A Journal for Tyrolean Americans Fall 2013
An Introduction . . . Dear Fellow Tyrolean Americans… I just got back from the second visit to the Province. There were mountains to climb and trails to follow…but also and ever more present and urgent is the hopping from valley to valley, interviewing people, researching, reading and engaging ever more persons throughout the Province to better understand our people, their customs, their ways, their history, and their lands since these things are the very stuff of who we were…and to keep repeating, they provide the insights, the literacy of who we are…Cultural literacy, knowledge of our past creates a cultural awareness of ourselves. This awareness reinforces our cultural identity. We have an ambition of not only presenting the lands and customs but to attempt to define the very persona of our people. Your help is needed…your suggestions, your insights and memories would be appreciated and welcomed. We again express our heartfelt appreciation for Phoenix Informatica Bancaria which continues to support the Filò which now reaches almost 4600 of us throughout the USA. Phoenix is part of the Cooperative Movement of Don Guetti that so helped our people historically and continues to so in the present. We also thank Carlo Dellasega, Director of the Federazione Trentina della Cooperazione (the Association of the Cooperatives), who collaborated with the Filò enthusiastically to rally his paesani in the Val di Fiemme to collaborate and contribute their insights for this issue. Yet still in “autumn” yet proximate to Christmas…in our dialect, we wish you a Bon Nadal… The Filò Staff The Filò is to be published and distributed on a quarterly basis and is targeted to the children of our immigrant parents. The Filò (pronounced fee-lò) was the daily gathering in the stables of the Trentino where the villagers met and socialized. The intent is to provide a summary of our culture, history, and customs in plain English to inform and provide you with the background of your roots and ancestry.. If you wish to contact us, call Lou Brunelli at 914-402-5248. Attention: Your help is needed to expand our outreach to fellow Tyrolean Americans. Help us identify them, be they your children, relatives or acquaintances. Go to filo.tiroles.com and register on line to receive the magazine free of charge. You may also send your data to Filò Magazine, PO Box 90, Crompond, NY 10517 or fax them to 914-734-9644 or submit them by email to firstname.lastname@example.org. Front Cover: Palazzo di Magnifica Comunità, Val di Fiemme
Guetti: The Tyrol’s Autonomy
e have analyzed the political action of Don Lorenzo Guetti , a priest from the Giudicarie vallies, an area of Western Trentino. His great work is best seen in the field of “cooperatives,” through the creation of the “Famiglie Cooperative” and “Casse Rurali”, as well as those structures that enabled people from the Trentino to come out of poverty and begin a new era of dignified economic prosperity. His yet other achievement was his activism in favour of the autonomy of Italian Tyrol, i.e. the present-day Trentino. For 800 years, the Italian Tyrol. . .the present day Trentino was a feudal state of the Prince Bishop of Trento. It was the Principato of Trento and belonged to the “Holy Roman Empire of the Church. With the end of the Principato in 1803, the Italian Tyrol..now the Trentino became part of the “Princely County of Tyrol. Since 1803, although inhabitants of the Tyrol, specifically the Welsch Tyrol or the Southern Tyrol, Trentino people have become officially Tyroleans, producing a radical change from a political, civic and administrative point of view.
Whereas Trento was once the centre of the public life (power, public offices, justice and taxes) of the territory, after the Treaty of Regensburg of February 24, 1803, the city of Innsbruck, which was already the capital of North Tyrol, became the centre of the whole region. Innsbruck was the place where the Diet (Parliament) of the County was based, and where all institutions and public offices that “governed” the public life were moved. Trento became a peripheral city, practically anonymous; Innsbruck acquired the role of central engine of the whole Tyrolean community.
bureaucratic institutions for administrative formalities: everything contributed to increase the distance and the incomprehension between the Province of Tyrol and Italian Tyrolean citizens. More simply: from the valleys of Trentino, Innsbruck was really difficult to reach, considering the transport means of that time (even if the construction of the Brenner railway was initiated half way through the 17th century); in Innsbruck German was spoken, which Trentino people did not know at all (at least common people); bureaucracy, like today, made things even more complicated; and last, but not least, the power (seats in Parliament) was firmly held by the German part of the provincial institution, with a well-organized majority. All this contributed to create a sense of deep frustration in South Tyrolean people. Since they were different for their culture, tradition, language and history, according to Don Guetti and friends, they should have an independent Parliament, ensuring proximity to the people. According to him, this would mean a better relationship between governors and governed, and a way to control how they used their power.
Don Guetti writes: “To my supporters - he writes - I want to say that I consider the autonomy of our country as the cornerstone of its interests and its political life, as the only effective means to raise our country again from the situation where it finds itself, to develop its latent resources, to heal the plague threatening our Districts. Consequently, I want it, like any good patriot, and I want it real, corresponding to its needs, which are neither few nor small.” ( “La famiglia Cristiana”, January 4, 1892) Nobody ever listened to him. Austria never granted What consequences did this new political-administrative autonomy to Trentino people, nor did Italy under situation have for Trento (therefore Italian) citizens? Fascism! We had to wait until 1948 to see the dream of Obviously, everything became more complicated for father Lorenzo Guetti come true! them. This is what Don Guetti will later describe, as Fr. Marcello Farina is a priest, high school clearly as he usually does: the political power of Tyrol, teacher of philosophy, an adjunct professor according to him, was far from the actual needs of the at the University of Trent, author of many books including E per un uomo la terra regardpeople, who were engaged in a daily struggle for survival. ing the life and work of Don Guetti. The slowness of interventions, the superficiality of the analysis of the problems, the remoteness of the 5
Madonna of the Val di Fiemme he sanctuary of the Addolorata (The “Mother of Sorrows” or Pietà) is a cemetery chapel. The present-day chapel was built in 1829, designed by Giuseppe Dalbosco, who also designed the cemetery of Trento. It mirrors the architectural lines of Rome’s Pantheon. Previously, at this site, stood the chapel of the Bertelli family of Preore, which was indeed, used for funeral rites. The chapel had a crypt which, for some time, served as an ossuary, and an upper nave dedicated to St. Michael the Archangel.
the new sanctuary was laid in 1825 and it was consecreated on August 15, 1830 by Monsignor Giuseppe Riccabona, the bishop of Passavia. The statue of the Pietà has been taken from the sancuary dozens of times, and carried in procession through the streets of the village. This has always happened in times of drought, plague, or other public calamities. For example, on July 2, 1782, the Community Council of Fiemme declared a solemn vow to the Pietà. Fifteen years later, in 1797, the people of Fiemme -- and particularly, those of Cavalese
The legend concerning the founding of the chapel is similar to the one surrounding the development of the nearby chapel of Pierabla-Weissenstein. The state of the Pietà had been removed from the parish church in the sixteenth century when a new chapel, the Rosary chapel, was added. The statue could not be burned, as was the custom for wooden statues removed from churches and no longer needed. Instead, the statue was buried in sacred ground in the same parish cemetery. Discovered by accident in 1645, by the sacrestan Vitale de Vitali, it was placed on the altar of the ossuary crypt of the Bertelli chapel, dedicated to St. Michael. Devotion for
- maintained they had been spared looting by the French armies, thanks to the protection of the Pietà. During the popular uprising of Andreas Hofer, the Community, fearing rioting, vote to ‘raise’ the statue. In the seventeenth century, there were numerous processions to exorcise the drought which threatened crops andtherefore the very lives of the people. More processions took place in 1832, 1839, 1849, 1861 and 1881.
the sacred statue became widespread, the site became known as the Chapel of the Mother of Sorrows, becoming the destination of numerous pilgrimages. Finally, after a large bequest from Don Antonio Longo da Varena (who died in 1820), the old chapel was demonlished and a new sanctuary was erected in its place and the statue has been there ever since. The first stone of
Solemen rites were celebrated during the two cholera epidemics of the nineteenth century. In 1836, the people of Fiemme turned to Maria with public prayers and on August 19th, there was a solemn procession with the miraculous statue. The scourge was avoided and not a single case of cholera was noted in Fiemme. In August of 1881, the town council of Fiemme again urged vows and prayers and even declared a fast of public penitence, imploring rain. Crowds of people flowed in, not only from every part of the valley, but also from the Adige Valley, from Egna, Montagna, Bronzolo and Val di
Dembra. On August 2, 1881, 15,000 pilgrims were reported. The following year, on September 17, 1882, the Fiemme Valley, along with a large part of the Trentino, was devastated by catastrophic flooding. A votive tablet, hanging on the walls of the sanctuary, commemorates that event. It records that Pietro Ballante was saved after spending three days in the flood waters. And then the drought returned. Those were difficult years marked by hardships and seasonal migrations. Then came the First World War! At the end of that painful period, in 1919, the community leaders decreed that there would be an annual procession. In June of 1944, a new solemn vow was pronounced: “If the Valley would be spared the horrors of this war,” a special Mass would be celebrated every five years on the third Sunday of
September. An ‘Act of submission to the Madonna Addolorata’ was declared on May 26, 1996. From promise to promise, from one vow to the next, especially in bad times, this sanctuary has been, for the people of the Fiemme, a source of hope, and if not hope, at least resignation.
In 1978, theives sought to rob the statue, thinking it a praiseworthy wooden sculpture. But they had not figured its weight, it being an amlgam of alabaster and plaster of Paris. The Statue was dropped to the ground. It was subsequently sent ot Bologna for restoration under the auspices of the Province of Trento. On May 24, 1980, the statue was returned to the Fiemme community.
Alberto Folgheraiter is the author of many books regarding the Trentino, including his definitive and colorful book I Sentieri dell`Infinito-Storia dei Santuari del Trentino-Alto Adige The Paths of the Infinite-The Story of the Sancutaries of the Trentino Alto-Adige sanctuaries.
Fiemme’s Treasure: Its Woods magine…to this day, the city of Venice still lies on the trunks of spruces and larches of Val di Fiemme. After consuming the woods in the flatlands, Venice started to import high-trunk trees from the Alps and the Dolomites, in particular from Val di Fiemme, carried out along the streams of water. The very construction of the ancient city of Venice situated on water depended on the importation of huge amounts of wood to allow the civil engineering of its city: basement poles, attics, roofs, doors and windows, design, etc. The Valley’s forest provided the material for the
for the Venetian shipyards to construct the ships that dominated the world for over 300 years.
But the forests of Val di Fiemme are famous worldwide for another reason. The famous Stradivari used to construct his renown violins with the wood of the spruces that grow in this Valley. There are very few European forests where this prestigious wood can grow and be used to create violins and other musical instruments. The Val di Fiemme is one of these magical vallies where you can see the whole production chain of this precious raw
participating musicians are asked to choose their personal spruce as a gift of Val di Fiemme given to artists who diffuse sublime melodies throughout the world, playing instruments that originate from these very forests, welcoming and well-kept places, thanks to the thousand-year management of Magnifica Comunità di Fiemme.
Effectively, several spruces in this thick forest are already “branded” with the names of international musicians: Uto Ughi, Daniel Hope, Uri Caine, Ivry Gitlis, etc. Very often, the artist develops a curious affinity with his designated tree. The ritual ends when the artist plays a track dedicated to his spruce. A mysterious resonance between man and nature vibrates in the wood. Magically, this affinity becomes palpable between these two living beings of different species, but carrying some identical chromosomes.
material. The wood is mainly produced by spruces grown in a unique context that combines exclusive land and climate. It has extraordinary mechanical-sounding features. The “resonance spruce” is still sought-after and used to create harmonic boards for string instruments such as organs, pianos, violins and others that are used and played in every corner of the world. It is studied and tested by many universities and research laboratories –In the world of music, people usually refer to the Val di Fiemme as the “Forest of the Violins” or “The Valley of Harmony.” There is a long tradition of constructing harmonic boards - deeply rooted in this valley. A valley enterprise, Ciresa of Tesero, has become the premier firm for the international manufacturers of musical instruments. It is estimated that throughout the world there are over 160,000 pianos being played manufactured with the wood of Fiemme. One area of the Val di Fiemme that best represents this special tradition if not a vocation is a forest high above the area of Predazzo.
It is a skill of the craft to recognize the “resonance” in a spruce and to discern whether the trunk has the proper characteristics for a good musical instrument and whether it has the potential for the sought after “sound”. Many master flute makers focus on the trunk to exclude possible knots from young branches that might impede the good vibration of the sound. The regular imprints that distinguish the resonance spruce can be recognized just by lifting a tiny portion of the bark. When the tree is felled, you can see these imprints in the top section.Furthermore, the master flute makers even deem the position of the spruce compared to the plants of its same age in the whole group, to understand whether it was subjected to the action of wind or if the young plants near it while growing might have depleted its “nourishing” and changed its growth and the regularity of its fibre, over the years. The best period to fell the tree down is in the late autumn, when the wood is dormant and stores less fluids and nourishment. Tradition suggest a waning moon to capture its best features. Quite a tradition! Quite a skill….quite a story! Written by Beatrice Calamari
“The Resounding Forest, il Bosco che Suona. The columns of this outdoor “temple of music”ae red spruces. The distinctive red spruces, appreciated by Stradivari and other great master flute makers like the Guarnieris and the Amatis. Every summer, these forests embraces a unique musical ritual. Renown international musicians gather at a high altitutde to take part in a musicfestival, “The Sound of the Dolomites". The
Inno...Hymn to the Val di Fiemme his song is truly a hymn of praise and celebration, a love song of the people for their beautiful and special valley and their historic way of community life.
Te salude Val de Fiem coi tò monti nevegà di ci to boschi petenà di che i 'cornisa' sta gran val...
I salute you Val di Fiemme With your snow capped mountains, With your trimmed woods Which framed this great valley;
l'è tut 'ncat la rossa val, le chesta storia nasuda qua l'è la MAGNIFICA COMUNITÀ
Our whole valley is a song, Rich with history to remember And this story, born here is called… The Grand Community of Fiemme.
Erti rivi e larghi prai baite e malghe là 'ntrà i fiori e l'Aves coi zo colori 'lzaota el sbrisa verso Trent...
Viva la val de Fiem col nigo. . .col seren Con en testa Cavales de paes la val la e piena e 'ntrà Trodena e Moena sora i copi en campanil. Ghè Pancià, Zuan, Castel, e Dajan, Caran Varena e po' Tiezer e Molina e la piana de Pardacc. Trenta cime i Lagòrai trenta ponte sora i peci e stremì 'ntrà i sassi vèci cuca 'l gruppo Latemar... e le Pale de San Martin 'na murada 'nfiamegàda che la sèra la valada
Brooks with flowing banks, large pastures, Mountain refuges and shepherd’s lodges, Sprinkled there amidst flowers, With the River Avisio and its colors, Which leap among the rocks and sliver down to Trento
Long live, long live the Valley of Fiemme With its clouds and its sunshine! The Valley is filled with towns, Cavalese is foremost And above the rooftops between Trodena and Moena There are bell towers. There is Panchià, Ziano, Castello, Daiano, Carano, Varena and then Tesero and Molina and the plain of Predazzo. Thirty are the peaks of the mountain chain Lagorai, 30 sharp peaks that dominate the forests of abete And as if frightened among the ancient rocks, There arises the Latemar Group (Dolomites) And the Peaks of San Martino (Dolomites) A fiery wall that encloses the valley From the area where the sun is born.
The song is sung by the Coro Val Lubie led by its director Franco Boschetti who has provided us with the dialectal lyrics and its Italian translation. You can hear this song on our website: filo.tiroles.com. The repertoire of the Coro Lubie can be found at their website: http://www.corovallubie.it 9
Our Cuisine: Gnocchi de Patate
nocchi completes the blessed trio of Tyrolean cuisine: Polenta, canerdeli e gnocchi! It makes a great deal of sense. Oru people had corn meal, grew and ate potatoes and with their stale bread and leftovers, they made canderdeli. While not the most wholesome or healthy of foods, they are so good. . .and probably provide us with many memories of our kitchen tables. . .I do remember that our table in Manhattan’s Greenwich Village, my mom, Adele, would make gnocchi and my father, Gustin. . . brother Nino and I would compare with determination as to which of us could eat more individual gnocchi. . .They are easy to make but probably are themselves quite fussy about what sauce are compatible with their history so keep them any such marinara sauce.
All you need are potatoes, some flour and eggs. The potatoes are usually boiled with their skins to preserve their starch. When cool the potatoes are put through a ricer, found in many stores or on Amazon. One adds an egg and flour. Like so many recipes from our none, there is that mysterious undefined measurement of. . .en cit di questo. . . or en micol. . . or “a little of this and a little of that.” Here are the proportions that I distilled from a variety of persons here in the Trentino (where I am writing this).
Assemble 2¼ pounds of potatoes, 1¾ cups of flour, an egg, salt. Steam the potatoes until tender. Pass them through a ricer while still hot (watch your fingers). Add a slightly beaten egg and the flour and salt kneading it to a soft, elastic dough. Note. . .if too much flour and the gnocchi will be hard; too much potato, the gnocchi will disintegrate while cooking. Shape the dough into long rolls just over 2/3 inch in diameter and cut into ¾ inch lengths. Bring a large pan of lightly salted water to a boil. Add the gnocchi, a few at a time, and remove them with a slotted spoon as they rise to the surface. Drain, place on a warm plate and add your sauce. Our peasant anestors simply add melted butter and grated cheese.
Leggenda: Grass on the Roof
e start out by saying that, at one time in sense, it was not passed. One citizen jumped up and said, the past, the shingle roof of the belltow- “Let's sell the grass and divide the money among the er of Carano was in terrible shape and households of the village." But a wiser villager said "The urgently needed replacement. But the amount we would get would be so small as to be insignifcouncilmen could not agree on what material should be icant'. Then, from the back of the council chamber, an used for the job! Some wanted to use the same type of old man, considered the wisest in the village, exclaimed shingles as before, while others, who had roamed the "In order to avoid insulting anyone, it would be better to world and seen many things, wanted to use copper roof- have our stud bull graze on that grass". ing, as had recently been used at the campanile of Santa That suggestion won approval by all. So, the next day, a Maria in Cavalese! The discussions went on at every pulley was installed on the roof of the belltower, and a meeting of the Council - tempers would flare, a few strong rope long enough so that both ends reached the ground, was threaded around the pulcurse words were heard and someley. One end of the rope was looped times a few fists would fly! But, alas, around the bull's neck and secured no conclusion was reached. with a running knot, and the strongest Meanwhile, up on the roof, the shinmen started pulling at the other end. gles had completely rotted away. The poor beast, lifted off the ground Finally, one winter, a referendum by the first jerk of the rope, feeling took place, using black and white itself strangled by the noose around beans. Every citizen of Carano was its neck, started to flail around desperto pick a bean - white for the shingles ately. The men pulled all the more, and black for the copper - and place hoisting the animal toward the grass it in an urn. The beans were counted that awaited it. The bull, in a desperate and the usual shingles won out. Calm effort to breath, rolled its eyes and returned to the village and it was thrust out its tongue. The crowd, coldecided to wait for spring before carlected at the foot of the campanile, rying out the wishes of the citizens. cheered the hoisters on with cries and Come spring, however, it was discovered that the old shingles on the belltower were so rotten hurrahs. When they saw the poor animal extend its that grass had begun to grow up there. The curate then tongue, the onlookers (the whole village was gathered turned to the Council and asked for the grass, which he there!) could not contain their enthusiasm. "Look, look,” said obviously belonged to him. But the sacristan, one of they cried, 'See how he is longing for that grass? He's whose duties it was to ring the bells, objected. "Oh, no", seen it! He's seen it! His tongue is out, ready to graze. he said, "if the roof had fallen while I was ringing the What a great idea it was to give the grass to our bull!' The church bells, who would have been the victim? I? Or the bull, at this point, had reached the roof, but ... he had curate? Since I was the more at risk, the grass belongs to given up the ghost a few meters below. The grass, which me". But the villagers did not agree with either of these the bull did not get to graze upon, was enjoyed a few days arguments. The people said, “We will be incurring the later by the goats, after the roof and its grass, tumbled to cost of the restoration and therefore the grass belongs to the ground - a result of the great strain it had been suball of us!' More discussions sprang up, curse words, jected to by the pulley and the hoisting. Now that roof insults and threats were heard and again some fists flew. had to be repaired ASAP to prevent further damage to Finally, the villagers turned to a passing stranger to act as the tower itself. In Fiemme today the only memory of arbitrator. He proclaimed "Your church of St. Nicholas this fable is the phrase, ‘He's seen the grass.’ The phrase and its campanile were constructed by the whole com- is used in different situations and with different inflecmunity. Therefore the grass up there belongs to all of tions. Sometimes it is used to mean that someone has you". Called into session, the councilmen asked, “but seen the snares set out for him. At other times it notes how can we divide up this armful of grass?" One coun- that someone has seen the usefulness of some course of cilman suggested they draw lots andthe winner takes the action and has profited thereby. grass - period!' Of course, because this suggestion made Written by Verena de Paoli and Giorgio Ceresa 11
Family Stories: Giorgina Zeni
y great-grandmother, Giorgina “Jennie” immigrated to the US. Her sister, Lucia, never left and Zeni came to the US in 1896 from many descendants still live in Val di Fiemme and Rome. Panchia, Val di Fiemme. Her family has long roots in Val di Fiemme and Val di Giorgina married in Pittsburgh in 1898 to Federico Fassa. Her grandfather, Giorgio Zeni, moved to the area Trentini, who came from Val di Giudicarie. He left to in the early 19th century from Faedo, a small village to avoid the Austrian army and poverty. Federico dug tunthe south overlooking the Val d’Adige. Many Zeni fami- nels throughout the Eastern US – backbreaking work lies still live in Faedo. We surmise that it was Giorgio who though he made little more than subsistence wages. established himself Giorgina was a homemaker and took in boarders. There in the family home was no money. My grandmother, Flora, recalled one toy that still stands on growing up – a pair of roller skates, but her brother, Via Nazionale, Max, took one of them to build a cart. Flora’s sister, though nothing Helen, said that one year the Christmas gift consisted of remains of the his- an orange. Giorgina lost at least one child as an infant toric interior. and a daughter, Lena, who was struck and killed by a Giorgio had 10 chil- streetcar in Lynchburg, Virginia in 1909. dren, including a priest, a midwife Giorgina and Federico were typical of Trentini at that and an engineer, my time in that they returned home multiple times throughgreat-great-grandfa- out their lives. Helen was actually born in Panchia during ther Valentino Zeni. a 1904 visit. My grandmother, Flora (born in New York He is known for a in1910), contracted pneumonia as a child; the family bridge in Panchia returned to Panchia – perhaps the cool mountain air that still stands healed her. She was playing in her grandfather today and has Valentino’s room when he died in 1913. Attilio’s family weathered many storms. The Fiemme was a relatively returned to Austria in the 1910s. They lived across from prosperous area at the time of my great-grandmother’s the Via Nazionale home above the cheese cellar. When birth in 1870, evidenced by oil portraits of her parents they returned to the US a few years later they brought and her grandmother, Candida Trettel, which have with them a portrait of Lucia Delugan, deceased since descended in various family lines. Sadly, her mother, 1874, which sat in Valentino’s home all those years. Lucia Delugan, died not long after her younger sister, Lucia, was born. Valentino remarried and had ten more children. Giorgina went to school in Merano for a time; she supposedly immigrated to the US because she was “in love with a cousin” but one wonders if the burden of caring of 10 much younger siblings under the watchful eye Georgina died in 1936. Though not elderly, a photo of a stepmother was taken shortly before her death shows a sick woman, sufficient motivation. worn down by the years. She had a difficult life, but her Old family letters sugchildren and descendants have done well by her. We are gest discord among proud parents, bankers and lawyers, a physician and a Giorgina, her half-sibpsychologist, a pilot and a world traveler and more. lings and her full brothWritten by James Bulen. Washington, DC er, Attilio, who also 12
La Caora Barbara...the Horrid She-Goat n bygone times, in the mountain chain of Lagorai, there was a horrid nanny-goat called la Caora Barbana. Her realm extended from Cimon dei Brustolin in Val Cadino to the Cima di Cece. Every so often, by night, this goat would cross the Avisio River and roam into the villages, wreaking havoc on the inhabitants. On the morning after her visit, one could hear the curses of the good people who woke up to find their gardens trampled, their woodpiles scattered and the manure cart overturned. The housewives would have to redo the laundry which they had hung on the clothesline to dry, because the goat had used its iron teeth to cut the line and then trampled the clothes when they fell to the ground.
An astute and decisive man became the shepherd for the Bombassel dairy. He took upon himself the task of destroying this diabolical creature. He thought and thought and then constructed a strong tub, making it rather narrow and deep. He placed the usual offering of meal and salt in the tub and left it outside his hut. A few days later it had been emptied, indicating that the Horrid Nanny had arrived and satisfied her hunger. The shepherd refilled the tub with the usual fare, but he then spread resin along the rim of the tub.
A few people managed to catch sight of this goat by the light of the full moon. They reported that she was three or four times the size of a normal goat, that her eyes sparkled like burning coals, that from her chin hung a long, very wooly beard, and that her horns were as long and as thick as a bullock's. More than one hunter had tried to bring her down, without success, proving that she was bewitched!. And the peasants, girding themselves for the task of cleaning up the damage, would make the sign of the cross and mutter 'this is the work of the horrid she-goat, with her iron bite and beard so white!' Even worse was the damage wreaked in the summer in the Alpine pastures. The goat herders would jump from their beds, trembling with fear, upon hearing the unexpected, frantic, bleating of their flocks dying out in the distance.
Then he waited fearfully to see the results of his efforts. Several nights later he was awakened by a series of horrible, but muted bleats, and by the sound of trampling and kicking, which resulted in a shower of dirt and stones. The wicked beast had gotten its face and wooly beard stuck in the resin and was not able to shake herself loose. The resin was doing a marvelous job. Courageously, the shepherd came out of his hut and approaching the goat, started insulting her and deriding her, egging her on so that she lunged, following the sound of his voice. Step by step he led the evil beast to The monstrous beast had scattered the goats in all direc- the edge of a cliff. The drop beyond was so deep that tions. The goatherds would be fortunate to round up when a stone was thrown down, the sound of it landing some of the flock over a period of two or three days. But could not be heard on top. many of the goats would end up in ravines where they became easy prey for eagles and foxes. Sometimes, the At this spot, the horrid goat made one last lunge trying horrid creature, having frightened off his flock, would to get to the man who was tormenting her. But he sideuse her horns to butt and overturn a shepherd's little hut, stepped quickly and the monstrous quadruped hurtled and then leap off into the distance while her monstrous into the abyss and has never been seen since. For three bleating echoed off the mountains. The only recourse days thereafter, one could see a plume of black smoke for this havoc was to prepare a tub of corn flour, well rising from below, a sign that the devil had opened a door salted, and put it out in the evening. The tub had to be to hell and had come to reclaim his creature. And so the placed high enough so that the other goats could not horrid creature disappeared from the peaceful life of the reach it, yet in full view, so that the Horrid Nanny would citizens and of the other goats. What remains is only a see it. Usually, the monster would accept the offering, memory and the admonition given when a child misbelick up the food, and go away without doing her usual haves: 'Watch out! Here comes the horrid she-goat, with mischief. But even this horrid beast ultimately met some- her iron bite and beard so white!' Written by Verena de Paoli & Giorgio Ceresa one who would take care of her once and for all. 13
The Grand Community of Fiemme s you cross the center of Cavalese, you will see a grand old mansion with its facade covered with frescos. It is the former Bishop's Mansion, today the seat of the Grand Community of Fiemme. In fact, the Fiemme valley is, to this day, part of a community organization which has its origins in antiquity. It is composed of 'vicini, ' or neighbors, who have been residents for at least 20 years, in the eleven towns which lie within and around the valley, governed by the ancient 'regole,' i.e. written laws. The ancient boundaries do not coincide with today's boundaries. The original eleven towns were Moena (now part of Fassa), Predazzo, Ziano, Tesero, PanchiĂ , Cavalese, Varena, Daiano, Carano, Castello and Trodena (today part of the autonomous Province of Bolzano). On December 31, 2012 there were 18,634 'vicini,' grouped into 8,279 'fuochi,' literally fires, or hearths, meaning families. The Bishop's Mansion that we see today has been restructured and expanded. The frescoes were applied during the era of the Bishop Prince, Cardinal Bernardo Clesio. The work was completed in 1540 during the tenure of his successor, Cristoforo Madruzzo. The Fiemme valley was always part of the bishop's see of Trento, until its secession in 1803. The origins of the Bishop's Mansion date back to the 1200's and it served primarily as a political and judiciary center, presided over by the bishop's staff and his vicar, who was the judge. The Community acquired the building in 1850 and made its headquarters there.
Every four years, the 'vicini' of each town elects its own town council - the number of members being proportionate to the number of 'vicini.' The councilman who receives the most votes becomes the 'regolano' or chief officer of the town council. The eleven 'regolani' form the General Council of the Grand Community. This general council took the place of the ancient general assembly of all the 'vicini.' The eleven regolani choose one person from among themselves to be the official legal representative of the Community, called the 'scario.' The General Council administers the whole Community, in the name of the 'vicini.' It is responsible for a few official buildings, including its headquarters, and for all its large territory (76 square miles), consisting of 49 square miles of forest, 22 square miles of pastureland with the rest remaining 'unproductive' zones.
The Grand Community of Fiemme has its own constitution, flag, and coat of arms. The coat of arms was established on December 15, 1587, by the Prince Bishop, Cardinal Ludovico Madruzzo. The Community has great social importance for the Fiemme valley, not only because of its history, but also because of its consistent land management and its public representation. It supports all public social and voluntary activities. If today the Grand Community acts only as an administrative body, let it be known that in the past it was far more important. The change occurred in 1807, when, under the Bavarian government, the ancient laws or 'Regole' were abolished and the Community, which had enjoyed a a degree of automomy, became subject to the provincial government. The organization of the Community was abandoned, the 'scario' became the cashier, and the administrative duties were delegated to a mayor. Moreover, the mayor now answers to the whole population, not just to the tenured 'vicini.' Beginning no later than 1111, for which the earliest documentation exists, until 1806, the Grand Community was involved in all administrative, economic, social, and health decisions. It also was involved in the adminstration of justice. Its seat was in Cavalese and all the officers served one year terms, as was customary in those days.Even then the Community had its own constitution, quite a bit more complex than today's. Unlike what was done in other similar communities in the bishop's see, this constitution included laws regulating the socio-economic life of the population, laws regulating the civil courts and later, in 1613, the criminal courts as well. There were also provisions for the management of forest land (dating from 1592) and the granary (1598). It even included a covenant (1593) entrusting the pastor of Fiemme, with the care of the souls of the populace. Written by Professor and author Italo Giordani.
Family Stories: I Nonni Croce
f a book were written about “Love Stories from Val di Fiemme,” the lives of Maria (Pallaver) and Arcangelo Croce, my material grandparents (Nonna and Nonno) would be prominently represented. Theirs is a a love story for the ages. At a young age, Nonna’s parents arranged for her future marriage ot the son of a middle class couple in Castelfondo (Val di Non). What custom and the two families did not anticipate, however, was that Nonna had a mind of her own. When she became “of age” she met Arcangelo, a hardworking stonemason from Predazzo in the Val di Fiemme. Family legend has it that, while owkring in Castelfondo, Arcangelo secretly watched Maria as she washed clothes in the town square. He obviously liked what he saw, and one thing led to another. Love is rarely bound by contracts made for someone by others. Thus it was with Maria. One the eve of her arranged marraige, she and Arcangelo eloped in 1914 across the Alps to Stengen, Austria, where they were married in St. Martin’s Catholic Church. They settled in the Alpine beauty of Predazzo. When World War I began, Arcangelo was inducted into the army of Austria-Hungary and went off to war, attaining the rank of colonel. He and Maria were separated for the duration of the war, a test of their young love. Arcangelo and his unit, forced to surrender to the Russians, spent time on a prison farm in Ukraine as a forced laborer on a family farm until the war ended in 1918. Upon his return to Predazzo, he and Maria resumed their lives together, and had three children including my Uncle Eugenio, Aunt Pia (Buffone), and my mother Clementine (Flaim). Severe economic conditions and no work forced Arcangelo to leave his Alpine village and his family for the United States, where he found work in the coal mines near Hazleton, Pa. In 1928, Maria and her three young children boarded the S.S. Saturnia for the long trip to join Nonno in the United States. They settled in Fern Glen, a small village near Hazleton, where trhey lived the rest of their lives. Their fourth child, my Uncle Albert, was born in the United States.
a television in 1964., the year of the Winter Olympics in Innsbruck, close to the town in which they were married. Via the miracle of television, their lives seemed to have come full circle. Shortly after their 50th Anniversary that year, Nonna suffered a stroke and she passed away at age 80 in September. Holding his arm as we both said our final goodbyes over her grave, Nonno looked at the casket with tears streaming down his cheeks and said (in Tyrolean) “Goodbye Maria. I will be with you by Christmas.” That evening he spoke of their lives together: their meeting, the challenges they faced, their love for one another and theri family, and the “Old Country,” Val di Fiemme, which they never fully left behind. Over the next several months, Nonno’s health declined as life without his lifelong love must have seemed without meaning to him. His vow to Maria to be with her by Christmas nearly became a reality, as he rapidly declined, taking his final breath on December 29, 1964, at age 83. Yes, the love story of Maria and Arcangelo Croce is truly a love story for the ages.
Nonna and Nonno were devoted to one another and shared a love that was palpable and obvious to anyone who knew them. Their family was the center of their very simple lives. They never owned or drove an automobileor flew in an airplane, nor did they have an indoor Written by their grandson, Richard Flaim bathroom until I was a teenager. They were gifted with 15
The Great Emigration
rom 1870 to 1885, for every one who immigrated to the United States, there were five who chose to settle in Latin America, the majority of these, in Brazil. Why did they choose Brazil and Argentina when the burgeoning North American superpower, with the promises of jobs and a higher standard of living, beckoned?
During this period, most emigrants were families from the lower, primarily agricultural, valleys, i.e., from the Adige, Pianta Rotiliana, Vallagarina and Valsugana. These were people who had lost their land as a result of the economic crisis. By emigrating, they hoped to regain a piece of farmland so that they might continue living as they and their ancestors had always lived. However, in the United States, it was no longer as easy, as it had been in the past, for a poor European peasant to purchase land. That period was just about over! Purchasing land now required more money than most emigrants had.
From 1870 to 1890, about $900 were needed to purchase and equip a farm. The typical Trentino emigrant, upon arrival in the USA, had, on average, just $10 to $20! Brazil, on the other hand, was in the final years of a slave-based economy and was in dire need of European labor. Therefore, it offered the emigrant free passage and the opportunity to buy cheap land, though sometimes that land was virgin forest!
building railroads, roads, aqueducts and housing. Many had sought work in the mines and quarries of Central Europe. These were the workers who arrived at Ellis Island prior to World War I. They were 'birds of passage' whose aim was to earn, in the least time possible, a nest egg to bring back to their mountains, where they would buy a piece of meadow, or some woodlands, or perhaps, reconstruct a home which had fallen into disrepair over the years. Some of these men made two, three or more round trips. With their savings, the real estate situation in the region stabilized and much of the housing was upgraded. With the American dollars (along with some francs, marks and crowns from European countries, and even some pesos and milreis from South America), the Italian Tyrol was able to survive the severe economic crises of 1870 through 1890. Over time, and because of new American laws, some of the emigrants decided to settle in the States, joined by their families.
In what sectors of the job market did these newly arrived Trentini work? And, in what area of the United States? There are two sources which can help us here. The first is the list provided, in 1921, to the newspaper L'Emigrante by Silvio Bernardi, himself an emigrant from Storo. This list was based on the research of two brothers, Enrico and Eugenio Gentilini, both pharmacists, who, in 1914, resided in Colorado and Los Angeles respectively. The second source is the 1914 research conducted by the Office of Labor Mediation, a department of the Roveretoâ€™s Chamber of Commerce. At the start of World War I, these lists tell us, the Trentini were scattered over some forty states and in nine of those states, estimates indicated colonies of over one thousand people. The largest group, of about 9000, was in Pennsylvania, followed by 3,600 in Colorado, 2,050 each in Massachusetts and Wyoming, 2,000 in New York 1,460 in Vermont, 1,250 in Michigan, 1,100 in Ohio and 1,000 in Illinois. Groups of more than 400 could be found in Alaska, California, Connecticut, Indiana, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, New Jersey, Oklahoma, Texas, Tennessee, Utah and Wisconsin. These numbers include the immigrants themselves and their children, born in the USA, who, in the course of 40 years had had the time to spread out over the American landscape. There were 467 small 'colonies' of Trentini scattered across the USA.
Over time, two trends became notable. The lower valleys no longer had a manpower surplus and the middle and higher valleys (above 500 meters), began sending out their workers into the world. These were usually only men, coming from a decades-long history of working "all'Aisempon`" (a dialectical term coming from the German "Eisenbahn arbeiter', that is, 'railroad worker'). Men had been going abroad for many years, to work on The Trentini, like the migrants from Venetia, Lombardy 16
Virginia. And many immigrants were ' aisemponeri', who continued that tradition on the railroads in Connecticut, Illinois, Massachusetts and Virginia. But in Bernardi's list we find many trades that were truly unusual for these mountain people and an indication of their capacity to adapt to new activities. There were coopers on whaling ships, and fur trappers in Alaska, they constructed ports in Maryland and were fishermen in West Virginia. But the chief activity of the Trentini in the USA was work in the mines and stone quarries. The second most frequent occupation was as a factory worker. and Piedmont, seemed to avoid the big cities.
Exceptions were the knife-grinders of Rendena and the subway workers from the Non valley who settled primarily in New York City. By contrast, the great wave of workers from Southern Italy, after 1890, characteristically chose to stay in the urban areas. Five million Italians entered the USA in the period from 1876 to 1930 - four million of them from Southern Italy. At the beginning of the twentieth century, 60% of Italian immigrants lived in the 160 largest cities of the United State, primarily on the East coast.
There was another difference between the immigrant Trentini and other Italian immigrants, even those from other Northern provinces. Because of the laws governing education in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, by 1900, illiteracy had been stamped out throughout the Dolomites, so that almost all of the Trentini arriving in America were literate. The two sources we have cited were compiled 40 years after the start of that great wave of immigration. That is why they indicate a small number of Trentini settled as agricultural workers. These were mostly found in the western and mid-western states - Arizona, Callifornia, Oregon, Colorado, Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Indiana. But there were also small colonies in Vermont, North Carolina, New Jersey, Michigan and Alabama. Some were owners of farms, others were cattle ranchers and still others were employees in these establishments.
Miners from the Trentino, from 1870 until 1920, and even as late as 1930, could be found in all the American mines. They prospected and dug for: gold in Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Nevada, Oregon and South Dakota - silver in Colorado and Idaho - copper in Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon and Utah; - coal in Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Illinois, Kentucky, Michigan, Missouri, Montana, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Tennessee, Washington, Wisconsin and Wyoming; zinc in Arizona and Wyoming; antimony in Idaho, lead in Idaho and Nevada; iron in Minnesota, North Carolina and Wyoming. And then there were the stone quarries in Connecticut, Minnesota, Montana, New York, North Carolina, Texas and Wyoming. And lastly, there were groups of Trentini extracting oil from the bowels of the earth in Illinois and Indiana. Because they did not linger in the large cities and voluntarily gravitated to the mines, the Trentini were welcome in the USA, according to the Office of Labor Mediation. Life in the American mines was hard - very hard. Often, it was inhuman.
But the main occupations of our immigrants was not farming or ranching (though in 1914 there were some ranchers in Colorado, Connecticut and Texas). Neither were there many woodsmen among them, a trade widely pursued in their native land. There were a few lumberjacks in Alaska and 'woodcutters' in California and West 17
Renzo Grosselli is a noted journalist of Lâ€™Adige the main newspaper of the Trentino. He has researched the history of emigration from the Trentino and has published the book Lâ€™Emigrazione dal Trentino dall Medioevo all Prima Guerra Mondiale (Trentino Emigration from the Middle Ages to the First World War).
Introduction to the Val di Fiemme he geographical location of the Val di Fiemme was kept been separated from the rest of the world for many centuries, protected by mountains, wolves and bears. The local populations went through the settlement of ancient Romans who left many testimonies and spread their rules and habits as well. When the Roman Empire fell apart and the barbarian invasions started, the valley became a shelter for fugitives desperately looking for a hidden and inaccessible haven. The valley is situated in the north-east corner of the Trentino flanked by the streams Travignolo and Avisio, amid the deer reserve and the “Forest of the violins” of the natural park Parco di Paneveggio-Pale di San Martino and the Parco Naturale del Monte Corno, populated by the most curious species of birds. Between the two preserves, there is the lovely Laogorai mountain chain. The Valley is surrounded by two natural parks and the dolomitic peaks: the mount Corno Bianco, the Gruppo del Latemar with its incredible pinnacles, and Pale di San Martino that provide the theatrical background of Val di Fiemme. The dolomitic mountain rock sets the landscape ablaze at sunset, with nuances that vary from orange to purple, red and violet.
The Val di Fiemme is recognized as “The Valley of Harmony” for its precious “resonance trees” that are used to create harmonic boards for pianos and violins, already appreciated by Stradivari and now by flute makers from any corner of the world. The natural melody can be heard in the “Forests of Violins” or in the “Sounding Forest,” where international musicians come every summer to “adopt” their resonant spruce. This valley enjoys the oxygen breathed by 60 million trees (according to a survey, there are 200 trees for each tourist) and puts itself out to conquer several records. More than one-third of the twenty thousand inhabitants makes daily use of thermal or electric energy from alternative resources. There are 11 villages in Val di Fiemme: Capriana, Valfloriana, Castello-Molina di Fiemme, Cavalese, Carano, Varena, Tesero , Panchià , Ziano di Fiemme, and Predazzo.
ski slopes caress the boundaries of the natural park Parco Naturale di Paneveggio Pale di S. Martino. The slopes at Passo Rolle lie at the base ofthe majestic Pale di S. Martino. From the Ski-area Alpe Cermis, with its super long slope Olimpia (4.5 miles), one can enjoy amazing views of the Dolomites. Other special vistas to see are the chalky mountains that reflect the sunrise and sunset’s colors, are at Passo di Lavazé-Occlini, where the alpine skiing meets cross-country skiing. This valley impresses one with its close and intimate relationship with the surrounding natural features. The cross-country skiing brings you straight to the core of Val di Fiemme. Thanks to two well-equipped cross-country stadiums and more than 150 kilometres of tracks in woods and dolomitic sceneries, Val di Fiemme managed to host three editions of the Nordic World Ski Championships. The ski center Passo Lavazé-Oclini is one of the most beguiling natural locations for cross-country skiers. Its altitude is favorable (over a mile high) to lets you ski from December to April. The Stadium of Lago di Tesero, lighted at late afternoon-night, is a modern facility and offers the emotion of skiing on the tracks of the World Championships competitions. In Val di Fiemme, you can practise this discipline even in the spruce and larch forests around the little village of Bellamonte (1 mile in altitude) and along the ski-rings around Predazzo, Ziano, Masi di Cavalese and Molina. Much appreciated is the legendary track of the worldwide famous race Marcialonga that goes from Predazzo to Molina di Fiemme.
When the snow peeps out, Fiemme becomes “The Cribs of Tesero,” “The Witches of Cavalese,” “Marcialonga” and “Tour de Ski”. In March, the ski slopes are transformed into the stage for well-known jazz players during the original festival “Dolomiti Ski Jazz.” The summer is the theatre of concerts at high altitudes “Suoni delle Dolomiti”, of “The Family Weeks,” “Corti di Tesero,” “Fiemme senz’auto,” “Marcialonga Running,” “Marcialonga Cycling” and “Desmontegade delle capre e delle mucche.”
Val di Fiemme's economy is mainly based on tourism. There are 110 kilometers of ski slopes in the surrounding mountains. While skiing, you are living the natural Written by Beatrice Calamari heaven at the Ski Center Latemar, up and down the 50 APT, Val di Fiemme km of slopes that connect Pampeago to Predazzo and Obereggen. At the Ski-area Bellamonte-Alpe Lusia, the 18
Val di Fiemme
Family Stories: The Benigni’s he Benigni family odyssey begins in Trentino, what is now the northern region of Italy. They came from the villages of Seo and Cavrasto in the Val di Giudicarie. The ten Benignis – including six brothers and four sisters – came to America beginning in the late 1800s. They did not arrive at the same time, as money was scarce. The voyages were made as money was saved and sent over from America from family members who had already arrived. Luigi was the first Benigni to arrive in America, in 1887. He was followed by Purificata in 1888, my great-grandfather Valante in 1889, Silvio also in 1889, Virginia, 1890; Bonifacio, 1892; Atillo, 1894; Otilla, 1896; Louisa, 1899 and Stansilo in 1911. The Benignis settled in the mining towns of Confer, Ramseytown and Brockway in Jefferson County and Brandy Camp in nearby Elk County. Here in America, they joined many of the people from their previous surrounding villages of Trentino. It was here that they married people that they had become reacquainted with from their old country.
Back (L to R): Gelindo, Silvio & Elina; Middle (L to R): Stansilo, Julia & Rosie; Front (L to R): Louis & Hazel
miners. Others opened small shops and businesses in the mining towns. Examples of these businesses include a meat market, a grocery store, and a pool hall (owned by my great grandfather). Like many families from Trentino, the Benignis followed their heritage and traditions. They tried to instill their family traditions into their children. I remember going to the grocery store with my father and meeting many people who had come here from the same area. They would greet and converse with each other in their native dialect. At least once a week, my father or my aunt would make polenta. My father made veal gravy, and my aunt made red sauce. They perfected this dish without ever measuring ingredients. My aunt always told me this was a recipe from our homeland, a fact proven to me more recently in the first Filò magazine.
Generations of the Benigni family followed their fathers and grandfathers into coal mines at a very young The members of the Benigni family can be very proud of age. Upon com- their origins. Past generations worked very hard so that pletion of the future generations could prosper. Some of the newer 8th grade and generations of the Benignis have moved to different Benigni Brothers Back (L to R): Silvio, Stanislas & Attillio the age of 13, parts of the United States, but the majority still reside Front(L to R): Louis, Valentino & Bonifacio one was qualified where their ancestors made their homes over a century to work in the mines. Valanate’s son, Canzio, only com- ago. The members of the Benigni clan can be found in pleted a few grades of school, but was very good with every working endeavor in the American market place. numbers. He was assigned the mining site job of keeping From the mining origins, descendants today include doctrack of the miner’s hours. He did not know all their tors, lawyers, engineers, psychologists and teachers. The names, but he would assign each miner a number to keep family has branched out in many vocations while never track of their hours. Being the oldest sibling in a family forgetting their heritage and sacrifices made by their of seven and wanting to help provide for the family, my grandparents and great-grandparents who originally father John Armanini (Valante’s grandson) changed his came to America assuring a better life for future generabaptism record so he could start working the mines at tions. Written by Mary Kay Sheley age 12. Not all of the Benignis were 22
Family Stories: The Andreatta’s
ccording to the tattered old document I found, in March of 1894 Maria Pinamonti made her first communion in Tasullo, in Val di Non. About a month later, across the River Noce in Coredo, Emma Zandron was born. Years later these two women would become friends in America. Emma’s oldest son, Leno Andreatta (pronounced like Lino) married Maria’s youngest daughter, Grace Kerschbaumer. Those children were my parents.
grandfather got a job in a coal mine, where he met my other grandfather.
My parents’ families were friends from the time my parents were children. In the photo, taken about 1926, my parents are both about 9, and all my grandparents are in the photo. Grandpa Kerschbaumer suffered terribly from arthritis in his later years. When he visited my father’s family they called him “Uncle Billy”, but he could not sit, he had to lean against a wall. Grandpa Andreatta Maria Pinamonti married Annibale Kerschbaumer in would sometimes massage his hands to try to bring some 1903 in Tassulo. My cousins in Italy, Claudio and Maria relief. Letizia Kersbamer traced their family history back to Jacob Kerschbamer, born in 1648 in an unknown place, My brother and I grew up close to both sides of the fambut probably the part of Trentino where German was the ily. Family gatherings were numerous, and usually includprimary language. My grandfather’s grandfather, ed polenta. Grandpa Andreatta became foreman of the Francesco Kirschbaumer, was tutor to the children of mine, my father became a Lieutenant in the army in WW Count Spaur and lived in Castel Valer overlooking II, and then superintendant of his company. Uncle Fred Tassulo. Annibale came to America immediately after Andreatta was the first of our nationality in town to go marrying Maria, and went to Uhrichsville, Ohio where to college, becoming a ceramic engineer. Homemade his older sister lived. He went by William in America and wine and large gardens were yearly events. More than worked as a coal miner. anything, both sides of the family demonstrated the value of thrift and steady work, bettering their lives slowThe Zandron family was in Coredo for a long time. In ly but steadily. 2008 the local priest put together a book with the family trees of the old families of Coredo. It traces the Written by Dale Andreatta Zandron family back to Andrea Zandron, born about Dale Andreatta volunteers to develop stoves for developing coun1520. The book is full of family names that are still com- tries as chronicled in three documentaries mon around Uhrichsville. On my visit to Italy in 2011, I got a copy of this wonderful book. I also was introduced to the current Count Spaur, a very friendly man who speaks excellent English, and he took my cousins and me on a tour of his castle. Emma Zandron arrived at Ellis Island on August 15, 1913 and went to Superior, Wyoming, where her older brother, Adolfo, had a saloon. There, she met Corrado Andreatta, who was a coal miner from the Val di Cembra. According to the family story, their accents were so different that they could barely talk to each other, but they married in 1914.
Union trouble caused my grandfather to lose his job, so my grandparents headed east toward Pennsylvania. Getting off the train in Ohio to stretch his legs, my grandfather heard people speaking the dialect and askedif there were jobs in that area. He was told, “Yes, there are jobs in the mines,” so they got off the train and my 23
An Announcement re: Fr. Chini he Filò magazine has carried two articles about Father Eusebio Chini, un de nossi…one of our very own. His accomplishments as an emigrant, a scholar, an astronomer, a cartographer, an agronomist, an explorer…and a holy missionary and man is so spectacular, so very special and significant that the United States singled him out and displays his statue and celebrates his accomplishments in our very own Capitol building in Washington DC where he is the Founder of Arizona. His greatness was for a very long time obscured and then discovered and revealed. This is especially true in the Province of Trento which still has not yet discovered him nor given him the recognition and the acknowledgement of his accomplishments. I have whispered to many my secret desire to go to Trent in the wee hours of the morning, pull down the statue of Dante (who historically and personally has done absolutely nothing for our people or lands) in Piazza Dante across from the train station and substitute that of Father Chini in its place. He is one of the greatest products of the Tyrol, and as a proud Tyrolean American, I have an ambition to detail his greatness to our community since…to repeat…he is one of our own. I began to read the many texts about him only to feel quite inadequate to frame the many details of this Tyrolean giant. Then, providence intervened. Alberto Chini, President of Eusebio Chini Society and the curator of the Chini Museum attended one of my presentations in Revò (Val di Non) in November…We developed a dialogue subsequently at the Museum in San Michele and we made a deal, un accordo…that the writers and associates of his society who have researched and written texts about Fr. Chini would collaborate and provide the Filò with a series of articles about the work and life of Father Chini. So stay tuned as we pursue our paesano…our emigrant and American hero and celebrity. Some Clarifications
Chini’s Statue at the Chini Museum in Segno
troublesome one. In Spain, “Chino” means Chinese; in Mexico, it applied to low castes. Hence, Father Chino changed his name to Kino, but this did not end the trouble. Kino is pronounced the same as Keno, the gambling game popular on trans-Atlantic ocean liners.
How did Eusebio Chini regard himself ? Was he Italian or Tyrolean? His answer is clear…he writes…Noi Germanici. . .noi Tedeschi. . .We Germans. Writing to the Duchess d`Aveiro of Spain, he states: “You ask me whether I am Italian or German. I am of Trento in the Tirol but am uncertain to assert whether I am Italian or German since the city of Trento uses the language, customs of Italy and since Segno is in the boundaries of the Tirol, my area is in the German (Austrian) territories.” Eusebio was taught in the German Province of the Jesuits and spent the rest of his education in Germany. He was under the Principato of Trento, a feudal state of Prince Bishops and Counts of the Tirol that ruled for 800 years. The Tirol, or the Welch Tirol, extended from the Brenner Pass to Rovereto. For 110 years, the Tirol was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In Chini’s time, Italy was not yet a nation-state. The nomenclature “Trentino and Trentini” was reserved for those from Trento. Hence, his statue in the US Capitol is of none other than a Tyrolean….just like 97% of those who came to USA prior to the annexation in 1919.
There are some complexities about Chini’s name. If you go to Segno of the Val di Non, everyone is a Chini. These are his relatives and survivors. Herbert Eugene Bolton writes in his biography, The Padre on Horseback, “In the early days of our missionary, he signed himself Chino or, in Latin, Chinus. When he came to America, he wrote his name Kino, to retain the Italian pronunciation. Spaniards 24
The Art of the Val di Fiemme
he Val di Fiemme has always been a veritable crosswords for different cultures each of which left behind distinctive and varied artistic expressions. One finds art from the Veneto,Lombardy, Germany, South-Tyrol and Ladin lands. In the villages of Tesero, Cavalese and Predazzo, one finds frescos and paintings from these very areas along with German-style Gothic churches, palaces inspired by the Italian Renaissance and Baroque altars created by Ladin artists. In Tesero, there is the Roman bridge considered the most important achitectural piece of art of the Middle Age in Fiemme. There are elegant fifteenth century-style bell towers are San Leonardo in Tesero and Varena's. The end of the fifteenth century and at the beginning of sixteenth century there occurs the remodeling of church Sant’Eliseo in Tesero and of the Bishop's Palace: the palace of the Grand Community of Fiemme in Cavalese. The palace, with its Renaissance and Gothic era is the best known example of the “Clesian” art of Trentino that reflects the governance of the Prince Bishop Bernardo Clesio (1514-1539). The valley’s most ancient paintings are on the façade of Casa Cazzana (also called Casa Riccabona) in Cavalese (XIV). The local painting prospered in the Seventeenth century, when they frescoed some of the churches of Fiemme. Orazio Giovannelli (1588-1639) is the leading figure of the “School of Art of Fiemme”, the only one in Trentino. Giovannelli was born in Tesero and studied in Venice. His works of art bring the Mannerism of Veneto to the mountains of Trentino, in particular into the creation of the altar piece in Valfloriana. Also Francesco Furlaner was from Tesero: he painted the altar piece in the parish church of Panchià (1677-1719). The 17-century most important artist is Giuseppe Alberti from Tesero (1540-1716), architect and painter.
Afterwards, Cristoforo Unterperger (1732-1798) distinguished himself. He studied with Francesco Sebaldo and Michelangelo and moved to Vienna and to Rome. Two of his masterpieces are the altar piece of San Giorgio in the parish church of Predazzo and the oval canvas of Assunta of the church in Parco della Pieve of Cavalese. Unterperger's pupil was Antonio Longo (1748-1820), priest, painter and architect of Varena, author of his house's fresco in Varena and of numerous Crucified Christ and paintings.
The protagonists of Fiemme's painting in the Nineteenth century were Francesco Antonio (1754-1836), Antonio (1792-1855) and Carlo Vanzo (1824-1893). The painter from Predazzo, Bartolomeo Rasmo (1810-1846), was inspired by Tintoretto. He painted the Last Dinner of the parish church of Ziano. THE PALACE
The ancient headquarters of the Magnifica Comunità di Fiemme, with its Art Gallery Museum and the historical archive, nowadays is one of the most active and elegant museums. The palace represents - considering what is contained in it, its history, its tradition, its marked identity handed down to the local people - the natural space, the elected place where man can carry on composing a long story of amazing civil and human meaning. The excellent sevenyear-long restoration, finished in 2012, has given back to citizens of Val di Fiemme an extraordinary and wonderful temple of culture.
Guided and theatrical visits reveal all the secrets that are still hidden in the palace's ancient walls. After the renovation, the visitor can also explore the jails of the nineBut the most relevant century for the painting in Fiemme teenth century where he can see the suggestive etchings is the Eighteenth, when the Unterperger's dynasty that can tell life, memories and sentences of the people became masters of Trentino's Baroque art. The forefa- imprisoned there. ther Michelangelo Unterperger (1695-1758), who studied in Venice, became the dean of the Academy of Vienna, A discreet lighting instils to the museum and to its art but in his valley he left important masterpieces like The gallery a mysterious atmosphere: hither and thither it Guardian Angel in the church of Stramentizzo, nowadays casts surprising lighted layouts that bring out the beauty arranged in the Parish of Molina di Fiemme. Francesco of paintings and frescos. The 150 masterpieces of the Sebaldo Unterperger's pieces of art (1706-1776), School of Art of Fiemme (made by Michelangelo, Michelangelo's brother, can be watched in Molina di Cristoforo and Francesco Sebaldo Unterperger) hung on the walls showing their renewed charm. Some canvas are Fiemme and in the churches of Tesero. 25
so well-lighted to let the visitor penetrate the space and In the Sixteenth century, these jail cells were savage prisapproach the subject, as if they would tell him something ons too, where the so-called witches of Cavalese were secret. jailed. Down there are guarded, with great respect, the signs that had dictated the passing of a very dark and far time.
In the prisons, the visitors can grab their torch to better watch the writings carved by the prisoners - actions, thoughts, memories. For instance, a cooper finely reproduced his tools on the wall. Another prisoner captured By exploring the rooms of the palace and going up and the image of his family house, another one proudly down the stairs, the visitor can experience the most important historical pages of Val di Fiemme. The guides dreamt of stabbing someone else's chest. reveal the ambitious of the prince-bishops and of the artists of the School of art of Fiemme, the theatrical visits embellish ancient habits, love stories, prisonerâ€™s life and ancient gossip. Costume shows lead the public into the rooms of the prince-bishopâ€™s summer housing. A suggestive and dated atmosphere is the companion of a brilliant and stimulating journey back in time, the direction is by Alessandro Arici of the company La PastiĂ¨re. Written by Beatrice Calamari APT of Cavalese 27
La Cuna: The Cradle
ur people began their lives in the tender embrace or cradle of their mother’s arms and breast and continued in the lovingly crafted cune..cradles passed from family to family. These cune in the Tyrol as well as most Alpine communities were crafted with a tradition of decorative carvings and inlay which reflected the strong religiosity and popular beliefs. Their shapes were very simple with sloping sides often carved or inlaid with decorative elements. Their posts shaped or milled with traditional columns with fluted or rounded shapes. On the headboard and end board there were holes often shaped as hearts that served as handles to move the cuna from the bedroom to the kitchen. The legs were attached to two curved pieces that served as the rocking elements. Often whether at table for a meal or seated to sew and mend clothes, the mother would use her foot to rock the cradle as she “multi-tasked”. Usually there was placed a rounded band or frame on which there was placed a light piece
of cloth to form a canopy to shield the infant from the light and from insects. On the cradle sides and the canopy frame, there were hearts, geometric shapes, an array of flowers, e.g. edelweiss, as well as religious symbols which had a fundamental purpose of preserving the infant’s delicate life at times when there was a great incidence of infant mortality. The most common symbol was that of the……….IHS, the Greek words for JesusOften too, there the monogram of M for the Virgin Mary followed by various Marian invocations. Another practice was to embroider the pillow with a prayer or place a holy card under the pillow with some pious invocation. It was the occasion of the Winter Filo`s, those nightly gatheirng and in the stables and respits from their daily work where the shepherds and the contadini, the farmers, would commit themselves to the carving and decorating of their beloved cune. Written by Daniela Finardi, Museo dei Usi e Costumi della Gente Trentina.
Cradles Shown on this page from the Museo degli Usi e Costumi delle Gente Trentina
Editor’s Note: The Odyssey of an Emigrant Cradle. In 1931, my mom Adele was expecting her first born, my brother Nino…Cesare in the Bleggio of the Val delle Giudicarie. Zio Sandro exercised this Tyolean tradition and crafted a simple cuna that rocked and was replete with heart shaped handles and fluted columns. Nino was to use it for many months after which he was taken up by Mom to follow the pathway of the emigrant to join my dad in New York City. No longer of any use, it hung around in the era, the upper portions of the Tyrolean house, abandoned. But then came my cousins: Angelo, Luigi, Maria and Bruno…they all took their turns to be cradled in Zio Sandro’s cuna. After its happy years of service, it was again relegated to the era, the attic…abbandoned and seemingly no longer of any or purpose. In the 1972, while vacationing in the village, I
went up to very old ancestral house…to the stable, la stalla…now my bedroom..only to find my dad Agostino and my Zio Maso with hammers in their hands ready to knock it to pieces to make “na gabbia dei cunei”, a cage for rabbits. S T O P…I screamed, grasping it out of their hands...I lovingly dismantled it removing its wooden pegs, packed it in my bags and it flew across the ocean to New York. Reassembled…ti received Justin as he was brought home from the hospital who then used for first several months of Justin’s infancy…this emigrant cuna then performed its services for Christian and Jeremy and Maria and Joseph. The emigrant Odyssey continued and possibly ended as I then packed it up and returned it to Cavaione, to the stable…my bedroom…honored and cherished and revered as the very symbol of the emigra-
Inscriptions of the Shepherds
Left to Right: Justin arriving home; Justin in the Brunelli “cuna”; The Brunelli “cuna” in Cavaione, Val Giudicarie
the shepherds, almost as if they were giant outdoor chalkboards, upon which one could jot down one's thoughts. The shepherds, during the summer months, spent long periods in the mountains without ever descending to the valley below. Their work, engaged in by the men in the area, was one of great solitude, and their cliff writing undoubtedly helped them while away the time. Their writing has been well preserved to this day, mainly because the area where they are found was virtually abandoned after 1950, when the sun set on the old pastoral system, the shepherd disappeared, and his subsistence economy gave way to the market economy.
n the Trentino, the valleys of Fassa, Valsugana, Mochena, the valley of the Tesino, and especially the valley of Fiemme, were localities in which herding sheep and goats was a major occupation.
The mountains of Fiemme, in fact, were among the principal centers of sheep herding - especially on the massive Monte Cornon, the mountain which towers over the people of Tessero, Panchia`, Ziano di Fiemme and Predazzo. These pastures hosted shepherds and their flocks since prehistoric times. During their long stays among the pastures and the boulders, those shepherds chose to leave a trace of their presence, leaving us more than 30,000 inscriptions, made during the long hours of that lazy free time which was typical of their work day. The slopes of the Cormon are made up of rough terrain, suitable for grazing, and very steep white cliffs, whose calcareous composition was ideal for the red writing of
The cliff writings were made with a 'bol' ( a dialectical word not readily translated into English). The bol was a shard of hematite, a mineral, reddish in color, which was easily found in several mines of the val di Fiemme, and in the val di Fassa. Among the mines was the one at
Ziano di Fiemme, called 'Cava del bol'. The bol was used by the shepherds to mark the fleece of their sheep with a pattern of stripes. In order to have the color adhere tothe rock permanently, the shepherds used a binder, a liquid chosen from water, sheep or goat's milk, saliva or urine. They would put a few drops of the liquid on a flat rock, then rub the bol on the wet stone, producing a thick paste. In some cases, the bol was crushed and the resulting powder was mixed with the liquid. A specially prepared twig was used to do the actual writing. The twig was chewed at one end, softening the fiber until it resembled the bristles of a paintbrush.The color of the writings vary from a very intense red to paler shades, depending on the binder which was used. For example, a dark red resulted when goat's milk was used, perhaps because of its high fat content. From a chronological point of view, the cliff writings have been dated as being written from the mid 1600's until the first half of the twentieth century. The writings are all very much alike but there are some distinct differences, so that they fall into two groups. There were the writings made prior to 1850, i.e. from 1650 to about 1850, contain initials of the writer, some indication of their family, counts of their livestock and a few pictures or symbols, such as hunt scenes, drawings of animals, scenes of everyday life. Later inscriptions (from 1850 to 1950) include the full name of the writer, an indication of his home town, and frequently, messages regarding a cetain event - either a
public event or a milestone in the life of the writer. This occurrence of pastoral graffiti is seldom noted in the historical and cultural records of the Trentino.The inscriptions, however, are a witness to the existence of the shepherds in these localities and they are the means by which those shepherds chose to make known to us their identity and the importance of their work. Written by Eleonora Dolzani, Museo Degli Usi e Costumi della Gente Trentina
Nos Dialet . . . Our Dialect #6
o one in our community has attempted to teach our dialect; it is hard to teacha nd hard to learn. Unlike Itlaian, ther eis not really a “grammar” and a “syntax.” I myself never “learned it. . . I kind of absorbed it from the one and only language spoken in my home in Greench Village by my mom and dad. Throughout our neighborhood, one could hear Genovese, Toscano, Sicilian, Neopolitan, while we were few, but distinctive. In my annual two trips to the Province, I keep looking for someone to indicate the methodology but have found no one or book or resource other than a professor saying that our dialect is basically phonetic. Our dialect is common throughout the Province . . .with distinctive diffrences resulting from the separation of the valleys by its mountains . . . and its history and traditions. When I am there, I continue to exericse questionable manners interrupting people I encounter as a dialect evangelist asking that they speak to me in dialect. Hence, I appeal to the almost 5000 readers to be on the lookout for someone with more competence than I to present these lessons in the Filò. My aim is to present the forms and shapes of our dialect since it was the language of our people and hidden in those sounds and phrases, there is the very persona. Continuing the presentation of the verb “to be” . . .Here is the future tense of the verb . . .Note the use of the definite and indefinite articles in the verbs . . . Mi sarò Ti te sarai Lu el sarà / Lu ‘l sarà Noi sarem Voi sarè Lori I sarà Boter Boza Camisa Catif Copar Cugnà Embroiar Ert Spec Merica Merican Scortar Sfazà Spizigon Tobacar Tacà Ma Valà Teston
(io sarò) (tu sarai) (egli sarà) (noi saremo) (voi sarete) (essi saranno)
Burro Bottiglia Camicia Cattivo Uccidere Cugnato Imbrogliare Ripido Specchio America Americano Accorciare Sfacciato Pizzicare Tobaccare Attacato Testone
Mi saronte? Ti sarat? Lu saralo? (saral?) Noi sarente? Voi sarè? Lori sarai?
Butter Bottle Shirt Bad To Kill Brother-in-Law To Cheat Steep Mirror America American Shorten Rude Pinch Use snuff Attached But, Really? Obstinate
Museo Scuola, Rango - Val di Giudicarie
Please consider visiting the website of the Museo delgi Usi e Costumi della Gente Trentina (The Museum of the Ways and Customs of the Trentino People) to hear clips of people in the Province speaking in dialect . . .Here is their website http://www.museosanmichele.it/alfabeto-dell-cose/ 31
The Mountains of the Fiemme
he Fiemme Valley is typical of the eastern Trentino region. Most of its mountains are covered with vast forests, and the valley’s wealth is derived from lumber. The most important mountains are the Dolomite peaks of Latemar on one side, and the porphyry rock of Lagorai on the other. The characteristic valley of the river Travignolo starts from the gates of Predazzo, flows eastward toward Passo Rolle, through the marvelous forest of Paneveggio, bordering the famous Dolomite group of Pale di San Martino. The name Latemar seems to ahve come from Laitemar, the name of a local shepherd’s hut, while Lagorai, refers to the numerous lakes (about 98) of the area.
The small Dolomite group of Latemar was explored toward the middle of the nineteenth century. The first ascent was made by Anton Grabmayr of Bolzano in 1852 who climbed Il Palon. A few years later, the geologist Ferdinand von Richtoften climbed several of the peaks in the course of his studies. The Fiemme Valley, in fact, had been noted in the early 1800s because of its particular geologic formations. Giuseppe MarzariPencati, from Vicenza, published a book in 1819, in which he described these particular formations. IN the Canzoccoli zone, near Predazzo, the granite layer is superimposed on a layer of limestone, a fact which aroused great interest from the European scientific community. As a result, the most famous European geologists began arriving at Predazzo - Leopold von Buch, Alexander von Humboldt, etc. Noting the influx of scientists, a citizen of Predazzo, Michele Giacomelli, decidded to open an inn to provide lodging for these new tourists. The inn “Nave d’Oro” opened in 1820 and became one of the best in the whole Dolomite region.
fontane” where one can find shelter in case of bad weather. There are also few ruges in the Logarai region, but on the Fiemme side there are the Rifugio Cauriol, Rifugio Laghi di Colbricion and the Rifugio Refavaie. There are many trails, meticulously maintained by the SAT agency, both in the Latemar and the Lagorai areas. There are itineraries for every level of hiking skills -from families with children up to expert hikers. The southern part of the Val di Fiemme borders on the natural Park of Monte Corno, founded by the Province of Bolzano. This park, th enearby Paneveggio Park, and the wild area of Lagorai, have allowed many animals to thrive there. Deer are especially prevalent, so much so that a deer has become the symbol of the Pangeveggio Park.
The principal peaks of the Latemar are: Cimon (9337 feet), Torri di Latemar (9232 feet), Torre Christomannos (9180 feet), Schenon (9180 feet) and Paion (9186 feet). The highest peak in the Lagorai group is Cima Cece (9054 feet), followed by Cima Laste dele Sute (8583 feet) and Cima delle Stellune (8547 feet). Riccardo Decarli (Biblioteca della montagna-SAT, Trento) Ricardo knows the mountains that he presents to us first hand. Hew just published Guida ai Rifugi del Trentino, where he describe the 151 “rifugi” in the Trentino. The book is available from Panorama di Trento: email@example.com (www.panoramalibri.it)
The Lagorai area, with peaks less than 9000 feet high, did not attract the mountain climbers. Instead it became a heaven for hikers, and, in the winter, for Alpine skiing. Here there is no history of expert climbers. Rather, it was the shepherds who first climbed most of the peaks. The only refuge in the Latemarzone is the Rifugio Torre di Pisa at an altitude of 8780 feet. It was opened in 1980. At a short distance from the refuge may be found a characteristic rock tower, over 60 feet high, and leaning just like the Leaning Tower of Pisa. In the woods above Predazzo, in the Boscampo locality, there is a characteristic wooden sheep station known as “Bait delle 32
The Wisdom Stories: I Proverbi
Chi che vol ben viver, l’toghe i mondo come l’ven. Chi vuol vivere tranquillamente, prenda la vita giorno per giorno come viene. He who wishes to live well, should take life day-by-day.
L’cor contento l’fa fiorir la ita, l’core afilito la fa finita, ma anche il fiorellino consola la vita. Il cuore contento fa rifiorire la vita, il cuore afflitto la fa finire, ma anche un piccolo fiore la può consolare. The happy heart makes life flourish, the unhappy heart ends it but a little flower can bring some comfort. Tre modi roina l’omo: tropo parlar e trop saver. . . trop spener e poco aver e tropo presumer e poco valet. Tre modi rovinano l’uomo. . . Troppo parlare e poco sapere, Troppo spendere denaro e poco averne. . . Essere troppo presunziosi e valere poco. Three things ruin a man: too much talking, too much knowing; too much spending without gain. Too much presumption and valuing little.
Tre robe I vol l’campo: bon laorador. . . bona somenza, bon tempo. Tre cose vuole il campo: Un buon cantadino, Una buona semente e buon tempo. A field needs three things: a good worker . . . good seed . . . good weather. Beson eser laboriosi par eser utili, beon eser utile par eser amadi, beson eser amadi per eser felici. Bisogna essere laboriosi per essere utili. Bisogna essere utili per essere amati. Bisogna essere amati per essere felici. One needs to be laborious to be useful, useful to be loved, and loved to be happy. L’tempo, L’vento, I siori, le femme e la fortuna, iolta e I torna coma la luna.Il tempo, il vento, i signori, le donne e la fortuna, cambiano con la luna. The times, the wind, women and fortune change with the moon.
The Origins of Trentino Names
Na bona destenua, l’è na meza sopresada. Stendere bene, è già metà stirato. Hang the laundry well and one can iron easily. Crosina. Originally written Da Crosina; it refers to a “little cross.” Found in the Val di Ledro and Valle delle Giudicarie. 1700. Simone Felica Crosina of a noble family in Balbido, Val delle Giudicarie, benefactor of the Orphanage for Boys in Trento.
Dellasega. A nickname applied to one who was a “segantino,” one who cut wood or hay or someone who had a saw mill. Valle dell’Adige, Val di Fiemme. Variations: Dalla Sega, Dallasega, Segadori. Segantini. Segamarchi, Seganti, Segatto, Segher, Seghezza. Delugan. A nickname referring to origins rom Lugano in Switzerland, possibily form the Lain “lucus” (woods). Val di Fiemme and Fassa. 1505 Julian de Lugan from Varena.
Gabrielli. From the name of the Archangel Gabriel, with the meaning “God is strong” and “Man of God.” Val di Fiemma and Fassa. 1265: Gerardis detto Gabrielus a Trento. Variations: Gabriele, Gabrieli
Guadagnino. A nickname for an anticipated child regarded as a “quadagno,” a gain. Found in Val di Fiemme, Fassa and Primiero. 1314: An Archpriest in Tignale. Felicetti. Last name is derived from Felice, which has its roots in Feliciano, Felice with the meaning of the greeting “che viva felice,” may you live happily. Val di Fiemme and Fassa. Derivations: Felici, Felicetti. 34
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Our Partners are . . .
Christian Brunelli - Technical Consultant Giorgio Ceresa - Carano, Val di Fiemme Ricardo Di Carli - Biblioteca della Montagna-SAT Veronica Coletti - Bronx, New York Giorgio Crosina - Director, Phoenix Informatica Bancaria Jim Caola - Genealogist, nutritional counselor, macrobiotic chef, Carlo Dellasega - Trentino Federazione Verena Di Paoli - Writer, Researcher, Scholar Daniela Finardi - Communications Department -- Museo degli Usi e Costumi della Gente Trentina Alberto Folgheraiter - Author, journalist and specialist in Trentino culture Renzo Grosselli - L`Adige, Journalist, Author Tomaso Iori - Bivedo, Val di Giudicarie-Curator of Museo Scuola, Rango Manuele Margini - Phoenix Bancaria Informatica Stefano Miotto - Phoenix Informatica Bancaria Sara Nichelatti - Phoenix Informatica Bancaria Ivo Povinelli - Director - Federazione Trentina della Pro Loco e loro Consorzi Modesto Povinelli - Director of Pro Loco, Carisolo Trentino Sviluppo SpA -- Department for Tourism and Promotion - http://www.visittrentino.it
Don Marcello Farina - Balbido, Bleggio Superiore, Italy Dale Andreatta - Worthington, Ohio Franco Boschetto - Director of Coro Valle Lubie, Val di Fiemme James Bulen - Washington, DC Beatrice Calamari - APT Val di Fiemme Federica Cerri - APT Val di Fiemme Eleonora Dolzani - Museo degli Usi e Costumi della Gente Trentina Richard Flaim - The Villages, Florida Italo Giordani - Cavalese, Trentino
Front Cover: Flavio Faganello Pages 6-7: Alberto Folgheraiter, Flavio Faganello, Gianni Zotta Pages 7-8: APT Val di Fiemme Page 11: Alberto Folgheraiter Page 14: Flavio Faganello Pages 16-17: Museo Scuola, Rango, Trina Bartel, Shorpy Blog Pages 19: Flavio Faganello, Raoul Jacometti, Giulio Montini, Silvano Monchi, Giovanni Cavulli, Photo by Ludwig, Pietro Lattuada, Alexander Debiasi, Pages 20-21: Trentino Sviluppo SpA -- Department for Tourism and Promotion Pages 26-27: APT Val di Fiemme Pages 28-29: Museo degli Usi e Costumi della Gente Trentina Page 30: Museo degli Usi e Costumi della Gente Trentina Page 31:Museo Scuola, Rango -- Val di Giudicarie Pages 32-33: Ricardo di Carli, Piero Cavagna, Daniele Lira, Pio Geminiani, Ronny Kiaulehn, Alexander Debiasi, Photo by Ludwig, Marco Benedetti, Flavio Faganello 35
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