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A Journal for Tyrolean Americans Summer 2015

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An Introduction . . .

The Filò is to be published and distributed on a quarterly basis and is targeted to the children of our immigrant parents. The Filò (pronounced fee-lò) was the daily gathering in the stables of the Trentino where the villagers met and socialized. The intent is to provide a summary of our culture, history, and customs in plain English to inform and provide you with the background of your roots and ancestry.. If you wish to contact us, call Lou Brunelli at 914-402-5248. Attention: Your help is needed to expand our outreach to fellow Tyrolean Americans. Help us identify them, be they your children, relatives or acquaintances. Go to and register on line to receive the magazine free of charge. You may also send your data to Filò Magazine, PO Box 90, Crompond, NY 10517 or fax them to 914-734-9644 or submit them by email to Front Cover: Val di Fassa Choir



Fassa: Ancient Land of the Ladini

long side the spectacle of the Dolomities with their snow covered peaks, the woods, the mountain pastures and their charming villages, the Fassa Valley is characterized by yet another specialty: we are one of the five Ladino valleys situated around the the Sella massif that are yet to this day inhabited by a very ancient people that originate from the central and eastern alpine arc: The Ladini.

new language absorbed the influences of the local dialects which were prevailing, especially of German from the north and the Italian from the south thereby fracturing the ancient cultural unity so that the language and the cutlure of the ladini remained confined to several restricted zones.


Traditional House with Exterior Mural

The very height of the Fassa Valley determined that the first settlements arose in the Bronze and Iron ages and since then for almost a milenium, the valley was dependent on mere subsistence and cattle breeding. In the middle ages, the various villages of Fassa organized themselves as the CommunitĂ di Fassa, the Fassa Community placing it under the control of the Principe Bishop of Bressanone (Brixen) while maintaining and cultivating their ancients ways and customs. For example, the woods and the pastures were seens as Collective or Common property, at first the patrimony of the CommunitĂ  and subsequently of the Regole, (rulers and overseers) corresponding largely to the notion and structure of community property of the villages of today.

The Ladino language is similar to the other romance languages like Provence, the Catalan, the French, etc. Ladino is certainly the most conspicuous evidence of this civilization, a legacy of a culture whose traces are still traceable in the territory, in the products and characteristics and attitudes of this people. Ladino is a romance languae, that is, it derives from the latin which arrived in the Dolimitic valleys at the end of first century BC, when the Roman army had invaded and conquered the inhabitants of the Alpine territories. The Latin spoken by the merchants and by the Roman soldiers proceeded to be combined with the languages spoken by the local people, the Rhaetians, thus originating a new language: the ladino or the reto-romance. In the course of the centuries, this

Vigo di Fassa

Catinaccio & Torri del Vaiolet


Pera de Fassa

Ladini Festivities

naturalists, collectors, writers and artists who promulgated the assets and specialties of Fassa. As a result, the valley turned its attention to new work as alpine guides, ski masters and instructors and the creation of new lodgings, refuges, and tourist resources so that they abbandoned their ancient pursuits of agriculture and cattle breeding.

In addition, there was established specialized library a cinematic and a phtographic and documentary archive.The institute promotes the knowledge and diffusion for both schools and journals, publishes journals and books, dictionaries, catologs and audio visuals in many languages. This scholarly activism has given birth to the Ladino Museum of Fassa, located at San Giovanni in The First World War interrupted this trasformation but it Vigo di Fassa....It has become a “treasure chest of memquickly continued especially in the 50`s so that tourism ories� for a community that is eager to make known its became its main industry and transhistory formed the valley and its people. The last century also saw the rediscovery by the The museum tour guides the visitor on a very people of their very ladino cultural ideal trip from pre-history to contempoidentity, no longer hidden but displayed rary times, from the material culture to with pride along with the traditions and the traditions, to the history of those the custom never abbandoned but now things related to mythology and to reliFlag of the Val di Fassa revisited and revisited for the tourists. giosity as well as to contemporary artistic The artistic production, the music, the processions and expressions. Along with the objects and to explicit texts, parades in costume, the rediscovery of the traditional the display offers touch screen presentations and over 85 cusine as well as carneval masquerades and the revival of film presentations in multiple languages. Along with the the popular theater...all constitute the complex forms, museum itself, there are other sites with demonstrations changing and in continuous development articulating the of various artifacts that illustrate the Ladino culture. identity of the ladino community in Fassa. After the res- There is the La Si-La Segheria (saw mill) at Penia cuing of the fassana language and culture, in 1975, the (Canazei), L. Molin-Il Mulino (flour mill) at Pera of Fassa Province of Trento created the Ladino Cultural Institute and the L Malghier-La caseificazione (Dairy) in Pera of where historical documents are of history, economy and Fassa. Written by Daniela Brovodan, Instituto Ladino folk lore are collected and studied.



Fassa Rituals

he conscric (Conscripts or engaged) and the young unmarried men belonging to the Society of the Banner performed not only at weddings, but also as the leading figures of Carnival, where they represented the head masqueraders: the Laché, the Marascons and the Bufon. Traditionally, on the 17th of January, se deslea l Carnascèr, that is, Carnival was unleashed, and the secular festival began with noise, music and uproar of every kind. The merriest time of year was beginning: a pause for fun between the prayers of Christmas and the penitence of Lent. Still today Carnival in Fassa Valley represents one of the most vital and significant manifestations of popular culture.. The personages indispensable to the formation of a procession in masquerade are the Laché, the Marascons and

followed by the Marascons, the great masqueraders, who always act in pairs or foursomes. They are distinguished by belts hung with cowbells that ring as they move to the rhythm of a dance. In their right hands the Laché and the Marascons always hold a facéra, a wooden mask with a composed expression, painted in rosy flesh tones, which is usually not worn but carried. One whose face is instead always covered by a facéra with a perennial sarcastic leer and a long, impertinent nose is the Bufon, the hero of Carnival. With a mischievous expression, jumping about the Bufon, who are today no longer played by the con- through the crowd, he proclaims, “Listen my dears, listen scric and the young unmarried men of the village, according to tradition. The housewives are responsible for dressing them, a process that takes a whole afternoon, also because the costumes have many decorative elements that “conceal” important meanings. For instance, the colored ribbons used to adorn the masqueraders’ hair were once lent them by the village girls, who removed them from their summer aprons. The boy who managed to have the most ribbons was thus the one most popular with the girls! Mesacoudes, feathers from the tail of the rare and hard-to-catch the black grouse, ostentatiously displayed on a hat, symbolized the strength of the man who wore them, and his skill at the difficult practice of mountain hunting. Today these elements no longer bear the symbolic impact of the past, young men, to the wickedness, the defects and the uglialthough the costumes still faithfully reflect them. The ness of women!” Through a cucalóch, a telescope, he procession begins with the Laché, ambassador and guar- sights his prey, young girls of marriageable age, and antor of the masqueraders, who recites the formula of mockingly strikes them repeatedly on the back with his entry, inviting everyone to participate joyfully in the fes- stica, a Carnival wand made of colored wood. But the tival. With three great leaps he opens a path through the most fearful weapons of the Bufon are his impertinent remarks! And his victims are above all the women. He crowd, setting the boundaries of the scene. He is 6

the final hullabaloo of the masqueraders, as they divide themselves into Mèscres a Bel, well-dressed, attractive, elegant, and Mèscres a Burt, awkward, sloppy, invasive and clumsy. The trades linked to agriculture and craftsmanship are represented in grotesque manner. At the end of all this chaos that seems to reign supreme among the masqueraders, the musicians strike up for the final dance, which usually goes on far into the night. Today at Penia the first Mascherèda is usually held on January 20th, the feast day of St. Sebastian, the patron saint of the village, and may be repeated several times during Carnival season. Mad Thursday and Shrove Tuesday are publicly relates every embarrassing thing that has hap- still today occasions that cannot be missed. The end of pened to them during the year! The ritual is abundantly tolerant of excess, so that the Bufon’s “prey” are mocked and ridiculed without mercy. Then the Bufon invites the Marascons to enter and perform their ritual dance. They comply by circling the perimeter of the scene three times at a rhythmic pace, with a great clamor of cowbells. At this point comes the mascherèda, or farce, one of the most characteristic expressions of the Ladin theatrical tradition. In the past these farces were brought from house to house, where the larger stues were transformed for the occasion into little popular theaters. They were composed in verses that were easy to memorize, and were based on plots handed down through oral tradition; today instead they are written, and are in prose. In the farces, everything is made fun of. After the farce begins Carnival, the day before Ash Wednesday, was traditionally announced by the brujèr carnascèr, a ritual that is occasionally re-enacted still today in some of the valley’s villages. A group of boys sets fire to a high pile of dry branches, straw and other combustible material, in this case too with great cheering and the ringing of bells. It is the end of the overturned world and the beginning of Lent, a sad time, associated with the departure of the farmers for distant lands, the end of wedding festivities and the hard work in the fields of springtime, now fast approaching. Written by Museo Instituto Ladino




Madonina del Vaiolet

he Ladini have had a special religious tradition so much in evidence in religious expressions conspicuously displayed on the exterior of their homes, way side shrines, and churches. Here is a prayer in song, a veritable liturgical expression that is sung in their churches and their gatherings. It is addressed to the Mother of God, as the diminutive Madonina, little Madonna and associates her with the Cime Vaiolet, a distinct dolomitic group of peaks in the Catinaccio group. Permit a personal recollection ...looking down and across at the Vaiolet from the Catinaccio peak, the peaks and spires resembled a gothic cathedral. The song was written by Luigi Canori (1907-1991) of Moena. His tender and Cime Vaiolet simple song prayer is one of the best known songs or hymns in the Val di Fassa. It is presented in Ladino. Check the Youtube rendition: While sung by the more classic ensemble of Canticum Novum, remember the formula: Do Trentini..un coro. Two Trentini..a choir so that for sure it is most probably hummed and sung by individuals or with friends in kitchens, streets, pastures and peaks!


Bela Madonina, da le grazie più care, noscia valenta mare, con noi usa pietà. Pietà de nösc erores, de nosce deboleze de chel che no ge volesse per respetar to dolor. Sora dute le stele Segnoredio te à solevà da lassù tu governe la guera eterna col pecià. Sostegni chi che croda e chi che pianc consola. Chiàmene duc chenc apede te.

Ensemble Canticum Novum led by Ilario Defrancesco

Beautiful Madonina, of the graces most precious, Good mother of ours, indulge us with your compassion. Have pity for our errors and for weaknesses, and those things that we should avoid in respect for your sorrows. The Lord God has exalted you above all the stars Where you control the eternal struggle with sin Support who fall and console the sorrowful Beckon and call all to yourself. The Ensemble Canticum Novum is unlike the usual and local valley choirs that have been featured in past issues of Filo`. Canticum Novum with 32 members is more a “concert choir” and led by the talented and dedicated Ilario Defrancesco. For the past 21 years he has held over 300 concerts in Fassa and local valleys as well as national and international sites. The choir has produced several CD’s regarding “sacred music” and has collaborated with the Ladino Institute to revive and produce the devotional music of the Fassano composer Luigi Canori of Moena of the Val di Fassa and the composer of the Madonina del Vaiolet. Added to his classic repertoire, Ilario Defrancesco has delved into musical sounds and expressions of an ethnic modality exploring and discovering the traditional songs of Fassa and those of other cultures. Visit their website to appreciate their musical and cultural contributions. 9


Family Stories: Zia Carolina arolina Menegatti Andreatta was a mail order bride it is pronounced with a hard C. Karlina. She lived in Walsenburg, on a well-tended lot in a little yellow house with an enclosed porch. You stepped down into the house, as if the world had built up around it. The house had no clutter, no dust and no dirty dishes. There were lots of chairs and an owner who made the house feel huge. She made everyone feel welcome. Everyone sort of ended up at her house. Somehow she produced a full meal for all those people. I met her in 1975 when she was 81 years old. She had the bluest eyes I had ever seen. Carolina, an only child, was born in Quaras, Seganzano County on September 19, 1894. At 17 she agreed to wed Candido Andreatta in America. Can you imagine, travailing that far to marry a stranger. By the time she arrived she was 18. She had gone through Elis Island, crossed the Mississippi River traveled the plains to the Rocky Mountains alone: to meet a stranger.

Within a month Gigo and Carolina were married. They homesteaded on a ranch close to Gigo’s parents. They had no children. Gigo worked in the coal mines which kept him away from home. Carolina got very homesick. Her mother had remarried and Carolina had a little sister she had never met. The coal mines claimed a lot of lives, which left children without parents. Gigo and Carolina took in an orphan. It did not help her sickness. The Doctor told Gigo to take her home. They sold the ranch to Emma and Candido and moved back to Austria. The child stayed with the ranch. A year later they returned.

This time they lived in Walsenburg and worked in the Andreatta Store and meat shop with Gigo’s brothers. They also ran the Andreatta tavern. The couple lived on the second floor of a duplex. Carolina had 22 steps to carry groceries, wood and coal up and ashes back down. Most of Gigo’s brothers and sisters lived out on ranches. Many went to Carolina and Gigo’s house to eat when they came to town. They brought with them little bits of this and little bits of that. Carolina fed them all. She baby sat the little ones so their parents could shop. She enjoyed her role as hostess and Aunty immensely, and was extremely good at it. She was a role model of hospitality.

It was not a smooth first meeting. Candido said Carolina would become fat. What an emotional abrupt end to a grand adventure! Truthfully, he was looking for an excuse to call off the wedding: If he found a local gal that he wanted to marry. What makes a pretty young woman leave her home, her family and travel through a county that spoke a different lanShe cared for her elderly mother and father in-law. They guage to marry a stranger? lived in the duplex for 43 years, until 1963 when they We will never know what motivated a young woman to bought the little yellow house on 7th street. take such chances, but history does have a hint. The male population had moved away. Europe was a political After Gigo died Carolina would cook dinner and wait to hotbed. Austria/ Hungary and Italy had formed the see if company would show up. She did not like to eat triple alliance with Germany. For generations all males alone. After she ate she would set the food on the counthad been required to serve in the military. The com- er to cool down before putting it in the fridge. It was also manding officers of the triple alliance were German. easier to reheat if someone did show up. There was a huge language barrier. In response, Russia and France formed an alliance. War was slowly brewing. She died at the age of 86 and is buried next to Gigo, in As luck would have it, Louis (Gigo) Andreatta remem- the Masonic Cemetery in Walsenburg, The success of bered Carolina from the old county. Gigo was born in Gigo’s marriage convinced two of Gigo’s brothers to Quara on Oct 22, 1888. His parents had immigrated, send for and marry mail order brides. leaving him with his grandparents. He followed them to Written by Theresa Springer from South Park, Colorado Colorado when he was 12. He was also Emma’s oldest and is a Wildland Fire rehab specializing in floods after brother. Gigo and Candido Andreatta were not related. fires. 10


Our Cuisine: Strangolopreti

ur Tyrolean cuisine is hardly an elaborate cuisine. It is rather the improvisation of a poor people using whatsoever they had available in their poverty and scarcity. Strangolopreti is often referred to as spinach style Trentino gnocchi. They are a “gnocho”…a dumpling but without potatoes. We saw this variation for the Val di Ledro who enjoy the Gnocchi dei Boemi…Bohemian style dumplings made with flour and yeast and stuffed with prunes. They had learned this variation when their entire valley was evacuated to Bohemia in the Czech Republic to escape from the aggressive intrusion of Garibaldi and the Italian Army, the aggressive invaders of our lands. Strangolopreti are made with old stale bread, milk, cheese and…chard or spinach. I would think that chard or coste was more available since like in my own personal garden, it is hardy, does not bolt to seed and lasts until the fall. For this recipe, I deliberately try to use the ingredients dei nossi…of our people. Hence, I avoided using some current ingredients such as ricotta or “fancy” ingredients that were simply not available or affordable to our poor relatives. The very word “strangolopreti” is translated as “priest chokers or stranglers”. With a smile, I would suggest that there was an element of both derision and an astute sociology since the priest class did not suffer the poverty of their parishioners. In fact, in our dialect, there is an expression…maiar come I preti…eat like the priests. What can one say other than fiddle-dee and fiddle-dum! Ingredients: 4 bread rolls, stale I lb of spinach or chard 2 eggs 2 table spoons of flour (or more) 3 tablespoons grated Parmigiano Butter

Cut the stale bread rolls into chunks and soak in the warm milk. Cook the chard (or spinach) and squeeze out. Mix the bread with the Swiss Chard (or spinach), the eggs and enough flour to make a soft but fairly firm mixture. Roll into cylinders and cut to make small gnocchi or dumplings. Place them slowly into abundant salted boiling water. When they rise to the top, remove with a slotted spoon.

While the dumplings or gnocchi are boiling, prepare the butter or the burro fuso (fried butter). I added sage leaves from my garden…Place the gnocchi into the fry pan. Pour out onto a dish and sprinkle formai grata` (dialect), grated cheese..Parmigiano or Grana Trentina which I bring back from my trips to the Province. It became my supper which I ate at my counter with en toc de pan, a piece of bread and class of wine.



Fassa’s Myths: Salvan & Stries n the winter months in the Val di Fassa, mitological figures filled the valley: the Salvan(called Salvanel in other valleys) and the Vivenes and the Bregostenes. And finally there were the Stries...the witches. The Salvan was a little man, a dwarf, with a white beard, long hair with his body covered with fir like a monkey. The Salvan was a wild man(the Salvadech of other valleys) who would pursue the shepherds and taught them the secrets of processng milk and making cheese. He was not always well behaved. Sometimes he did pranks, overturning the hay cart and scattering the oxen who were hauling the cart.

goat, lit fire and would howl like animals.They cursed Christ and the Madonna and were frightened by the terror of signs and symbols of the Christian religion. Then it was believed that they invoked hurricanes and caused heavy rain with frightening lightning.. When a summer storm was approaching, the woman of the houshold would burn a olive branch blessed at the Easter Vigil.They would recite this prayer: (freely translated from the dialectical form): St Barbara and St Simon, save from this thunder, spare us from this lightning, Blessed St Barbara. To keep lightning and storms at a distance, there were erected on the mountain peaks wooden crosses. When the clouds were darkened and threatened to rain down a storm, they would ring the bells. They believed that the tolling of the bronze bell would squeze the evil spirits that were congured up by the ringing of the bells. It was also believed that the witches had the power to cast spells on bread (that it not rise) and to make “crazy” the milk that it not coagualte to make cheese

Then there were the Vivenes, feminine creatures, that dwelt in the woods and lived along the brooks and were very beautiful. Furthermore, they were good souls. They had the ability to predict the future, so that they advised humans how to behave in the face of life predicaments and disasters. Besides, But the story, the real story, relates that in middle of 16 they advised the famers as to what century and the first half of the 17th century, there was would be the best day to sow pota- a true and actual witch hunt in the toes or bean and when it would a Tirol. About 235 persons were preferred time to plow and sow seed. subjected to the Tribunal of the Ancient Mural of Salvan The Vivenes understood the lan- Inquisition. 82 of them burnt alive guage of the owls which brought them the news of the at the stake. Others died in jail due world. They would relate to the women as far as it was to the horrendous torture they known how to wash clothes, endured.Between 1627 and 1631 clean wool and would help in the Val di Fassa, which territorithem to comb and decorate ally belonged to the diocesis or their hair. In contrast, the principato of Bressanone, there Bregostènes were wild and were 6 women along with other mean women. They too women burnt at the stake since lived in the woods, on the they were regarded as witches. In Streghe - Witches mountains . The created reality, they were simply poor mischief for human and women who knew botany and use even stole the babies from this knowledge of herb to dimintheir cribs. They feared only ish pains and lend a helping hand the dogs For that reason to people in need. Since they Drawing of Vivenes every family in the Val di couldn be “controlled” by the Fassa had a watch dog, the only animal that the Vivenes clergy and the vassals of the feared. The Vivenes were also regarded as the “Stries”, Lords, there was launched wild the witches who possessed magical secrets and had the hunt as if they were wild and danWitches Burnt at the Stake power to heal with herbs and oils, invoking the devil and gerous animals. were possessed by him. On night of full moons, they Written by Alberto Folgheraiter, Author & Journalist would gathered in some places around a billy 12


St. Giuliana: Fassa’s Patron he sanctuary of Santa Giuliana dominates the Val di Fassa from a hill above the village of Vigo. Possibly it was the creation of the same Ladino-Tyrolean masters who in the 15th century created the church of San Giovanni in the same village..One enters through the large portal to the interior with its a ample nave. To the side of rear of the church is a gigantic icon of St Christopher (1775). This icon hides one yet more ancient icon. In 1987-1089, the technicians of the Province of Trento completed the restoration of the entire edifice. On that occasion, they found in the principal alter the act of consecration, imparted in 1452 by the Cardinal of Bressanone, Nicholo` Cusano (1450-1464). In the digging of the restoration, there was found traces of human activity of pre-historic times. The Franciscan friar, Alberto Ghetta of the Val di Fassa demonstrated that the site had been on of ancient pagan sanctuary. The inhabitants of the Val di Fassa celebrate the patron Santa Giustina on February 16 according to the Roman calendar. The legend of the foundation of the site relates that two oxen were used. They were tied to a cart and left to roam free. They reach the Hill of Ciaslir and there they rested. They marked the spot. A chapel was built and was consecrated in 1297. At the end of the Middle Ages, the Romanesque church was lengthend towards the east. There were frescoes that were buried under the altar. The apse vault was destroyed so that the actual gothic absidale was consecrated by Cardinal Cusano in 1452. It was probably the only church in the Tyrol consecrated by a Cardinal. Reconsecrated in 1489, the nave was enriched in a gothic style (1509); in 1533 the romanesque bell tower was modified. The Franciscan friar Frumenzio Ghetta wrote “”the church of Santa Giuliana served as the sanctuary of the Fassa Community, always maintained and enriched with the offerings and the bequests of the inhabitants of the valley.” The valley’s patron was so venerated that the fassani took on themselves to pay for the stipend of a chaplain who was obliged every day to celebrate mass in her honor. The murals that cover the vault of presbytery of S. Giuliana belong to the middle

San Giustina altar piece

Trinity with three faces

Santa Giustina-Vigo Val di Fassa


of the 14th century. It was probably done by the one who rendered the cloister of the Cathedral of Bressanone.It was this cycle of 14th century frescoes della volta dell`abside, divided into 21 parts that had the greater artistic value. They were rendered by an artist of the school of Master Leonardo who did his work in Bressanone around 1450. Among his paintings, notable and representative of his work is figure of the Holy Trintiy. It is presented as a singular person with three faces. The middle face has a white beard; the one to the right has a shorter white beard while the one to the left has a reddish beard.. This is one of the few representations of the Trinity with triplicate faces in this manner from the 12 century. As seen today, the edifice did not come about 1650 and towards the the end of 15th century even its more ancient part. The major altar is work of the sculptor Giorgio Arzt of Bolzano around 1517. The Madonna and child were stolen in August 1966. There occurred other thefts. On the left side of the nave, there is a fresco in 10 quadrants that depict scenes from the martirdom of S. Giuliana: the interogation by the tyrant, the struggle with the devil, the tortures of boiling lead, the rack, the boiling oil and the decapatation and the death of the tyrant. Just above the church, there was established in 1662 a hermitage. S. Giuliana boasts of oldest bell in the Val di Fassa, cast in 1496. Since it was the patronal church, in 1916 during the course of the World War I, the Austrians left in their place all three of the ancient bells while appropriating all the bronze from the other valley churches were taken to cast cannons for the Austrian army. People would come to S. Giuliana to participate in the rogation ceremonies in the spring. Now people come in pilgrimage on the Sunday after February 16, S. Giuliana’s feast day. Near the church, there is a chaple dedicated to S. Maurizio that is regarded as the most ancient holy place of the valley. The entrance is gothic and the cross on the timpano is romanesque. It was reconsecrated in 1489 with the nave and the side chapels of S. Giuliana. Written by Alberto Folgheraiter.


The Customs of the Ladini

long with the language , the traditions, folk ways and customs all combine to render the Val di Fassa as singular, unique and special. On festive days, one wore (and still wear) the traditional costume, l guant. Men wore wool trousers to just below the knee, with a red vest of cooked wool that had a decorative gold border as well as one of decorated silk, a white shirt, a jacket and a derby on their head. Across their body, they wore a white sash and a decorated leather belt and a chain with a pocket watch made more precious by pendant toleres, coins of the Austrian Hungarian Empire. The traditional female outfit, yet more ancient. had a dress, il camejot, that was composed of an full skirt, pleated in the back, connected to closefitting bodice in colorful material, richly decorated braids and tightened in the front with a cord that displays the ornamental front part of the bodice. It is worn with a white shirt decorated with cuffs or crocheted or with il barel, a decorated square collar. Another model uses a velvet or silk bodice with hooks linked to a neck collar while in the upper valley, they used a shawl with fringes. In both models, one would tie an apron around the waist . The apron is decorated with little roses or in damask silk.The hair is gathered on the neck, bound by combs, peten and by broaches of silver. The favorite jewlery were earings or a necklace of coral and a long chain with a silver cross. This outfit in past was used on the day of a bride’s wedding, with a re- arrangement of the usual elements of the traditional dress.

During the carnival time, these traditional clothes become part of Maschere Guida. To this day, the Carnevale celebration in the Val di Fassa constitutes one of most vital and significant manifestations of the popular culture. There was a time when i coscritti assisted in the interpretation of the principal masks, present in every procession, in the town squares or in the homes.


Ladini Carnival Festivities

Among the usual characters in the celebration were il Lachè, the Marascons and il Bufon. There were other masks: the Mescres a Bel, wel- dressed and graceful and the Mescres a Burt, poorly dressed , inelegant, intrusive and clumsy. They all wear the facera, the wooden mask carved and decorated by hand by the local artisans.

Numerous rituals, many of which are still in use, scan and review the principal life situations: birth, engagement, matrimony, death, the succession of the seasons as well as the cycle of the farmer’s agricultural year. These rituals combine traditionals belief in rites connected to the popular Christian faith. For example, December 6 is the feast of St Nicholas, a person representing the Bishop Saint, visits the homes of children to distribute gifts to “good children”. He is accompanied by an angel and by one or more devils.Just around the Epiphany, it is said that the animals are able to talk. The Master of the house blesses his family’s dwelling including the stable where he writes with chauk the initials of three magi :M,C, B (Melchior, Casper and Melchior) along with the calendar year e.g. 2015. At the same time, groups of young boys dressed as the Trei Rees, the three Magi, visit homes and sing several songs of the Stella...Star to announce the birth of the Redeemer.

course of the 1800’s. They were significant foods and they often substituted for bread. White bread was a rareity and only came into use in modern times. The normal “menu” of a family consisted in the morning of roasted barley coffee, milk with dark rye bread o winter potatoes. At noon, they would eat polenta with cheese, milk or butter along with saurkraut as well as the traditional popacei, flour gnocchi. In the evening, they ate boiled potatoes with milk soup. On Sunday, they was some variety barley: soup and pork meat. With wheat flour, enriched by butter and raisins, they would make sweet confections, House Visit of St Nicholas è

The heart of Fassana home was the stua in a cheerful room, paneled in wood, in the past the only room that was heated due to the function of the stua. In this room, the family gathered to eat, to talk and pass the time on those long winter nights. There, too, one spun flax, cleaned the wool of their sheep, repaired agricultural equipment, sculptured statuetes and cavallini, little horses, sang songs and recounted stories conties, brief stories handed down orally from one generation to the next. Ladino Folk Dance

Traditional Ladino Kitchen with Woodclad Walls and Stua

The food of the valley was scarse and poor. Among the cereals, barley was cultivated, a basic element for so many of the offerings of their cuisine. Rye was also cultivated necessary for them to make bread. Corn and corn meal flour and the potato arrived from the Americas

among which was the traditional bracel, a foccaccia or sweet bread. On New Year’s Day, god parents gave their god child the traditional bracel or bombona. Traditional foods were the ciaroncie, a ravioli made with puffed pastry and filled with poppy seed and marmelade. For feast days. For feast days or for weddings, they made i grostoi e le fortaes, traditional deserts of fried dough. The principal mythological characters of the Fassana culture was la Vivena, the Bregostena, il Salvan and witches. Thanks to this oral tradition, which is an important characteristic of the Ladino culture, the thoughts and beliefs of the ladini of Fassa have been maintained for centuries. Written by Daniela Brovodan-Museo Ladino di Fassa.

Museum of the Ladino Institute



Family Stories: The Bertolini’s n 1903 there were many Bertolini immigrants to the USA from the Ragoli, Montagne/Binio area of Trentino. Most settled in Southeastern, Ohio to work in the coal mines. Many then moved on to New York. Among them were my Biological (Birth) grandfather Elia Bertolini and my adopted grandfather Celestino Bertolini. After finding jobs they sent for their wives and children. In 1905 Elia’s wife Margaurite




(Ballardini) with daughter Emelia, age5, and Celestino’s wife Clementina (Ballardini) with daughters Cesarina, age 5 and Ernesta, age 3 left Montagne together and sailed on the same ship to New York.. They settled with their husbands in Midvale, Ohio to start a new life. Elia moved to Alliance, Ohio in the 1920’s to work in the factories instead of the mines. He and Margaurite had 4 children, Pietro, Orlando, Catherine and Saunta.They all had successful marriages. Emelia married Pio Cerana from Roncone and had 10 children. Saunta (my mother) married Jack Pelamati from Genoa. She died at my birth and I was then raised by the Aldergate family. Celestino and Clementina stayed in the Midvale area and had 9 chldren, Cesarina, Ernesta, Frank, Ernest, Rudolph, Henry, Regina, Anna (died at age 5) and Anne. Frank, Ernest and Henry worked in the mines. Rudolph chose to work in local manufacturing. The ladies all became sick in 1919

Celestino’s Family 1918: Front: Rudolp, Regina, Anne Henry. Middle: Celestino, Frank, Ernest, Clementina. Standing: Cesarina & Ernesta

during the typhoid/flu epidemic. Cesarina then became head of the family. She was always called Sis after that. Cesarina married Giuseppe Aldrighetti from Ragoli and they had four children, John, Clara, Louis and Dawna. After becoming a US citizen, somehow on his naturalization papers Giuseppe became Joseph Aldergate.and that became the family name. After Saunta died at my birth, Jack Pelamati realized he was to young to raise a child by himself. Joe and Sis Aldergate agreed to raise me and I became James Aldergate,called Jack.. I legally changed my name to Aldergate in 1956. I sure was lucky as I became part of two great Bertolini families. Since these two families emigrated together they were always a close knit group. They shared all special events together with the annual family reunion the highlight of the year. All kind of ethnic food, card games, Bingo, Morra and music from a local accordion player Raymond Bezzozi. Pete Bertolini was always accused of cheating at Morra. Example: He had half of his index finger cut off and would call 5 and a half and throw out his half finger. You can imagine what happened after that The Picture of Ernest is on his retirement day from the Midvale mine in 1969. This was from a newspaper article that said the mine shaft had a 35 inch ceiling. He is pictured on the right shoulder of Clementina in the Celestino picture. The families of Elia and Celestino all became good law abiding, hard working Americans. They earned their way. During WW2 many of the grandsons served in the armed forces, some being wounded. However, we are all still Trentino proud. Written by James “Jack” Aldergate, Alliance, Ohio


Top: Clara, Louis, John Front: Dawna, Cesarina, Joseph, James and Joseph

Legend: The Pale Mountains


Editor’s note: The Dolomites are also called the “Monti Pallidi”, the Pale Mountains. It is an observable event especially at night when the mountain is illuminated by the lunar light. It is a phenomen due to the composition of Dolomitic rock, a color and a mineral composition distinctly different from other Alps. There is another fascinating explanation: The Ladino Legend of the Pale Mountains n a time a very long time ago, there lived in the Val di Fassa a most beautiful prince. He was always sad and melancholic. He had one strong desire to climb to the moon. The King and the Queen used to organize balls and receptions so that he might find love and know happiness. But no girl was able to enter the heart of the sad prince. One night dreamed of a very beautiful woman dressed all in silver and white. He fell madly in love and he swore to himself that he would Brenta Dolomites at Dawn marry none other than her. There passed days and Alps. Hence, the young couple found no peace, would months and years but the Prince did not recognize her not sleep at night, and would not eat. They were frantic face in no girl that he came to know from time to and despairing.One day, during a horse back ride, there time.His parents therefore decided to send him for some exploded a violent storm. The Prince found shelter in a time to live in the Dolomites to be in touch with the col- deep cave. Inside, waiting for him was the King of the ors and the fragrances of nature. One day, the Prince Salvani, a race of elves. while hunting became lost. Desperate and frightened, he The King of the Elves made a proposal to the discourbegan to climb on horseback up a mountain. aged Prince and said to him...If you help us, Arrived almost to the top, he was faced by a granting us hospitality, defending us from men small silver fog. At that point, there appeared who seek us out to rob us of the gold from our due elderly men with a white beard sitting on mines, we pledge to return your beloved the hightest peak. They were the ministers of Princess here to our earth. We will gather for the King of the Moon. They proposed to the you the rays of the Moon and will clothe these Prince to ascend with them to the Moon. The mountains so that they will have a light equal to Prince accepted immediately without knowing that she had been accustomed to, She will be how he found himself in the kingdom of the able to return to you so that you can finally live Moon. It was all white and silvered colored as well. That together and with happiness and joy. The happy Prince night the King of the Moon invited him to a ball and accepted the agreement. After several hours, when the with an enormous surprise, he met the Princess of the storm had already ceased, a veritable army of men Moon and he realized that she had truly the appearance dressed in red gathered at the feet of the Dolomites. of the girl he had dreamed many years ago. She was truly They climbed up and gathered one by one all the rays of the woman that he had always loved. It was love at first the moon making an enormous ball like a ball of yarn. sight even for the princess.A few day passed and the two We clothe and decorated all the peaks and slopes with youths decided to wed and to return to togeththese beautiful threads of moon rays. In less er to the kingdom of the Prince. But soon he than seven days, they dressed and clothed the noticed that the Moon girl was wasting away in mountains with the light of the moon so they plain sight. The light of the sun was taking away seemed to be clothed with silver.. There her eye sight but she was unable to separate herremained some of the elves to overlook the hapself from him so she decided to live there. After piness of the couple. They are still there ...the some time, he noticed although that her sight red lilies of the mountains which at night are most cerwas fading. Had she remained there he would have tainly transformed into dwarf miners in the deepest become blind in just a few days. The two spouses had mines of gold. The Prince therefore went to get his bride regretably to separate. The princess remainded on the and lived her with always happily, among the Dolomites, moon and the prince returned broken hearted to the those mountains which are called by everyone the “Pale earth bringing with him only a bouquet of edelweiss Mountains” which from that time flourished on the mountains of the Written by Verena DePaoli, Terlago. Author 17


Tyroleans of Utah

t the turn of the last century, a group of Tyroleans migrated to Western America, and eventually found their way to Weber County, Utah. Most arrived in the United States to work in the coal mines of Wyoming. Only later did their journey take them further west to Utah. Tyrolia ended up sending their young men to the coal mines of Wyoming around 1900 by the persuasion of U.S. companies, including the Union Pacific Railroad. The railroads and mining corporations believed that if they imported illiterate foreign workers, the unionization attempts could be forestalled. However, the Tyroleans they were importing came with enough education to read and write. Within a few short years, the Tyroleans themselves were “unionized”. Letters home from the early arrivals, telling of employment opportunities in such places as Rock Springs, also strongly influenced others to follow.

Wyoming was sparsely populated, desolate, and cold. Snow remained for six months out of the year and the wind blew continually. Coal was needed for steam locomotives and coal mining paid well. It was common for people from the same village to settle in the same towns and thus they maintained small islands of friends, family, culture, and language. In the frontier societies of Rock Springs, Superior, Reliance and others, coal mining became the way of life, and the company housing, store, and Union Halls were at their core..

Superior, Wyoming 1910

Among their many duties were running boarding houses for bachelor miners and doing the cooking and laundry for the men. By the 1920’s, approximately 60 percent of the coal miners in Rock Springs and surrounding areas were immigrants. Austrians accounted for 300 miners.

Many miners sought the medicinal qualities of hot springs. One favorite location was Utah Hot Springs near Ogden, Utah. Here the rich farmland near Ogden enticed many of these Tyroleans to move to Utah based on patriarchal traditions to own land, and to provide a better life for their children.. Thus a second migration. Those who moved to rural Utah found neighbors who were predominately of the Mormon religion of Scandinavian descent. The Tyrolean people held different religious beliefs and a different language. Here the different cultures and religions co-existed, if not in compassion, then at least in tolerance of each other. Many Mormon neighbors showed and educated the new immigrants on how to farm and use the irrigation waters. The first day of school for the children was often their first exposure to English. Thanks to many dedicated teachers, the Tyrolean children were soon Americanized.

There are hundreds of stories of how the Tyrolean men sent back to the “old country” for women to become their wives. Generally, there was little courting or dating. Many times the acceptance of a marriage proposal was based on the recommendation of friends, relatives, or family acquaintances. These women took on the life of a The exodus of Tyroleans from the coal mines of coal miner’s wife. Wyoming began around 1910 and continued through the 1930s. Besides Ogden, they came to the rural communities of West Weber, Warren, West Warren (Reese), Taylor, Plain City, Wilson Lane, Kanesville, and Hooper. About 50 Tyrolean families bought farms in Weber County. The area in West Weber even became known as “Little Tyrol.” Some common Tyrolean names in Weber County as a result of the migration included: Anselmi, Bertoldi, Bertagnolli, Colleni, Conti, Costesso, Cologna, Cristelli, Daplias, Degiorgio, Genetti, Martini, Prevedel, Rauzi, Ravarino, Rizzi, Ropelato, Tome, Torghele, Boarding House for Immigrants Tremea, Vincenti, and Zuech. 18

The ethnic cohesion formed in Wyoming, also continued in Utah. Weber County only had a yearly precipitation averaging about 16 inches, but the soils were productive and rich. Water was delivered in canals from reservoirs and streams in the mountains, and allotments or “water turns” were regulated by how many “shares” a farmer owned. The adjustment to farming was coming to grips with the uncertainty and the lack of a regular paycheck. Farming was very hard and took a lot of labor. Implements were horse powered or drawn. Even the children were expected to help and many took days off from school each year when harvest time came. Irrigation of the crops was a never ending task in the summer. Typically, they grew wheat, barley and alfalfa to feed the farm animals, and sugar beets, tomatoes, potatoes and peas for “cash” crops. Most farms had scores of chickens, a dozen or two milk cows which were milked by hand, steers for meat and sale, two or three pigs for sausage and meat, and three or four work horses for the farm machinery.

place to socialize. Dances were held and it was a place for wedding receptions and anniversaries. It was so tied to the Tyrolean culture that many second generation Tyroleans met their future spouses there. Other social events such as the yearly “Canyon Days” held in Ogden Canyon brought the old people and families together, and the old men would often group around lawn bowling or if younger, softball, while the women would sit and talk and knit or crochet. The language was always the special dialect called “Nones”.

With the outbreak of World War II, many Tyroleans, with their newly acquired American citizenship, proudly sent their first generation American sons to defend their new country and adopted homeland. Although encumbered by shortages and rationing, the War also brought employment opportunities and higher wages in the defense facilities of northern Utah. Many Tyrolean girls worked in the defense plants. Those Tyroleans who had not obtained U.S. Citizenship were required to register as foreign aliens, and communications and mailings to relatives in the “old country” was forbidden. The only correspondence was allowed through the Red Cross.

After World War II, the first generation Tyrolean sons were taking over the management and running of the farms. Tractors were replacing horses and modern milking machines had entered the scene. This mechanism allowed the farms to expand. Other Tyrolean sons left the farms for other careers. Today, all of the original Tyrolean emigrants have passed on. A good deal of their Nato Prevedel,Aldo J. Prevedel, Flavio Prevedel. Floriano Prevedel, Dennie Prevedel history vanished with them. Most of the legacy that is The weekly sale of eggs and cream from the milk cows left include memories, a few pictures, some traditional added to a little “regular” income. Most families also had foods, and stories they told their children. Many survivlarge gardens for fresh vegetables. ing children are now in their 80’s and 90’s. Adjusting to a new country and language was not always easy. The social structure and beliefs of the Mormon communities were also challenging. As a result, farm life was lonely for many Tyrolean women. Not knowing the English language was a barrier, and early on, there were few family members around. There initially was no electricity and no indoor plumbing. Ironing was done with stove irons and washing was done on a wash board; and much of the family’s clothing and garments were made by knitting or crocheting. The members of the Tyrolean community maintained strong friendships and continued the culture and traditions established in Wyoming. The Union Hall in Superior, Wyoming was replaced by the Friendly Club in Weber County around 1937. This was a


The old people from Tyrol were a generation that experienced going from proverty, horse and steam power, and two World Wars to what we have today in America. We here in Utah are their sons and daughters, grandchildren and great-grandchildren. We are grateful that much of whom and what we are was shaped by them. Written by David Prevedel, a third generation Tyrolean American, retired fron the U.S. Forest Service, resides in Hooper, Utah, author of “The Tyroleans, A Journey of Hope” ISBN 978-0-557-20030-6, available on or

Val di Fassa


Family Story: Carlo Riccadonna

ho was Carlo Leno Riccadonna? He was my Nonno for 30 years and although not large in stature, he was a huge presence in my life. This is a capsule of his life as I try to portray the life of the man I called Nonno. Carlo was born on March 27, 1913 in Marazzone, in the Trentino-Alto Adige/Sudtirol region of Italy (Austria at the time). In 1914, when Carlo was only a year old, his father was called to service in World War I. He was wounded in late March by the Cossacks in the Kingdom of Galicia, in the Carpathian Mountains and he died a week later on April 5, 1915 in a Budapest Hospital. Without a father and with the ravages of World War I, life in Northern Italy (Austria) was difficult for Carlo and his family. His mother, now widowed, had no income, was left with four children, had to eek out a life for the family. With all of the hard work that she did it still wasn't enough and Carlo often reminisced about how hungry and malnourished he was as a child. At 17, Carlo boarded a ship for America to find work. He left Genoa Italy on June 13, 1930 with his cousin Ettore Riccadonna on the S.S. Conte Grande. Carlo arrived in New York on June 23rd at Ellis Island and was headed to Force Pennsylvania. He went to Force to stay with his mother’s brother, Uncle Giuseppe Fenice and his family. There he found a job as a bituminous coal miner for the Shawmut Mining Company on July 6, 1930.

Carlo’s life as a coal miner was not an easy one. The miners worked long hard hours in dark, dirty and dangerous conditions. Life in the towns that had been built up around the mines was also difficult and dirty. The towns didn’t have running water - just wells that were often contaminated, no sewage systems - only overflowing outhouses, garbage wasn’t collected on a regular basis and the roads were muddy dirt streets. One such mining town was called Cardiff, and that was where Carlo met his bride, Amabile Scolastica Serafini, who was born in Cardiff Pennsylvania on March 20, 1922.

On November 4, 1939 Mabel and Carlo married at St. Joseph’s Church in Force. Together they bought a house in Penfield Pennsylvania and started a family - Alice Angelina, Guido Joseph, and Ronald Cletus. While the family grew, Carlo worked hard in the mines, in his garden and at various other jobs. On February 27, 1956 22

Carlo got a job at Speer Carbon in St. Marys Pennsylvania. With the commute between Penfield and St. Marys long, Carlo and Mabel sold their house in Penfield and bought a house in St. Marys around 1970. Carlo worked at Speer Carbon for 17 years and retired in 1973 after suffering the first of two heart attacks. During the 21 years of his retirement, Carlo enjoyed his family, grandchildren, and his garden, he played the piano, and he listened to music. He also nurtured a weak heart, glaucoma, and black lung from his work in the mines. On June 25, 1994, Carlo’s body gave in to the ravages of his work and he died in St. Marys at the age of 82.

Carlo came to America to find work and to live the “American Dream”. He lived it! When he arrived in America in 1930 he had nothing, he lived with extended family and he started his career hundreds of feet underground in the mines. When he retired at the age of 60, he had a nice pension, good benefits, assets and a healthy savings account. Although Carlo himself never finished high school, his children and grandchildren went to such colleges and universities as Columbia, Cornell, MIT, Penn State, Princeton, and Yale. His children were always finely dressed and Mabel had a closet full of beautiful dresses, shoes and some nice pieces of jewelry. Their home in St. Marys, while not large, was completely paid for and was luxuriously decorated. If anyone lived the “American Dream” it was Carlo Leno Riccadonna. Although he died 21 years ago, his family is so proud of him and his legacy lives on in the hearts and minds of his family here in America and in Italy. Ti ricordiamo e ti amiamo sempre! Written by Wendy Dunkle Dziurzynski

Mabel and Carlo Riccadonna


Family Stories: I Miei Nonni onato Endrizzi was born in Cavedago, Tyrol, Austria in 1888. Seeking work in the winter Donato and his father, Pietro, would travel south to clean chimneys. He was small enough to go up the chimney and scrape down the soot. In the summertime they would stay in Cavedago and work on their little farm. In 1907 at the age of 19, Donato made his first trip to America. He found a job in New Paltz, NY working on a tunnel that would bring water to NYC. In 1914 he sailed back to Tyrol and married Angelina Viola, also born in Cavedago in 1893. While Donato, also known a Nato Bello, was home, he was drafted into the army for WWI. He left his pregnant wife and was sent to the Russian front. While he was away, Angelina gave birth to a little girl who died a few months later as did his father. The war ended in 1918. Donato and Angelina had another daughter, Augusta, then a son, Santo in 1921. After Santo was born, Donato returned to America to work in the coal mines in Morgantown, WV. After a couple of years he returned to his family in Cavedago then under Italy’s rule. Angelina became pregnant, Donato returned to America. Giuseppina was born in 1924. Donato began working as a carpenter. In 1926 while using an electric saw he had an accident that cut off three of his fingers on his left hand. He received workmen’s compensation and returned to Cavedago to plan a new home for his ever growing family. Angelina became pregnant, Donato returned to NY. His wife supervised the building of a new house. What a strong woman Angelina was! While pregnant with her fourth child, she cared for their three children, tended the cows, cultivated the land and built a house without her husband present. Not to mention caring for her sick mother-in-law. Baby Albina arrived in 1927. In 1929 Angelina and her four children moved into the beautiful pink house. Still visible today are Donato’s initials over the door frame and in the wrought iron railing. In 1930 Donato returned to find la casa rossa completed. As work was non existent in the town, he borrowed money to return to NY. Donato returned to Cavedago in 1932. Once again Angelina became pregnant and another daughter, Ada, was born in 1933. Things were not good when he returned to New York but he managed to find a position working in a hospital for $1.00 a day and meals. In 1936 he had earned enough money to bring his eldest daughter, 18 years old and his son, 15 years old to America. After eight days at sea, they arrived on April 23, 1936 on the ship Conte de Savoa from the port of Genoa.

Seated are Angelina, Ada, Donato Endrizzi Standing: Augusta, Giuseppina, Santo and Albina

That summer Donato, Augusta and Santo worked in the Catskills Mountains at the Grandview Mountain House in East Windham, NY. They did all the repairs, cut the grass and prepared the resort for the guests that were arriving that summer. He instilled a strong work ethic in all his children.

In 1937 Donato brought his wife and three daughters to join the family in America. They sailed from Genoa on the Rex arriving in December 1937. That summer the entire family worked at the resort. The family, happy to be all together, lived in an apartment at 164 Wyckoff Avenue, Ridgewood, NY and 387 Suydam Street, Ridgewood. In 1949 Donato realized the American dream of owning his own home. The family moved to 400 Woodbine Street, Ridgewood, NY. They had a small garden where they grew tomatoes, salad, beans and fig trees. The entire family would gather there for every special occasion. The family dinners consisted of canederli, krauti and luganaga, tonco and polenta. Every Friday they made gnocchi di patate. Donato and Angelina lived there for 32 years. They were married for 67 years and had 12 grandchildren. They were truly blessed as we were to have them in our lives! Submitted by Marion Endrizzi Whelpley of Mequon, WI, granddaughter of Angelina and Donato Endrizzi



The Fassani . . . The Decorators

or centuries, the houses of the valley displayed decorative murals of saints, symbols of their history and of their daily lives.Walking through the villages of the valley, one encounters these images were displayed for protection, fulfillment of vows, to measure the hours , to recall some episode of the family or village’s history. Passing through

the narrow streets, the small court yards one sees these images that serve as guideposts that were easily understood by the passerbys indicating passages of time, the work rhythms of their times and place for prayer and meditation. The images are ones of the supernatural and devotional: Christ, the Virgin and her child as well as saints. Truly, the living in an environment of the Dolomites possibly accentuated an artistic-pictoral sensibility and disposition in the Fassani, the people of the Val di Fassa. In the past centuries, the Fassani earned their livings as “pittores decoratores�, image painters. They emigrated not to the Americas but they left the Tyrol seasonally and went up to Baveria and Austria and as far as France to ply this craft. As their religiosity inspired their craft, the local political environment of being a feudal state of Brixen Bressannone prompted their movement to the lands of the Hapsburg.


After the Council of Trent, the on-going imagery or the iconography of these murals flows from the churches with the depictions of the chruch themes serving as a catechistic didactic as did the images present on the French Gothic cathedral. The Council of Trent with its effort to counter reform or overly asserted its traditional values and images that became visible and on display on the walls of the houses of the valley.

In the valley of Fassa, religious imagery develops a tradition. This tradition runs parallel to imagery found on interior and exterior walls of the churches. The rendering of these images is modest. One finds external frescoes created by the same masters that adorned the interior of the churches while many other such murals were created with the poorest of means by unknown artists or craftsmen. These latter images had a devotional value while a far less artistic value even though they required time, effort and treasure to realize them.

As time passed on, these murals could be eliminated, substituted according to the dangers and hazards experienced during a period so that there emerged images of new patronal saint that served as a protector. Among the most popular devotional saint of the Fassani is

St Christopher who carries the Infant Jesus and has his feet sumberged in the raging waters and aided by his staff. He was venerated as the protector against pestilence but also the protector of travelers who faced unknown dangers, sudden dangers and horror but devoid of the sacraments. Another popular figure seen in the murals is St Floriano, the protector against fires as well as St John Nepomuceno, protector against floods and finally Our Lady of Help, who was invoked in all circumstances of their lives. Each of the villages emphasized their devotion and reverence for the village’s patron. This is evidenced by the number of specific and dedicated displays. The village of Mazin is particularly and specifically adorned with their very own patron.

devotional religiosity of an individual family or an individual.

As economic and social conditions developed and changed, there began appearing images of mountain peaks of Fassa, scenes of rural livig, alpinismo and tourism almost to imbed the transformation of the valley to modern times. This is scene often the walls of hotels and tourist lodges. In these more contemporay images, there is an effort to recall and preserve Fassa’s ancient roots and customs. These images are quasi-snap shots of myths and legends of the Ladino community, traditions, family geneological trees as well as significant local residents. The subjects change but the phenomenon of these murals continue to reminsce and demonstrate the immutable artistic diposition of the Fassani. i. Just look around without and within to enjoy this artistic catalog of their lives and values.

The capitelli - the wayside and niche shrines of individual homes -- are also “canvas`s” or occasions for more paintings. They were inspired by individual villages or flow from the specific Written by Elisa Salvi, Ufficio Stampa, Val di Fassa.



Nos Dialet . . . Our Dialect # 10

he language of our people…or the dialects of our people were different from valley to valley and thus they became differentiated further in their valley. The dialects were not languages but the language was differentiated by those dialects. A symbol or a proof of this is to note the published dictionaries of individual valleys. The illustrations refer to the dictionaries of the dialects of San Lorenzo in Banale and Montagne. There are many more such dictionaries e.g. Dizionario del Pinzoler, the dialect of the Val Rendena. There are exceptions where one finds actual languages of actual linguistic minorities e.g. Ladini, the Cimbri and the Mocheni.This issue of the Filò presents elements of Ladino of the Ladino community, the language, their customs. See also a ladino hymn and proverbs in the pages of this edition. Significantly, our languages…the historical presence of the various communities or linguistic minorities in the Province were the very elements that earned the Province the status of Autonomy. . Do consider going to the web site of the Museo degli Usi e Costumi della Gente Trentina (The Museum of the Ways and Customs of the Trentino People) to hear film clips of the sounds and intonations of our people in the Province speaking the dialect…Here is their website also in dialect..also in red and the English in black.

It’s time for another tense of the verb to be…its past perfect tense…First the dialect in red, Italian in blue, the interrogative in dialect, also in red. and the English in black.

Mi ero stà Ti te eri stà Lu l’era stà Noi erem stadi Voi ere stadi Lori I era stadi

(io ero stato) (tu eri stato) (egli era stato) (noi eravamo stati) (voi eravate stati) (essi erano stati)

Mi èronte stà? Ti èret stà? Lu èrelo sta? Noi èrente stadi? Voi ère stadi? Lori èrei stadi?

I had been You had been He had been We had been You had been They had been

DIALECT SHOW & TELL #4 La Tavola - The Kitchen

Let’s look to the illustrations on the opposite page, observe their labels of the items. Starting from the top and going left to right…We will cite the dialectal word in the illustration and literally translate it into English. The Italian equivalent will not be cited. These words and nomenclatures are derived from the dialect around Tione.


Lampadari Piat dala luce Fil dalla luce Pirlet Lampadina Canton/Spigol

Lamp Reflector Electric Cord Light Switch Light Bulb Corner

Vedrina Caset Portela Portafior Portasugaman

China Closet Drawer Door Flower Stand Towel Rack

Coltrina Arloi a pendol Arloi Raza Arloi

Window Curtain Pendulum Clock Watch Clock Hand Pendulum Clock

Taola/Tagola Piac a coste Chichera Pegol/Gamba

Table Soup Dish with Side Small Coffee Cup Table Leg

Bicerin/bicerot Tolin Scanela/Bancheta Spasegio

Small Glass Small Table Stool Child Walker

Carega de paia Carega de legn Caregon

Straw Chair Wooden Chair High Chair

Minella Stropa Cestin Balanza

Measure for Grains Willow / Branch Basket Scale

Piat dala Balanza Rampin March/pes/peso

Scale Pan Hook

Pestarol Brac

Meat Pounder Arm



The illustrations opposite are those of Helen Lageder; they appear in the Dizionario del Dialetto di Montagne di Trento by Corrado Grassi, produced and distributed by the Museo degli Usi e Costumi della Gente Trentina, San Michele all’Adige




Fassa’s Seasonal Migrants

here was no emigration to the Americas - to the United States, to Brazil or to Argentina. Well, maybe a few did emigrate to those lands, but the people of this valley took part in seasonal migrations to areas close by. Some engaged in rather original activities, such as that of wandering musician. And from the 1880's onward, there was a notable seasonal exodus of women, a very unusual occurrence for the valleys of the Trentino in that period. In short, the Valle di Fassa played a rather unique role in the panorama of those years of emigration.

Fassani descending to Markets

important jobs, such as interpreter or even as a sales agent. With their earnings the heads of household were able to round out the income which came from their farm activities at home.

Farming at High Elevations

The villages of Fassa lie at altitudes between 1200 and 1600 meters above sea level. It was necessary for the heads of household of that area to leave their homes during the 'dead' season for agriculture that is from September or October until April, in order to make ends meet. Mountain agriculture did not yield enough to sustain a family for a whole year. Certain activities which in other regions could provide a reasonable income were just not feasible at these high altitudes. Consider wine and silk! Vines did not bear much fruit and the mulberry tree, whose leaves the silkworm thrived on, does not grow there!

There is evidence that, as early as 1300, bands of migrants left the Valle di Fassa several times a year for weeks at a time. Most went to Bolzano, which was not too far from Trento, attracted by the fairs held there periodically. These fairs were frequented by large numbers of peasants and craftsmen who were both buyers and sellers of farm animals, agricultural products and miscellaneous other items. The visitors from Fassa were not there to sell their own wares - their butter, cheese and skins were needed at home, but they were at the service of the merchants. At first, they served in humble jobs as porters and clerks - but eventually they took on more


In time, these activities grew in both scope and range. The great scholar from Fassa, Father Frumenzio Ghetta, in the course of his research, uncovered many documents indicating that his fellow countrymen had joined with various traders and travelled to fairs in Trieste, Venice, Bergamo, Lucca, Naples and even to Munich and Amsterdam. We don't know exactly when, but certainly within a century or so, as the great fairs diminished in importance, new migration strategies developed in the

Itinerant Fassani Musicians

valley. A very original occupation, that of wandering minstrel, took hold. M.A. Mariani wrote, around 1650 that 'They (the people of Fassa), learn how to play the lyre, as well as as other instruments, while still in their mother's womb, a talent which allows them to wander here and there in the world, bringing joy to festivals.' We know that music played a significant role in the culture of Fassa, as documents dating back to the twelfth century

speak of the widespread diffusion of Gregorian music.

According to Frumenzio Ghetta, every town had its own troop of musicians, usually composed of violinists, viola and bassoon players and sometimes a zither player. After Christmas, they would leave the valley and push northward toward the Tyrol and Germany, or southward to the Veneto. They were hired to play at festivals, weddings and other occasions, especially during Carnival.

In later centuries, starting in about 1750, a curious pattern appeared regarding migration from the Valle di Fassa. In what was called the 'lower' valley, that is Soraga, Vigo, Pozza and Mazzin, the trades of stonecutter and mason took hold, while in the 'lower' valley - Canazei, Campitello, Alba and Penia - the men learned the art of 'colorist' and passed the skill down from father to son. These workers traveled north. The stone cutters and masons went to the cities and quarries from Bolzano to the northern Tyrol, into Bavaria and even into the further reaches of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It was always a seasonal migration with the men leaving after the haymaking was finished. The hay was essential for animal husbandry to the mountain families, providing the cheese and butter which was their main source of protein during the long winters.

Fassani Decorators

So their work abroad lasted only six months at most. Those who returned in July did so because that was haying season. The poorer migrants returned later, leaving the haying to their womenfolk, young boys and old men. The migration of women was a new phenomenon which the moral authorities of the valley, especially the priests, were not too happy about. They feared the 'loss of morality' which would occur as these women left the watchful eyes of their community. But, as a matter of fact, those women not only brought home their earnings

The 'colorists' took different routes from the Tyrol to Carinthia, Salzburg and northern Austria. But after 1850 their main goal was Switzerland. Their specialty was unique - using oil-based paints, they would decorate shutters and balconies and other wooden elements, both inside and outside the homes. They even painted wooden kitchen utensils. Previously, these tasks had been done by local craftsmen, usually carpenters, but the Fassani did them better and cheaper! Of course, the locals were not happy and often went to the authorities to defend their professional prerogatives. One document by a complainant in Sottopera, reads “These people from Fassa go door to door. They do not ply their trade in their home Beginning of Fassa Alpinism villages. In fact they do not even take their brushes and jars of paint home with them, but store them in places for decades, but also acquired the knowledge and skills that they return to the following year.� which they applied to the development of a tourist economy in their own towns and villages. From the beginning After the Napoleonic wars, the Fairs at Bolzano had lost of the twentieth century, and still today, tourism became their importance and the mountain people had to find the staple of the economy in the valley of Fassa and new ways to bring home earnings to supplement the there was no longer a need for the seasonal migrations of meager produce from their dairy and farming activities. the past. In their seasonal migration, they left in the spring and Written by Renzo Grosselli. Grosselli is a journalist for returned in July, or even later, in November. L’Adige and an author and researcher on immigration. 29


The Dolomites of Val di Fassa

he Val di Fassa is a typical north eastern valley, through which runs the River Avisio and surrounded by some of the principal mountainous groups of Dolomites: The Sella Group, Sassolungo, the Catinaccio and the Marmolada, the “Queen of the Dolomites.” Other non Dolomitic groups celebrated for the richness of their minerals are Buffaure and the Monzoni. Thehe River Avisio’s tributaries form several small lateral valleys: Val San Nicolo` and Valle di Pellegrino. Thanks to the several mountain Marmolada, Queen of the Dolomites passes, it is connected to other celebrated Dolomitic sites: Passo San Pellegrino, Passo Fedaia, Passo of principal peaks of the Dolomites was Paul Grohmann, a Costalunga also referred to as Karerpass, Passo Pordoi, Viennese, who reached the highest peak of the Passo Sella (Canazei-Valgardena or Groten in German). Marmolada. Many alpinist followed and thereby gave a jump start to the tourism of Fassa. At the end of the Fassa has eight administrative municipalies or jurisdic- 1800’s, there emerged the first group of Alpine guides tions. The principal Comunes are Moena and Pozza. who became the very best Alpinists of Europe among Then in order of the number of residents, there are the memorable guides was Bernard, Luigi Rizzi, Tita Piaz Canazei, Vigo, Campitello, Soraga, and Mazzin. 9500 surnamed “the Devil of the Dolomites,” Luigi people live in the 314 square kilometers. A distinguishing Micheluzzi and many others. feature of the valley is its language: Ladino, an ancient language Rhaeto-Romance, or Rhaetian, is a subfamily of In recent years, the ski industry has blossomed and flourthe Romance languages. "Rhaeto-Romance" refers to the ished and has become the valley’s chief attraction with its former Roman province of Rhaetia. It is spoken only in summer tourism. The Consortium Dolomiti Superski, the Trentino-Alto Adige and part of the Province of begun in 1974, encompasses the Dolomites of Trento, Belluno. There is a common cultural patrimony that Bolzano and Belluno offering over 1200 kilometers of unites this population: its legends, stories and customs ski runs. There are about 50 refuges scattered in the valthat were catalogued between the middle of 1800`s and ley’s scenic mountains. The valley offers the tourist, the early 1900`s by Karl Felix Wolff. In 1913, he published excursionist and the alpinist hospitality and views of the first volume of Dolomitensagen. UNESCO recog- Dolomitic panoramas and possibly participate the celenized the Dolomites as a World Heritage site. brated phenomenon of “Enrosadira (in German Alpengluhen) at the sunrise and sunset when the The traveler and vulcanist, Deodat guy Silvain Tancrede Dolomites change their colors from pink-red to violet to Gratet de Dolomieu, son of the Marques of Isere, was pale white in the moonlight. Enrosadira is the ladino the first to recognize the mineral found in the very struc- word meaning “reddening.” The Val di Fassa is an ideal ture of the Dolomities. In 1789, he gathered samples of location for both summer and winter holidays. In the dolomitic rock and shared them with Theodore Nicolas summer, there are miles of trails for hiking and mountain de Saussure who proceeded to have the sample analized. biking. Escursionists can reach the refuges high in the Saussure discovered that they had discovered a new min- mountains or pursue “via ferrata”, narrow trails at high eral. Dolomite is an anhydrous carbonate mineral com- elevations equipped with cables to support the hiker. posed of calcium magnesium carbonate. He named it Expert alpinist can enjoy some of world wide celebrated dolomia in honor of its discover. cliffs like the south face of the Marmolada. In the winter, it is a winter paradise for skiers and snow shoeing. The first travelers were mostly British and came to the Riccardo Decarli (Biblioteca della montagna-SAT, Val di Fassa in the early 1800s. They were coming from Trento) He just published Guida ai Rifugi del Trentino, the vicintiy of Alpe di Suisi and entered Val di Fassa the where he describe the 151 “rifugi” in the Trentino. The vicintiy of Alpe di Suisi and entered Val di Fassa through book is available from Panorama di Trento: Passo di Costalunga. The very first to scale one of the ( 30



The Great War in the Mountains

s the year 1916 ended, the death of the Emperor was a traumatizing event. Weeks later, a meteorological event as equally unnerving to both military and civilians. On the 12th and 13th of December, a record snow fell in Valle and the nearby mountains - a snowfall such as had never been seen before. With the snow came the “white death.� At Vermiglio an avalanche destroyed a newly constructed house where both soldiers and minor officials lived, killing 15. Other avalanches hit barracks in Val di Peio. Also hit were Val del Merlo, and Val di Strino where there were between 12 and 20 deaths. Still other incidents occurred at Montozzo and at Cogolo. Altogether there were more than 150 victims. The feast of Santa Lucia became known as Black Santa Lucia in the local talk.

appeared at Fazzon di Pellizano. On the mountains, the troops were psychologically exhausted - it became a daily challenge against invisible enemies - the cold, the avalanches, the solitude. During the whole year of 1917, the Alpine front was unchanged, though there were a few bursts of artillery fire on the peaks of Montozo, the Tonale, Adamello and the Ortles. Substantially the front remained frozen at the positions gained earlier and there were very few episodes worthy of notice. Taking advantage of better means of transport, the troops on the high ridges improved their fortifications, placing batteries at very high altitudes, such as on Cima Giumella.

The food situation for the people became more and more desperate. In the autumn, the government announced the fourth and fifth 'war loan' - there were to be eight all told. These levies and various requisitions brought the populace to complete exasperation. The air arm came alive on both sides. A fully operating air field was establishedat Croviana and an anti-aircraft battery

In June 1917, the new Emperor granted amnesty to political prisoners and to interned citizens. Even the people of Vermiglio which had been deported to Mittendorf, were allowed to return to the Trentino, but not to their own village. Many of them settled in the Non Valley and in the lower reaches of the Sole Valley, with relatives or friends. In that same month of June, the sixth war 'loan' was levied - it cost the entire district of Cles four million kroner. In November came another 'loan', the seventh! All the available financial resources of the people had now been taken, leaving them destitute of everything.


The very poor harvest of the previous year made the food situation desperate, especially in the early months of 1917, which are remembered as the worst days of the war. Hunger, real hunger, was the challenge every day, not only for the Russian prisoners, but for the entire population. And not just food was taken, but many other necessities, such as textiles for clothing and other everyday items. Although strict price controls were enacted, the cost of living continued to rise and the black market flourished. Metals such as iron, copper and bronze could not be found anywhere - even the church bells were requisitioned and melted down. Eighteen year olds were drafted for the first time.

But in October and November of 1917, the crushing defeat of the Italian army at Caporetto sent a shock wave through the ranks of the troops fighting among the rocks of Adamello and Ortles. It also raised some hopes, but everyone realized that the end of the war was still far in the future and that more sorrow and deprivation would

be heaped on shoulders already bowed by a thousand cares. For the Trentini and particularly for the Sole valley, 1918 was the fifth year of war. The people entered that year hopeless and impoverished as never before. War operations on the Noce front started up again. On May 25, The Italian artillery started a bombardment of Pizzano di Vermiglio which continued for several days. On Monticelli near the Paradiso Pass, at Montozzo, the Marocarro Pass, and at Presena, the Alpini and other Italian troops captured a few positions, scattering the Imperial troops. On May 31, the Italians besieged the Imperial command post at Fucine, but the troops were tired, hungry and without hope. One notable event, in June, was the attempt by the Imperial Guard to crack the front at Tonale. This operation had been entrusted to General Metzger, with the approval of the Emperor Carl, and despite the disapproval of General Arz who was planning his grand offensive at the Piave. The attempt played out from June 12 to June 14, but got nowhere because the Italians had been informed of the plan and were able to defend the position. Other encounters took place near the Paradiso Pass, in the Presena Valley, at the Cavento Peak and at the Segni Pass.

populace was also jubilant, though famished and exhausted by their long suffering. They set upon the warehouses of the retreating army, and helped themselves to anything and everything that could be of use. The rampage extended even to the fortifications at high altitudes, where the villagers, little by little, recovered any material that could be moved. Of course, these expeditions often gave rise to incidents - there were shootings, fires, misunderstandings and acts of revenge. But another calamity followed. The end of the war brought the lethal epidemic of Spanish influenza which took many victims in this population exhausted by years of deprivation.

One episode which seems unbelievable, given the adverse conditions in which it happened was the conquest by the Italians of St Matteo Peak on August 13. After an intense artillery attack, four squads of Alpini stormed the Imperial garrison there, even earning the admiration of their foes. The peak was put under the command of Captain Arnaldo Berni of Mantua, who hastened to strengthen the fortifications so as to be able to withstand the anticipated counterattack. This came on September 3, when the Austrians regrouped at the Giumella Peak and in a bold and unbelievable operation, reconquered St Matteo and all the surrounding lookout posts. Two Austrians - Lieutenant Tabarelli from Fatis and W. Licka - distinguished themselves, the latter receiving the Medal of Honor from the Empress Maria Theresa. Captain Berni resisted until the end and died under the ice of his cave, an immaculate tomb.

This victory did not help the Imperials. Two months later, their headquarters at Fucine issued an order of full retreat. The order was received with jubilation by the Imperial troops who set off fireworks and started bonfires in celebration. But utmost in their thoughts was the need to secure the road back to their homes. The local


Written by Uldarico Fantelli. He has served in many capacities in both local and Provincial Governance as well as Educational Administration. He is a noted author and Scholar regarding the World War I and our people.

I Proverbi: Ladini Wisdom Stories

Whereas we have focused on the Proverbi from the various valleys that the Filo`has focused on with the usual Tyrolean or Trentino dialect, for this particular issue of the Val di Fassa and its historic community of Ladini, we are pleased to present to our readers Ladini proverbs in their language and manner. They were gathered by Mara Vadagnini of the Ladino Cultural Institute. They are presented in red, while the Italian translation is presented in blue and our translation in black.

Dijea nesc veies: a vegnir a cèsa fora dal bosch zenza se tor o n ram o na ponta, la cèsa vaa.Dicevano i nostri vecchi: quando si ritorna dal bosco, bisogna prendersi un pezzo di legno o un fascio di rami, altrimenti la casa piange. Our elders would say: When one returns from the woods, one needs to bring a piece of wood and a bundle of sticks. Otherwise the house weeps!

Ge volessa scialdi se didèr fora, perché na man lèva l’autra e duta does lèva l mu. Aiutiamoci a vicenda, poiché una mano lava l’altra e tutte due lavano la faccia. Let’s help each other so that one hands helps another so that both hands can wash the face. Se te ves ben, te perdones dut, se te odies no te perdones nia. Se ami tutto perdoni; se odi nulla perdoni. If you love, you forgive; if you hate, you forgive nothing.

Canche l’om e la femena à da jir zaonder, l’om se peissa coche l’à da parlèr, la femena coche l’à da se regolè. Quando marito e moglie escono, il marito pensa come ha da parlare, la donna come ha da vestire. When husband and wife go out, the husband thinks what he will say; the wife, what she should wear No bèsta emparèr delvers l mestier per doventèr n bon artejan, ma ge vel ence aer amor e ge voler ben a chel mestie. Non è sufficiente imparare per bene un mestiere per diventare un buon aritigiano; occorre anche amare quel mestiere. It is not enough to learn well a craft to become a good craftsman; It is necessary to love it as well.

Vardavene da n om che fila, da na femena che scigola e da la bocia de n cian. Guardatevi da un uomo che fila, da una donna che fischia e dalla bocca di un cane. Beware of a man who spins, a woman who whistles and the mouth of a dog. Te l’ostarìa l prum cartin l costa, l secondo l costa ja de manco, l terzo pech e nia e chi dò i no costa più nia deldut.Nell’osteria il primo quarto di vino è caro, il secondo costa meno, il terzo costa pochissimo, e quelli che seguono non costano più niente. In a bar, the first draft of wine is expensive, the second costs less and the third costs very little and those that follow cost nothing. Canche te sès ló che un à la piaa, no jir a ge grazèr laìte.Quando sai che uno ha una piaga, non stuzzicarla. When one knows some one has a wound, do not touch it.

Se l’om l’aesse scialdi volù più ben ai omegn che ai scioldi e a la roba, no fossa mai stat veres e che bel dapò viver! Se l’uomo avesse sempre amato più gli uomini che il denaro e gli averi del mondo, non vi sarebbero mai state delle guerre, e sarebbe un vivere più felice per tutti! If a man had loved men more than money and the riches of the world, there would never had been wars and living would have been happier for everyone.

Mort, fech e amor, l’é trei robes che no se sarà mai bogn de scone. Morte, fuoco e amore, non si possono nascondere. Death, fire and love can not be hidden.

A l’om dut ge zede, fora che la femena. All’uomo cede tutto, tranne la moglie. Man can give up everything except his wife. 34

Our Partners are . . .

Alberto Chini, Presidente of Father Eusebio Chini Museum, Segno Italy Alberto Folgheraiter- Author, journalist and specialist in Trentino culture, Trento Christian Brunelli. Teacher & Technical Consultant, Peekskill, NY Tomaso Iori, Museo della Scuola, Rango, Val di Giudicarie Giorgio Crosina-Director-Phoenix Informatica Bancaria, Trento Ivo Povinelli, Director- Federazione Trentina delle Pro Loco e loro Consorzi . TrentoJim Caola Genealogist, nutritional counselor, macrobiotic chef, Philadelphia, PA Daniela Finardi, Communications Dept.- Museo degli Usi e Costumi della Gente Trentina. San Michele Manuele Margini-Phoenix Bancaria Informatica, Trento Ricardo di Carli -Biblioteca della Montagna-SAT, Trento Renzo Grosselli-L`Adige, Journalist, Author, Trento Alexander DeBiasi Trentino Sviluppo SpA Verena Di Paoli.Writer, Researcher, Scholar, Terlago Veronica Coletti, Teacher, Bronx, NY Stefano Miotto, Phoenix Informatica Bancaria, Trento Andrea Rella, Phoenix Informatica Bancaria, Trento

Our Contributors are . . .

Jack Aldergate, Alliance, Ohio Daniela Brovodan, Museo Instituto Ladini Ilario DeFRancesco, Canticum Novum Choir, Val di Fassa Wendy Dziurzynski, Greenwich, CT Marion Endrizzi, Whelpley of Mequon, Wisconsin Uldarico Fantelli, Dimaro, Val di Sole David Prevedel, Hooper, Colorado Elisa Salvi, -Ufficio Stampa - Val di Fassa Theresa Springer, South Park, Colorado Mara Vadagnini, Museo Instituto Ladini Andrea Weiss, APT Val di Fassa

Photo Credits

Trentino Sviluppo, Alessandro Gruzza, Daniele Lira, Marco Simonini, Pio Geminiani, Ettore Perazzini, Nicola Angeli, Ronny Kiaulehn, Piero Cavagna; Ufficio Stampa, Val di Fassa; Anton Sessa, Giulio Malfer, Archivio Istituto Culturale Ladino – Vigo di Fassa; Museo di San Michele, Flavio Faganello, Marc Latzel

Our sincerest thanks to Giorgio Crosina and Phoenix Informatica Bancaria for making the distribution of the Filò possible throughout the United States. A TYROLEAN IS . . . T - total in honesty Y - youthful in nature R - regard to his fellow man O - obedient ot our laws L - loving, proud & indenpendent E - economy above all A - always willing to help others N - nobility When you have met a Tyrolean, you have a friend

These words and image were combined into a small card by Dasalina Valentina Davet who lived in Middleport, PA. She was extremely proud of her Tyrolean heritage and identity…and so is the Filò…


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FILO - Summer 2015  

A Journal for Tyrolean Americans - Val di Fassa

FILO - Summer 2015  

A Journal for Tyrolean Americans - Val di Fassa