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A Journal for Tyrolean Americans Volume 17

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An Introduction . . .

The Filò is to be published and distributed on a quarterly basis and is targeted to the children of our immigrant parents. The Filò (pronounced fee-lò) was the daily gathering in the stables of the Trentino where the villagers met and socialized. The intent is to provide a summary of our culture, history, and customs in plain English to inform and provide you with the background of your roots and ancestry.. If you wish to contact us, call Lou Brunelli at 914-402-5248. Attention: Your help is needed to expand our outreach to fellow Tyrolean Americans. Help us identify them, be they your children, relatives or acquaintances. Go to filo.tiroles.com and register on line to receive the magazine free of charge. You may also send your data to Filò Magazine, PO Box 90, Crompond, NY 10517 or fax them to 914-734-9644 or submit them by email to filo.tiroles@att.net. Cover: Avio - Sabbionara d'Avio - Castello



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Introduction to the Vallagarina

he name Vallagarina or Val Lagarina ( Lagertal in German ) is the area that extends between the mountains of the valley and Adige River L ' Adige formerly Tyrolean dialect , Adesc in Ladino also Adice Etsch in German and , Ades in Trentino , Àdexe in Veneto , Athesis in Latin , is a river of ' Italian north-east. It is born at Resia pass( Reschenpass ) in the Upper Val Venosta ( Obervinschgau ) in South Tyrol and flows into the Adriatic Sea . It crosses the cities of Trento , Verona , Legnago , Cavarzere and Lambisce Merano , Bolzano , Rovereto and Rovigo . It passes through the regions of Trentino-Alto Adige and Veneto. The valley in which it traverses takes various names: Val Venosta between the source and Merano, Valley of the Adige between Merano and Trento, Vallagarina between Trento and Verona, and then Val Padana between Verona and the Adriatic. The Vallagarina was the southern most part of the Tyrol (now the Trentino-Alto Adige) that began right after Borghetto , a “frazione” of Ala of the Vallagarina and ending at the Brenner Pass. There was a Custom house there and to pass over to the Veneto one needed a passport underscoring the insularity and separateness of the Tyrol until 1918. There are traces of the Jurassic period a time ranging from 190 to 200 million years ago. They are in the northern part of the valley where there are footprints of dinosaurs that have been identified as a to Dilophosaurus- like teropods (carnivorous dinosaurs) and various herbivores, bipeds (ornithopods) and quadrupeds (sauropods). There are traces of a Roman presence since the 1st century BC evidenced by remnants left behind reflective of the commercial traffic that passed through the valley. As Christianity took hold of the Tyrol in the 4th century, the Vallagarina became a feudal state of the Principato of

Castello Avio-Sabbionara d`Avio

View of Rovereto from Patone

Trento, the Bishopric Principality of Trento, dominion ruled by a Prince Bishop . The Prince bishops had as their vassals and confederates the Lords of Tyrol. The many castles with their fortifications in the valley are the reminiscence of their role and function. In the sixteenth century , the Republic of Venice at the height of their power invaded the valley both militarily and culturally. They took possession of Rovereto and stayed in power from 1416 to 1509 . The Venetian dominance was ended with their defeat in the battle of Calliano of 1487 and the subsequent war of 1508 - 1509. The valley resumed its allegiance to the Principato. The Calliano battle and its transition back to their original domination is commemorated each year.

Dinosaur tracts in the Lavini di Marco


As the 800 year old Principato declined, Vallagarina became part of the Austro Hungarian empire in…and reassumed its identity as the Tyrol. The Tyrol suffered commercially as the battles for independence became the new entity, Italy absorbing areas that had been part of the Empire. The Tyrol lost its trading partners besides experiencing interruptions in their harvests and pestilence that affected their silk production. When the Great War began first in Luserna, Italy remained indecisive for a year, then joined the Allies who simply gratuitously conceded the entire Tyrol to Italy without a plebiscite.

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Rovereto’s MART - Museum of Modern Art of Trento

Grape harvest in Vallagarina

in the center of Valle dell’Adige, along the main road linking Trento and Verona. Walking through the city, one encounters the Middle Ages in the walls of Castelbarco, the dominion of the Republic of Venice in the home of the Podestà , the in the palazzi of Corso Bettini the in the rooms of the castles. Along the city streets, you can see, from Accademia degli Agiati, to Teatro Zandonai, to the city library in palazzo Annona.

In the Vallagarina, between 1700 and 1800, there developed a silk producing industry that had begun in Rovereto in 1500 where the first spinning mills began using hydraulic power. The Vallagarina became the center of silk production exporting its silk throughout Europe. At the end of the 19th century, there occurred the spread of mulberry tree leaves along with unfavorable weather.

Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art of Trento and Rovereto (MART) is the centre of modern and contemporary art in Italy. It features exhibitions on a variety of themes stemming from its research of national and international temporary exhibitions and artistic programs on twentieth century art. The museum has a collection of around 20,000 works among them paintings, drawings, prints and sculptures

Vallagarina includes 16 municipalities Ala, Avio, Besenello,Brentonico, Calliano, Isera, Nogaredo, Nomi, Pomarolo, Terragnolo, Mori, Ronzo Chienis, Rovereto, Trambileno, Villa Lagarina, and Volano. Rovereto is the administrative seat for the affairs of the municipalities. At one time, my valley origin, Val delle Giudicarie, did not have access to Trento for its affairs since they were land bound so that they relied on Rovereto for their affairs descending to Riva, Arco and down to Rovereto. The Val di Gresta is part of the Vallagarina but will be addressed in a subsequent issue of the Filo`. Among its features is an area that is distinguished in the farming of vegetables. It has an exposure to the mild, quasi-mediterranean climate of the Lake of Garda. Stay tuned.

Rovereto is also a City of Peace, as evidenced by the large memorial bell Campana dei Caduti. Cast using bronze of the cannons of the nations that took part in WWI, each evening its 100 tolls spread a universal message of peace.

The Vallagarina is noted for the production of its featured wine, Marzemino. It is a red wine grape variety primarily grown around Isera of the valley. Wine produced from the grape has a characteristic dark tint and light plummy taste.Rovereto is set amid hills and vineyards is

Teatro Zandonai

For more about the Vallagarina, here is the contact information: Tel. 0464 430363; Fax 0464 435528; info@visitrovereto.it; www.visitrovereto.it

Freedom Bell of the Fallen


Silk Weaving Machine


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The Castles of Vallagarina

The Lagarina Valley, that broad furrow traversed by the Adige River, with its towns of Besenello, Calliano, and Avio, was called the paradise of the nobility. Along this valley, excavated by the river over the course of millennia, castles and watchtowers were constructed, to defend the vassals of the Prince Bishop and his lands. For a century, from 1416 to 1509, the Republic of Venice had jurisdiction over Rovereto and the lower Trentino. The Adige valley was considered the portal to Rome, the required road of rulers and pilgrims, of armies and conquerors. They came down from the plains of Northern Europe and spread out over the Po Valley south of the Alps. It has been estimated that in the span of 1000 years, more than 900 armies marched through the valley.

marriage to Count Castelbarco. The ruins of other fortifications may be seen at Nomi, Corno, Pradaglia, Albano, Lizzana, Chizzola and Barco. The largest fortification in the region is the Besseno Castle, which was ceded by Count Trapp in 1973 to the province of Trent, in the hope that it would be restored. In the twelfth century, it was the property of the counts of Appiano and was occupied by the Da Beseno family. Soon after it was passed to the Castelbarco family. In

Rovereto, like most of the lower Trentino, was under the rule of the Holy Roman Empire until 1509 when it passed to the jurisdiction of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The city's brightest days occurred in the eighteenth century with the development of the silk industry, imported from the Venetians where it had flourished since 1416.

Castel Sabbionara d`Avio

The middle stretch of the Adige valley, between Matarello and Volano, is a flood plain more than two and a half kilometers in width. On the slopes in this area are many walls and fortifications. The Beseno Castle is the largest, but other residential palaces dot the course of the Adige – Rovereto, Pietra Castellano, Noerna and Avio, where Wally Toscanini, the second daughter of the great orchestra director Arturo Toscanini, lived after her

Castel Beseno

1485, it was witness to the battle of Castigliano between the Venetians and the Tyroleans – the Venetians were routed! Rebuilt after a fire in the sixteenth century, it was besieged by Napoleon's army which came through the valley in the late 1700's, after which it fell into ruin. It has been restored by the Province of Trent and is now one of the outlying exhibits of the museum of the Castle of Buonconsiglio.


Castel di Rovereto

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Castel di Rovereto

Castel Beseno

This castle covers an entire hillside and measures 250 First World War, when Italy declared war on Austria and occupied the lower Tyrol, the castle of Rovereto is today meters in length and 50 meters in width. The castle of Rovereto sits on a rocky shoulder over the an Italian War Museum, commemorating that era. The Castle of Sabbionara di Avio is among the more well known and oldest fortifications of the region. In 1977 it was donated by the countess Emmanuela of Castelbarco to the FAI ( an Italian preservation trust) which now manages and maintains the property. The castle stands guard over the lower valley of the Adige and dominates the principal routes between northern Europe and the Mediterranean Sea. For a thousand years it has watched over the traffic between the Po valley and the Plains of the Danube in Germany. Originally property of the Castelbarco family, it has passed through several hands before returning to its founding dynasty. Constructed with five encircling walls. The castle boasted five towers. In the so-called 'picadora' tower, condemned criminals were hanged. In the castle itself, the tourist may admire frescoes of fourteenth century artists.

Rovereto-il Castello

Leno river and towers over the Podesta` plaza where the municipal center is located. Built in the fifteenth century, it was modified under the reign of the Venetians (between 1416 and 1509). It is a fine example of a late- Written by Alberto Folgheraiter, journalist and author. medieval alpine fortress. In the nineteenth century it became the headquarters of the Kaiserjaeger, the soldiers of the Austrian emperor. Severely damaged in the

Castel di Rovereto-on the Leno stream


Castello di Avio


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Family Story: Enrico Berasi

Enrico Berasi, my father, It was there on MacDougall Street, immigrated to the United that he met Rose Noberini, who States at the age of 16 on the eventually was to become my SS Presidente Wilson, sailing mother. Rico found work in New from Trieste on August 3, 1922. He was York, and after marriage to Rose, born on March 2, 1906 in the village of the new couple moved to Meriden, Marazzone within Bleggio Superiore in Ct. as work was available there at the Val de Giudicarie of the Austrothe GM New Departure plant, Hungarian Empire. His father, Pietro which was part of the growing war Berasi, my namesake, was a "Bird of effort as World War II approached. Passage", having made several voyages It truly was a New Departure, as across the Atlantic seeking work in Meriden became my birthplace on America. Inevitably, that work was in My dad, Enrico Berasi, 1954, Greenwich Village, NY October 31, 1942. With the new the coal mines of Western Pennsylvania. war, Rico was drafted to follow Pietro passed away in 1908 at the age of 51, leaving MacArthur across the Pacific, and Rose and little Peter behind his 31 year old wife, Maria Fina, a 9 year old moved back to Greenwich Village to live on MacDougall daughter, Teresa, his 2 year old son Enrico (my father), Street with my maternal grandfather. In 1946, Rico and a yet unborn daughter Pierina. One can only imag- returned from the Pacific as an Army veteran and conine the difficulties that beset the family with his passing. tinued to lead his life in America with memories of his Maria decided that the family should move to America. youth in Bleggio. During those years, the family lived on Five years later, in 1913, she departed alone by ship to Bleecker Street in Greenwich Village in the parish of find a home for the family in W. Pa., leaving the elder Our Lady of Pompeii. In 1954, my identical triplet sisdaughter, Teresa, in charge of the family. At 14 years of ters, joined the family, confirming Rico's work ethic and age, she was to fill the role of mother for her two sib- status as a provider without par. Rico always insisted that lings. The plan was for the children to follow their he was Austrian, even with Italian as his native language. mother to America within a year, but the onset of World Many years later, after I had married my wife, Jean, at our War I did not allow it. With war on the seas, it was no first Thanksgiving dinner together as a family, my wife longer possible to travel by ship. The role of Teresa as stated that she had made an Italian anti-pasto in recognivicarious mother was extended by eight years. Finally, in tion of my family's Italian heritage. Rico protested loud1922, Enrico and Pierina with their uncle, Angelo Fina, ly as he slammed his fist on the dining room table, statboarded SS Presidente Wilson for the trip to New York. ing that the worst day of his life was when the judge Teresa decided to stay behind in Bleggio. With Angelo made him alter his nationalization papers to reflect in possession of $75 and the two children with no funds Italian origin instead of Austrian. His Tirolesi identity at all, they departed for New York and then Indiana, Pa. flowed through his veins and his identity was as an Once in America, Enrico followed in the footsteps of Austrian. Eventually, after a full life, my father passed his father and found work in the coal mines of W. Pa. away in 1997 at the age of 91. It was only as an adult, For fourteen years he toiled in the mines, acquiring that I came to recognize the early trials of his life and all brown lung which troubled him always. He rejoined his he had done to create a way of life for his family. His mother and learned that she had remarried giving him early years on the other side of the ocean and the several three half-brothers. His sister, Pierina, settled down in voyages of his father (my unknown grandfather) to this Pa., married, and raised her family on a farm in new land all remained as mysteries to me, ones that I Saltsburg, while adopting her new name of Lena Beida. could value and cherish, but ones that nevertheless evadMy father adopted his new land, renaming himself as ed my detailed awareness. With those mysteries before Henry Berasi, learning English as his new language, me, I began what was to become my personal Pilgrimage although always remaining as Rico to his paesani friends. to Heritage. With two visits to the Trentino homeland In 1936, he lost his job during the Depression and Rico and a visit to Ellis Island, my Pilgrimage has begun and decided to seek work in New York City, with the assis- is to be the subject of a future episode.Written by Peter tance of the Tirolesi community in Greenwich Village. Berasi, Rico’s son, Hopewell Junction, NY 8


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Vallagarina’s Satin Production In the Italian Tyrol between 1700 and 1800 a real manufacturing activity developed thanks to the silk, obtained from the cocoon pods,. As early as the mid-1500s Rovereto began to build the first spinning mills powered by hydraulic power for the production of high quality silk. In mid-1700 in Rovereto, Sacco, Lizzana there were 36 spinning frames and 8 others in Isera, Piazzo, Ala, Avio, Cadine, Trento. But the activity also spread in the Adige valley, Valsugana, Val di Non and in the Tione area. In addition to the spinning machines, there were factories serving as dyers and weaving so that the silk of Rovereto reached many European countries. In reality, however, although there are large producers of yarn , in Vallagarina and in Trentino in general the weaving did not develop much.

breeding was practiced by almost all farmers. Many houses were even enlarged precisely to better accommodate silkworm breeding farms.

The work was entrusted almost entirely to the women of the house thus enhancing the economy of the individual families. It spread so much that in the late 1700s the

At the end of the 19th century, the spread of mulberry diseases, together with unfavorable weather conditions, led to a decrease in the production of leaves. A worm disease also spread, prompting the initiation the Bacteriological Institute in Trento, which became a permanent research center. In the meantime, even the silk industry went into decline and many floors were slowly closed. The definitive crisis came with the outbreak of the First World War, which led to the cessation of all silk activities in Tyrol. The last factory that remained alive until 1918 was the Lavis plant.

The life cycle of the worm takes about 45 days, during which the families were busy feeding the berries with the mulberry leaves. These were arranged on racks Sil worm racks (arèle) of rush, placed on several superimposed levels. The rooms for the bugs The only area in which the creation of fabrics was also were clean, bright, ventilated and heated. They were developed was in the area of Ala where the art of mak- often bred directly in the kitchens at the beginning. In a ing velvet found a place and a sponsor. In 1640, thanks few days, however, the silk worm increased so much in to the parish priest of the village took advantage of the size that it was necessary to occupy more rooms in the Genoese weaver velvet refugees offering them the prem- house. During its life cycle, the silk worm passes ises of his parish, in exchange for their work as “velutai” through four "mute" transformations. The cycle convelvet makers. In a short time there were 1300 velvet cluded in late spring, when the forest was set up to allow looms in Ala. the silk worms to build the cocoon. Once formed, the The first part of silk processing dedicated to the cacoon cocoons were put in stoves to stop the process of metapods, was pursued in the homes. In the countryside the morphosis into a butterfly. The successive stages of profamilies dedicated themselves to the cultivation of the cessing took place in the spinning mills: the cocoon was mulberry tree that was planted wherever there was room unwound in hot water and the thread was twisted, always for growth of the silk production. They also pursued the by hand. The thread was wrapped in skeins. breeding of silkworms, often reserving a room in the From a single cocoon, there would develop a very thin and resistant thread, over 1500 meters long. house just for these small larvae.

Written by Daniela Finadi of the Museo degli Usi e Costumi della Gente Trentina Nurturance of the silk worm occurred in the homes of the contadini



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Father of Chinese Geography...

Nestled in between Arco, the once Riviera of the Empire, and the Val d`Adige, the valley of the Adige River is the town of Mori of the Vallagarina, a town of little significance that gave birth to a giant of a figure that would significantly change the world. Martino Martini went as a missionary to China and became the Father of Chinese geography revealing and opening up China to the West.

significant in their roles both as a missionary order and as the first religious order to operate colleges and universities as a principal and distinct ministry. By the time of Ignatius' death in 1556, the Jesuits were already operating a network of 74 colleges on three continents.This was the historical environment as well as the spirit and values of the Jesuits when in 1631, Martin entered the Society of Jesus. He was sent to study Image of Martino Martini of Mori Martino Martini, the son of contadini, classical letters and philosophy at peasant farmers, a relative of Father Eusebio Chini was born in 1655, 100 years prior to the Council of Trent. the Roman College, Rome (1634–37). However his interHe was born and reared in the Tyrol in the Principato of est was more in astronomy and mathematics which he Trento, a feudal state ruled by a Prince Bishop and studied under Athanasius Kircher. His request to be sent served by the Lords of the Tyrol. On the internet, he is as a missionary to China had already been granted. referred to as Italian and German. He was neither. Italy did not exist and the German reference refers to his Tyrolean heritage rather than a German one. At an early age, he attended high school, the gymnasium, of the Jesuits of the Austrian Province of Innsbruck in Trento.

The Jesuits first entered China through the Portuguese possession of Macau where they founded St. Paul's College of Macau. Martino Martini was a significant part of the Jesuit China missions of the 16th and 17th centuries that introduced Western science and astronomy, To understand what he was like and what he did, one then undergoing its own revolution, to China. The scienneeds to understand the Jesuit orientation and persona tific revolution brought by the Jesuits coincided with a that he acquired and with which he was imbued. Martino time when scientific innovation had declined in China. lived not very far from Trento where the Council of The Jesuits made efforts to translate western mathematTrent occurred and began a Counter Reformation to the ical and astronomical works into Chinese and aroused Protestant Reformation. Together with the values and the interest of Chinese scholars in these sciences. They lessons of his Tyrolean roots, Martino’s scholarship and made very extensive astronomical observation and carspirituality were the results of his Jesuit training and ried out the first modern cartographic work in China, an development. In the opening lines of founding docu- achievement due to Martino Martini that earned him the ment of the Jesuit order, there is the expression "whoev- title of Father of Chinese geography. They also learned er desires to serve as a soldier of God…The Jesuits were to appreciate the scientific achievements of this ancient referred to as God’s soldiers…ready and eager to be culture and made them known in Europe. Through their deployed throughout the world to evangelize and extend correspondence European scientists first learned about the rim of Christendom as well as bring their academic the Chinese science and culture. skills and scholarship to places and people they serve. In Martino met his relative Eusebio Chini who was inspired fulfilling their mission of the "Formula of the Institute by his cousin’s piety, zeal and learning. So much so that of the Society", the first Jesuits concentrated on a few Eusebio Chini aspired to follow in his foot steps to key activities. They founded schools throughout Europe. China but obedience to his superiors, Eusebio was sent Jesuit teachers were trained in both classical studies and to the New Spain, Mexico and the now American theology, and their schools reflected this. They sent out Southwest. Hence, we present a brief introduction and missionaries across the globe to evangelize those peoples will continue this narrative in future editions of the Filo`. who had not yet heard the Gospel, founding missions in widely diverse regions. The Jesuits' contributions to the late Renaissance were 10

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Scandole...Wooden Shingles

At one time, the roofs were often covered resting a couple of centimeters (1 in) from the cut and with curved tiles, or with bundles of straw, beat with the wooden sledge hammer (figure 4). When or with stone slabs. But the tiles were fragile the blade had penetrated about twenty centimeters (8 in), and cost a lot, while the straw caught fire the club was put aside and, without removing the ax, the easily. And the stone was very heavy and it was necessary lower end of the block was inserted into a cavity of the to use robust and expensive beams. Thus, most of the wall. Then, a pole was slipped under the other end of the roofs were covered with shingles. The shingles were block. At this point, the ax handle was pushed downwooden shingles about 70 centimeters (2.5 ft) long, wards and so the sharp side of the blade rose, opening about 10 centimeters (4 in) wide and a couple centime- the crack and gradually detaching a small piece of wood ters (1 in) thick. The shingles were light and resistant; (figure 5). This procedure was repeated several times, moreover, they could be obtained from the wood of the until it was no longer possible to detach the shingles of nearby woods, using simple tools. The wood that was the desired width from the log block.More attention was preferred was the larch, because it deteriorates very slow- needed with larger wood blocks. Using the shingle axe, ly. Sometimes spruce was also used, but it does not last the wooden club and a wedge, the wood block was split long. Naturally, getting shingles from a tree trunk in half and then split into further halves again, obtaining required time and some experience. In the mountains, four quarters. Still using the shingle axe and wooden malobtaining the wood was tiring and therefore it was nec- let, a good part of the corner was detached, obtaining a essary to use all the parts of the trunk, even the less suit- straight face The ax blade was placed along the face of able ones. First of all, the tree had to be felled. An axe the quarter and struck with the wooden mallet. When the with a long and narrow blade was used; then, the branch- blade had penetrated about twenty centimeters, the end es had to be cut. To do this another axe with a short wide of the quarter's log was inserted into the wall and the ax blade was used. This resulted in the trunk being cut using blade was forced to detach the clapboard. This operation a large saw into pieces about 4 meters long (4.5 yd),. was then repeated as often as possible.Being able to Finally, the bark was detached, so that the trunks, smooth detach shingles with a uniform thickness from one end and wet, could slide downhill along the slopes of the to the other was not easy. Furthermore, it was necessary woods. At this point, the logs were sawn into logs about to obtain as many shingles as possible from each pre70 centimeters (2.5 ft) long. Naturally, the trunk of a cious stock. Experience was required, observing carefullarch or a fir is broad at the base and narrows more and ly the direction of the wood grain, in order to make the more towards the top. Therefore, the logs did not all cut at the best point and to beat the stick with a force no have the same diameter: this had to be taken into account greater than needed . And the vein of the larch is often to obtain good shingles and avoid waste. From the logs capricious and unpredictable.The boards were finished that had a small diameter, that is between 20 and 30 cen- on a pedal bench, using a knife to the chest Splinters timeters (8-12 in), it was quite simple to get the shingles. were removed, the edges were cut off, and protruding The log was placed vertically and the â&#x20AC;&#x153;shingle axeâ&#x20AC;? rested parts were straightened (figure 6). At this point, the shin(figure 1)., along the diameter line, The shingle ax was a gles were laid to dry in a sheltered place, often under the special tool. It had a straight blade, very long and narrow, wing of the barn. Then, after a few months, they could with a short wooden handle. The end of the blade was be used to cover the roof. This too was an art, because not sharpened, as in normal axes. Instead, the long side the shingles were not nailed to a regular surface made of was sharp, on the side opposite the handle. This side was planks. Instead, they were resting on the roof beams and placed along the log. Instead, the long side on the side of held firm only by long poles and a few stones. And they the handle was thick and flat. This side was struck with a had to be interlocked and overlapped with great skill, so wooden sledge mallet. The shingle ax was similar to a that no cracks remained. Today, the art of making and wedge with a handle. The pounding of the club pushed putting the shingles is largely lost: the shingles are made the blade into the wood and the wood block opened. with the machines, they are much smaller than before When the blade of the ax had penetrated sufficiently, a and are nailed on a plane covered with an impermeable real wedge was inserted into the slot and so the block sheath. Unfortunately, now they are just a question of split into two (figures 2 and ). Then, one of the two aesthetics. Written by Luca Faoro of the Museo degli Usi halves obtained was placed vertically with the ax blade e Costumi della Gente Trentina. 12

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Figure #1

Figure #2

Figure #3

Figure #4

Figure #5

Figure #6

Samples of houses shingled with Scandole

The article was written by Luca Faoro of the Museum of the Usi e Costumi della Gente Trentina, the Museum of the Ways and Customs of the Trentino People. Along with his colleague Daniela Finardi, they bring to the Filo` & its readers the resources of their wonderful museum that not only displays the artifacts, tools , furniture, wardrobe and so many other things but also their creative and enthusiastic narratives. Thanks Daniela and Luca 13

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The History of the Kaiserjaeger

Editor’s Note ...Many of our readers have called and indicated a great curiosity regarding our relatives and forbearers’ participation in World War I or the Great War. Our people, subjects of the Empire, 70,000 of them responded to the call to arms to defend the Empire. They were organized in the Tiroler Kaiserjaeger, fought bravely, many died and many were imprisoned. This is an introduction. etween 1815 and 1918, the County of Tyrol was part of the Habsburg Empire. All the men born in the actual “Regione Trentino – Alto Adige/ Südtirol” and in the Austrian Tyrol had to serve in the Empire's Army.The Empire was a polyglot Empire large, widespread and encompassing many nations and nationalities. Its Army was equally as huge and diverse. The army was composed of several Corps or divisions. The largest was the Landsturm, the infantry while others were special forces, such as cavalry or artillery. During the First World War, the army of the Empire wa a triads: the Common Army of Austria-Hungar y, the Austrian Army and the Hungarian Army. Tyrolean soldiers served only in the first two. There were besides three Erminio Giuseppe Folgheraiter 1888--1960)Grandfather of Alberto Folgheraiter, special Corps, whose soldiers came from Tyrol only: Tiroler Kaiserjäger, Landesschützen (from 1917 Kaiserschützen) and Standschützen. The Tiroler Kaiserjäger were not mountain troops, but a special infantry sector formed by mountaineers. The title


Kaiserjäger (literally "emperor's hunters") was an honorary nickname. The unit's official designation was k.u.k. Tiroler Jägerregiment (official abbreviation TJR). During the First World War, they fought and sustained heavy Franz Joseph (1830-1916) losses, first in Galicia and Emperor lamenting Italy’s betrayal the Carpathians against Russia, until they were deployed on the Italian front after the start of fighting with Italy. After the assassination of the Archduke in Sarajevo and the initiation of the hostilities, Italy lingered for a year before allying itself with the Allies. The k.k. Landesschützen were mountain troops used in the First World War in many theatres. On January 16, 1917, Emperor Charles I during a visit to the troops at Calliano (Vallagarina) changed the name from Landesschützen to Kaiserschützen (Landes = Region; Kaiser = Emperor). Only Landesschützen wore on his cap a few feathers taken from the mountain pheasant (Lyrurus tetrix) tail.

Departure of our soldiers, the Kaiserjaeger, for the Russian front.


The Standschützen descend from the rifle companies that had been formed in the 15th and 16th centuries, and were involved time and again in military operations within the borders of the Tyrolean territories referred to as County of Tyrol. In the 19th century a Standschütze was an enrolled member of a Schützenstand ("shooting club").Such an enrollment automatically committed him to the voluntary, military protection of the state of Tyrol. At the beginning of the First World War, all the able bodied men were transferred to the Russian front which was the areas of Galicia and the Carpathian mountains. In 1915, a year after the war had ensued,

Carlo I inspecting the Kaiserjaeger

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Kaiserjaeger troops preparing to depart for the front

Kaiserjaeger occupy their positions in the mountains

the Kingdom of Italy declared war on AustrianHungarian Empire. The young men, the old men and even the men who had been rejected for military service, fought as Standschützen and defended the borders of Tyrol as true heroes with no equivocation. The youngest of these recruits were only 14 years old, the older ones were 80. At the outbreak of the First World War, many emigrants actually returned to the Tyrol to enlist.

Given the diversity of the Empire’s fighting forces and divisions, one can distinguish the specific enlisted division by viewing the old photos of the Austro-Hungarian army. The army’s uniforms were distinguished by some specific details. Such details and variety of the The Welchtirol, the Southern Austro-Hungarian army earned Tirol written by author them the nomenclature "die Bunte Armee" (the colored army). To determine the corp of a particular relative, there is a useful publication that can assist in the search: “The Austro-Hungarian Forces in World War I”, 4 volumes, Paperback ed. One can write to the Innsbruck's Archive where one can find all the military records of Tyrolean people until 1918. You must know the name, surname, year and place of birth of the persons whose documents that you searching (landesarchiv@tirol.gv.at). If you have photographs, objects and stories related to a relative, you can upload them to Europeana (www.europeana.eu). There is also a section dedicated to the First World War. There you can

Kaiserjaeger in Galicia-1914

find private material and also collections of museums where further information can be found regarding the lists of injured, fallen and prisoners. The Verlustliste, i. e. the Casualty list was a gazette published almost daily by the K.u.K. Ministry of War (the issues typically printed on 40-60 pages each, approx. 39,000 pages for the whole series). Another series published at the same time was Verlustliste was Nachrichte über Verwundete und Kranke. You can find these lists on some internet sites (f.e. http://digi.landesbibliothek.at) Many diaries of soldiers have been published. For example, that of the Kaiserjäger of Rovereto Francesco Laich, who was an employee of the municipal electric company but also a musician. He played the violin and the saxophone, and was enrolled in the band of the first regiEmanuele Dalpiaz ment of the Tiroler Kaiserjäger. Nevertheless, he fought bravely on the Pasubio mountain. One of the last survivors of World War I was a Kaiserjäger. Emanuele Dalpiaz, born in Flavon in Val di Non in 1898, died in 2004 in Paris, where he moved to 1926.Written by Daiana Boller, historical researcher and blogger (http://valsuganaww1.altervista.org), member of the Union of the Trentino's Families Abroad (www.facebook.com/UFTEonlus

The Union of the Trentino's Families Abroad The Union of the Trentino's Families Abroad has been working since 1969 to maintain strong ties between the Trentino-Tyrolean emigrants and their descendants with their homeland. The Union publishes a newsletter in several languages and has a website (www.famiglietrentine.org) and a very active Facebook page: www.facebook.com/UFTEonlus. For information and to request the sending of the newsletter: info@famiglietrentine.org 15


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Family Stories:The Zanella Family

“Tasi… magna e tasi… hardships of a new country, our immiShut up and eat.” These grants quickly replicated their habits words will forever live with and traditions such as farming. My me. They opened y mind grandmother recounted that Luigi and heart to who I am or rather who we owned a few cows and Luigia made are. Growing up in Verona, fresh butter and baked fresh bread. In Pennsylvania outside of Pittsburgh, I keeping with traditions from Banale, a heard these words often on Sundays certain Rigotti prepared ciuiga, a typiwhen my family came to see grandma cal smoked-sausage. Beyond foodafter mass on Jones Street. My grandstuffs, men gathered to make wine in mother always prepared a disnar tipico the autumn and even sgnapa or grapof San Lorenzo in Banale: Polenta con pa was distilled in the hills of peverada, crauti, basane rostide, pollo Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania. Giuseppe Zanella and Rosa Brunelli circa 1920 and kielbasa which substituted la ciuiga. By the 1920s, life in America seemed a When I was probably ten or eleven I asked my grand- much better choice compared to the poverty of post-war mother why we eat polenta and not spaghetti like other Trentino. In 1925, their lives changed course when a Italians. She told me: “noi siam tirolesi.” Of course, I train destroyed the coal tipple and left the miners unemresponded: “What?”. As the typical donna trentina: ployed. Again, they had to face the challenges of migra“Magna e tasi.” The response was harsh, but with love. tion. Giuseppe and his family moved to Verona, So began my journey to discover my identity and the his- Pennsylvania along the Allegheny River. While the tory of my ancestors and surname. The Zanella and Bosetti family reached other paesani in Coraopolis along Bosetti families of western Pennsylvania were not the the Ohio River in Thorn Run Hollow to seek employScots-Irish to settle and dominate Pittsburgh, but from ment in the mills and refineries of the area. San Lorenzo in Banale in the Giudicarie Esteriori, west- In 1926, my great-grandfather Giuseppe died in Verona. ern Trentino. My great grandfather Giuseppe Fortunato His paesani helped bid farewell and assist Rosa and her Zanella arrived in 1902 after a winter as a chimney children since he was a member of the Guglielmo sweeper in Italy. At the age of twenty-three, he began his Marconi Society of Smithton. Ten years later, my grandAmerican experience in the coal mines of Smithton, mother Anna married Giuseppe’s son, Battista, my Pennsylvania in Westmoreland County. There, he reunit- grandfather. She moved from Coraopolis to Verona to ed with other paesani to unearth black diamonds for the live with the Zanella family on Jones Street. On that steel mills of the Monongahela Valley. After four years, same street, I learned about who I am and the roots of his future wife arrived directly from Prusa a frazione or my family and identity. It all started with eating polenta hamlet of San Lorenzo Rosa Brunelli. In 1906, Battista, and peverada on a Sunday afternoon on Jones Street. my grandfather was born. The family grew to include Those moments spent on Jones Street with my grandtwo daughters and three sons. mother and her friend, Gisella Appoloni, inspired me to My grandmother’s family arrived later in 1910 in learn Italian since I was unable to understand their conSmithton. Chain migration was an integral part of our versations in dialect. After attending the University of people moving to the United States. Families always Pittsburgh and receiving a Bachelor of Arts in History assisted other families with finding work and accommo- and Italian, I decided to return to my roots in Trentino. dation. A year later, Luigia set foot in Smithton with my I recently completed a Laurea Specialistica(M.A.) in hisgreat aunt Maria. In 1912, my grandmother, Anna, was tory at the Università di Trento where I currently reside born. Later, three girls and one boy were added to the and work at a local high school. Written by James Zanella family. ,an American, graduated from the University of The Zanella’s, Bosetti’s, and other families sought to Pittsburgh and the University of Trento, school teacher recreate the atmosphere of Banale in Smithton along the in Rovereto. Youghiogeny River. Toiling in the mines, they earned enough to live modestly despite the indifference of the mining companies towards their rights. To relieve the 16

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The Froberte Witches of Ala


Editorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Intro...This story is about a coven of witches named Froberte from the town of Ala in the Vallagarina. At one time it was thought that if women gathered by themselves without a man at night, it was very likely that something bad could happen to them, especially if the Froberte might arrive and then ... alas! One evening, twelve women were spinning and chatting of more and less in the room next to stable. It was almost eleven and one remarked: "Did you notice that we are without men today? Strength, let us go, otherwise we might have a disaster! She had just finished speaking, that someone knocked on the door and, without waiting for a reply, came the Lady Berta. - Hello, Madam Berta , the long nose! - said the women in chorus (this was exactly the way in which they needed to greet each other); one rose and gave Froberta her chair. After me there will come another one, who has an even bigger nose, "said Lady Berta who sat down. Soon there was another knock and the second Lady Berta came in, Who indeed had an even longer nose. - Greetings to you too, Lady Berta of the long nose! exclaimed the women of the gathering; the second of them stood up and left the chair to the newcomer. "After me there will come another one, who has a no she longer," she snarled and grumbled. And it continued on in this way until the twelfth Stroberta came, which had the nose longer than all of them; Finally the Froberte were sitting on the chairs and the other gathered women stood trembling with fear.At that point the first woman Berta said:- And what do we


do now? And the second: Letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s- we do the laundry!

"Bring us some buckets," the third Sbroberta ordered, addressing the other women. - We have to get some water ... The women shuddered because they knew what was going to happen: the Froberte wanted to bake them in boiling water! But they did not despair much because they knew how to escape the curse. They ran away and came back each with a... basket! The women came to Adige to fill the baskets, but the water immediately went out of all parts & worked for a long time unnecessarily. Red with anger, they returned to the gathering, but found the gathering area dark with the door locked. The women actually ran to bed, each one next to their husband. Then one of Lady Berta`s approached the bedroom window of one of the women and shouted inside: Thanks for the pants next to which you are sleeping, otherwise it would be dangerous for you!

The following day the women said: The Froberte will come back for sure this night, so we have to be very careful. At their request, a man hid in the manger of the stable stall next door. At 11 o'clock the Froberte came again and behaved exactly like the night before; when all twelve took their seats on the chairs, he jumped out of his hiding place and killed all of them. That was how women saved themselves and from that day they were no longer harassed.Written by Verena Depaoli, Assessore of Cultura, Terlago, Val dei Laghi


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The Tyroleans of Western PA Pennsylvania is synonymous with Tyroleans/Trentini in the United States. The commonwealth received the most immigrants from the Italian Tyrol and, most likely, still is home to the majority of TyroleanAmericans today. According to a 1923 estimate, there were over 9,000 Tyroleans present in Pennsylvania out of a total population of 40,000 in the entire country. However, beyond Hazelton, Mt. Carmel, Pottsville and the Appalachian Mountains to the west, little is known about the Tyroleans of western Pennsylvania since they settled in small mining and industrial towns in even smaller enclaves within these settlements. Mining towns such as Brandy Camp and Smithton and industrial boroughs along the rivers of Pittsburgh, such as Verona and Coraopolis, became the new villages and hamlets for our immigrant ancestors. Despite congregating in rather insignificant numbers, Tyroleans still thrived and preserved their Alpine traditions in the midst of American capitalism during the first-half of the twentieth century. Either extracting black diamonds from the bituminous coal mines or toiling in the sweltering steel mills, Tyroleans practiced and recreated rustic rituals and habits within their families and with other paesani. In order to fully comprehend our peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s background, we must examine the land in which they abandoned and exactly what pushed them to cross the Atlantic Ocean. Europe at the turn of the twentieth century was also experiencing industrialization. However, the AustroHungarian Empire lagged behind other Europeans nations such as Germany and England. Tyrol being mountainous and bordering the Kingdom of Italy furthered hampered any development due to a trade war with the bel paese. Furthermore, as owners of small land

Holy Cross Church and its parishioners-Brandy Camp, PA-1926

Funeral of Giuseppe Zanella-1926-Members of the Gugliemo Marconi Beneficial Society

plots, Tyrolean farmers could not compete against the large farms in Italy and, especially, the farmers of the American Mid-West who were exporting millions tons of grain to Europe. Also seasonal jobs, such as knife-sharpeners and chimney-sweepers done by Tyroleans from late autumn to early spring were no longer beneficial in supplanting income lost due to poor harvests or small profits. All of these factors pressed men of all ages to become American proletarians to further drive the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s fastest growing economy during the first decade of the twentieth-century. The first Tyroleans to set foot in Pennsylvania probably arrived around 1895. However, as immigration increased, not all Tyroleans had the same background. Highlighting the different origins of Tyroleans between eastern and western Pennsylvania can demonstrate not all them were identical. In the eastern half, they were almost exclusively from the Val di Non. Instead, Western Pennsylvaniaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Tyroleans originated primarily from Le Giudicarie Esteriori(Banale, Bleggio and Lomaso) and the Lake Garda area. Chain migration networks drove and created this demographic makeup, however, the knowledge of job openings in the mines came about first through labor agencies and later by word of mouth. Therefore, western Pennsylvania became the principal destiny for families from Le Giudicarie Esteriori who in fact transplanted their distinct culture and traditions. Nonetheless, this vast territory from Lake Erie to the West Virginia border can be divided into two distinct areas due to above all else according to a specific demographic makeup. The experiences of Tyroleans in Northwest and Southwest Pennsylvania represented certain diverse realities. Brandy Camp and Brockway should be considered the forgotten and undocumented


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Trentino enclaves in North America. Besides Our Lady of Mount Carmel Church in Hazelton, the Church of the Holy Cross was founded by immigrants from Bleggio and other towns of the Giudicarie Esteriori in Brandy Camp in 1908. Showing their devotion to Santa Croce, paesani even transported a bell from the Old Country for the new church. Along with the parish, businesses also appeared in the area revealing that our ancestors were also entrepreneurs. Stanislao Benigni from Seo in Banale began his American experience as a baker and butcher serving not only paesani, but also americani. Butchery and sausage-making were also Old-World traditions Attilio Benigni relied on to earn a living in the New World. By being large in numbers, Tyroleans became confident and secure to open businesses knowing there existed a market. When hard times occurred in the patch towns, our forebears migrated within Pennsylvania and to other nearby states. Yatesboro in Armstrong County emerged as another enclave due to miners in Brandy Camp and Brockway moving south for better opportunities. Here, Tyroleans referred to their part of the patch town as the dos or hill. Paesani and kin actively maintained ties between the enclaves. Just as other immigrant groups, our people created networks to support one another not only economically, but emotionally.

Closer to the Pittsburgh industrial district, the enclaves of southwestern Pennsylvania were smaller and more widespread. Notwithstanding these distances, contacts between families and paesani occurred frequently. Our immigrant forebears were not the uprooted and frightened foreigners described many times by immigration historians of the mid-twentieth century. They were already well-adapted and prepared to affront hardship and adversity since Tyroleans had migrated seasonally to the Po Valley and to Central Europe since Medieval times. Giudicariesi near Pittsburgh travelled between Verona and Coraopolis, north to Chicora in Butler County and south to Smithton in Westmoreland County. From time to time even to Jerome or Acosta in Somerset County. In this part of western Pennsylvania, the absolute majority in these towns and boroughs worked in the steel mills, refineries and coal mines. However, a few Tyroleans owned bars and restaurants. Kenneth and Mary Bosetti owned such an establishment in Thorn Run Hollow in Coraopolis where it became a meeting place for the community as if it were a taverna in the Old Country. Coal mining offered our grandparents and parents the opportunity to earn money rather quickly. However, they

never completely abandoned their true occupation: farming. Since our people resided in rural areas, numerous families were able to maintain a quasi-peasant lifestyle. In Brandy Camp, Edward Zambanini and his sister, Betty, recount how their father from Tavodo in Banale bought several cows and sold the cream to a dairy in Dubois. Of course, the Zambanini’s also made cheese, butter and poina or ricotta in dialect. Arriving to western Pennsylvania as a baby from San Lorenzo in Banale, Rinaldo Floriani recalls how the men in Coraopolis used to make cotechino, luganeghe and even ciuiga the typical smoked sausage from San Lorenzo. In Yatesboro, Della Bellottti remembers how her aunt was able to host ten boarders thanks to her family raising pigs, chickens and a few dairy cows. When autumn arrives, it is for la vendemmia or grape harvest and winemaking. The Giudicarie Esteriori at one time was noted for its vineyards, but the quality of wine was rather poor. Eugene Bosetti’s father, Palmo, planted vineyards in Smithton above the Youghiogheny River to maintain this agricultural tradition in order to make his own homemade wine. Besides wine, our ancestors distilled sgnapa or grappa despite Prohibition, which for them surely made no sense. Village traditions and interactions happened in the small enclaves of western Pennsylvania, but our people also were very mobile in recreating a sense of community and of belonging by visiting each other even over long distances. Travelling between the various enclaves smashes the idea of a stagnant and closed minded mountain people. Tyroleans of western Pennsylvania never created a Little Italy because their sense of community transcended the physical space and, instead, resided in their hearts and minds. A saying from the valleys of Trentino states: “Puoi portare il tuo cuore lontano dalla tua valle, ma non la tua valle lontana dal cuore.” Or in English “ You can take your heart from your valley, but not your valley from your heart.” The memory and culture of their valley remained in their sentiments and actions. Despite being a minority among the Austro-Hungarian immigrants and a minority among the Italian immigrants, Tyrolean/Trentini privately continued a millennia culture within the walls of their homes and among themselves while they publically and proudly became Americans. Written by James Zanella of Pittsburgh, PA, received his BA from the University of Pittsburgh, pursued another degree from the University of Trento. His thesis was focused of the Tyroleans of Western Pennsylvania. For the past several years he has served as a high school history teacher in Rovereto 19


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Our Wines: Marzemino

What is more inviting than a long walk surrounded by lush vineyards and realizing that you only have to look up to catch a glimpse of the impressive contours of ancient castles and palaces? Well, Vallagarina offers this opportunity to guests who decide to come here and visit this valley; vineyards everywhere, grown on pergolas, as tradition requires, which only bring one name to mind, the name that embodies local wine and food traditions: Marzemino. History and memory seem to be the distinctive features of Vallagarina. Here, every stone is seemingly eager to share its story with every passer-by. It is not rhetoric, but a tangible truth, that can be seen first hand, for example, with a visit to the spectacular Castel Beseno, not just a castle but a fortified citadel where every summer everyday medieval life and activities come to life. Because castles in Vallagarina are not cold and muddy ruins, but living places that can tell us not only something about the past, but also much about the present, and, why not, about the future. Let's take a quick trip beyond the Adige River, to Isera first, the perfect place for the Marzemino wine so celebrated by Mozart, and then to Nogaredo, a place that has become famous for the witches trials, and to Villa Lagarina, where we find the remarkable Palazzo Libera that houses treasures of the noble Lodron family. A gentle wine par excellence, Marzemino boasts a distinctive dark ruby red color and a soft and inviting flavor that makes it extremely versatile. The Vallagarina region abounds with cellars that produce excellent Marzemino, but the story that accompanies the arrival of this wine to Vallagarina, considered today Marzemino’s indisputable homeland, is quite adventurous. Perhaps the seeds, grapes and scents of this gentle wine have come to this part of Trentino from the far lands of Plafagonia, Diomedes’s home according to Homer, or perhaps they came more recently from Marzmin, a town nestled between Carinthia and Slovenia, through soldiers who offered their services for a price to the Most Serene Republic of Venice. It is a fact, however, that Marzemino has found in Vallagarina a hospitable and particularly dedicated land, so much so that it has become its distinctive element with worldwide recognition: even Mozart praised this wine’s quality more than two hundred years ago in his “Don Giovanni”, in which Da Ponte cited it

by making the protagonist exclaim: “Pour the wine, the excellent Marzemino!”.

Two representative areas allow the Marzemino vines to express themselves at their best: the first is on the Adige’s right bank, where soils originate from the degradation of tuffs and basaltic rocks, and whose manganese content - according to technicians and scholars - gives this wine a very special scent. The first area, hilly and leaning against the mountains, starts from the northern boundary of the village of Mori and encompasses a wide area overlooking Rovereto, including the hills around Isera, Nomi, all the way to Aldeno: here nowadays the “Marzemino di Isera” is produced. A second area is located beyond the ancient riverbed of the Adige river. However, the area that boasts the highest tradition and quality continuity is located upstream of the road between Castel Pietra and the village of Volano, called “Ziresi”, where the happy union between soil and natural environment became the most effective host for this Trentino variety par excellence. In the vineyard, clusters are a bit sparse, of medium size, slightly straggly and with quite powdery, rather thin, but firm and black-blue skin. The pulp is thick and of simple flavor; the vine is vigorous and strong, and marked by good and constant yields. It seems that in the past this wine use to enrich the tables of Emperors and Venetian Doges, but today it stands as a valuable production and an authentic, high-quality expression of the territory. Tasting Marzemino is a unique experience: the wine is called “gentle” because it enchants with its fragrance and its fruity and delicate scents, with typical hints of cherry and dark berries (blueberries) and, marginally, the floral aroma of violet, which enhances its elegance. Richly bodied and pleasantly soft, Marzemino shows good balance with a linear, persistent olfactory persistency and a mildly bitter note.

As we said, this wine is best paired to first courses, pasta with mushroom sauces and meat or chicken and rabbit liver sauces, but also to poultry roast, such as of guinea hens, and, finally, to polenta, cheese and cod. Remember to serve it at about 18°C, and keep it in a cool, dark place, as it can age for an average period of 3 years. Written by Serena Tomassini & Elisabetta Nardelli-Trentino Marketing


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Chini..Agronomist & Champion


eaders of the Filò should have been realizing how extraordinary a man Eusebio Chini was…a renown and singular astronomer, a historically significant cartographer…and an agronomist. Eusebio’s statue in the Capitol rotunda reads…Father of Arizona, Cartographer, Astronomer … and Agronomist. What is an Agronomist or Agronomy? It is the science of cultivation of land, soil management, and crop production. While his astronomy genius was an extension of his mathematical and scientific prowess and his cartography skills were aimed at extending the rim of Christendom and augmenting his missionary apostolate, what can be said about his agronomy expertise??? So very much….!!!

native functionaries, civil, educational, and industrial. (Bolton)

Eusebio introduced, taught and nurtured European agricultural skills and cattle breeding to his Indians. In fact, he was the cattle king amassing 70,000 heads of cattle to feed his Indians. He did this hardly in a casual way. His mission establishments were amazing, orderly so that his statue should include a litany of other titles emblematic of his achievements: mission founder, community organizer and manager, Indian advocate and protector, and on and on. Herbert Eugene Bolton, his biographer, refers to his missions…”…the establishment, under his magical management, had become temple, orchard, farm, stock ranch, and industrial plant, all combined in one.” Here are the very words of Eusebio…” This mission has its church adequately furnished with ornaments, chalices…bells, choir chapel, etc.; likewise a great many large and small cattle, oxen, fields, a garden with various kinds of garden crops, Castilian fruit trees, grapes, peaches, quinces, figs, pomegranates, a carpenter shop, a pack train, water mill, many kinds of grain and provisions from rich and abundant harvests of wheat and maize, besides other things, including horse and mule herds, all of which serve and are greatly needed for the house, as well as, as well as for the expeditions and new conquests and conversions, and to purchase a few gifts and attractions with which, together with the Word of God, it is customary to contrive to win the minds and souls of the natives” To help him manage this vast establishment, Eusebio had built up a well-organized corps of


Was this focus on wellness and sound living aspects of…a distraction from his evangelical mission for and to the Indian populations..This brings us to the very logic or sequence or better said… to his very theology or his spirituality of his missionary work. Eusebio was again singular, novel and innovative. Look at the order of his missionary steps: first, he creates a friendship then he imposes an adherence to the Christian faith. Calmly and patiently, he offers a contrast to the anxiety of many contemporary missionaries who felt urgency and were convinced that salvation did not exist outside the Church, a disposition quite qualified and changed by Vatican II. Eusebio, well ahead of his times as well as his theology, would insist that you must eat, live well before being a Christian. He wrote: “This is neither well nor sufficiently achieved when one sits perched on his chair ordering subordinates or Indian officials to do what we should be doing personally by sitting down time and again with them on earthen floors or on a rock. This disposition towards the Indians is one of dignifying them as a father or a mother. We see Chini as an indefatigable man untiringly next to God and embracing a method of infinite patience. I am reminded of an expression of an American psychologist who stated that in helping people one needs to be role oriented before being goal oriented. One sees this in Chini who in his travels observed all the proper protocol to enter their territories and initiate a relationship based on respect and understanding. In another instance specific to Chini’s identification and advocacy for his Indians, Eusebio refused to implement the expectation of Spain to have his Indians work as slaves in their mineral mines. On another front, Eusebio organized armed resistance to the fierce Apaches who often attacked his Indians. While comparisons are odious, there was an American episode that highlighted possibly these differences. When two years ago, Pope Francis decided to canonize the Franciscan Junipero Sera in Washington DC, there were widespread protests by our indigenous American Indian nations. Their protests were centered on the harsh treatment of their ancestors


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I Grostoi...

Grosta is a crumb e.g. bread...There are many proverbs in our dialect referring to the groste. del pan..the bread crumbs. Grostoi is a fried dough, a quintessential peasant fare that involves the few ingredients available to them in their poverty. In the Tyrol, Grostoi are made during the Christmas holidays. I make them for Christmas and Easter. My grand children love them and they suddenly acquire a moustache of powdered sugar. I make them in the Tyrolean manner with grappa and my accommodated way is without grappa. I am going to present the recipe without grappa since I do realize that many of our readers do not have grappa in their homes I have always hesitated to present Filo` recipes whose ingredients are simply not available in North America. For example, I would love to present polenta con la peverada but I cannot find a coteghin, a large pork sausage. Grostoi are simply flour, a bit of baking powder, and eggs. They are rolled out thin and cut into strips with a knife or a pastry wheel...and then sprinkled with powdered sugar or honey with confetti. The Tyrolean manner was ten “cucchiai” of flour, only two whole eggs, no extra egg yolks, 1 1/2 tsp of sugar, salt, and a “biccherino di grappa”. The “cucchiai” (spoons) and “bicchierino”(small glass” are the mysterious vagueness of their measurements that create difficulties for an American baker. Ingredients & tool 1 1/2 flour I tsp of baking soda 2 large eggs 2 egg yolks

Procedure Mix the ingredients and knead. Allow the mixture to rest Roll thin the mixture by either rolling pin or pasta machine. Cut into strip with a knife or preferably by a pastry cutter.

Roll out dough...thin

Cut into strips with a pastry wheel

Fry in hot vegetable oil..turning strips over

Place on paper bags

Sprinkle each layer with powdered sugar

Sprinkled and ready to eat



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The Sanctuaries of Vallagarina

There are two of the most important sanctuaries of the Vallagarina: the Madonna del Monte in Rovereto and San Valentino at the Marani di Ala. Other minor chapels or shrines are Santa Cecilia on the Red Cengio and the Madonna of Monte Albano in Mori. The church of Madonna del Monte, in Rovereto, is on the hill, between the city and the woods, along the road leading to the Bell of the Fallen, the cast bronze with the cannons of the 27 nations participating in the First World War.The origin of the sanctuary is documented since 1602 when a certain Andrea Rossi, suffering from a disease at his feet, walked Sanctuary of Santa Maria delle Grazie on the hill of Rovereto and saw the presence of a capigrenades. It was re-opened to worship in the 1920s. In tal. 1925, the Consolata missionaries arrived and took posThe tradition refers to a man who begged for healing session of the church and the nearby seminary which promising in return to restoring of the tabernacle. had was being built.. Having kept his promise, he was suddenly cured. There The San Valentine's Sanctuary, in Ala, probably rises in followed other extraordinary healings, so that the Prince the Middle Ages as a tabernacle. From the outskirts of Bishop of Trento, Cardinal Carlo Gaudenzio Madruzzo Marani, it dominates the low Vallagarina. The church, (1600-1629), decreed that the Madonna del Monte di with baroque remodeling, dates back to the second half Rovereto could be part of the Marian sanctuaries of of the 18th century. Named in a document of 1329, the Trentino. Devotion around this sanctuary continued to sanctuary was consecrated by John of Buda (Dalmatia), grow throughout Vallagarina, and during the plague episuffraged by the bishop-Prince Henry III of Metz (1310demic of 1630, the population went there several times 1336). In the altar there were relics of Valentine, St. John on pilgrimage. the Baptist, the saints Primo, Felicissimo, Barbara, Zeno, By 1640 two hermits took possession of the church and Felice and Nicola. Thirteen years later (1342), Pope its cloister that had been built a few years before. With Clement VI sent a statement by which full indulgences the suppression of hinterlanders and churches, decided were distributed to all those who would visit this place by Joseph II decided in 1782 to abandon the sanctuary of worship as pilgrims.In addition to February 14 and of the Madonna del Monte The municipality of the first Sunday of September, at a time of great Rovereto, became the owner of the confiscated assets of drought, the residents of the lower Vallagarina came to the suppressed churches and ordered a public auction to the sanctuary on the first Monday of May to pray for sell the sanctuary. After selling the two side altars, they rain as did the Community of Ala on November 17, started to sell the 1793. On 4 January 1986 thieves stole a statue of the altar and then the Madonna on the throne with a child (1607),. It was then painting considered recovered, as well as the statues of St. Biagio and S. "miraculous." Catherine of Siena. They left the â&#x20AC;&#x153;ex-votisâ&#x20AC;? memorial However, an unsucframes on the walls demonstrating the popular appeal of cessful popular upristhose saints. A great many of these memorial frames ing prevented the followed revealing of" the "miracles" obtained through sale. the intercession of the saint. Although not belonging to During the First the 14 auxiliary saints, St. Valentine was considered World War (1914among the "holy healers", and was invoked throughout 1918), the sanctuary Europe by those who suffered from convulsions and was abandoned for joint pains. Written by Alberto Folgheraiter, Journalist four years and hit and Author of many books about the customs and culseveral times by the Sanctuary of San Valentino ture of the Province. 25


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Genealogy Corner # 5

elcome back to “Genealogy Corner”. Last time we looked at the pros and cons of using the online database called Nati in Trentino. This month, I’d like to talk about how to work directly with the Archives of the Archdiocese of Trento – either in Trento, or via email from your own home. Shifting from Microfilm to Digital Images

Another huge advantage of working in Trento is that you have access to the archivists themselves. All the archivists in Trento are not only trained in Latin and in deciphering handwriting, but they are also intimately familiar with places and surnames throughout the province. The archivist with whom I work most closely is Dr. Claudio Andreolli, as he comes from the primary focus of my research: the parish of Santa Croce del Bleggio. I also discovered that he and I are 4th cousins. Know What NOT to Expect

Those of you who have already worked on your family tree may be familiar with the microfilms of Trento parish records, created by the LDS church and viewable at their Family History Centers around the world. If so, you are also probably aware that they have discontinued their microfilm rental service as they digitize all these films. While that is a good thing in the long term, the files from Trento have not yet been digitized, and it may be several years before they are available online. So, unless you previously arranged a long-term loan of a film at your local Family History Center, microfilms are no longer an option.

While many independent researchers (myself included) are working to index specific parishes, the digital images in Trento have NOT been officially indexed. Indexing means transcribing the contents, so the information becomes searchable via your computer. Thus, the only way to find what you are looking for is to work patiently through the records yourself, or hire someone else to do it for you.

However, we of Trentini descent are extremely fortunate because, unlike many other dioceses around the world, the church archivists in Trento have already digitized every surviving parish record within the diocese. This represents over 400 parishes, spanning the mid-1500s to around 1923. That’s hundreds of thousands of pages of parish records, recording life events for around 5 million people born in the diocese of Trento. And while these images are NOT currently available online, you can view them at (or request them through) their research facility in Trento.

Doing Research in Trento Trento is also a vital place for family historians, as it is home to a wealth of archival repositories, including the State Archives, the Archives at the Castello di Buonconsiglio, and – the subject of today’s article – the Archives of the Archdiocese of Trento.

If you can get to Trento in person, the diocesan archives have an excellent research facility, with instant access to ALL the parishes of Trento in their digital research studio. Each workstation has a large computer screen measuring 27.5 inches wide x 15.75 inches high. The high-resolution images are very clear, and you can zoom closely to analyze them.


Communicating Before Your Trip

The diocesan archives are located at Monsignore Endrici, 14, Trento, and their email address is archivio@diocesitn.it. There are only five viewing stations at the archives, so I recommend writing in advance to ask them to reserve a workstation for you on the day(s) you plan to come. Not all the archivists speak English, so try to write your email in either Italian or German, even if imperfectly. What if You Cannot Go to Trento?

The archivists are happy to do simple searches for you and send you a few digital images via email. However, they cannot do extensive research or create a family tree. For these tasks, if you cannot make the trip yourself, you will need to hire a genealogist (on that note, I plan to go back to Trento in March 2018). I hope you found this article useful. Next time, we’ll look at how to prepare for research. Until then, I hope you’ll visit www.TrentinoGenealogy.com, and join our thriving Trentino Genealogy group on Facebook. LYNN SERAFINN is an author, marketing consultant and genealogist specializing in the families of the Giudicarie, where her father was born in 1919.


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A Radical Priest Philosopher...

Antonio Rosmini Serbati was a progressive priest, philosopher, a native of Rovereto, who influenced the church and his society by his writing and activities. Since November 18, 2007, 18 November 2007 the Catholic Church venerated Antonio Rosmini Serbati as blessed, the antecedent to sainthood. But in the first half of the nineteenth century, when he lived, he would have been willingly burned at the stake by that same Church that instead put his writing on the Index “burning” his books with criticism.

Catholic priest and philosopher, Antonio Rosmini was born March 24, 1797 in Rovereto, then the territory that Napoleon Bonaparte had just ripped from Austria to incorporate it into the Kingdom of Italy with its capital in Milan. After completing his studies in the Royal Secondary School, Ginnasio of Rovereto, which in the meantime had become County of Tyrol. He then moved on to the University of Padua where he graduated majoring in juridical and theological studies. He was ordained priest in Chioggia, on the Venice lagoon, on 21 April 1821. In Trento he had conflicts with the Austrian installed Prince Bishop, the blessed Nepomuceno de Tschiderer. Therefore, in 1828 on the Holy Mount Calvary of Domodossola in the Piedmont, near Switzerland, he founded the religious conRosmini statue in Milan gregation of the Institute of Charity, then known as the Congregation of Rosmini. The books written by the priest-philosopher were put to the Index, a listing of books prohibited by the Catholic hierarchy. Among his books placed on the Index was the volume "Of the Five Wounds of the Holy Church" (1833). Yet, Pope Pius IX in 1849 also called the philosopher Antonio Rosmini to be part of the commission to define the text of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception that would be promulgated in 1854. His liberal Catholicism made many curia cardinals enemies who opposed the idea of the Pope to proclaim Rosmini as cardinal of the Holy Roman Church and to .


appoint him as Secretary of State. Yet, in 1854, Pius IX, speaking of Rosmini, had said: "He is not only a good Catholic, but a saint: God uses saints to make truth triumph”. Antonio Rosmini died in Antonio Rosmini Serbati Stresa, on Lake Maggiore, on July 1, 1855, far from his homeland (Rovereto was the restored territory of the crown of Vienna). Perhaps he died poisoned because after a lunch consumed with relatives just in Rovereto, he had not felt better. Returning from a lunch at the Bossi-Fedrigotti's house, Rosmini confided to her sister-in-law: "I was poisoned".

Someone even speculated that he died of cholera, an epidemic that in those days was sowing a massacre in Italy and in Trentino. In the summer of 1855, 6,008 people died of cholera in the diocese of Trento In three months. Certainly, Antonio Rosmini Serbati was killed several times. In 1849, he was first “killed” when his writings on the wounds of the Church and on the Constitution were put on the Church’s Index in 1887 after his death, he was killed a second time when forty of his theses were condemned. Rosmini decried the ignorance of the clergy, the separation of priests from the faithful, political interference in ecclesial affairs, and the detention of unused wealth for the purposes of charity. Among the historical enemies of Antonio Rosmini there were the Jesuits who, albeit belatedly, changed their minds. Written by Alberto Folgheraiter, author, journalist.

Ancestral home of Rosmini’s parents, wealthy noblemen.


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Branching Out...

My mother, Lynn Serafinn, grew up in New York, but finally settled in England in 1999. Emigration is in her blood: her father was christened Romeo Fedele Serafini at his birth in 1919 in Duvredo, in the parish of Santa Croce del Bleggio in Val delle Giudicarie, where his family had resided for centuries. But when my grandpa was not yet three years old, the family moved to the United States. Although she grew up removed from “the motherland”, my mother identified strongly with her Tirolesi family. However, Grandpa always encouraged my mother to leave our heritage behind. Eventually, all our Trentinoborn family died, and it seemed that chapter in our family history had been shut for all time. But then I – who can’t stand any secret that doesn’t involve a present at the end – re-opened it.

I first began building our family tree with the help of the Nati in Trentino online database. I then ordered copies of microfilms that contained relevant parish records dating back to medieval times, and had them sent to my local LDS Family History Center. However, I quickly felt overwhelmed by how much work was required to make heads or tails of those records – not to mention, I would have to learn medieval Italian! In short, I quit. But not my mother. She began diligently visiting the Family History Center, scouring through microfilms. More than that, she learned Italian (and a smattering of Latin) and immersed herself so deeply in this mission to recreate the family tree that she branched out (forgive the pun) into researching the ancestral history of the region as a whole. She now visits Trento three or four times a year to do research, including on behalf of clients seeking their lost family histories. She also engages in regular email exchanges with various archives and parishes, as well as reading the dozens of books she has collected on Tirolesi history, all available only in Italian.

The further back my mother went in her research, the more she saw how all families in the Santa Croce parish – and other parishes beyond – are somehow connected, even if distantly. Now her goal is to transcribe all the records for Santa Croce parish from the date they begin (in the 1550s) until they end (in 1923), and plot all the information onto one tree. As of this writing, there are almost 19,000 people on her tree – spanning 600 years – all of whom were either born in Santa Croce or are


descended from someone who was. This research entails crossing into other parishes, and even places outside the province of Trento. Her aim is to compile a genealogical encyclopedia, organized into family groups, where anyone may look up a particular family name and find not just names, but important dates, and details of who married whom, etc. Thus, what started as a mission to find something long missing in our own cultural background has turned into a passionate effort to preserve the history of the people of the region.

Katia, Lynn, Claudio & Renato at the Archives of the Diocese of Trento

My mother is tenacious, when she has a goal in mind, and this goal matters to her more than any other. She works at it every day and night, fitting it around her other work, which she can’t relinquish because it is all that pays for her genealogical research. No one is funding my mother’s work; the project is a huge undertaking and a service to so many people out there, but one essentially unpaid. It’s also an important one. Even for those more distantly related – say, sixth cousins and beyond – reconnecting matters. The Tirolesi population are a minority in America (and, I daresay, in England, where I am raising my own family). If you’re like my mother and you grew up vaguely aware of that cultural heritage, only another Tirolesi descendant will relate to that heritage. If you’re like me and you never knew much about that heritage, that reconnection gives you something to look back on and be proud of.

Genealogy is about healing and, crucially, connection. Although each of us is unique, we are all connected by blood and by culture. As my mother says, “It is an emotional, if not spiritual, experience.” - By Vrinda Pendred, author & freelance editor/proofreader at VrindaPendred.com.


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Nina Nana...a Tyrolean Lullabye

Nina nana is truly a Tyrolean lullabye…Fa la nanna in our dialect is simply and literally…go to sleep. Nana is sleep.. Maestro Antonio Pileggi, the director of the Coro Illario, heard it sung in the small village of Villalagarina and found that it originated from the renown founder maestro of the SAT ( Societa` degli Alpinisti Trentini) Silvio Pedrotti. He explained how this was the lullabye sung in the Vallagarina by mothers to their infants during the filo`,the evening gathering in the stables, after which the Filo` receives its name. Maestro Renato Dionisi, originally from Istria but Rovertano by adoption, elaborated it for the renown SAT chorale. Panorama of Mori According to Maestro Antonio Pileggi the words are truly poetic referring to green wood that is lit but does not burn just as the resistive infant in succumbing to sleep. The dialectal words are truly a wonderful representation of the Vallagarina… I remember singing another lullabye version of a nina nana to my Giuliana, one of my ten grandchildren who as an infant would succumb and indeed did her nana…As she got older and resistive and balked at going to sleep…she would protest…No nina nana, nono!!!

Nina Nana...

Fente le nane, fentele cantando, Let’s sleep, let’s doing it singing, finche la popa se va ‘ndormenza a poco a poco until my baby will fall asleep, Nina-Nana, oh...oh... Nina-nana, oh...oh... La popa se `ndormenza a poco a poco come la legna verda arent’ al foco Nina-nana, oh...oh...

My baby falls asleep little by little like green wood next to the fire Nina-nana, Oh...Oh

Fente la nana para via ‘l bobo` doman de sera vegnira` ` ‘l pupa` Nina-nana, oh...oh...

Let’s sleep and scare away the boogie man tomorrow night your dad will come Nina-nana, Oh...Oh...

La legna verda brusa e no fa fiama, cosi fa la me popa a far la nana, Nina-nana, oh...oh...

The green wood burns but does not light thus does my little girl to go to sleep, Nina-nana, Oh...Oh...

The Coro S. Ilario began in 1979 and named after a river of Rovereto. After an initial period dedicated to the traditional Alpine repertoire, the choir pursued a varied repertoire in many places and in many locations. Some of these examples of their celebrated performances: Messa dei Dolomiti, the Mass of the Dolomites; Suoni dei Dolomiti, the Sound of the Dolomites, choral concerts high in the Dolomites at various refuges; On the occasion of 90th anniversary of the Great War, they presented a concert at the Peace Bell in Rovereto; In 2014, at the Teatro Zandonai, they presented a multi-media presentation about the Austrian Hungarian combatant along with a female chorus contrasting the voices of the trenches. The song will be found on our website: filo.tiroles.com. This is the Facebook link regarding the choir ttps://www.facebook.com/corosilario.it/. Roberto Forrer, administrative secretary of the Coro S. Illario. 29

Coro S. Ilario-Vallagarina


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The Mountains of Vallagarina.. Vallagarina starts at Besenello (10 km south of Trento) and ends at the border with the Veneto region. Throughout its length it is crossed by the Adige River. Its shape is a unique configuration formed by the ancient glaciers. Traveling along the length of the valley, the main mountains one encounters are from the Northeast: Vigolana / Scanuppia, Finonchio, Pasubio, Zugna and the Lessini Mountains in the municipality of Ala-Avio. Starting northwest and descending south they meet: Mount Stivo, Biaena and a portion of Mount Baldo. The summits are more than 2000 meters in height and are of no particular interest to mountaineers, with the only exception of Vigolana mountain, where there are some rock climbing routes, such as those that reach to reach the Madonnina, a rock formation that resembles of the Madonna. Another area frequented by climbers is the Val Scodella, near Rovereto. These mountains are a great attraction especially for hikers thanks to the presence of a rich fauna such as mountain goats and the cedar rooster, historical remnants of castles and fortifications of the First World War), rock formations of limestone, dolomite and gypsum, caves, sink holes, valleys. Near the city of Rovereto, there are the Lavini.They are an expanse of limestone rock blocks due to landslides occurring in prehistoric-historical times. Holes were discovered in the rock that was discovered to be footprints with a symmetrical arrangement. There are the long pathways of the fossil footprints of dinosaurs, dating back 200 million years. a number of tracks which together contain a total of one hundred old footprints of 200 million, left by the dinosaurs. At that time ( Jurassic ) Trentino was made up of a vast expanse of water populated by marine organisms whose skeletons then created alpine limestones . In this place, alternating with stretches of water and sandy expanse, there were dinosaurs , both herbivores and carnivores The Lavini are also famous since they are quoted by Dante Alighieri in the XIIth Canto of Hell of the Divine Comedy: " As is that downfall on the hither side of Trent, which sidewise smote the Àdige, through earthquake or through failure of support; since from the mountain’s summit, whence it moved down to the plain, the rock is shattered so, that it would yield a path for one above; even such was the descent of that ravine; and on the border of the broken bank. The poet refers to the chaos of rocks and boulders that make up the Lavini and are the testimony of a landslide falling from Mount Zugna, which changed the course of the Adige River. In

Monte Stivo

fact, the name Lavini (often called the Lavini of Marco….) comes from the word "avalanche" or "slavine", landslide. The lower part of the mountains is cultivated with vines. Here the renowned Marzemino d'Isera wine is produced. It is also mentioned by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. There are celebrated animal breeds and an excellent honey is produced in the same area. In the area of Mount Biaena there opens the Valley of Gresta, famous for the quality of its vegetables. This area is crossed by numerous trails are managed by the Tridentini (SAT) Alpinist Society. There are also some “rifugi” or shelters such as the "Vincenzo Lancia" hut or rifugio, located on Pasubio Mountain and dedicated to the founder of the Lancia car company The hut or rifugio Finonchio, the refuge "Prospero Marchetti" located on the Stivo, dedicated to the founder of Tridentini (SAT) Alpinist Society in 1872. In Val dei Molini, near the town of Avio, on Mount Baldo, there is a large cave called the Busa (Canyon) dei Preeri, which is clearly seen also from the valley. Legend has it that the so-called "Judgment of God" took place here. The noble owner of the area fell in love with a girl, but she did not wanted none of it, but she married him out of fear. As if spell bound, the nobleman became gentle and caring, until one day he began to be jealous of his beautiful bride. The girl swore she had never betrayed him, but she did not convince him and so he took her to the Busa (canyon) of the Preeri to submit her to the "Judgment of God." If she had survived, her husband would welcome her again in the house. He tied her up, leaving her some food, little water, and returned to his palace. The desperate girl started praying. Day after day, innocent, she became weaker, until she died. A white angel took her to heaven. When the terrible husband returned, he found only a written statement: "Sire, I die innocent!" Written by Ricardo DeCarli, Biblioteca della Montagna, Trento 30

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Nos Dialet . . . Our Dialect # 17

Here is a statistic that belies the Italian nationalists boasting of an “eternal” Italy. In 1861, only 2.5 percent spoke the newly adopted Italian language of the newly organized country called Italy. Southern Italy and Sicily had belonged to Spain and was called the Regno delle Due Sicile, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. The entire middle part of the peninsula belonged to the Popes, temporal rulers that governed as a temporal sovereigns. The North had a variety of rulers while the Tyrol was a feudal state ruled by the two bishoprics of Trento and Bressanone…for 800 consecutive years. It was called the Principato since the Bishop was a Prince Bishop and a temporal sovereignty.The Principato transitioned to the Austrian Hungarian Empire until 1918. Back to language statistics of 1861…97.5 % spoke a dialect and only a dialect with the exception of the Tyrol…We were bi-lingual since in 1774, Maria Teresa’s Reforma Teresiana imposed education on all the children until they were 12 years old. We spoke the dialect and could speak and read and write Italian…bi-lingual. It did not make us Italian but allowed us as emigrants to have sufficient literacy to continue our ties and relations with our relatives who remained behind. Please make the effort to go the website to hear the sounds and nuances of how our people communicated. Website http://www.museosanmichele.it/alfabeto-delle-cose/ where you can hear different sounds of the dialect COMPARISONS The importance of comparisons (Beautiful as...;Sleep like…Ugly as…have been from time immemorial the significant way that a linguistic community interprets their realities Bel come il sole Good as the sun Content come il merlo Happy as Falso come Giuda Treacherous as Judas Fiach come a paia Weary as straw Lonch come l an dala fam Long as a year of famine Sol come n can Alone like a dog Vecio come l`Arena (of Verona) Old as the Arena (of Verona) Nar giu giu come l oio It goes down as oil Rider come n paiazo Laugh as a clown DIALECT SHOW & TELL La Casa Houses throughout the Tyrol had come features or nomenclatures..Let’s look to the illustrations on the opposite page, observe their labels of the items. Starting from the top and going left to right…We will cite the dialectal word in the illustration and translate literally it into English. Casa de mont-Mountain House Parol-pot Quert/coert de scandole-roof of shakes Frogolar/fogolar Scandola-wood shingles Pambola-manure fork Maza de legn-Wooden mallot Restel-rake Segur/sigur da scandole GonzalSecia del lat- milk bucket crazera- shoulder carrieer Doa/doga Scan-three leg milking stool Gondol-milk cannister Manecia-handle Smarzera/smalzera Scan da mongiar/scandel da Mongiar/mongio-milking stool Col/Col da lat-milk sieve Madram-bucket brace Fondo-bowl Pegol-leg of a milking stool Cerchio/cercio/cercol/cecio Celcere/ Cadena dal frogolar/cadena da foch-chain to suspend pot over fire ciacia-butter churnertamp dal boter-butter stamp/mold 32

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The illustrations opposite are those of Helen Lageder; they appear in the Dizionario del Dialetto di Montagne di Trento by Corrado Grassi, produced and distributed by the Museo degli Usi e Costumi della Gente Trentina, San Michele allâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Adige



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I Proverbi:Wisdom Stories

I have had a real filò experience…I am not referring to the magazine but to the real and genuine filo` of years ago…It was not in a stable with multiple people but in the kitchen of my dad’s first cousin, Maria Brunelli Tosi. Maria lived in Balbido until the age of 105…an independent living widow and revered grandmother and exemplary citizen of the Bleggio of the Val delle Giudicarie. She was a classic Tyrolean woman..alert, alive, energetic, a character forged with great joys and great sorrows, blue eyes and a memory and a recollection that was phenomenal abetted by a fortunate handicap of being hard of hearing that gave her permission and encouragement to pour out uninterrupted her life experiences, memories, proverbs, proverbial statements, stories, delineations of our families and our paesani. In my visits, I dared not interrupt her but just stay fascinated to listen to her speak with her dialect and her status of having experienced and participated in the life of her community for over 100 years. She was a genuine treasure and I was fortunate….She was my source of so many of these proverbs...Grazie, Maria! Per star bèn bisogna tòr el mondo come `l ven. To live well, take things as they come.

En cuna tuti bèi, al matrimonio tuti bòni, a la mort tuti santi. We are all beautiful in the cradle, all good when we`re married, and all saints when we`re dead. El furbo `l sa far da coiòn, ma `n coiòn no l`è bon de far da furbo. The cunning know how to act like fools, but fools cannot act as the cunning. Chi tira masa straza la corda. Who pulls too much breaks the cord.

A chi non vòl far fatighe, el terren prodòs ortighe. For those who don`t work, the earth grows nettles. Chi è stret de man, ‘l stret anca de còr. He who is miserly is also hard-hearted.

L` è meio `na stala mia che `n palàz in compagnia. A stable of your own is better than a palace shared with others. En amor pu che a parole se se ‘ntende a gesti. In love more than words gestures are more intentional. Mèio fam e sòn che maladi dal bon. Better hunger and rest than to be truly sick. Da santa Luzia`fret el cruzia. By St. Lucy’s day, the cold stings.

Chi no g`ha caritá con le bestie no la g`ha con nesùn. One who mistreats animals also mistreats others. Quando se è sul bal bisogn balar. When begins something, one needs to finish it.

En paradis no se va `n caroza. Maria Brunelli Tosi providing with a treasure of memories One does not get to heaven by coach. and....proverbs...wisdom stories! ATTENTION: MOMS & DAD...AUNTS & UNCLES...!!!! If you cherish and embrace your heritage...if you understand the link and significance of being culturally literate to become culturally aware to become culturally identified, then consider registering your children, nieces and nephews for the Filò. There is no charge but the information is priceless... Prompt your children, nieces and nephews, and Tyrolean friends to register either by mail Filò, PO Box 90, Crompond, NY 10517 Fax: 914-734-9644; Phone: 914-739-2313 or on-line at the website: www.filo.tiroles.com...Remember who we are is who we were! 34

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s . , r r e

Our Partners are . . .

Alberto Chini, President of Father Eusebio Chini Museum, Segno Italy Alberto Folgheraiter- Author, journalist and specialist in Trentino culture, Trento Christian Brunelli. Teacher & Technical Consultant, Peekskill, NY Tomaso Iori, Museo della Scuola, Rango, Val di Giudicarie Ivo Povinelli, Director- Federazione Trentina delle Pro Loco e loro Consorzi . TrentoJim Caola Genealogist, nutritional counselor, macrobiotic chef, Philadelphia, PA Daniela Finardi, Communications Dept.- Museo degli Usi e Costumi della Gente Trentina. San Michele Manuele Margini-Phoenix Bancaria Informatica, Trento Ricardo di Carli -Biblioteca della Montagna-SAT, Trento Alexander DeBiasi Trentino Sviluppo SpA Verena Di Paoli.Writer, Researcher, Scholar, Terlago Veronica Coletti, Teacher, Bronx, NY Lynn Serafinn, Geneology specialist, Great Britain Stefano Miotto, Phoenix Informatica Bancaria, Trento Peter Berasi-Hopewell Junction, NY

Our Contributors are . . .

Daiana Boller, Unione delle Famiglie Trentine al Estero James Zanella, Instructor, Rovereto, Vallagarina Vrinda Pendred-Stevenage, Hertfordshire, UK Elisabetta Nardelli-Calliano, Vallagarina-Trentino Marketing Serena Tomasini, Ospedaletto, Valsugana-Trention Marketing Roberto Ferrer, Coro S.Ilario, Vallagarina Chiara Bille, APT Vallagarina

A toast to reaching the top of Cima Tosa, the highest peak of the Brenta Dolomites,

Photo Credits

Alberto Folgheraiter; Gianni Zotta; Trentino Marketing; Alesandro Di Biasi; APT Vallagarina, Silvia Passerini; Flavio Faganelli; Pio Geminiani;Tomaso Prugnola;Mario Simonini;Andrea Razzoli;Marco Simonini;Carlo Baroni;Moreno Diana; Palo Calza`; Daniela Lira; Fernando Guerra; Massimiliano Vassura; Sandro Nastri

Some Images...

My Special place in the Tyrolâ&#x20AC;Ś My 500 year old house is located in the Bleggio of the Val delle Giudicarie, equidistant between the magnificent Brenta Dolomites and the Alto Garda and its lake. When I look down the valley, I see the Ballino Pass that leads to Riva and Arco, the Riviera of the Empire, and the Lake of Garda while the village of Ballino is the privileged spot in the Tyrol where Andreas Hofer, the great patron and icon of the Tyrol, lived as a shepherd for 8 years. Directly behind my house is the Durone Pass that was traversed by none other than Charlemagne and by armies of 40,000 led by Condottieri, both coming up from Riva through the Pass and up to the Val Rendena and to Lombardy. My upstairs kitchen had been a bedroom where my mom was bornâ&#x20AC;ŚWow! My cup runneth over!

The magnificent Brenta Dolomites

Andreas Hofer



Lake of Garda, Riva...and Arco just to left

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Profile for Louis C. Brunelli

2017 Volume17 Vallagarina  

A Journal for Tyrolean Americans - Val de Mocheni

2017 Volume17 Vallagarina  

A Journal for Tyrolean Americans - Val de Mocheni

Profile for cbrunelli