolean Americans . . .

We wish to reach as many Tyrolean-Americans as can be identified so that we might be able to bring them information and resources regarding their roots and ancestry. Please provide names of friends, relatives, familymembers os that we can begin sending the Filò on a regular basis. Go to and register on-line to recieve the magazine free of charge. You may also send your information to Filò Magazine, PO Box 90, Crompond, NY 10517 or fax them to (914) 734-9644 or submit them by email to 15


Ledro’s Prehistory: The Palafitte

platforms of their houses and the palhile the Ledro Valley reflects so isade around the ledro settlement, the much history of the past hunmajority of household utensils, weapons dreds of year in their villages, for war and hunting, and canoes. The but its pre-history exploded commonest objects are bowls, dishes, into the awareness of the world in 1929. While plates or the handles of unknown implethe lake was being lowered for the construcments - most probably used to prepare tion of a hydro electric plant, there appeared food. Weapons comprise clubs with over 10,000 pilings or stilts revealing the exisspherical heads, throwing sticks and tence of lake dwellers dating back to the Stone bows. The agricultural use of wood is Age and the Bronze Age 70,000 to 50,000 evidenced in a plough with a sharplyyears ago. The Ledro lake dwellers were not pointed coulter and a pole for the beam.. brutish in type like the Neantherdal man but Animal horns of elk and their domestiquite intelligent and found that they could put their ideas of living better on the banks of a Statue of Harp Player found in Ledro cated animals as well as bones became lake than anywhere else. Such dwellings protected them hammers and punches, handles. The variety and quantity from enemies and animals and provided them proximity of pottery at Ledro is vast. Their type, shape and size difto fish and water. This settlement spans the Stone Age fer enormously. The coarse clay is broken down by the and reaches its height in the Bronze Age. There were addition of minerals to produce a paste which is often found a variety of objects that provide us with glimpses delicate, smooth and glossy. The colour is a monotonous black, darkish brown or red, Of most common occurof their way of living. rence are the large biconical-bodied jars used for storing foodstuffs and decorated, almost without exception, in ribbed patterns either incised into the body of the pot or applied to its surface. They often encircle or spiral round it in a style which survives to this day. There are many different types of beakers, bowls and small cups. The image of a person playing the harp suggests that they understood music. They had elements of religion and probably worship their deities to celebrate the winter soltice with New Year’s being the occasion of special festivities. Artistic Depiction of the Ledro Settlement

There are no human remains since they probably cremated their dead. stone was still used for a wide variety of tasks combined with wood in a whole range of tools: arrows and axes and hoes. A neighbouring glacier moraine provided crystal for beads. Volcanic stone, generally granite, was comparatively widely used for handmills, clubs and hammers. The amber which regularly recurs on the site was clearly used for personal ornaments. There is evidence that such objects were used to barter trade with other lake settlements. They wove cloth with a loom with weights and spindles and dyed their cloth with vegetable dyes. Their food included the animals of the woods, their domesticated animals, fish and oysters. They cooked vegetables and porridges of cereals. These food remains are founded encrusted in the discovered pots. Wood was used extensively and was worked with confident skill and technique: the piles and


The Val di Ledro has constructed replicas of the dwellings as well as a museum where these many artifacts are displayed. Can it be said that these artifacts, cuisine and well as music of these lake dwellers were the elements that created and fashioned our people? Who knows…mmmmm….? I think so.

Modern Reconstruction of the Palafitte


Leggende: The Pagan Mount any are the legends surrounding this mountain which has always stirred the imagination, the attention and the affection of the people of the Valley of Ampola. Why is it that here and there, near the top, there are large iron ring embedded in the rock of this high peak which rises from the Ledro valley near the plains of the river Chiese? Legend gives us an explanation. In the times when the Romans dominated this area, a garrison was posted on this peak. From there, they overlooked the whole valley, guarding it against possible attacks by barbarian hordes. One day though, a troop of enemies besieged the Roman garrison. The Romans did not become aware of the mad pack until it was too late and the mountain was about to fall into the hands of the barbarian army. The odds were against the Romans -they were outnumbered by ten to one, or even, some say, by a hundred to one! The affair would surely have concluded with a massacre of the entire garrison. But, suddenly, unexpectedly, there was a sound - the loud rat-a-tat of a woodpecker pecking away at a tree trunk and issuing an appeal to all the birds in the vicinity. From the top of the mountain there rose a flock of crows, black as night,

The Pagan Mount - Val D’Ampola

From that moment a priest of Saturn lived on the mountain to defend its sacredness. The last of the priests, feeling threatened by the Christians, hid the temple treasure (Some say it was a Golden Calf!) in a cave on the Pagan Mount and entrusted its care to a nymph. Several centuries later, a young doctor happened upon

the nymph and fell madly in love with her. However, some peasants discovered the lovers. The nymph, thinking she had been which hovered over the battle scene. "WOW! Look at betrayed, killed the young that!" yelled one of the Romans. "the crows! the crows doctor and disappeared forare flying over us. The gods have sent them as messen- ever, along with the treasure. gers, urging us to resist. and to win!" So it was that this small group of desperate men regained their will and Verena De Paoli majored and their strength, and, protected by divine forces, succeeded specialized in the conservation of in routing the barbarians. These same Romans, after their the cultural heritage of the victorious battle, pounded some large rings into the rock Trentino. She has published eight of the mountain as a thanksgiving offering to the gods. books on the topic and has recited Thereafter the peak became known as the Pagan Mount. these stories to her four children. 17


Introduction to the Val di Ledro

he Val id Ledro is a very quiet holiday resort situated between the rocky towers of the Brenta Dolomites and the olive gardens on Lake Garda. The mountain landscape is characterized by the turquoise blue of Lake Ledro that is surrounded by the beautiful green thick woods and meadows. The Ledro Valley is located to the south west of the Trentino. The valley is connected with the Val di Chiese - Valley of the Churches - through the gorge of Ampola carved by the river Palvico. A vehicular tunnel of 3600 meters connects Ledro to Alta Garda, the hilly area and villages above Riva del Garda. The Lago di Ledro - the Lake of Ledro - with its characteristic blue color is located in the center of the valley. It is served the creek Massangla. It also serves as a reservoir that supplies water to the hydroelectric power station of Riva del were evacuated and moved to camps located in Garda. Bohemia/Moravia (Czech Republic) and Austria. Ledro is derived from the Roman names for the ancient Villages were bombed and burned. To this day, one inhabitants Leutrenses. The formation and consequent comes upon dugouts and fortifications in both the vilshape of the Valley is pre-alpine…created by glacial lages and in high areas of the mountains. forces. Beyond geology, Ledro has the traces and evidence of a strong human presence during the Neolithic Copper Age. The evidence is the finding of 10,000 poles that emerged when the Lake, the Lago di Ledro, was lowered to construct a hydro-electric plant in Riva del Garda. These poles, referred to as paleofitti, were the pilings of lake dwellings attesting to the human dwellings making the Lago di Ledro one of the largest prehistoric sites discovered throughout Europe. There is a replica of such a dwelling that serves a museum of that history.

Ledro was well known for the production of broche: nails for carpentry and hob nails for shoes. (See article on page…). This special and unique industry lasted two centuries and transformed the less productive agroforestry-pastoral work into ironworks that required furnaces, craftsmen, transportation and charcoal makers. The wooded areas of the valley supported this work quite adequately and thus provided an element of prosperity. The valley relies heavily on tourism fueled by the beautiful lake, its mountaineering opportunities, hiking At one time, Ledro was united administratively with the trails and entertainment. Alta Garda and the Garda Lake area. It is now separate and autonomous and comprises six muncipalities: There are two favorite dishes of the Valley…la polenta Bezzecca, Concei, Tiarno di Sopra, Tiarno di Sotto, Pieve con le patate…and gnocchi dei Boemi…The latter dish that they learned in their evacuation exile in Bohemia di Ledro and Molina di Ledro. during the World War I. The Ledro Valley was the theater of two wars that left their marks on the valley and its people. In 1866, during the third war of Independence of the Regno d`Italia, the Italian forces reached Bezzecca where Garibaldi fought the Austrian forces but withdrew at the command of Victor Emannuel. The Valley was the border and frontier to Italy and was swept up in the hostilities of the World War I. In 1915, while still the ancient Tyrol and belonging to the Austrian Hungarian Empire, the valley was a war zone with the Italian Army to its south. The people 18


Val di Ledro


The ‘Merica of Colorado

As we discussed in previous articles in Filò, a large percentage of Tyrolean emigrants between 1880 and 1920, found employment in the expanding American mining industry. The transformation of the peasants from the Trentino into miners occurred in various areas. But the most fascinating locales were the mines of Colorado and New Mexico - perhaps because of the breathtaking scenery, or maybe due to the romantic images of the Far West as portrayed in Hollywood films. In reality, except for a very small minority of adventurers, notably the gold prospectors, who arrived in the valleys of southern Colorado in the 1870's, most emigrants experienced hard labor, 12 hour work shifts, extreme living conditions, and a poverty not much different from what they had left behind. "Know that things are bad all over Merica (the Tyrolean dialect omits the 'A' in America). Here we see many unemployed and poverty worse than in our own villages. For those who have thousands, it's Merica, but for poor people it's misery!" Thus wrote Nicolò Andreatta to his sister Caterina from Central City in 1919.

The history of the development of the Colorado mining industry is tied to the vision and enterprise of a retired Civil War general, William Jackson Palmer. As a Union cavalryman, he was the recipient of the highest military decoration, the Medal of Honor. In civilian life, Palmer was a railroad engineer, trained in France and England, and on the eve of the war, he had been entrusted with the development of the railroad infrastructure in Pennsylvania. Returning after his military service, he moved to the West, where he founded his own railroad, the Denver & Rio Grande Railway (D&RG). He was convinced - and rightly so - that the rapid development of a railroad network toward the Pacific, and southward toward Mexico, would dramatically increase the demand for steel.Therefore it was his aim to create a self sufficient industrial complex to support the growth of his little empire, from mining the coal, to the production of steel, and on to laying the tracks for the growth of the D&RG, all at reduced cost. To this end, a number of 22

closed companies were started in order to guarantee access to the natural resources, i.e. water and coal, that were necessary for the production of steel. These companies - Central Colorado Improvement Company, Southern Colorado Coal and Town Company, and Colorado Coal and Steel Works - were ultimately merged into the Colorado Coal and Iron Company in 1880. During that same time period, another industrial pioneer, John Osgood, was assigned to evaluate the potential of various carboniferous areas in Colorado, on behalf of the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad. For a few years, he visited every mine in Colorado, and realizing their potential, he proceeded to acquire both property and mineral rights from the recently established State of Colorado. In 1887, Osgood founded the Colorado Fuel Company, and after just five years, the two giant rivals merged into the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company, under his leadership. For many years it was the largest private employer in Colorado. In the last years of the 19th Century, however, the company undertook a modernization project with large investments in new machinery - a project which 'dried up' its liquidity and brought it to the brink of bankruptcy. The much needed recapitalization and an infusion of ready cash came from John D. Rockefeller, Sr., who gained majority control and retained it until the 1940's. As a result of the systematic exploitation of the veins of coal, starting in 1800, dozens of company towns sprang up - starting with Colorado Springs, founded by Palmer, then El Moro, Starkville, Sopris (near Trinidad), Walsen, Rouse, and Hezron (near Walsenberg) and many more. These towns were established for the sole purpose of extracting and processing coal around centers served by the Denver and Rio Grande Railway.

The growth of these towns went through three distinct phases: the first, or pioneering stage, from about 1880 to the turn of the century, when the quality of life and the working conditions depended almost entirely on the ability and the initiative of the local mine supervisor; the

second, or 'paternalistic' phase, from 1900 to the Great Depression, when the companies became directly involved in the training and socialization, i.e. 'Americanization', of the work force; and the final phase lasting until the 1950's, marked by the decline, and ultimate closure of the mines, due to the decreased demand for coal in the economy. During the first phase, the immigrants were mainly from Northern Europe, single, very mobile men, who had little interest in establishing a long term community. Starting around 1900, this pattern changed - immigrants from Southern Europe began to arrive en masse. These immigrants either arrived as families or had their families join them as soon as economic conditions permitted, thus creating mini-societies in every mining camp. The Colorado Mine Company established its Sociological Department in 1901 and it remained in operation until 1915. Its objective was to oversee all matters relating to education, sanitary conditions and any other issues contributing to the quality of life. The quality of life, however, was overshadowed by the very harsh conditions of the underground work. Tens of thousands of miners were killed or hurt in the very frequent explosions caused by pockets of methane gas, by tunnel collapses, and by fires - and there was no insurance. Until the strikes of 1913 and 1914, the mining companies were not held responsible for any 'incidents' underground. These were always attributed to a worker's negligence, or simply to the laws of chance. Even if a miner had the good fortune to avoid such disasters, he would most likely

develop permanent lung damage or back problems.

The demand for coal from Colorado started to decline after the First World War. From 1920 onward, petroleum derivatives were widely used in American industry as an alternative to coal. Despite a brief revival during World War II, the decline led to the close of the mines, one after the other. In 1954, the total production from Colorado was three million tons, the smallest tonnage since 1889. Many Tyrolean had returned home between 1900 and 1910, only to return after World I. They returned not as adventurers in search of a quick fortune, but as integrated citizens in a new society, a society no longer dependent on coal.

Mario Bellotti. Yatesboro, PA

Luca Angeli, a ten year resident of Chicago and a direct descendent of one of the thousands of Tyrolean coal miners in Colorado in the early 1900's. After much research, Luca has created a website,, dedicated to the mining community of Rouse. The aim of the site is to preserve collective memories - letters, photos, and documents from the descendents of miners of that specific community. If anyone wishes to contribute to this site, or wishes to establish a site for another community, Luca may be reached



Family Stories: The Crosina’s

in Nonna’s Kitchen. All her family y grandfather, Federico would gather together. The grownCrosina, first immiups would talk and the children would grated to the United listen or read the magazines that were States in 1890. My Zia always at the table. Then, Nonna Regina was born I 1890 and so my would get the bag with the Tombola grandmother, Aida (Donati) waited balls and jiggle it. That was the signal until she was two before she joined for us to either play Tombola or cards. him. What courage they had to move Nonno would get angry and storm out to a new country where customs and of the room. I remember when we people were unfamiliar. When they first entered Nonna’s kitchen, you arrived in New York City, they were could always smell the pot of soup she met and taken to North Adams, always had simmering on the back of Massachusetts. Nonno had arranged her wood-burning stove, made from for them to board with another the 10-cent soup bone that she always Tyrolese family so Nonna had women sent me down to buy at the store . . . to talk to and share fears and values. and always I had to make two trips to They moved several times as their the store because the first soupbone family increased, but always in the Federico & Aida Crosina was not large enough. same neighborhood. When they bought their home, Nonna took in boarders to help financially and the girls helped with the house cleaning Nonna got a lot of comfort and joy by having her famiand cooking. The two older girls helped in the kitchen ly close enough to visit. She seldom went out of the and they were fantastic cooks. The three younger girls house except to sit on the porch and enjoy the view. I do cleaned the house and were not good cooks. What a remember friends coming to visit – the Vivaldi’s, Mrs. shame! Zio Alfred, the only son, was born about this Risatti, the Rosasco’s and many more. She enjoyed the time. Three of the daughters lived in apartments that company and she would always put on coffee and have Nonno had made. The other two lived close by. We cookies. They would talk the afternoon away. would gather every Friday and Saturday night to visit with Nonno and Nonna, We kids would listen to the Nonno enjoyed gardening, music, reading, photography grown-ups talk or we would read magazines and then and some woodworking. He seemed to be more intelNonna would get out the Tombola game. We loved to lectually inclined whereas Nonna’s interest lay mainly play cards or Tombola with us. Nonno would disappear with the house, family and neighborhood. Nonno did into the basement to work on his photography or listen not interact very much with his daughters or grandchilto music. He was an accomplished musician and could dren. He was not easy to show any loving emotion. I play the piano, trumpet, violin and the mandolin and think, outside of Alfred, his only son, I was the closest gave music lessons to many of the neighborhood chil- to him. Although I would not call it a warm, close reladren. Very few of the grandchildren learned to play an tionship. We shared a love for music and gardening and instrument. He was far too strict with us – more so than reading and I think he liked that. with the other students. He organized an Italian marching band and they marched in many of the parades and When my Zio Alfred died at the young age of 40 years at Italian festivals. Every Saturday afternoon, he and I old, Nonno became even more distant. It seemed like his only loving contact with everyone died with him. I would sit by the radio and listen to the opera. felt like I had lost a Nonno too. My love for music and gardening came from my visits with Nonno. Unfortunately, Nonna was beyond the cooking stage so many of the Tyrolean recipes are gone. It is such a loss for our family. I can remember as a child Written by Lois Benvenuti, North Adams, MA growing up, spending every Friday and Saturday evening 24


Family Stories: The Mora’s

Teresa and Ricardo bought a small he Mora family is traced farm and worked the land. Teresa, a back to our great-grandhomemaker, was very active in the father, Bernardo Mora OSIA and served as treasurer for Napa (1831-1906). He married Lodge for over 35 years. Teresa never Giustina (Segoc) Mora (1838-1921) returned to her homeland. Daughter on January 14, 1871. They had nine Margaret visited the region in children. Teresa Maria, Egidio September 2013. She met first cousin, Bernado, Giuseppe, Attilio Alfio Mora in Bezzecca and her second Beniamino, Caterina Luigia, Edvige cousins, the Spagnoli Family (Ferrari) in Maria, Lorenzo Claudio and Santo Pieve di Ledro. Margherita Ferrari Giovanni. Egidio, Attilio, Edvige and Mora was a homemaker. She was a Lorenzo immigrated to the US in wonderful mother and grandmother 1915. They settled in Chicago, IL. and loved children. She was patient The men worked in various capaciwith the young and taught them good ties for Pullman Co. Egidio married habits. She was a great help to Teresa, Margherita Casari, Tiarno di Sotto on Back: Dirce, Corado; Front: Antionio, especially in helping her to raise her five Margherita; Standing Front: Giustina Teresa January 19, 1910; they had two children Dirce Eufrasina (1910-1996) and Corrado Bernardo children. She lived with her daughter Dirce until Egidio (1912-2003). Egidio, a widower, married Margherita passed in 1947. She moved to Napa to live with Teresa Laura Ferrari (1877-1969) of Pieve de Ledro on she until she passed in 1969. Attilio Mora stayed in the February 5, 1921; they had one daughter Giustina Teresa US for a short time and later returned to Bezzecca and (1922-2001). In 1932 Margherita, Dirce, Corrado and there he worked as a mechanic. He was married twice but Giustina (aka Teresa) migrated to the US and lived in never had children. Edvige married Clemente Mora and Chicago for awhile before moving to Windsor, CA. they had two boys, Evo and Lorenzo. Unable to have Dirce Mora married Pierino Mini (Swiss Alps) in May children, Evo and wife Connie adopted a baby girl from 1938. After she married, she moved to Vallejo, CA. They Italy in 1960. Lorenzo and wife Fleming had no children. had no children but she was the happy aunt of eight nieces and nephews. She worked most of her life in food All of them remained in the Chicago area until their passing. Lorenzo married Rose Ariasi (Truckee, CA.) services and was very involved in the OSIA. They settled in Santa Rosa, CA. They had three boys, She was a founder and first President of the Napa Clemente (Clem), Lawrence (Nini) and Bernard Lodge. Dirce never returned to her homeland. Corrado (Barney). Clem and wife Ellen (Windsor) have four chilMora married Evelyn Arietta (Cosenza, Calabria) on May dren, Clem (aka Boots), James (Jimmy), Mary Ellen and 30, 1942. He and his family resided in Vallejo, CA. They Maureen. Lawrence married Margaret (Windsor CA.) had three daughters, Teresa Margaret, Mary Louise and and they had a daughter, Dawn, two boys Timmy and Evelyn Flora. Corrado worked most of his adult life at Lawrence (aka Robsie), they also adopted a daughter, Mare Island Naval Shipyard until he retired in 1973. He Judy. Barney married Mary (Santa Rosa) they did not returned to his homeland with two of his daughters, have children. Some still live in the Santa Rosa area. We Teresa and Mary in 1987. The majority of time was spent grew up with strong Tyrol/Italian (Trentino) values. We in Bezzecca and Pieve di Ledro with family members and were taught to be frugal, respectful and appreciative of friends. At that time they were able to visit first cousins what we have. We attribute this to our culture, on both sides. Teresa and Evelyn live in Napa, CA. and Tyrol/Italian. The thing we agree most on is the food Mary lives in Fairfield, CA. Giustina (Mora) married and how much time is spent in preparing and enjoying it Ricardo Ottavio Olivieri (Corona, Liguria) on January 26, with friends and family. Both of us have wonderful 1941 in Vallejo, CA. In 1942, they moved to Napa, CA memories of our visits to and look forward to returning. where all five of their children were born; Margaret Anna, Richard Anthony (1948-1994), John Lawrence, Written by Teresa (Cassari-Mora) Bean & Margaret Rosalie Mary and Michael Louis. They all reside in Napa. (Ferrari-Mora) Olivieri, Napa, CA. 25


Tyrolean Baggage . . . ur emigrant parents, nonni e nonne…paesani brought their things in a variety of suit cases and trunks….and there was yet another “baggage” or tool kit ... a real possesion that was not visible or evident…but quite real and important. It was their literacy, their ability to read and write. This important skill was a gift from the Tyrol as was their work ethic and seriousness that according to Father Bonifacio Bolognani, our apostle and biographer and historian, it made our people “preferred workers”. The Tyrol enjoyed a much more developed education system than other areas of Italy. For example, while nearly all Tyrolean emigrants were literate, over 80 percent of Italians were illiterate at the time.

The Tyrol had the enlightened and benevolent Maria Theresa of Austria, a Hapsburg. She was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg. She was the sovereign of Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia, Mantua, Milan, Lodomeria and Galicia, the Austrian Netherlands and Parma. Maria Theresa By marriage, she was Duchess of Lorraine, Grand Duchess of Tuscany and Holy Roman Empress. Aware of the inadequacy of bureaucracy in Austria and, in order to improve it, Maria Theresa reformed education. On December 6, 1774, Maria Theresa issued il Regolamento scolastico generale (Allgemeine Schulordnung). In December 1774 Maria Theresa issued the General Regulations of the school. These new regulations were referred to as the La Riforma Teresiana. These rules dictate that every child was entitled to an education, girl or boy, in every place and different originsIn a new school system based on the Prussian one, all children of both genders from the ages of six to twelve had to attend school. Education reform was met with hostility from many villages; Maria Theresa crushed the dissent by ordering the arrest of all those opposed. The municipalities, in the smallest villages were obliged to guarantee the instruction of both the boys and girls. 26

Each village established a school to teach the three “R”s: reading, writing and arithmetic. These schools were common in rural villages who adopted a single classroom model for all students from age six to twelve. Larger cities had “main” schools that taught subjects beyond the three “R”s, such as Latin, history, science, geography, geometry and sketching. The reform also created “normal” schools for the training of teachers to staff the new education system.The local municipalities had to find local people to serve as teachers and to provide subsidies for their stipends. In the absence of trained teachers throughout the territory, ordained priests assumed that role and function of instruction. The ordained priests, although not trained as teachers, had greatest amount of education by virtue of their seminary education. Many of us in our community might recall how our parents or nonni would sit at the kitchen tables to write their letters to their relatives in the Province with that characteristic Italianate handwriting…and upon receiving a letter from Italy what joy they had as they would read and re-read these messages from their loved ones. Might you also remember them reading from Italian prayer books and possibly in the bigger cities Italian newspapers or the Risveglio and occasional reading of materials from the Province or papers from the Italian consulate. Reading and writing were indeed precious “baggage” that served our people. Schoolroom in Rango (Giudicarie)

Written by Tomaso Iori, Curator of the Museo Scuola, Rango, Italy


Nos Dialet . . . Our Dialect # 7

in…din…Dialect class is in session. The Trentino dialect is basically phonetic. It does have its conjugation of verbs…barely. It does not follow whatsover Italian rules of grammar and syntax…then, it simply is not Italian nor did it ever try to be. The generic Trentino or Tyrolean dialect was the language and special possession of the Province further distinquished in pronunciation and some distinctive words according to the individual valley. One characteristic is that it does not pronunce doubles e.g. sofio..mata…anelo instead of soffio, matta or anello. Due to the exceptional literacy of our people on account of Maria Theresa (see adjoining article), they wrote in italian but whoever writes in dialect (as I insist on doing!) will find that people have difficulty in reading and processing the sentences. Why does the Filò try to “teach” it? Rather it attempts to recollect the words and possibly the sounds to recall how our people spoke in the very own and distinctive way. Recently, Dale Andreatta from Ohio wrote that the word “teston” in the vocabulary display practically recreated the voice of his dad saying that very word to him. Someone else wrote that Valà…(You don`t say…) was expression of his nonni…Perhaps as we join them someday al di la…in the beyond, they will first emphatically say to us…Ma valà…. Do consider going to the web site of the Museo degli Usi e Costumi della Gente Trentina (The Museum of the Ways and Customs of the Trentino People) to hear film clips of people in the Province speaking the dialect… Here is their website

Mi son stà Ti te sei stà Lu l`è sta Noi sem stadi Voi sè stadi Lori i è stadi

diaol difizil gnanca joven misiot porcel pir paiazo pu porin scavezar pipi stupà stofech amarot amó asé ason basin

(Io sono stato) (Tu sei stato) (Egli è stato) (Noi siamo stati) (Voi siete stati) (Essi sono stadi)

Mi sonte stà? Te set stà? Lu elo sta? Noi sente stadi? Voi sè stadi? Lori ei stadi?

Vocabulary & Phrases Dialect is in RED; Italian in BLUE; English in BLACK diavolo difficile neanca giovane miscuglio porcello pera buffone più povero sprezzare urina tapato soffocato amaro ancora aceto asse larga baccino

devil difficult neither young man a bunch of things pig pear buffon more pauper break urine tapped humid bitter again vinegar large piece of wood small kiss


Tasi e scolta. Taci e ascolta. Keep quiet and listen. Far presa. Far fretta. Hurry up!

No ghe la fago pu. Non lo faccio più. I cannot handle it. Scominzio `l libro. Incomincio il libro. I began to read.

Cossa ghe sarà a disnar. Che c’e da mangiare oggi. What is there to eat today? Cossa dirà la zent? Che dirà la gente? What will people say?

Quando me son desmissià, ero sudà. Quando mi sono svegliato, ero sudato. When I awoke, I was soaked (with sweat).


Our Emigrants and the Unions

ne characteristic of the Trentini and other immigrants from Northern Italy, which set them apart from those from Southern Italy, was that they accepted unionization, joining the unions en masse - a fact that may have kept them out of the clutches of criminal organizations. It is interesting to note that the unionization of Trentini in America was approved by the Catholic Church of Trento, which certainly did not do so at home where they feared the Socialistic ideas that unions were spreading among the working classes. In 1912, G. Rossi, a priest, circulated, in the Trentino and in their colonies abroad, a booklet entitled 'Vademecum - Advisory to the Emigrant'. The booklet, among other subjects, urged the workers to join the unions and if possible, to shun the big American cities, where, it was feared, they would lose their faith. It also advised them to avoid the mines where they might lose their health. In the mines, life was usually difficult - hard work, which was often injurious to their health, and marginal and often unsanitary housing. These conditions were not wholly the fault of the employers. The workers themselves often willingly accepted the harsh working conditions, lured by the myth of big money - those dollars, which sent back home, at favorable exchange rates, would rescue their families from ruin. With the dollars and the francs, marks, Argentine pesos and Brazilian reis, the Italian Tyrol was able to survive the severe economic crises of 1870 through 1890.In the 1890's, cooperative banks began to spring up in the small towns of the Dolomites. The first was in the Bleggio region, inspired by Don Lorenzo Guetti. But who, in these small mountain communities could put money into the bank? Only the emigrants. The money they sent home gave strength to the economy and permitted its modernization.

in 1901; and at the Union Pacific mine in Wyoming in 1903. At least 25 perished in Trinidad, Colorado in 1907. Not a week went by without some mention of a miner lost in a tunnel collapse or an explosion. In addition to the disasters, there was silicosis, called 'la Prussiera' in the Trentino dialect, which took the lives of men at the age of 50, 40 or even 30. Just one example: the newspaper 'Il Trentino', in its issues of December 11th and 15th, 1911, reported the death of the last of seven brothers, the Marchetti's of Dovena in the Non valley. They were all victims of the mines - the oldest was just 44.

At home these workers were pious churchgoers, submissive to the clergy, which sought to distance them from the lures of the labor movement and Socialism. Once in the United States, however, they embraced new ideas, becoming socially and politically conscious. Some photographs arrived back home, showing some miners from the Non valley, decked out in Masonic robes. At the time the Masons were the great enemies of Catholicism! But it was the unions which educated the workers as to their rights and the Trentini not only joined the unions but distinguished themselves by their activism. In 1893, in Weir City, Kansas, the miners rebelled, striking and causing damage to the mines. The military were called in and fired upon the demonstrators. But a union representative let the crowd know that 200 workers - Italians, Tyroleans and blacks - were on their way from Colorado to lend support. In 1905, a Trentino union member in Colorado was killed by the police. The American working class, resisting the great power of the mine owners, often launched strikeswhich lasted days or even months. The strikers could persevere only with the solidarity of their fellow workers, who collected and distributed food, medicine and clothing. In the end, many would move on to another mine, or another state, or back to the Tyrol. But those who stayed on were changed. A miner from Non wrote home in 1897, "How many poor people without work, without money, without bread! The poverty in the United States is awful and if the millionaires don't help, you will soon hear of chaos in North America. It won't be pretty for the workers, but it will not be much better for the rich, because the poor outnumber the rich. In Between 1890 and the First World War, the press in the short, either raise our wages or there will be civil war.� Trentino printed numerous reports concerning the difficulties in the American mines. First, there were the min- Evidence of this new social awareness on the part of the ing 'incidents' - some Trentini lost their lives in disasters American miners was soon seen in the Trentino. In 1908, striking miners at Canal San Bove received dollars from at Vulcan, Colorado in 1896; at Galouss, New Mexico 28

families had joined them, established saloons and small hotels. The United States was large - a whole continent! If there was no work in one state, you tried your luck in another - in Alaska, for instance, some Trentini joined the Gold Rush. In 1897, two brothers from Brez in the Val di Non, left for the Yukon. Others from Creto in Valle del Chiese, went to Dawson and later to the Seward peninsula. One worker from Transacqua, Giovanni Dell'Antonia, went back to the Trentino after his own quest for gold and was thereafter known as 'Laska'.

the American workers and later, more dollars from the USA were sent to striking woodworkers in Valle di Fiemme. Mutual aid societies were founded by Tyrolean workers at Black Hawk, Dilsunville, Premier, and Sopris in Colorado, and at Kemmer, Diamondville, and Cambria in Wyoming. The mine and the United States of America were radically changing those mountain men and not always for the better. From the newspapers of Trento, we learn not only of Tyroleans killed in the States, but of Tyrolean killers - almost unheard of at home. At Atlas, Pennsylvania, in 1910, a Trentino was sentenced to death for homicide, and in 1913, some Trentino miners were found guilty of stealing $100,000 worth of minerals from the mine. The America of arrogant capitalism, uncontrolled development, big cities and consumerism, changed the soul of these men who had left their small communities -poor and isolated in their mountains, and a society organized around their faith, their small properties and their family. Antonio Scaglia, from Storo, arrived in Cambria, Wyoming in 1903. For many years he sent money back to his parents, working both in the mines and on the railroad. He became an American citizen and married a local woman, who gave him a son. In 1917, the American government sent him back to Europe, to fight the Austrians, whose army included his own brothers. On his return, he rediscovered that American society was quite unlike the society of the Trentino. He wrote home, "My wife had changed and I left her and the government gave me a divorce." America, a new society, a new culture!

The children of the miners could go into business or work in offices or in factories. The miners' wives frequently took in boarders - other miners, relatives or fellow townsmen, providing them food and lodging, and doing their laundry. Often the wives earned more than their husbands did. Some miners, especially those whose 29

Other Trentini came to the States to become factory workers. A large number of them found work in Syracuse and in Solvay, New York. While Hazelton, Pennsylvania employed the greatest number of Tyrolean miners - 2000 in 1911 - it was Solvay which absorbed the most factory workers. The Trentino-American author, Rita Cominolli, wrotean excellent book, 'Smokestacks Allegro, the Story of Solvay, a Remarkable Industrial Immigrant Village, 1880-1920'. She relates that in 1900, 2500 of Solvay's 7000 residents were of Trentino origins. For Trentini immigrants, American life was not easy. Initially they came up against a society that was very different from their own, where they had to take on heavy and often unhealthy work. Often they were looked down upon as 'dagos' the disparaging term for Italians. To distinguish themselves from other Italians, they formed Tyrolean Clubs, dedicated to Franz Joseph and to Andreas Hofer. For the first generation, it was a wrenching transplant to the new world - homesickness, thankless work, and even physical suffering. But what hurt the most was the realization that their children were no longer 'us' - they were becoming part of 'them', speaking another language and adhering to a new way of life, with different family and religious values. Nevertheless, these people were grateful to the United States for having given them work and the possibility to put down roots. Above all they had a new dignity. The Trentino peasant had been on the lowest rung of the social ladder, with few, if any, opportunities to scale that ladder. In America, instead, if they worked hard, they would prosper and achieve higher economic and social success. Renzo Grosselli is a noted journalist of L’Adige the main newspaper of the Trentino. He has researched the history of emigration from the Trentino and has published the book L’Emigrazione dal Trentino dall Medioevo all Prima Guerra Mondiale (Trentino Emigration from the Middle Ages to the First World War).


Ledro: Fields of Flowers & Battle

he Alps of Ledro are a small group of peaks situated in the southernmost region of the western Trentino. On the south, they border on Lombardy and on the west, with the Valli Giudicarie. On the north lies Bleggio and Giudicarie and on the east is the Sarca valley and the Trentino segment of Lake Garda, the largest lake basin in Italy. The peaks of the Ledro Alps are not particularly high - few are over 2000 meters. The chain encircling Val Concei, with Monte Cadria at 2254 meters, are the highest of this group. On the southern tier, the highest peak is Monte Tremalzo at 1974 meters. The streams running down these mountains all flow into the Lake of Ledro, a gem of a lake, which since the 1930's has been used for hydroelectric purposes. But it remains a jewel, set in the green of the mountains, and it's the place to cool off during the summer months. This region has no great attraction for alpinists. Rather, it is a paradise for hikers and it attracts naturalists and history buffs. The naturalists come because of the rare botanical specimens found here - over 1500 different plant species have been identified. Due to an altitude variation of 2000 meters over 15 kilometers, the vegetation ranges from Mediterranean flora at the base to alpine landscapes at higher altitudes. The low altitude plants are best observed from the Ponale path, the old road around the lake, built by Giacomo Cis in 1852 and up until 20 years ago, the only access road to the Ledro valley from the area of Lake Garda. As one climbs up from the lake, its influence diminishes and the vegetation changes. We pass through stands of beeches, then through Alpine conifer woods to the fields strewn with edelweiss and primula at the top. Botanists from all over Europe come to Monte Tremalzo to study the large number of rare plants found there. In the spring, the pastures are covered with lilies, gentians, bachelor buttons, and numerous species of orchids with their unique colors and scents- the small Bordeaux orchid smells like chocolate and vanilla. In summer,the rocks and gravel beds are carpeted with the beautiful fuchsia, silene elisabethae, (named after Grandduchess Elizabeth, the wife of the Viceroy of LombardyVenetia), as well as with the blues of rock primrose and Canterbury bells. Truly a scene not to be missed!

on July 21, 1866. It was during Northern Italy's third war for independence, when the Trentino was ruled by the Hapsburgs. Giuseppe Garibaldi led a corps of Italian volunteers which fought the Austrians at Bezzecca. But he was forced to retreat by an order of Victor Emmanuel, (to whom Garibaldi reportedly replied "Obbedisco" - "I obey"), thus leaving the field to the conquered enemy. Even during the First World War, these mountains were the scene of many skirmishes between the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Kingdom of Italy. Alomg the northern wall of the valley, hundreds of meters of trenches were constructed, some of which are still traversible today. On the southern side, the Italians built an imposing road which is still being used by numerous bikers descending and climbing between Tremalzo and Lake Garda.

Other remaining sites are at the refuge of Al Fagio in the Concei valley at 965 meters; the Grassi refuge hut at Campi di Riva (1047 meters); the Garibaldi refuge at Passo Tremalzo (1521 meters); and the charmIng San Pietro refuge on Monte Calino, with its adjacent church, built in 1683. Traveling by car from Riva del Garda, it is suggested that the first stop be at the waterfall, Cascata del Varone, where the admission fee allows one to visit a lovely canyon which inspired several pages of Thomas Mann's 'The Magic Mountain'.It was also the inspiration of many painters of the Nineteenth and Twentieth centuries, such as Theodore Compton, Zeno Diemer, etc. Beyond the Museum of the stilt houses of Ledro, is the The valley is also of interest to military historians, 'must see' medieval town of Canale di Terino with its because it was the scene of important battles and there famous "Artists' House" - one of the prettiest towns of are remaining fortifications. The most famous battle Italy, where the visitor feels as if he has been transportfought among these mountains took place at Bezzecca ed more than 1000 years back in time. 30



The Hobnail Smithy t the Fucina delle Broche it is possible to see how hobnails were once forged. These hobnails were used as late as the last century to protect the soles of shoes. In the Ledro valley, it was a very important industry, so important that it even allowed the Ledro men to be withdrawn from the front during the First World War, and to avoid military service during the Second. The establishment of ironworks in the seventeenth century brought widespread change and significant effects on the economy which had governed the life of the valley for centuries - an unprofitable economy based on farming, lumbering and shepherding. The ironworks opened the doors to more lucrative occupations, which, for the next two centuries employed hundreds of workers: some directly in the forging of iron, others in factories using that iron in the manufacture of various products, and still others involved in transporting supplies and products to and from Porto del Ponale. Additional workers were employed in converting wood to charcoal for the casting ovens. A century later, there were 13 large ironworks in the area. But Napoleon's triumphs and the subsequent passing of the Trentino region to the administration of the Hapsburg Tyrol, led to significant decrease in production. The crisis continued until the 1850's when the ironworks of Ledro closed completely. Only a few smithies remained open for the production of horseshoes, farm tools and nails. A new push to the industry occurred in 1866, when workers from the provinces of


Brescia and Bergamo congregated in the valley and reopened the closed establishments. They initiated a product line far more sophisticated than the hobnails of the past, requiring greater ability and specialization. The workers of Ledro resumed the production of 'shoe nails', especially at Pre` and Molina, where, in the smithies, the rhythmic beat of hammers could again be heard. . These more modern hobnails were of various shapes and sizes and served to protect the soles of shoes, which for the most part were leather, whereas they hadpreviously been made of wood. This activity continued until the ironworks were again closed when the workers were conscripted to serve in the Austrian army during the First World War. As a result, the army lost its supply of hobnails. Thanks to the efforts of the pastor of Molina, the government at Vienna granted a furlough to many exnailmakers and assigned them to a few smithies which it had built in the center of its empire. There they stayed throughout the war, avoiding the risks of battle. BUT...each nailmaker had to turn out about 1,000 nails a day - no small feat, considering that each nail required between thirty and forty hammer strikes. Even during the Second World War, 'shoe-nails' were in great demand, but dispensations from military service and furloughs were not readily granted. So, in order to fill the need, young boys and elderly workers went back to the ironworks. Immediately after the war, the use of rubber soles dealt a blow to the industry. The nailmakers found themselves unemployed! About forty years later, the Commune of Molina decided to reactivate a small smithy with the aim of historic preservation. It consists of one furnace and four workbenches, equipped with the old tools of the trade. Also on display are samples of all types of the old 'shoe nails.' Here, on special occasions, or by order of Ledro’s Consortium, the remaining smithies fire up the furnace and demonstrate with great enthusiasm for visitors, how the old hobnails were fabricated. Consorzio per il Turismo della Valle di Ledro


Family Stories: The Beretta’s

mongst my relatives and their friends there goes a saying about polenta: the farther up the Italian peninsula you travel, the harder the polenta gets. This was true in the case of my nuclear family. My mother, Leonilde Beretta, being from Tuscany, made the polenta soft enough to spread out on the serving board. Contrarily, my father’s family made the polenta firm. When they were finished cooking it they had to scoop it out of the brass pot to serve it. The modern expression, “it’s all good,” certainly could be applied to our polenta differences. Every polenta meal with us was a celebration of our particular Italian heritage.

It is real and it is powerful. The beautiful and majestic Austrian City of Graz was as far south as our tour would allow us, regrettably. My family’s 1969 journey to our motherland does have to suffice me for now. My lovely and gracious wife of twenty years, Theresa Beretta, has always had a dream of traveling to Italy. Through the Navarino Berretta experiences of students from Marist College—her beloved home of employment—her dream is becoming ever so vivid and never closer to being realized. Our sons, Raphael Augustine Beretta and Valentino Blaise Beretta, have keen interests in studying abroad in their ancestral native land, following in the footsteps of the fine Marist College students that have preceded them.

My father, Navarino Beretta, was given a unique name, and in many cases people with unique names develop unique personalities. This was the case with my father. He was blessed with a fine Italian intellect and an uncanny ability for concentration. Although he could not devote his main attention to his schooling, he had an immense respect and love for literature. He often told me, during my childhood, that his one regret was not having the opportunity to study the great works of literature. With his father deceased and being newly emigrated to the United States (during the Great Depression), his time had severe economic demands that did not allow his pursuing a much desired higher education. He learned the trade of machinist and tool and dye making. This acute ability for precision allowed him to excel in his adopted Leonilde & Navarino Berretta trade. I came to respect his abilities very much, but In the last dream I had of my father (after his passing), I especially as I grew older. was sitting by a pool in the back yard of a beautiful, Italian-styled mansion. The pool, as well as the mansion L to R: Navarino, Domenica, Fausto, Regardless of his lack of itself, seemed to be in need of much care. My father Teresa & Robert (front) musical talent, he loved looked very happy working on his heavenly mansion. He music, and in particular the Val di taro music that is so had a knowing, relaxed way about him, and kept initiating signature to his place of origin—Val di Ledro Trentino. intimate conversations with me while walking back and My career being musician and author certainly speaks forth to the sites of his self-designed improvements. It demonstrably for my father’s influence. While touring was much like his retired life, in which we shared many with legendary rock guitarist Leslie West, on our 21 city times like this one in my dream—minus the pool and the jaunt across Europe, making our way through the Alps, I mansion. could feel the pull of the terra dei miei antenati. Written by Paul John Beretta, Wappingers Falls, NY 33

I Proverbi: Wisdom Stories

A sèt agn s’è pitèi a setanta s’è amò quèi. I vecchi sono come i bambini. At seven years, you are children and at the seventy you are again children. Nó l’è bèl quel ch’è bèl, l’è bèl quel che piàs. La bellezza è soggettiva. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder.

Nó sé sa se l’è mèi mantignìr ‘l gat o li sós. Non si sa se il rimedio sia peggiore del male. One does not know if the remedy is worse than the cure. Ó prèst ó tardi sé paga tut

Di tutto si deve rispondere prima o poi. One needs to attend to things sooner or later.

Ogni dì sé fa la luna, ogni dì sé n‘mpara una Ogni giorno si impara qualcosa di nuovo. Every day the moon comes out and every day one learns some new thing.

Poarèta che la cà che de vec nó ghén sa Povera quella casa che non ospita vecchi. Sad is the house that does not host the elders. Quande l’amór ‘l ghè, la gamba la tira ‘l pè L’amore dà la carica. Where there is love, your pulls your feet.

La bóca no l’è straca se no la sa de vaca Il pasto deve essere chiuso dal formaggio. The meal should conclude with cheese.

The Origins of Trentini Names

Tutti li cimi scorla. Tutti I geni sono un po` matti. All genius are somewhat disturbed.

Beretta Derives from Arts and crafts, especially those who made or sold hats and from some person who was singular wearing a hat. Val di Ledro. Casari derived from one who makes cheese; Val di Ledro, Val di Fiemme

Mora Nickname for someone of dark skin or hair. Val di Ledro. 1497 Pietro fu Bartolomeo de la Mora Bizzecca

Oradini From the name Oliuradino; Val di Ledro; 1551-Ser Bartol di Oradini in Pieve di Ledro; Francesco Oradini (1699-1754) born in Bezzecca, sculptor;Tomaso Oradini (XVII-XVIII) born in Val di Ledro, sculptor and architect. Ribaga Attributed to the merchant of Ribaga Oil made with the branches of laurel. Arco-Riva. 1400 ser Bertolino detto Ribaga a Tiarno. Santi derived from the tradition and the devotion to a Christian saint—from the Latin Sanctus signifyig sacred, venerated, holy, respected

Segala-derived from the word for Rye, a cereal common throughout the Trentino; Val di Ledro; Niccola Segala ad Enguisco Announcing….The ITTONA Convention will be held in Ogden, Utah July 17-20, 2014 To register, go to 34

Our Partners are . . .

Alberto Chini, Presidente of Father Eusebio Chini Museum, Segno, Italy Alberto Folgheraiter - Author, journalist and specialist in Trentino culture Christian Brunelli - Technical Consultant Ricardo Di Carli - Biblioteca della Montagna-SAT, Trento Veronica Coletti - Bronx, New York Giorgio Crosina - Director, Phoenix Informatica Bancaria Jim Caola - Genealogist, nutritional counselor, macrobiotic chef, Verena Di Paoli - Writer, Researcher, Scholar Daniela Finardi - Communications Department -- Museo degli Usi e Costumi della Gente Trentina Renzo Grosselli - L`Adige, Journalist, Author Tomaso Iori - Bivedo, Val di Giudicarie-Curator of Museo Scuola, Rango Manuele Margini - Phoenix Bancaria Informatica Stefano Miotto - Phoenix Informatica Bancaria Ivo Povinelli - Director - Federazione Trentina della Pro Loco e loro Consorzi Trentino Marketing S.p.A - Trentino Sviluppo SpA -- Department for Tourism and Promotion -

Our Contributors are . . .

Luca Angeli - Chicago, IL Teresa Bean - Napa, CA Lois Benvenuti - North Adams, MA Paul John Beretta - Wappingers Falls, NY Mary Lou DeRosa - Fairfield, CT Emmanuel Fedrizzi - Pownal, ME Mirina Filippi - Consorzio per il Turismo della Valle di Ledro Professor Alberto Ianes - Museo Storico, Trento Margaret Olivieri - Napa, CA Stefania Oradini, Consorzio per il Turismo della Valle di Ledro Natalia Pellegrini, Consorzio per il Turismo della Valle di Ledro Roberto Ribaga, Tiarno, Val di Ledro Romana Scandolari, Consorzio per il Turismo della Valle di Ledro

Photo Credits

Front Cover: Gianni Zotto Page 5: Archivio della Federazione Trentina della Cooperazione Pages 6-7: Museo degli Usi e Costumi della Gente Trentina; Flavio Faganello Page 9: Consorzio per il Turismo della Valle di Ledro Page 10: Azienda per il Turismo-Val di Non Pages 14-16: Consorzio per il Turismo della Valle di Ledro Page 18: Ben Weisenfarth Page 19: Consorzio per il Turismo della Valle di Ledro Pages 20-21: Trentino Sviluppo SpA -- Department for Tourism and Promotion Page 31: Ben Weisenfarth; Consorzio per il Turismo della Valle di Ledro; Consorzio per il Turismo, Valle di Ledro; Marco Simonini Page 32: Gianni Zotta

Our sincerest thanks to Giorgio Crosina and Phoenix Informatica Bancaria for making the distribution of the Filò possible throughout the United States. 35

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Profile for Louis C. Brunelli

FILO - Winter 2014  

A Journal for Tyrolean Americans Val di Ledro

FILO - Winter 2014  

A Journal for Tyrolean Americans Val di Ledro

Profile for cbrunelli