Familiaris Consortio Apostolic Exhortation on the Role of the Christian Family in the Modern World His Holiness Pope John Paul II Promulgated on 15th December, 1981 To the Episcopate, to the Clergy and to the Faithful of the Whole Catholic Church
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Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Part One Bright Spots and Shadows for the Family Today . . . . . . . . . . 6 Part Two The Plan of God for Marriage and the Family . . . . . . . . . . .13 Part Three The Role of the Christian Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 I. Forming a Community of Persons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 II. Serving Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 A. The Transmission of Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 B. Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 III. Participating in the Development of Society . . . . . . . . . . 52 IV. Sharing in the Life and Mission of the Church . . . . . . . . 58 A. The Christian Family as a Believing and Evangelising Community . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 B. The Christian Family as a Community in Dialogue with God . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 C. The Christian Family as a Community at the Service of Man . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Part Four Pastoral Care of the Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I. Stages of Pastoral Care of the Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II. Structures of Family Pastoral Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III. Agents of the Pastoral Care of the Family . . . . . . . . . . . . IV. Pastoral Care of the Family in Difficult Cases . . . . . . . . .
75 75 83 86 92
Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 2
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INTRODUCTION 1. The Church at the Service of the Family The family in the modern world, as much as and perhaps more than any other institution, has been beset by the many profound and rapid changes that have affected society and culture. Many families are living this situation in fidelity to those values that constitute the foundation of the institution of the family. Others have become uncertain and bewildered over their role or even doubtful and almost unaware of the ultimate meaning and truth of conjugal and family life. Finally, there are others who are hindered by various situations of injustice in the realisation of their fundamental rights. Knowing that marriage and the family constitute one of the most precious of human values, the Church wishes to speak and offer her help to those who are already aware of the value of marriage and the family and seek to live it faithfully, to those who are uncertain and anxious and searching for the truth, and to those who are unjustly impeded from living freely their family lives. Supporting the first, illumination the second and assisting the others, the Church offers her services to every person who wonders about the destiny of marriage and the family1. In a particular way the Church addresses the young, who are beginning their journey toward marriage and family life, for the purpose of presenting them with new horizons, helping them to discover the beauty and grandeur of the vocation to love and the service of life. 2. The Synod of 1980 in Continuity with Preceding Synods A Sign of this profound interest of the Church in the family was the last Synod of Bishops, held in Rome from 26th September, to 25th October, 1980. This was a natural continuation of the two preceding synods2: The Christian family, in fact, is the first community called 1 2
Cf. Second Vatican Council GAUDIUM ET SPES, 52. Cf. John Paul II, Homily for the Opening of the Sixth Synod of Bishops (26th September, 1980), 2: AAS 72 (1980), 1008.
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to announce the Gospel to the human person during growth and to bring him or her, through a progressive education and catechesis, to full human and Christian maturity. Furthermore, the recent synod is logically connected in some way as well with that on the ministerial priesthood and on justice in the modern world. In fact, as an educating community, the family must help man to discern his own vocation and to accept responsibility in the search for greater justice, educating him from the beginning in interpersonal relationships, rich in justice and in love. At the close of their assembly, the synod fathers presented me with a long list of proposals in which they had gathered the fruits of their reflections, which had matured over intense days of work, and they asked me unanimously to be a spokesman before humanity of the Churchâ€™s lively care for the family and to give suitable indications for renewed pastoral effort in this fundamental sector of the life of man and of the Church. As I fulfill that mission with this exhortation, thus actuating in a particular matter the apostolic ministry with which I am entrusted, I wish to thank all the members of the synod for the very valuable contribution of teaching and experience that they made, especially through the propositiones, the text of which I am entrusting to the Pontifical Council for the Family with instructions to study it so as to bring out every aspect of its rich content. 3. The Precious Value of Marriage and of the Family Illuminated by the faith that gives her an understanding of all the truth concerning the great value of marriage and the family and their deepest meaning, the Church once again feels the pressing need to proclaim the Gospel, that is the â€œgood news,â€? to all people without exception, in particular to those who are called to marriage and are preparing for it, to all married couples and parents in the world. The Church is deeply convinced that only by the acceptance of the Gospel are the hopes that man legitimately places in marriage and in the family capable of being fulfilled. 4
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Willed by God in the very act of creation3, marriage and the family are interiorly ordained to fulfillment in Christ4 and have need of his graces in order to be healed from the wounds of sin5 and restored to their “beginning”6, that is, to full understanding and the full realisation of God’s plan. At a moment of history in which the family is the object of numerous forces that seek to destroy it or in some way to deform it, and aware that the well-being of society and her own good are intimately tied to the good of the family7, the Church perceives in a more urgent and compelling way her mission of proclaiming to all people the plan of God for marriage and the family, ensuring their full vitality and human and Christian development, and thus contributing to the renewal of society and of the people of God.
3 4 5
Cf. Gn 1-2. Cf. Ep 5. Cf. Second Vatican Council, GAUDIUM ET SPES, 47; Pope John Paul II, Letter APPROPINQUAT IAM (15th August, 1980), 1: AAS 72 (1980), 791. Cf. Mt 19:4. Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, GAUDIUM ET SPES, 47.
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PART ONE BRIGHT SPOTS AND SHADOWS FOR THE FAMILY TODAY 4. The Need to Understand the Situation Since Godâ€™s plan for marriage and the family touches men and women in the concreteness of their daily existence in specific social and cultural situations, the Church ought to apply herself to understanding the situations within which marriage and the family are lived today, in order to fulfill her task of serving8. This understanding is therefore an inescapable requirement of the work of evangelisation. It is, in fact, to the families of our times that the Church must bring the unchangeable and ever new gospel of Jesus Christ, just as it is the families involved in the present conditions of the world that are called to accept and to live the plan of God that pertains to them. Moreover, the call and demands of the spirit resound in the very events of history, and so the Church can also be guided to a more profound understanding of the inexhaustible mystery of marriage and the family by the circumstances, the questions and the anxieties and hopes of the young people, married couples and parents of today9. To this ought to be added a further reflection of particular importance at the present time. Not infrequently ideas and solutions which are very appealing, but which obscure in varying degrees the truth and the dignity of the human person, are offered to men and women of today in their sincere and deep search for a response to the important daily problems that affect their married and family life. These views are often supported by the powerful and pervasive organisation of the means of social communication, which subtly endangers freedom and the means of objective judgement. 8
Cf. John Paul II, Address to the Council of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops (23rd February, 1980): INSEGNAMENTI DI GIOVANNI PAOLO II,) III, 1 (1980), 472-476. Cf. Second Vatican Council, GAUDIUM ET SPES, 4.
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Bright spots and shadows for the family today
Many are already aware of this danger to the human person and are working for the truth. The Church, with her evangelical discernment, joins with them, offering her own service to the truth, to freedom and to the dignity of every man and every woman. 5. Evangelical Discernment The discernment effected by the Church becomes the offering of an orientation in order that the entire truth and the full dignity of marriage and the family may be preserved and realised. This discernment is accomplished through the sense of faith10, which is a gift that the Spirit gives to all the faithful11, and is therefore the work of the whole Church according to the diversity of the various gifts and charisms that, together with and according to the responsibility proper to each one, work together for a more profound understanding and activation of the word of God. The Church, therefore, does not accomplish this discernment only through the pastors, who teach in the name and with the power of Christ, but also through the laity: Christ “made them his witnesses and gave them understanding of the faith and the grace of speech (Ac 2:17-18; Rv 19:10), so that the power of the Gospel might shine forth in their daily social and family life”12. The laity, moreover, by reason of their particular vocation have the specific role of interpreting the history of the world in the light of Christ, inasmuch as they are called to illuminate and organise temporal realities according to the plan of God, creator and redeemer. The “supernatural sense of faith”13, however, does not consist solely or necessarily in the consensus of the faithful. Following Christ, the Church seeks the truth, which is not always the same as the majority opinion. She listens to conscience and not to power, and in this way she defends the poor and downtrodden. The Church values sociological and statistical research when it proves helpful Cf. Second Vatican Council, LUMEN GENTIUM, 12. Cf. 1 Jn 2:20. 12 Second Vatican Council, LUMEN GENTIUM, 35. 13 Cf. Second Vatican Council, LUMEN GENTIUM, 12; Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Declaration MYSTERIUM ECCLESIAE, 2: AAS 65 (1973), 398-400. 10 11
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in understanding the historical context in which pastoral action has to be developed and when it leads to a better understanding of the truth. Such research alone, however, is not to be considered in itself an expression of the sense of faith. Because it is the task of the apostolic ministry to ensure that the Church remains in the truth of Christ and to lead her ever more deeply into that truth, the pastors must promote the sense of faith in all the faithful, examine and authoratively judge the genuineness of its expressions and educate the faithful in an ever more mature evangelical discernment14. Christian spouses and parents can and should offer their unique and irreplaceable contribution to the elaboration of an authentic evangelical discernment in the various situations and cultures in which men and women live their marriage and their family life. They are qualified for this role by their charism or special gift, the gift of the Sacrament of Matrimony15. 6. The Situation of the Family in the World Today The situation in which the family finds itself presents positive and negative aspects: The first is a sign of the salvation of Christ operating in the world; the second, a sign of the refusal that man gives to the love of God. On the one hand, in fact, there is a more lively awareness of personal freedom and greater attention to the quality of interpersonal relationships in marriage, in promoting the dignity of women, to responsible procreation, to the education of children. There is also an awareness of the need for the development of interfamily relationships, for reciprocal spiritual and material assistance, the rediscovery of the ecclesial mission proper to the family and its responsibility for the building of a more just society. On the other hand, however, signs are not lacking of a disturbing degradation of some fundamental values: a mistaken theoretical and practical concept of the independence of the spouses in relation to each 14 15
Cf. Second Vatican Council, LUMEN GENTIUM, 12; DEI VERBUM, 10. Cf. John Paul II, Homily for the Opening of the Sixth Synod of Bishops, 3.
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Bright spots and shadows for the family today
other; serious misconceptions regarding the relationship of authority between parents and children; the concrete difficulties that the family itself experiences in the transmission of values; the growing number of divorces; the scourge of abortion; the ever more frequent recourse to sterilisation; the appearance of a truly contraceptive mentality. At the root of these negative phenomena there frequently lies a corruption of the idea and the experience of freedom, conceived not as a capacity for realising the truth of God’s plan for marriage and the family, but as an autonomous power of self-affirmation, often against others, for one’s own selfish well-being. Worthy of our attention also is the fact in the countries of the socalled Third World, families often lack both the means necessary for survival, such as food, work, housing and medicine, and the most elementary freedoms. In the richer countries, on the contrary, excessive prosperity and the consumer mentality, paradoxically joined to a certain anguish and uncertainty about the future, deprive married couples of the generosity and courage needed for raising up new human life: Thus life is often perceived not as a blessing but as a danger from which to defend oneself. The historical situation in which the family lives therefore appears as an interplay of light and darkness. This shows that history is not simply a fixed progression toward what is better, but rather an event of freedom, and even a struggle between freedoms that are in mutual conflict, that is, according to the wellknown expression of St Augustine, a conflict between two loves: the love of God to the point of disregarding self, and the love of self to the point of disregarding God16. It follows that only an education for love rooted in faith can lead to the capacity of interpreting “the signs of the times”, which are the historical expression of this twofold love.
Cf. St Augustine, DE CIVITATE DEI, XIV, 28; CSEL 40, II, 56-57.
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7. The Influence of Circumstances on the Consciences of the Faithful Living in such a world, under the pressures coming above all from the mass media, the faithful do not always remain immune from the obscuring of certain fundamental values, nor set themselves up as the critical conscience of the family culture and as active agents in the building of an authentic family humanism. Among the more troubling signs of this phenomenon, the synod fathers stressed the following in particular: the spread of divorce and of recourse to a new union, even on the part of the faithful; the acceptance of purely civil marriage in contradiction of the vocation of the baptised to “be married in the Lord”; the celebration of the marriage sacrament without living faith, but for other motives; the rejection of moral norms that guide and promote human and Christian exercise of sexuality in marriage. 8. Our Age Needs Wisdom The whole Church is obliged to a deep reflection and commitment, so that the new culture now emerging may be evangelised in depth, true values acknowledged, the rights of men and women defended and justice promoted in the very structures of society. In this way the “new humanism” will not distract people from their relationship with God, but will lead them to it more fully. Science and its technical applications offer new and immense possibilities in the construction of such a humanism. Still, as a consequence of political choices that decide the direction of research and its applications, science is often used against its original purpose, which is the advancement of the human person. It becomes necessary, therefore, on the part of all to recover an awareness of the primacy of moral values, which are the values of the human person as such. The great task that has to be faced today for the renewal of society is that of recapturing the ultimate meaning of life and its fundamental values. Only an awareness of the primacy of these values enables man to use the immense possibilities given him by science in such a way as to bring about the true advancement 10
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Bright spots and shadows for the family today
of the human person in his or her whole truth, in his or her freedom and dignity. Science is called to ally itself with wisdom. The following words of the Second Vatican Council can therefore be applied to the problems of the family: “Our era needs such wisdom more than bygone ages if the discoveries made by man are to be further humanised. For the future of the world stands in peril unless wiser people are forthcoming”17. The education of the moral conscience, which makes every human being capable of judging and of discerning the proper ways to achieve self-realisation according to his or her original truth, thus becomes a pressing requirement that cannot be renounced. Modern culture must be led to a more profoundly restored covenant with divine wisdom. Every man is given a share of such wisdom through the creating action of God. And it is only in faithfulness to this covenant that the families of today will be in a position to influence positively the building of a more just and fraternal world. 9. Gradualness and Conversion To the injustice originating from sin - which has profoundly penetrated the structures of today’s world - and often hindering the family’s full realisation of itself and of its fundamental rights, we must all set ourselves in opposition through a conversion of mind and heart, following Christ crucified by denying our own selfishness: Such a conversion cannot fail to have a beneficial and renewing influence even on the structures of society. What is needed is a continuous, permanent conversion which, while requiring an interior detachment from every evil and an adherence to good in its fullness, is brought about concretely in steps which leads us gradually with the progressive integration of the gifts of God and the demands of his definitive and absolute love in the entire personal and social life of man. Therefore an educational growth process is necessary in order 17
GAUDIUM ET SPES, 15.
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that individual believers, families and peoples, even civilization itself, by beginning from what they have already received of the mystery of Christ, may patiently be led forward, arriving at a richer understanding and a fuller integration of this mystery in their lives. 10. Inculturation In conformity with her constant tradition, the Church receives from the various cultures everything that is able to express better the unsearchable riches of Christ18. Only with the help of all the cultures will it be possible for these riches to be manifested ever more clearly and for the Church to progress toward a daily, more complete and profound awareness of the truth, which has already been given to her in its entirety by the Lord. Holding fast to the two principles of the compatibility with the Gospel of the various cultures to be taken up and of communion with the universal Church, there must be further study, particularly by the episcopal conferences and the appropriate departments of the Roman Curia, and greater pastoral diligence so that this “inculturation” of the Christian faith may come about ever more extensively in the context of marriage and the family as well as in other fields. It is by means of “inculturation” that one proceeds toward the full restoration of the covenant with the wisdom of God, which is Christ himself. The whole Church will be enriched also by the cultures which, though lacking technology, abound in human wisdom and are enlivened by profound moral values. So that the goal of this journey might be clear and consequently the way plainly indicated, the synod was right to begin by considering in depth the original design of God for marriage and the family: It “went back to the beginning,” in deference to the teaching of Christ19.
Cf. Ep 3:8; Second Vatican Council, GAUDIUM ET SPES, 44; AD GENTES, 15, 22. Cf. Mt 19:4-6.
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