Book of ABstrActs 2012
foreword CAVI is an interdisciplinary research centre for the Arts and Sciences at Aarhus University, Denmark. CAVIâ€™s researchers primarily have a background in interaction design or digital aesthetics, although some have a background in computer science. We carry out research through design, in the sense of making practical design experiments aimed at gaining insight into interaction design â€“ design process, as well as interface and use. Many of our researchers have a background in participatory design, which explains our concern with the context for which we are designing. A strong interest in exploring the design of engaging experiences is a persistent thread throughout our research portfolio. In Book of Abstracts 2012 we present selected research results as they have been published during the recent couple of years in areas such as digital culture and
aesthetics, child computer interaction, urban computing, media architecture, as well as design processes. In several of our projects, we have worked closely with external partners, for instance, technology providers and other businesses. In the area of cultural computing, we have worked with independent artists, as well as cultural institutions such as museums. Collaborating closely with external partners pushes us to take context seriously, and to make full-scale installations, which may be put into the real world.
Kim Halskov Professor and centre director
tABle of coNteNts
Facilities and Technologies
Out of the Box
Martin Brynskov, Peter Dalsgaard, Tobias Ebsen, Jonas Fritsch, Kim Halskov and Rune Nielsen
Eight Challenges for Urban Media Façade Design
Tools for the Design of a Low-resolution Curvilinear Media façade
The Design of Tools for Sketching Sensor-Based Interaction
Christian Ulrik Andersen and Søren Pold
Coincidentally, the Screen has Turned to Ink Jonas Fritsch, Lasse Steenbock Vestergaard and Søren Bro Pold
Participatory Materialities in the Instant Kafé Christian Ulrik Andersen and Søren Bro Pold
Ekkomaten Ditte Basballe, Morten Breinbjerg and Jonas Fritsch
Peter Dalsgaard and Kim Halskov
Experiencing the Non-sensuous
Understanding the Dynamics of Engaging Interaction in Public Spaces Peter Dalsgaard, Christian Dindler and Kim Halskov
The Scripted Spaces of Urban Ubiquitous Computing
Martin Brynskov, Rasmus Lunding and Lasse Steenbock Vestergaard
Interface Criticism – Aesthetics Beyond Buttons Christian Ulrik Andersen and Søren Bro Pold (eds.)
Staging Urban Interactions with Media Façades
Tobias Ebsen and Kim Halskov
Peter Dalsgaard and Kim Halskov
Values-led Participatory Design
Martin Brynskov, Tuck Wah Leong and Jonas Fritsch
The Dynamics of Research Through Design Ditte Basballe and Kim Halskov
Jonas Fritsch and Martin Brynskov
3D Projection on Physical Objects Peter Dalsgaard and Kim Halskov
Impediments to User Gains
Tuck Leong and Martin Brynskov
Projections on Museum Exhibits Ditte Basballe and Kim Halskov
Ole Sejer Iversen, Kim Halskov and Tuck Wah Leong
Tangible 3D Tabletops Peter Dalsgaard and Kim Halskov
Ole Sejer Iversen and Rachel Charlotte Smith
Claus Bossen, Christian Dindler and Ole Sejer Iversen Rune Nielsen, Jonas Fritsch, Kim Halskov and Martin Brynskov
Scandinavian Participatory Design
Morten Breinbjerg, Tobias Ebsen, Morten Suder Riis and Rasmus Lunding
How to Experience and Relate to Climate Change Christian Ulrik Andersen and Søren Bro Pold
Digital Natives Rachel Charlotte Smith, Ole Sejer Iversen and Christian Dindler
Partners and Funding
fAcilities ANd techNologies
out of the Box Rune Nielsen, Jonas Fritsch, Kim Halskov and Martin Brynskov
The Danish LEGO toy company has initiated a strategy of implementing digital 3D models throughout the whole business process, from design up. Together with the LEGO Company we have pursued the potential of using the digital 3D models and animations for promotional purposes in the retail setting. As part of our interests in research into bridging physical artifacts with digital
seconds to 25 minutes in length â€“ some people were observed interacting with the table and the distribution of gender and age indicate that a wide variety of people engaged in the interaction, though most were boys less than 16 years of age. The observations clearly show that the table was successful in attracting coming out of the box.
interest in uses of digital technology for designing engaging marketing experiences we developed an interactive table. On the interactive tabletop we have two sets of boxes, each with a small and large
base, which enable the interaction with
interaction forms During our in-depth analysis of the col-
mode describes an interaction whose primary goal is to determine how the table works and how you can interact with it. The playful interaction mode describes an interaction whose primary goal is to playful interaction mode is characterized by the focus being not on uncovering the immediate functionality of the table, but virtual 3D worlds. The playful exploration interaction mode describes a cross-over situation, where the basic functionality of the table is uncovered through playful engagement.
interaction forms concerning the initiation and social interaction relevant to an understanding of the interactive table in a marketing perspective. Walk-up-anduse applies when a person approaches
world viewed on a monitor. The design based on picking up one or more of the boxes. First, it is possible to put a box on the interaction surface and have the corresponding digital 3D model appear; you can turn it around and move it on the surface, and the digital 3D model behaves in a similar way on the display. Second, if you move a red Bionicle close to a green Third, if the base of a small Bionicle box joins the base of the Bionicle of the same colour, the digital 3D model of the small
seconds of arrival. Another prominent form is Watch-and-join, referring to interactions initiated by people who watch and then join those who are already interacting with the table. Watch-andtake-over describes situations in which people who have been watching the table wait until the other users have gone away before engaging in the interaction. Return describes people who have already interacted, and then return to the table. Interact-and-run is for the interacinitiating the interaction before leaving the table.
The table has been tested in a toy department for a period of four weeks and based on a detailed analysis of the ways the table was used on a single day, we
reference Nielsen, R., Fritsch, J. Halskov, K. & Brynskov, M.
interaction modes action modes: The explorative interaction
Childrenâ€™s Use of an Interactive Table. IDC 2009, (1-9).
tANgiBle 3d tABletoPs Peter Dalsgaard and Kim Halskov
Three areas of interface research that have garnered much attention in recent years are tangible interaction, tabletop interfaces, and 3D projection. Tangible 3D tabletop is a novel interface, which draws upon and combines elements from these three areas. The tangible 3D tabletop thus combines a rear-projected tabletop interface with a 3D engine, which enables precise projection of content from multiple top-mounted projectors, onto tangible objects placed on the table. Since the tangible 3D tabletop is a novel type of interface, it may be approached from a number of research angles. Our main approach in the paper is from a design perspective, and we therefore focus on the challenges and potentials for interaction designers who wish to develop applications for the tangible 3D tabletop. technical setup The tangible 3D tabletop developed by CAVI consists of a translucent table surface under which a projector (1) and a camera (2) are mounted. Above the are mounted. The projector beneath the table displays visuals on the table, while the projectors mounted around the table project content onto tangibles (3), which
tracked by the camera (2) connected to a computer, which, using the Reactivision tion of each tangible object. This computer renders the image to be displayed by projector (1) onto the table surface, and sends the data on a bus to two separate
computers, each of which uses the commercially available 3D game engine, UNITY, to render images projected onto the tangibles by the projectors mounted
design principles Based on our experiences from developing applications for this interface, we outline a series of general design principles concerning the characteristics of, and interplay among the components of the system. We furthermore present a number of applications developed for the tangible 3D tabletop in order to explore the underlying design principles and potentials. These applications show ways in which tangible 3D tabletops can be employed maps such as city maps and building blueprints. design considerations Our analysis of these cases has resulted in three overall design considerations: Firstly, tangible 3D tabletops can combine and connect both the content and functions of tangibles and tabletop surface; secondly, there is a rich potential for employing dynamic content on tangibles that can simultaneously serve as displays and input devices; and thirdly, a new range of visual of the 2D tabletop surface and the 3D tangibles. While we are encouraged by face, it is also evident that there are many aspects that remain to be addressed, including technical limitations and in-depth studies of real-life use applications of the system.
reference Dalsgaard, P. & Halskov, K. Tangible 3D Tabletion and 3D Projection. Forthcoming in Proceedings of NordiCHI 2012.
Using three tangibles in comSchematic overview
ProjectioNs oN MuseuM exhiBits Ditte Basballe and Kim Halskov
as elements of projections on the Danish rune stone, Mejlbystenen (the Mejlby stone), we have explored approaches to engaging museum visitors. The installainstallations and experiments exploring projection on physical objects, but is unique in focusing on fusing the projection and the object in an engaging approach to communicating information at a cultural heritage museum. the Mejlby stone installation Mejlbystenen is a rune stone originally found in the village of Mejlby, near the city of Randers, Denmark. Rune stones are an important and conspicuous part of the cultural heritage from The Viking Age in Scandinavia. Through images and writing in the runic alphabet, more than 2300 stones tell of life in ScandinaThe Mejlby stone installation fuses the physical exhibit and the communication of information by projecting Roman lettered text and graphics directly on the stone, thereby bringing the story carved in the stone 1000 years ago to life for a present-day audience. What is unique about The Mejlby stone installation is that the exhibit itself, the rune stone, is used as the screen.
elements presented cyclically, and supported by an audial component. First, the light in the room goes out, and the music changes; it becomes louder, and, from being just a sound, becomes a melody that supports the animation, which si-
multaneously appears on the stone. The animation tells the story of the events that led to the erection of Mejlbystenen. The runes into the stone. This prompts the shift to the next element of the installation, where visitors see the runes appearing on the stone as they are carved.
The Mejlby stone installationâ€™s unique ability to fuse a cultural historical artefact and the communication of information has demonstrated approaches to engaging museum visitors.
sense-making, engaging conversations, and playful engagement The Mejlby stone installation is now a permanent installation at a cultural and historical museum in Randers, Denmark, and, based on observation as well as interviews of museum visitors, we have analyzed how the installation supports sense-making, engaging conversations, and playful engagement. Sense-making can be described as a fact-based, audience-to-installation level but also occurs at more self-identifying level, where the audience starts to relate to the people and the story behind the stone. The engaging conversation can be seen as a human-to-human relationship mediated by the stone. The playful engagement is a more unconscious audience-to-installation level that leads to self-direction in the experience. The self-directed elements of experience are especially interesting. In these situations the visitor is so much in trolling oneself. In these cases goal and means fuse and the audience take the experience into their own hands.
reference seum setting. Proceedings of ozCHI 2010 (80-87).
Mejlbystenen in its traditional look
3d ProjectioN oN PhysicAl oBjects Peter Dalsgaard and Kim Halskov
3D projection on physical objects is a particular kind of Augmented Reality that augments a physical object by projecting digital content directly onto it, rather than by using a mediating device, such as a mobile phone or a head-mounted of study, and engineers, designers, artists, and researchers have just started to explore the potential and characteristics of this type of technology. 3D projection may be construed as an evolutionary rather than a revolutionary technology, in that it is a further development and combination of existing technologies. Many of the uses of 3D projection borrow from more well-established forms of visual means of expression, sometimes tweaking them slightly and at yet other times, using juxtapositions of traditional visual expressions and 3D projection to create
During the past three years, CAVI has developed a series of installations that explore the potential of projecting digital content on physical objects. In the paper 3D Projection on Physical Objects,
sources and particle systems; secondly, it allows for designers to create an interplay between the digital world and physical world, by emphasizing, down-playing and obscuring how the digital and physical interact; thirdly, it opens up new types of relations between object, content and context. The most prominent advantage of using 3D projection on physical objects is, rience of immediacy and physical presbe achieved with traditional Augmented Reality using a screen as the mediating layer. 3D projection removes the screen as mediating layer and presents the virtual layer directly on top of the physical surroundings. This maneuver enables an experience of presence that is qualAugmented Reality. In addition to adding information to the physical environment, by 3D projection allows the designer to alter the perception of physical structures.
developed installations that employ 3D projection on physical objects as parts of full-scale experimental projects, in collaboration with external partners, includ-
design insights On the basis of these cases in which the installations have been put into use in real-life settings, we present and discuss three central design insights: Firstly, 3D
life cases. Proceedings of CHI 2011, (10411050).
the dyNAMics of reseArch through desigN Ditte Basballe and Kim Halskov
Over the past twenty years, Research through Design has emerged as a key means of understanding research pracvious research has predominantly focused on clarifying the fundamental conceptual distinctions of Research through Design. To it is productive to investigate Research through Design at a micro-level, by addressing the dynamics of research and design as unfolding throughout a design process the journey of holger the dane As our principal case, we consider the design of a three-dimensional projection installation, The Journey of Holger the Dane, projected on a white concrete statue of the legendary Viking warrior, Holger the Dane. Three-dimensional projection on physical objects is a particular kind of spatially Augmented Reality, which augments a physical object by projecting digital content directly onto it. In the case of The Journey of Holger the Dane, we have used 3D projection to add a digital layer directly onto the statue, bringing elements of the legends told about Holger the Dane to life for the audience. As part of the installation, we meet the six fairies who endowed Holger the Dane in his cradle with gifts such as immortality, strength, courage, and attractiveness to women. Several of the important and dramatic events in Holgerâ€™s life, such as his imprisonment by Carl the Great, and his defeat of the giant Burmand, are staged. Finally, the old warrior
coupling, interweaving, and decoupling The design process unfolded over a one-year period and among the design workshops and production. We analysed material collected from 18 key events during the process, in order to identify the on-going dynamics. Based on the analysis, we establish how the interplay evolves in a complex structure, where the design and research interests continuously couple, interweave, and decouple. Coupling is a dynamic that unites design and research interests, and thereby establishes a framework for, as well as a set of constraints on the further steps in the process. Interweaving is a dynamic wherein one activity or material informs both design and research interests. Decoupling
at the same time being rigid enough conceptually to form a shared point of reference and a platform for negotiation among people with design as well as research interests. For instance a cardboard box and some shops was a boundary object. From a research perspective, the materials were used to inquire into how three-dimensional spatial and physical representations facilitate the creation of a future scenario. From a design perspective, the workshop materials supported communication about visitorsâ€™ patterns of movement during the discussion of design ideas.
turning either design or research interests into the salient focus of the process. The interplay between research and design interests evolves through an on-going, dynamic process, in this case, starting with the coupling of separate design and research interests, and proceeding to their being thoroughly interwoven then subsequently untangled, and moreover, going from design and research interests being equal focuses, to one or the other being the conspicuous focus. design artefacts as boundary objects The design artefacts of the process may be considered boundary objects in a research through design process in the sense of being entities that may be used for both research and design purposes
reference research through design. Proceedings of DIS 2012, (58-67).
Research interests Design interests
Overview of the dynamics
stAgiNg urBAN iNterActioNs with MediA fAçAdes Martin Brynskov, Peter Dalsgaard, Tobias Ebsen, Jonas Fritsch, Kim Halskov and Rune Nielsen
In this paper, we focus on one particular kind of urban computing, media façades, which is the general term for incorporating displays as an integrated part of a building’s façade. Using media façades as a subcategory of urban computing, our research focus revolves around coming to grip with sense-making and social mediation as part of identifying key characteristics of interaction with media façades in an urban setting. Our approach strongly relies on research-through-design by conducting real-life design interventions where we have taken advantage of our in order to explore aspects of urban comfuel for our discussion is Aarhus by Light. Aarhus by light Aarhus by Light was a two-month social experiment with an interactive media façade at the Concert Hall Aarhus in Denmark. In the façade lived small creatures of light. When you approached the concert hall you entered their world, which was also a part of the city. They were social beings always (or mostly) happy to see you. On the central path leading visitors towards the concert hall were three illuminated zones, each covered with carpets in bright colors. In these zones, camera tracking translated the visitors’ presence and movements into digital silhouettes on the façade, and through the silhouettes, visitors could caress, push, lift and move the small creatures. The creatures would wave back,
Concert Hall Aarhus with the media facade installation
sionally leave and come back, thereby creating a relation to the visitor, which was not only physical and embodied but also emotional and narrative. The rectangular LED panels matched the glass façade modules of the Concert Hall irregular and elongated shape mainly placed alongside the main façade towards the park. The shape of the LED panels was deliberately designed to break away from a rectangular TV screen look, and a smaller part was wrapped around the facade corner in a spatial
social mediation and interaction patterns During our analysis of video and observarecurrent interaction patterns.
– families, groups hanging out, or other social gatherings. Using Aarhus by Light as the principal case, we have zeroed in on some of the challenges when designing for large media façades in urban space. We have in particular addressed the open-ended but framed nature of interaction, which in conjunction with varying interpretations enables individual sense-making. Moreover, we have contributed to the understanding of situational interaction in relation to distributed attention, shared focus, dialogue, and collective action. In addition, we have elaborated on the challenges for interaction designers encountered in a complex spatial setting calling for a need to take into account multiple viewing and action positions.
Looking at quantitative and qualitative data we may argue that the Aarhus by Light is supporting ‘situational interaction interaction: 1) Distributed attention, 2) tive action. The installation is not only mediating social interactions, it is facilitating a very wide range of social interactions and transitions between these levels of interaction. The relation patterns highlight the fact that most of the interactions are part of larger social relations. Even though there are examples of individuals interacting with the media façade alone (but still in public space), most of the interactions
reference Brynskov, M., Dalsgaard, P., Ebsen, T., Fritsch, actions with Media Facades, INTERACT 2009, 5726/2009, (154-167).
The three interaction zones
eight chAlleNges for urBAN MediA fAçAde desigN Peter Dalsgaard and Kim Halskov
Media façades is a category of urban computing concerned with the integration of displays into the built environment.
crete experiences with the experimental design cases of our own, as well as a thorough review of related projects and academic publications:
challenges faced when designing urban the fact that the urban setting as a domain for interaction design is characterized by a number of circumstances and those of other domains. five experimental design cases In order to exemplify the challenges and discuss how they may be addressed, we perimental design cases, ranging from a 180 m2 interactive building façade to displays integrated into bus shelters. One of the cases is The Climate Wall, which was an interactive generator of climate statements that used as its backdrop Ridehuset, a prominent historical building located at the corner of two busy streets, directly across from the City Hall of Aarhus. Another case is Dynamically Transparent Window, which responds to the movement of people passing by. tro-chromatic foil that can change from opaque to transparent when an electric current runs through it. By using strips or rectangles of the foil, narrow bands on the façade change and reveal what is on display in the store, in order to draw the passers-by closer, and encourage them to explore the display. eight challenges urban media façade based on our con-
1. New interfaces: urban setting prompts new forms of interfaces or alternative assemblies and uses of existing ones.
8. Emerging and unforeseen use of places and systems: Media façades will likely be used, perceived and approers intend. though in practice they are often intertwined.
2. Integration into physical structures and surroundings: New installations and systems must be integrated into existing physical surroundings. 3. Increased demands for robustness and stability: Shifting light and weather conditions over which designers often en into account.
display and the kinds of interaction intended to be supported. 5. Aligning stakeholders and balancing interests: Exploring, negotiating, transforming, and balancing stakeholder interests can be critical to the success of a system. 6. Diversity of situations: A very wide variety of situations occur and overlap in the city - how does the media façade given location? 7. Transforming social relations: The introduction of new technologies can cause disruptions and transform social relations and protocols.
reference ceedings of CHI 2010, (2277-2286).
tools for the desigN of A low-resolutioN curviliNeAr MediA fAcAde
Tobias Ebsen and Kim Halskov
The Danish Pavilion at Expo 2010 was part of the world exhibition in Shanghai in 2010. Its organic architecture was created by Danish architects at BIG, and our research laboratory participated in the design and implementation of the pavilion’s media façade.
scale, pixel form and picture formation. Early in the process, a full-scale, wood model of a section of the facade was produced, which served as a mock-up
The interior of the helical building acted as a three-hundred-metre-long exhibition area, featuring photos, video projections, a shop, two bars, and a bicycle lane that runs along the entire exhibition area. The outer facade of the pavilion was perforated with 3600 holes holes of various ated an expressive surface that gave the building a textural visual character, but also served the purpose of allowing sunlight and air into the interior of the building. Because of the double-loop structure of the building, the facade was almost three hundred metres long, and from some angles appeared as two bands, one above the other
From the beginning of the project we knew that the pattern of pixels on the building would impose special challenges and limitations on the design. Therefore, we needed a tool to test the perceptual possibilities of the facade pixels in terms of pixel pattern, low resolution, and
behind each tube, the façade became a large, low-resolution display, with tubelike pixels in an elongated, curved contube, they were less visible when viewed from the front than from an angle. design tools In order to develop and test potential content for such a non-standard display integrated into a building, several custom-made design tools were developed. The design tools addresses each in their
the individual pixels with respect to colour and light intensity.
evolving patterns on the facade. Because of the complex nature of the building, we found it necessary to postpone the completion of the design on the actual building in Shanghai. The Shanghai Expo was been open for people visited the Danish Pavilion.
the illuminated tubes. This led to a simple, Flash-based software application that was capable of visualizing a small section of twenty-four of the total 627 columns of holes in the façade. In order to obtain a better idea of how the various content would work in full scale, we ran a test, working with the projection of content on a wall, approximately four metres by twelve metres in the backyard of our laboratory. We also developed a virtual 3D model of the pavilion, including projections of the 3D model onto a scale physical model (1:100). Using the various design visualization tools we tested and further developed a number of designs, among them, slow-moving smoke, walking and bicycling silhouettes of people, Chinese characters, black-to-white gradients moving around the building, and a shimmering, noise-like surface, creating constantly
reference of a low-resolution curvilinear media façade.
the desigN of tools for sketchiNg seNsor-BAsed iNterActioN
Martin Brynskov, Rasmus Lunding and Lasse Steenbock Vestergaard
One of the main obstacles in tangible and embedded interaction design is the complexity of tools and competences required for sketching and casual prototyping. Whether for educational, designerly, or artistic purposes, various other projects have addressed this challenge, and a range of tools and platforms have emerged. DUL Radio is a concrete attempt to develop a platform for sensor-based interaction design that is both
DUL Radio is a research prototype platform and is not commercially available presently. However, both the hardware and software (including source and parties <http://www.digitalurbanliving. dk/dul-radio>. While custom-made, it is essentially a set of components that is comparable to other common components you can buy in well-equipped electronic retailers. The
ture set not commonly present in a single,
Ease of use applies to the point of view of the prospective interaction designer (whether formally trained or not): no steep learning curve, easy initialization and setup, requiring no or minimal programming skills or hardware experience. Thereby, we aim to accommodate users who are not (yet) technically skilled, typically designers, students, and artists. dul radio vs other platforms The feature set of any platform represents er traditions, standards, needs, end-product perspectives, and even pedagogy and ethics. But in general, the development environments tend to favor either ease of use or low-level hardware control.
tiation lies in the optimized performance with regard to sketching sensor-based interaction. Reducing complexity in sketching is another purpose of DUL Radio. Also here, opposed to what we call an “open platform” approach (e.g. Arduino), DUL Radio has been built with a deliberate goal to hide both hardware and software complexity under the hood, so to speak, but without limiting too many relevant features, while still leaving open the option of setting free the access to hidden complexities at some later stage.
teaching sensor-based interaction design From the early stages of developing DUL Radio, it has been a main objective to make it well suited to be used in project-based design courses at universities and design schools. We now have a fair amount of experience with teaching the use of the platform—in 2011 a total of more than 80 students—and we have an evaluation based on questionnaries action design course taught at 3rd or program. For another part of the survey, the students were asked to evaluate their own abilities in programming and/or hardware experience, all marking their abilities as none or almost none. The questionnaries revealed students generally found it easier to understand the (simpler) concept of the DUL Radio than the (more complex and versatile) Arduino-platform.
Performance We have conducted testing with the
DUL Radio seeks to balance size, speed, ble and ultra-mobile prototyping scenarios where fast reaction is needed (for instance in controlling sound and triggering while still favoring ease of use.
full load on the ADC’s (considerably longer using only the accelerometer), with a 3V cell battery
reference Design of Tools for Sketching Sensor-Based Interaction. Proceedings of TEI 2012, (213-216).
DUL Radio sensorboards
reflective desigN docuMeNtAtioN Peter Dalsgaard and Kim Halskov
One of the crucial aspects of conducting interaction design research is the establishment of reliable and structured ways of capturing and documenting the data generated by the research, so that it can
mentation, we introduce and discuss a pose of documenting design projects
(PRT). Our main objective with this paper is not to present the system per se, but rather to present our experiences from the development and deployment of the system in a range of cases, as a catalyst for generating insights into and knowledge of the potential and challenges of systematic design documentation and
ed into the tool. The tool is intended to help guide and structure work processes in ways determined by those using the PRT.
Based on cases lasting from nine to thirteen months we present and discuss lenges that we have encountered while employing the PRT. The challenges concern how roles and responsibilities for design documentation are assigned, the lack of routines for doing design docuwhat kind of data to document in the sys-
tion and discussion in on-going projects, upon research questions, and that it supports longitudinal and cross-project studused to inform the ongoing project, many
around documenting the design process in terms of events, sub-events and notes using time as the organizing principle. Each of the three elements of the tool has a descriptive part, which describes what happened during a process. In addition to the descriptive element, the tool
at a later stage, for instance when design researchers analyze the projects and de-
the process. PRT is a web-based system, making it a shared resource for all project participants. The design of the PRT tool itself has been driven by the principle of having a simple interface with few rules for documenting -
reference sign documentation. Proceedings of DIS 2012,(428-437).
Materials from a design meeting
uNderstANdiNg the dyNAMics of eNgAgiNg iNterActioN iN PuBlic sPAces Peter Dalsgaard, Christian Dindler and Kim Halskov
For a number of years, we have explored the notion of ’engagement’ through our experimental work. This has led to discussions, both among ourselves and with our peers within interaction design, regarding the nature of engagement and the ways in which it unfolds when people encounter interactive systems and installations. The notion of engagement is so broad productive to consider engagement as a perspective on interaction, rather than on engagement focuses our attention on how people, as resourceful individuals and groups, invest their time, skill, knowledge, and imagination in interactive environments. While it has proven productive to study engagement with particular technologies these technologies do not exist by themselves. Rather, they are parts of larger assemblies, wherein various technologies, physical properties, and forms of cultural practice shape people’s engagement with them. From our perspective, a focus on the individual object is thus too narrow for understanding people’s engagement with technology; an account is needed that is capable of capturing engagement as a product of relations between physical, cultural, social, and content-related elements. Moreover, we see a need for studying the dynamics of engagement as it unfolds in concrete situations, and with assemblies of technologies.
a large-scale, urban installation of an interactive media façade in a public space, whereas the other two cases took place in other kinds of settings. Our second case, the Hydroscopes, was an interactive installation exploring new potential for engaging experiences at museums and science centres. Third and last, the LEGO Table was an interactive installation that explored new potential for digital marketing at a department store. From an analysis of these three cases in conjunction with one another, we have found that engagement with interactive installations may be construed as a highly relational phenomenon, characterized by the interplay between physical and spatial conditions, socio-cultural practices and constructs, and the content of the installations. In this paper, we focus on the dynamics between these four properties, and on the transformations that occur during interaction, both between these aspects (for instance, transformations that concern both social and physical aspects) and within them (for instance, transformations of social aspects). stances from each of the three cases, we explore how engaging interaction may be understood as a relational, dynamic, and transformative phenomenon involving the above-mentioned four aspects as crucial elements. reference standing the Dynamics of Engaging InteracACT 2011, (212-229).
To explore these dynamics, we have brought together three cases from our
The LEGO Table
digitAl NAtives Rachel Charlotte Smith, Ole Sejer Iversen and Christian Dindler
Digital Technology can support the creation of dialogical spaces in the museum, audiences to engage in the ongoing construction and reproduction of cultural heritage creating novel connections between people and between past, present and future. In this way, digital technology can contribute to the creation of emergent exhibitions in which the exhibition is created in dialogue between audiences and the museum. We present experiences from a current research project, the Digital Natives exhibition, in which digital technology was designed as an integral part of the exhibition to encourage dialogue between audiences and the exhibition materials. Two interactive installations, Google my Head and DJ Station, are presented below. google my head Google my Head is an interactive tabletop installation running on a PC connected to a 72” Evoluce One LCD multi-touch display. The Google My Head installation encouraged audiences to browse in a repository of Digital Natives online and mobile updates, pictures and videos continuously posted on the multi-touch screen drawn from a database. At the installation, visitors were confronted with the task of completing the sentence “Digital Natives are: ......” While browsing through the digital traces from various social media, they could choose up to four utterances, pictures or videos that caught their interest and supported their completion of the sentence. The chosen samples were stored in a docking placed at each of the narrow ends of the table. When
clicking on a small keyboard icon on the dock, an onscreen keyboard would occur allowing the audience to complete the sentence with statements such as ‘Digital Natives are “creative”’, ‘Digital Natives are “egocentric and spoiled”’ or ‘Digital Na-
dj station DJ Station is an interactive and audiovisual installation based on a tangible user Station allowed the audience to interact with the musical universe of the seven digital natives involved in the project,
they can support diverse individual and social experiences, both playful and reand engagement in the museum space. Using interactive technologies and social media in exhibitions can create more inclusive and non- hierarchical spaces for experiences and expressions of cultural communication that prompts both curators and audiences to constantly challenge constructions and conceptions of cultural heritage, the role of the museum institution and its connection to peoples everyday lives.
the remix and mash-up cultures that are hallmarks of the digital native generation. Each young native was represented in the installation by a cube with visible loops when placed on the table surface. Each cube represented one person’s musical taste, and each side of the cube contained a unique loop co-produced with the person in question. Flipping the cube to another side played a new loop, rotating the cube controlled its volume, while adding and rotating colored audio eters. digital technologies in Museum exhibitions The Digital Natives project has provided us with valuable insights into the potential role of digital technologies in museums, using the language and nature of social technologies to transform communication into interaction. Digital technologies are resourceful in the sense that
K. & Barbieri, S. (eds), Rethinking Technology (13-25).
The DJ Station
Google My Head
scANdiNAviAN PArticiPAtory desigN Ole Sejer Iversen and Rachel Charlotte Smith
As Scandinavian Participatory Design (PD) is a highly values-led design approach, we highlight the underlying values of democracy, quality of work and emancipation of this approach. We present a case study, Digital Natives, in which the Scandinavian PD approach was put into practice. Here we involved seven teenagers in the design of an interactive museum exhibition. We discuss how this activities such as the establishment of the design space, power relations among participants, the dialogical design procome of the project. We conclude that the end goal of Scandinavian PD is not Rather, in Scandinavian PD, designers strive to provide children with meaningful alternatives to existing technologies. It is to help children realize, that when it comes to the design of future technologies, they actually have a choice. the digital Natives exhibition The dialogic process leading up to the Digital Natives exhibition had a profound impact on the individual installations and the exhibition as a whole. The four digital installations created for the exhibition; Digital Sea, Google My Head, alogic, process oriented and relational approach of the design process. The installations and the connections between them created a multi-layered landscape of discovery into the lives and practices of the Digital Natives, expressed through subjective voices, personal perspectives and cutting-edge interaction design.
tion installation allowing audiences to explore digital materials, Facebook up-
movements with ceiling cameras, the audience can activate fragments according to their interest by physically standing on them. With its blue graphical shades, Sea was visually and aesthetically prominent and functioned as the physical and â€˜virtualâ€™ centre of the exhibition. Portraits is an artistic interactive video installation projected onto a large 2x3 semi-transparent screen inviting participants to explore the worlds of a girl and a boy and their passion for books and
Participatory Design approach can be adapted into a process of dialogic curation with youngsters when designing digital museum exhibitions. This approach not only takes into consideration the needs, interest and abilities of the youngsters, but also includes a more profound interest in their hopes, fears, dreams, and opportunities. This demands profound changes in the design of the participatory design process. Moreover, it provides children with legitimacy and ownership in established design projects, creating meaningful alternatives to conventional use and development of technology.
and aesthetic accounts created by two young girls from the project and gave an intimate glimpse into the dreams and self-representations of the young digital generation. The visual representations were accessible only as fragmented clips with which audiences could interact, using infrared camera tracking. The subtle
the exhibition subject, and creating both gagement. dialogic curation and technologies ogy supports a participative and more engaging museum experience. More importantly, we investigated how values of democracy, quality of work and emancipation deriving from the Scandinavian
reference Proceedings of IDC 2012, (106-115).
Portraits installation from the
iMPediMeNts to user gAiNs Claus Bossen, Christian Dindler and Ole Sejer Iversen
various forms is well recognised in many
analysis of impediments to user gains in Participatory Design projects in terms of
ers gain from being involved in design. absence of a clear set-up for collaboraDesign has made the case for involving users as active participants in the design process. From the outset, a core characteristic of Participatory Design has not only been to design better products and systems through user involvement, but also to improve user circumstances with respect to their working conditions, and ability to participate and have a voice in decision-making at work. More broadly, this latter strand of Participatory Design aims to contribute to the improvement of the quality of life and democratic participation, by involving people in the design and implementation of new technology. While concerns for user gains is a core characteristic of participatory design, actual studies of these gains are few.
nology. We discuss the need for researchers and practitioners to attend to the emerging character of participatory design projects, the importance of establishing dialogue that reaches beyond surface unthe importance of developing nuanced conceptions of the organizations participating in the process.
In this study, we explore the question of user gains through a retrospective evaluation of a critical Participatory Design project. Ten qualitative interviews were conducted with participants in a project aimed at developing technology to foster engaging museum experiences and rethinking cultural heritage communication. The interviews were analyzed in terms of the gains and frustrations reported. findings Despite the use of established Participatory Design techniques by experienced Participatory Design practitioners, a sigthe process were prominent in the study.
of PDC 2012, (31-40).
vAlues-led PArticiPAtory desigN Ole Sejer Iversen, Kim Halskov and Tuck Wah Leong
The widespread use of Participatory Deproaches and conceptualizations exist in ful approach is to rekindle a concern for values in design, focusing upon values as the engine that drives our activities in PD. Drawing from our own PD projects, this paper shows how this can be accomplished: through designers enacting their appreciative judgment of values while engaging in a dynamic and dialogical process of cultivating the emergence of values, developing them, and supporting their grounding. Participatory design When Participatory Design (PD) began nearly four decades ago amidst the explicitly political climate of Scandinavia, this design movement was forged with a commitment to values. PD makes explicit the critical, and inevitable, presence of values in the system development process. In addition, working with values in the design process is seen as an ethos that respects people’s democratic rights in that the people whose activity and most directly by a design outcome ought to have a substantive say in what that outcome is. But as PD is embraced by many far beyond Scandinavia, infused with diverse traditions and disciplines, this design practice has been transformed into one that is associated with a rich diversity of theories, practices, analyses and actions. However, this transformation has generated some lively discussions and
methods and participation in PD practice, which may have shifted the focus away from values. working with values To illustrate how we work with values and demonstrate how methods and stakeholder participation can be used to engage with values, we will draw from three design cases: two in museums and one in a primary school. Our work with values is a dialogical process – where we orchestrate, facilitate and create opportunities for dialogue amongst stakeholders. And it is through this dialogue that we cultivate the emergence of values, develop the values and ground the values during the design process.
ther developed through PD methods that encouraged dialogue, through collaborative games and problem solving activities before it was eventually grounded through design. A values-led design approach We contribute to furthering current PD practice by describing and explicating this dialogical process of emergence, development and grounding of values during design. We also highlight the crucial role that the designer’s appreciative judgment system of values plays in this process. Finally, providing further insights into this process will contribute to illustrating a way to conceptualize a values-led approach for those wishing to engage with values in their PD practice.
Examples from these cases reveal how choice of methods and in turn how we utilized the method to address values in design choices. This pervading concern for values also shaped the ways we work with stakeholders, such as how we facilitated the negotiation of design dilemFurther, we demonstrate how our concern for values transformed our design ideas throughout the design process as
For instance, the shared value of ‘experiential and kinesthetic learning’ in the primary school emerged in collaboration with designers through the use of various
settings and contexts. This value was fur-
reference Iversen, O.S., Halskov, K, & Leong, T.W. ValCoDesign 8 (2-3), 2012, (87-103).
Designing kinaesthetic school children
co2NfessioN Tuck Leong and Martin Brynskov
This paper explores how technology may be harnessed to support a particular human value, Environmental Sustainability. In order to focus our discussion, we describe an urban video installation, CO2ncally with this value in mind.
While the installation brought a particular aspect of environmental sustainability to the fore, it was found to also encourage through engaging in public conversations. This provides insights into an alternate approach whereby such values could be engendered. Instead of the commonly used ‘big stick’ approach that pushes values pertaining to environmental sustainability in a didactic manner upon individuals, the installation encourages personal dialogue with regards to this value. This approach is more open and allows people to engage with the values on their own terms whilst respecting their personal circumstances, contexts and historicity. As we will demonstrate, through appealing to the individual’s sense making, there is potential for individuals to engage more actively through their own volition and in turn even leading to attitudinal change. cally upon human values. Human values refer to “the ideas we all hold about: what and cultural contexts. They guide our actions, judgments and decisions, and are fundamental to what makes us human.”
co2nfession/co2mmitment CO2nfession/CO2mmitment came about because the Municipality of Aarhus, Denmark, has an ambitious goal: It wants to be CO2 neutral by the year 2030. To meet this challenge, it aims to engage citizens
when suddenly seeing some of their friends appearing on the video screens at the bus stop.
level by reducing his or her emission of CO2. This led to a strategic venture – the CO2030 Campaign – that aimed at addressing Aarhus citizens through various initiatives held in the city.
user-generated video recordings from the video booth. Our analysis of transcripts of the videos reveals that the installation
CO2nfesssion/CO2mmitment is an advanced video consisting of two parts: (i) a video booth inside an indoor exhibition space and (ii) screens on bus stops and info stands around the city. Exhibition visitors could enter the booth with a camera providing them the opportunity to record a short statement about climate change, for instance confessing that she or he is taking long and hot showers every morning hereby contributing to excessive CO2 omission. The video statements were subsequently edited and distributed to displays integrated into bus shelter and info stands at four locations in the city.
about their own practices and relating that to the value at hand, i.e., the reduction of CO2 emission. It showed that they ities of themselves and their concerns in relation to this particular value.
findings The most complete and pertinent record
used it. The examination of the user-gen-
In total 68 videos were made and distributed to screens around the city over four days. Located in busy city locations, these screens showed edited versions of the view broadcast confessions and also hear the confessions by touching a sensor on the screen to activate the audio. A number of people remarked upon their existence. We noted stories of people going to a certain screen to see themselves and also stories of people being surprised
reference gaging with values through urban conversations, Proceedings of OZCHI 2009, (209-216).
BetweeN exPerieNce, Affect, ANd iNforMAtioN Jonas Fritsch and Martin Brynskov
The climate change debate provides an excellent example of a contentious issue that has become so overexposed that it is hard to say anything that will be heard or noticed. We present an analysis of two interactive climate projects – Climate on the Wall and CO2nfession/CO2mmitment – aimed at engaging people actively in the issue of climate change. The analysis is carried out based on empirical knowledge from these projects and framed by three theoretical lenses on experience, towards central issues for designers and users of urban media and interfaces.
tsunami related to climate change, which climaxed in December with the UN Climate Summit in Copenhagen, COP15, where a follow-up deal to the Kyoto Pro-
changing individual citizens’ attitudes or habits, but it can be overwhelming for them to relate to the wealth of information, opinions, or advice ranging from the extremely concrete to the immensely abstract. Several of CAVI’s projects have addressed this challenge of climate change debate through the development of a range of experimental urban interfaces. The overall research trajectory has been to explore how these interfaces can support an engaged civic discourse on the issue of climate change in an open and innovative way. Two of these projects are Climate on the Wall and CO2nfession/ CO2mmitment.
The analysis is established through three namics of the analysis make it possible to move back and forth between concrete means of engagement in the design and tions for engaging with and contributing to the content of the installations. Seen as a whole, the theoretical foundation provides a rich way of conceptualizing the tensions between the design of an intuitively and immediately appealing and engaging system, and the design of a system that engages users in a thorough exploration over time of the informational content provided as part of the interactional setup.
also underline the way people actively appropriate and make sense of the installations in multiple, unforeseen ways. The openness of the installations has proved to be an asset in engaging people creatively in playful interactions (Climate on the Wall) and modes of production and content making (CO2nfession/CO2mmitment). We argue that it is an asset to reference
of engagement that create open-ended conditions of emergence for interaction that you neither can nor should try to fully control. As such, the openness of the
Climate on the Wall
Urban Media in the Climate Change Debate. In Foth, M., Forlano, L., Gibbs, M., & Satchell, C. -
BridgiNg the Affective gAP to MAke News felt Martin Brynskov, Tuck Wah Leong and Jonas Fritsch
Digital technologies have created profound changes in civic communication. From news websites and citizen services, over social networking services and microblogging, to crowdsourcing of news reporting by citizen journalists and political action orchestrated through digital means, the constraints of print and electronic mass media are being transcended by digital platforms. Mobile revolution However, we are only now starting to see what happens when almost every person on the planet is given a digital voice. Modium, have become the most ubiquitous communication platform in existence, around 7 billion people. In other words, we are approaching a state where every person has a digital voice. But while the sheer quantity of technological means and availability of access to contribute one’s voice and participate in public debate is undisputed, the notion of voice in civic communication is another matter entirely.
The term ‘voice’ may mean many different things: from Aristotle’s distinction between voice and speech, which in contemporary understanding points to the notions of voice as sound versus voice as expression of (political) opinion; to Couldry’s voice as a process versus voice as a value. The underlying argument Couldry sets out is that in order for public voice to be meaningful, a society must place value in public voice as a pro-
What we strive to do in this paper is to develop a space, a system, a platform, a probe with these challenges in mind to see if we can learn more about how to accommodate for voice by using a range
genres within journalism and social media. Not by re-installing print culture, but some of the challenges of secondary literacy in order to understand its potential in relation to civic communication. klimatrends The background for this work was the Conference (COP15) held in Copenhagen, Denmark. We introduce the conWith those concepts and COP15 in mind, we then describe the rationale behind the design of a digital platform, including an iPhone app, Klimatrends (Climate Trends), and the opportunities we have pursued, followed by a description of the design itself and the surrounding technological infrastructure.
a visualization of digital expressions and social connections in order to establish a
a type of public space could resemble an art installation more than an environment for civic communication. But there is an matrends are not made with the intention of being art. They are public spaces. We could call them ‘spaces of aestheticized public voice’. As a contribution to the ongoing exploration of new interfaces and new experiential strategies for civic communication, we have proposed spaces for aestheticized public voice as a mode that we see as a potentially quite common way of engaging with news in a not so distant future.
The purpose of the system was to answer the following question: How can we develop a news infrastructure using new digital devices and ways of communication to get people more engaged in the climate debate? Such a system is not just a blog or news website, it is not just a social networking service or forum. It is a constellation of interactive, curated content, distributed in physical and digital space, which uses
& Technology 11, 2011, ACM Press (50-59).
Interacting with Climate
iNterfAce criticisM – Aesthetics BeyoNd ButtoNs Christian Ulrik Andersen and Søren Bro Pold (eds.)
The human computer interface has been a growing part of our culture for decades. From the screen of our laptops, and from the ubiquitous portable devices, smart phones, and media players, to the embedded computation in clothes, architecture and big urban screens, interfaces are everywhere. They are simultaneously demanding our attention and computing quietly in the background, turning action into inter-action, and mediating our experience of and relations to the social and environmental. This book investigates how we critically can respond to this through aesthetics and artistic practices.
media façade to musical experimentation with computer code.
interface criticism The point of departure is that all interfaces are designs that combine and translate (human) signs and (machine) signals. In this, our choices, conduct, language, values, worldviews and aesthetics are simultaneously embedded into
– Through: Sensation and perception. The human-computer interface is an input/output device where humans exist in a symbiosis with the cybernetic system of the computer. When our relationship with the world depends on an interface (for instance in the case of the steering of a car run by a computer) our sense perception
– Back: Displays and history. Perceived as screens and display mechanisms, computer interfaces belong to a long and continuous tradition of media The section examines the screen in relation to both the historical development of a screen-mediated public sphere and of video art and installations. Both of these historical perspectives lead to corrections of contemporary understandings of displays.
– Down: Software and code. This section highlights how the interface leads to new kinds of aesthetic practicinterface. Both within musical software, tices that explicitly deal with the creative, artistic vigour of code and software and critically address how interfaces function and are understood. – Out: Culture and politics. The book’s last section focuses on the cultural and political impact of the interface. interface has wide-ranging cultural and political consequences, which are often disguised as technical questions and consequently kept out of public political debate. However, artists struggle with re-opening the ‘black boxes’ and creating alternatives that consciously appear on the cultural and political stages.
Aesthetic theory – dealing with how we sense and perceive the world – needs to contemporary net and software art. vironment through interfaces, and develop a critical vocabulary towards computers and interfaces, an interface criticism. The book is a critical investigation of interfaces, what they mean for – and how they function in – contemporary culture. five dimensions
sions of an interface criticism. Each section includes contributions from leading of artistic expressions – ranging from the
– Behind: Representation and computation. Also, the concept of the interface must be criticised. The interface is often perceived as a surface of menus and icons that functionalises, hides and aestheticises computational processes. This book section argues that we need to subject our understanding of interfaces and how we co-exist with computational processes through them to critical scrutiny.
reference Andersen, C. U. & Pold, S (eds.). Interface CritUniversity Press. 2011.
from the 19th century (collection of Erkki Huhtamo)
the scriPted sPAces of urBAN uBiquitous coMPutiNg Christian Ulrik Andersen and Søren Pold
The concept of scripted space enables us to discuss how ubicomp – a migration from the screen and the desktop towards integrating computers and networks into our surroundings – is related to new developments in public urban space. ‘Scripted space’ highlights the written, coded quality of ubicomp - literally meaning adding scripts to the space and signs surrounding us. As such, ubicomp does not result space – where the computer becomes invisible – but is seen as continual development of the urban experience, where urban signs become operational, and computing continues to be an important part of our conscious experience. How does the urban scripted space manifest itself? The forefront of scripted spaces is often described as post-urban spaces, such as Las Vegas and Los Angeles, or high-tech spaces, such as Singapore or Tokyo. But the mediation of space more ordinary cities. Based on an analysis of a workshop exploring the mid-sized Swedish city of interrelated ways of using public space: 1) Log-in Space, 2) A mobile personal computing space, and 3) Hypertextual connectivity and linking log-in space IT is used to create what the article labels a log-in space, often designed to keep unauthorised access out – identiand secured information structures, and
keypads for logging in. The digital layers are primarily visible as gateways under surveillance so as to restrict access. Only those able to locate the access points who also know the passwords and have the keys to log in can access the gated areas and hidden scripts. A mobile personal computing space Laptops, media players, mobile phones, and other devices allow people to carry their private data, soundscape, mediaand communication-devices with them in public space. Also, text messages setting up social encounters can be considered to play an important role in the way people make their way around urban space. Stickers or posters, virtual maps, and other web 2.0 services, indicate that the mobile personal computing space is not only about the isolated individual, but also the individual’s interface to the public space. However, as implied by, for instance, Apple’s successful range of ‘iProducts’ (iBook, iPod, iPhone), this interface is still privileging the individual and rations of urban, social space.
ers are connected to each other, and to other spaces. Compared with earlier ways of congregating and inhabiting urban space, this social formation is often strangely invisible to outsiders in physical urban space. A public, writerly scripted space The scripted space of urban ubicomp creates individual experiences of the city as a personal, public playground (a borderless café) or, less frequently, the basis of social encounters, communication, and debate (a borderless agora). It is, however, not the only way to participate in the public, scripted space of the city. What happens when people are not tion in urban public life, the scripts themselves? This experience is a call for action where the city dwellers take control of the urban scripts and become ‘writerly’ by creating, hacking, and rewriting the city.
hypertextual connectivity and linking Most of the urban dwellers have mobile phones, credit cards or other kind of keys to the scripted space. Cafés and shops have websites and emails addresses, and provide wireless internet access, and get on-line. Many urban dwellers probably also have their own networks of social links, favourite sites, and perhaps even exchange tags and preferences. In this way, an urban space and its dwell-
layers of the city that are often also linked to the World Wide Web
coiNcideNtAlly, the screeN hAs turNed to iNk Jonas Fritsch, Lasse Steenbock Vestergaard and Søren Bro Pold
The interactive literary installation, Coincidentally the Screen has Turned to Ink (Ink), is an experimental public display and interface designed to encourage people at Roskilde Library and at the Roskilde erature in the library space. By interacting with three books with embedded DUL Radio sensors – a wireless, battery operated sensor platform, smaller than a matchbox, developed by Digital Urban Living at CAVI – people can produce poems. The poems people produced are based on
where people can read their own and other’s poems, and comment on them.
with three variants for each of the three books stored in a database, written by the Danish author Peter-Clement Woetmann. The three books are titled Conversation, Ocean, and Landscape, and contain texts related to the titles, for example dialogues between an ‘I’ and a ‘You’ (Conversation), landscape descriptions (Landscape) or poetic expressions about language as sciousness (Ocean).
We designed the installation to present design challenges concerned with get-
The writing is visualized on a 55-inch dising ocean of words from which sentences emerge. These sentences can be moved people’s choice of book(s), and the way they hold, move, and squeeze the books. Ink can be operated by one to three users, and when the poem reaches a limit the poem is printed on a small printer,and people get something similar to a library receipt to take with them. The poems also appear on a blog that is updated in real-time (www.blaek.netlitteratur.dk),
Ink was exhibited at Roskilde Library in April and May 2012, and at the Roskilde Festival from the 5th to the 8th of July 2012, in a special area curated by the library and devoted to literature, the Poetry Roskilde Festival, more than 1000 poems were produced by an unknown number of people. There are further plans to exhibit at libraries in Denmark.
writing processes of interacting with digital literature, a special literary interaction that may be characterized as ‘ergodic’. The general challenge of presenting electronic literature to an audience accustomed to traditional literature is to make people understand and participate in this ergodic interaction, and understand this – ings from the preliminary use studies from the library and the Roskilde festival, and discuss how and whether this challenge has been met. In general, Ink suggests a potential discussion between design for casual users, and design for an involved aesthetic interaction and literary experience. The goal of the interaction design has been to create a meaningful literary experience, rather than ease-of-use, which poses challenges to the installation and the context in which it is placed.
reference signing for Engaging Literary Interactions.
One of the books with the DUL radio
Ink in the Poetry Hall at the Roskilde Festival
PArticiPAtory MAteriAlities iN the iNstANt kAfé Christian Ulrik Andersen and Søren Bro Pold
Smart city is currently a popular concept for the development of media architecture, ubiquitous and embedded computing infrastructures, and other urban interfaces. In this project, we discuss – and experiment with – aspects of how the smart city may be developed in relation to citizen participation in an urban democratic culture. We identify some problems surrounding current social and mobile media platforms such as Facebook or iTunes, which regard its users as ‘prosumers’ in a controlled consumption scheme where social activities and sharing are controlled and closely monitored through centralized commercial platforms, and where consumers become licensees or renters, rather than owners with the rights to resell, lend, and reuse their content. This model is contrasted with more open concepts of a public sphere, or weSpace from urban history and Free Software. Furthermore, we introduce the project, Instant Kafé, which is an experimental, conversational platform for exploring this weSpace of the coming smart city, and creating a discussion around business models and techevents and locations at an 18th century festival in Aarhus. Instant Kafé consists of a number of conversational elements: – Talkaoke is a mobile talk show, in which anyone can join. It was originally developed in London by the artists’ collective, ‘The People Speak’, and has been further developed in collaboration with them and with us, for instance, for the COP15 UN
– DUL Radio is a wireless, battery operated sensor platform, smaller than a matchbox, developed by Digital Urban Living at CAVI. In this project, the DUL hand-knitted cup-holders, and it was used to monitor movement, tilt, temperature, and skin conduction, in order to ing.
drinking through the DUL Radio, and fed the data into an interface programmed in Processing, which interprets people’s drinking habits, and uses this to comment on the general social environment.
speech’, but only under certain conditions for which the participants have itored by the DUL-Radio, and thus be part of the event. – Branding/logo – web 2.0 irony: We created an open brand, including a sweet web2-ish animal – a pig with wings – designed in web2.0 colours, and printed on t-shirts and stickers. Instant Kafé functioned as a probe for exploring and discussing technological, legal, and economic models for potential weSpaces in the smart city, not only in academic or artistic forums, but also in everyday public spaces, like libraries, cafés, and even outdoor urban spaces.
reference terialities in the Instant Kafé. Submitted for
The Talkaoke Table
ekkoMAteN Ditte Basballe, Morten Breinbjerg and Jonas Fritsch
Design Fiction is an authoring practice used in various contexts to stimulate human imagination, innovation, and social rytelling with the design of physical objects, thereby providing new materials and tools with which to think. In this project, we explore how the concept of the echo has activated the design lation Ekkomaten, which was designed for an 18th century festival that took place in the city of Aarhus, Denmark, in March 2012. Ekkomaten is an interactive installation that serves as a physical and auditory interface with 18th century Aarhus. During the festival, Ekkomaten was placed in the city’s central square (Store Torv) for three consecutive days. When interacting with Ekkomaten, peothe past, which have been ‘intercepted’ by the machine. The echoes are site-spesoundscape, and presented in a dramatized form known from radio plays. In order to discover the echoes, people need to physically turn Ekkomaten around. as the church or the former city well, the echoes emerge. The stories presented as echoes are inspired by historical persons and events that either reportedly have, or could have taken place around Store Torv in 18th century Aarhus. In extension of this, we argue that through its physical manifestation and conceptual framing,
imagined narrative space emerging from
Building on French writer Georges Perec’s work, we further argue that Ekkomaten is an extraordinary machine that questions a range of underlying assumptions about everyday life in the 18th century and today. Additionally, through its physical and interactive design, Ekkomaten points both back and forward in time, thus quesof the future, and current ideas about digital futures as smooth and seamless, and adds a new – or rather ‘old’ – kind of materiality to the interaction. This imaginative space emerges concurrently with the narrative space concerned with bringing the 18th century to life, and probes into and challenges the way we might live with and use interactive technologies in the future. In this framework of design a design object in the domain of digital creativity, which can activate the narrative potential of post-digital futures. strate that, in a variety of ways, Ekkomaten activates this rich narrative potential through its use. We believe that it is possible to use and develop this knowledge in future projects, where Ekkomaten and the conceptual framing of the echo gy for engaging people in other areas, for example, matters of civic interest. reference Basballe, D. A., Breinbjerg, M. & Fritsch, J. Ek-
engages its users in the exploration of an
Store Torv March 2012
sPeAkiNg code #!/usr/bin/python # A script for greeting every server on the Internet. import iptools, httplib for ip in iptools.IpRangeList(‘0.0.0.0/0’): try: print “Greeting” + ip cx = httplib.HTTPConnection(“%s:80” % ip) cx.request(“POST”, ‘/’, “message=Hello+world!”) except: pass
Speaking Code begins by invoking the “Hello World” convention used by programmers when learning a new language, helping to establish the interplay of text and code that runs through the book. Interweaving the voice of critical writing from the humanities with the tradition of computing and software development, it aims to undermine the distinctions between criticism and practice and to emphasize the aesthetic and political implications of software studies. Not reducible to its functional aspects, program code is understood as both script and performance, and is in this sense like spoken language--always ready for action. indeterminacy Although the analogy between program code and speech acts has become rather commonplace since its suggestion by Terry Winogrand and Fernando Flores in indeterminacy they share, as with the example of live coding, where the writing of the software happens at the same time as performing with the software. Programmers express themselves through the use of program languages, the book suggests, in ways similar to other human communicative expression through language and gesture. They do this through their manipulation of layers of representation,
including symbols, then words, language, duction of software prototypes, artworks, programming languages, and improvised performances that embed the activity of programming in the improvisation and experience of software art in general. On this last point, the practice of live coding its writing, working, and creative use, establishes an unstable relation to its output. In this sense, although of course code largely determines its output, the broader apparatus including the idiosyncrasies of the programmer provide indeterminate outcomes and help to stress the expressive dimension of software production as a whole. Performativity Speaking Code examines the expressive and performative aspects of programming; alternatives to mainstream development, from performances of the live-coding scene to the organizational forms of peer production; the democratic promise of social media and their role in suppressing political expression; and the market’s emptying out of possibilities for free expression in the public realm. It becomes a defense of language against its invasion by economics, arguing that speech continues to underscore the hu-
man condition, however paradoxical this may seem in an era of pervasive computing. If lived experience is ever more prescribed through scores, scripts, and programs, then the challenge for those making program scripts that underscore these procedures is to open up aesthetic and political possibilities of recombination and free the imagination (and code) to further use. Thus the performativity of code, in live coding or code acts, demonstrates the potential for collective intelliposes coding practices that have not only a body but also a body politic.
tail). Prints “*Hello, world!*” Image cc by-sa 2.5 license, Thomas Schoch (2006). reference
Studies series) 2012.
Les Liens Invisibles, Tweet4Action (2011), detail of “How it works?” Image courtesy of Les Liens Invisibles
exPerieNciNg the NoN-seNsuous Morten Breinbjerg, Tobias Ebsen, Morten Suder Riis and Rasmus Lunding
ty and provide information on the subject matter at hand. When addressing global phenomena like climate change, the use of visualization courses. As part of our research into interface studies, media facades, and digital aesthetics, we developed an artistic installation called Atmosphere – the Sound
of the city hall, and in Sydney, in the old Customs House. The purpose of Atmosphere – the Sound & see a normally imperceptible substance and to experience the symbolic villain of climate change: carbon dioxide. The installation provides information on the reland displays the variations throughout the cooling of houses, humidity, and so on,
formation provided through visual and auditory interfaces. The installation was exhibited during the COP15 climate summit meeting in Copenhagen, December
information visualization, such as graphs and diagrams. Instead, it combines electronic glitch music and abstract visual imagery, to attain a more poetic and artistic quality.
as part of the Curating Cities Conference.
As an aesthetic interface, Atmosphere –
the ambiguous, tentative, and poetic expression of the installation opens for other discourses than those related by the images and interfaces typically presented to the public in climate debates. As an installation, our installation raises an epistemological question concerning artistic
the city in which the installation is exhibinto sound, composed in the genre of electronic glitch music, and displayed as abstract visual imagery based on the RGB colour scheme. At any given moment in time, the colour and the rhythmic pulsing chosen locations, expressed as a combination of red, blue, and green. The visual imagery is presented on a 2-metre-high, four-sided sculpture that functions as a transparent, low resolution LED screen. For the exhibition in Copenhagen, the sculpture was placed in a pavilion in front
and the complexity of the relationship between measurement, representation and reality, and ultimately, between technology, perception, and cognition. It is our belief and experience, based on these two exhibitions, that aesthetic interfaces such ready existing at the level of the interface.
reference Breinbjerg, M., Riis, M. S., Ebsen, T. & Lunding, urban art installations. Proceedings of NordiCHI 2010, (611-614).
how to exPerieNce ANd relAte to cliMAte chANge Christian Ulrik Andersen and Søren Bro Pold
the new millennium, a wave of interest in the climate crisis culminated with the United Nations Climate Summit, COP15, waned somewhat after following the failure to reach a binding agreement. Digital climate art was part of this wave, exploring the complex new and prevalent connections between technology and nature that climate change puts on the agenda. From an aesthetic perspective, the climate crisis may be seen as an epistemological crisis (apart from the serious environmental challenges it presents). We are trying to recognize and address something of which we see early signs, but must act on before it is too late, and the evidence of irreversible catastrophic changes in our environment become incontrovertible. We still primarily perceive climate change as mediated phenomeels, and visualizations, whereas when we look out our windows, it is debatable whether the weather we experience is a sign of the climate crisis, or is just unusual. We cannot immediately perceive CO2 we have to turn to the mediated presentation of instruments, other technology, and science, in order to recognize the extent of the crisis. Consequently, climate change introduces us to the fact that our immediate environment, the weather and climate, are becoming mediated by political interpretation. Complex data, models, interpretations, and calculations
interfere with our immediate sensations, even in the deep countryside, when there are no computers or interfaces in sight! We argue that because of its inherent technological form and mediated character, digital art is well-equipped to explore such complexities, especially if the art explores its own media in a critical way, as much critical media art does. Therefore, it is worth researching the aesthetics and poetics of digital climate-criencing climate change. After introducing the discussion, we discuss digital climate art from an epistemological and a political perspective, mana’s interior installation, ‘Post Global Warming Survival Kit’, a work that makes us explore and experience our blindness by installing a post-climate-disaster scene in a completely darkened room, so that it can only be experienced with night vision goggles. The other project is Planetary Pledge Pyramid (The People Speak, CAVI), a project that strives to give people a voice in the discussions at the COP15 Copenhagen climate summit through a newly developed application on Facebook, and developments of The People Speak’s formats, such as the Talkaoke talk shows, and the live game show ‘Who Wants to Be?’, held on the last evening of COP15. Consequently, this is an experiment in using media and mediated forums to create engagement and constructive activism and debate.
reference Relate to Climate Change - The Role of Digital Climate Art. In The Artwork between Technology and Nature (eds. Camilla Skovbjerg
PeoPle Professor Kim Halskov, firstname.lastname@example.org Professor Ole Sejer Iversen, email@example.com Jonas Petersen, 3D interaction designer, jonas.@cavi.dk Peter Friis-Nielsen, engineer, firstname.lastname@example.org
research assistants Henrik Korsgaard, email@example.com Nicolai Hansen, firstname.lastname@example.org Thomas Hjermitslev, email@example.com Post doc Clemens Nylandsted Klokmose, firstname.lastname@example.org Phd students Ditte Basballe, email@example.com Lars Bo LĂ¸fgreen, firstname.lastname@example.org Magda Tyzlik-Carver, email@example.com Michael Mose BiskjĂŚr, firstname.lastname@example.org Per Henrik Storm, email@example.com Rachel Smith, firstname.lastname@example.org Rune Veerasawmy, email@example.com Tobias Ebsen, firstname.lastname@example.org
PArtNers ANd fuNdiNg Partners 3XN Aarhus Kunstbygning
funding The Central Region Denmark The Danish Council for Strategic Research The Danish Ministry of Culture
Innovation Lab Intel Kattegatcentret Kollision Kronborg Castle LEGO Martin Professional Moesgård Museum MultiTouch Museum Østjylland Musikhuset Aarhus
Roskilde Festival Roskilde Library Transmediale
Aarhus University 8200 Aarhus N Denmark info@CAVI.dk www.cavi.dk
CAVI is an interdisciplinary research centre for the Arts and Sciences at Aarhus University, Denmark. In Book of Abstracts 2012 we present s...