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NEW TESTAMENT & PSALMS

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THE CTS NEW CATHOLIC

BIBLE catholic truth society publishers to the holy see

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The CTS New Catholic Bible - New Testament and Psalms This edition first published 2012 by The Incorporated Catholic Truth Society, 40-46 Harleyford Road, London, SE11 5AY. Copyright © 2012 The Incorporated Catholic Truth Society, save as otherwise indicated. Nihil Obstat: The Reverend Canon John Redford S.T.L., L.S.S., D.D. Imprimatur: The Most Reverend Kevin McDonald B.A., S.T.L., S.T.D., Archbishop of Southwark, 31 July 2007. The Nihil Obstat and Imprimatur are a declaration that a publication is considered to be free from doctrinal or moral error. It is not implied that those who have granted the Nihil Obstat and Imprimatur agree with the contents, opinions or statements expressed. The publishers are grateful to the following for permission to reproduce copyright material. All biblical text excluding the Psalms © 1966, 1967 and 1968 by Darton, Longman & Todd Ltd and Doubleday & Company, Inc. Nihil Obstat: Lionel Swain S.T.L., L.S.S. Imprimatur: ✙ John Cardinal Heenan, Westminster, 4 July 1966. The texts of the Grail Psalms © The Grail (England) 1963, published by HarperCollins Publisher. Used by permission. Imprimatur: ✙ William Cardinal Godfrey, Westminster, 25 March 1962. ISBN 978 1 86082 815 7

CTS Code: Sc 107

Layout by Bible Society, Swindon, UK. Printed by L.E.G.O. S.p.A., Vicenza, Italy.

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FOREWORD This edition of the Bible is intended to partner the use of the Bible in the liturgy, enabling public and private readers to prepare and follow up the liturgical readings. For this reason the translations used are those familiar from the books used in the Roman Catholic liturgy, the Jerusalem Bible and the Grail Psalter. The introductions to each Book and the explanatory notes are entirely fresh, written for this edition, though some use has been made of the notes to the New Jerusalem Bible. It is hoped that they will also prove a useful aid to private study of the Bible. Since the presumption has been that the text to be commented is that used in the liturgy, only in the rarest of cases has reference been made in the notes to alternative texts or manuscript readings. I am grateful to Dom James Leachman of Ealing Abbey for providing the admirable Liturgical Note to each book, situating the use of the Book in the liturgy of the Church. The biblical text is preceded by a resumÊ of the Constitution of Vatican II on the Bible, which sums up the Church’s view of the part played by the scriptures in the life of a Christian. The biblical text is followed not only by a brief conspectus of the usual biblical apparatus, but also by an Index to the Notes, a Table of the passages prescribed for reading at the Eucharist and an explanation of this arrangement, a list of the Psalms and Canticles used in the four-week cycle of Roman Breviary, a list of scriptural passages prescribed by the Church or suggested for use in various ritual celebrations and a note on Lectio Divina. Finally the maps of the New Jerusalem Bible have been included, with grateful acknowledgement to Darton, Longman & Todd. I am deeply grateful also to Ian Boxall, who worked through the Notes to the New Testament, and made many valuable suggestions. I am also grateful to my hosts and students at Holy Trinity Institute, Tafara, where a good deal of the work was done.

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Henry Wansbrough Ampleforth Abbey Holy Trinity Institute, Tafara, Zimbabwe

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CONTENTS Scripture in the Life of the Church . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v Preface to the Biblical Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix

THE NEW TESTAMENT THE GOSPELS AND ACTS Matthew (Mt) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Luke (Lk) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Mark (Mk) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 John (Jn) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Acts of the Apostles (Ac) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 THE PAULINE LETTERS 1 Thessalonians (1 Th) . . . . . 372 Romans (Rm) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 2 Thessalonians (2 Th) . . . . . 378 1 Corinthians (1 Co) . . . . . . . 300 1 Timothy (1 Tm) . . . . . . . . . 382 2 Corinthians (2 Co) . . . . . . . 324 2 Timothy (2 Tm) . . . . . . . . . 389 Galatians (Ga) . . . . . . . . . . . . 339 Titus (Ti) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394 Ephesians (Ep) . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 Philemon (Phm) . . . . . . . . . . 397 Philippians (Ph) . . . . . . . . . . 358 Colossians (Col) . . . . . . . . . . 365 Letter to the Hebrews (Heb) . 400 LETTERS TO ALL CHRISTIANS & REVELATION 2 John (2 Jn) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452 James (Jm) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 3 John (3 Jn) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454 1 Peter (1 P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428 Jude (Jude) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455 2 Peter (2 P) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 1 John (1 Jn) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441 Book of Revelation (Rv) . . . . 458

THE PSALMS The Psalms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486 TABLES AND NOTES 1. Historical Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 643 2. Weights, Measures & Money . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 645 SCRIPTURE AND CATHOLIC LITURGY 3. The Sunday and Weekday Lectionary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 646 A. The Pattern of the Readings at Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 646 B. Scripture Readings for Sunday Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 648 C. Scripture Readings for Weekday Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 653 4. Psalms and Canticles used in the 4-week Breviary Cycle . . . . . . . . 662 SCRIPTURE, PRAYER AND SACRAMENTS

5. Praying with the Bible: Lectio Divina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 664 6. Scripture for celebrating the Sacraments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 665 7. Scripture and praying the Holy Rosary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 666 MAPS 8. Index to the Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 666

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JOHN

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO

JOHN Introduction John and the Synoptic Gospels The fourth gospel is a challenge to the reader. It is very different from the other, synoptic, gospels. The outline pattern is different: the synoptics show Jesus making a single, week-long visit to Jerusalem at the end of his ministry, but John shows him making four separate visits to Jerusalem. In the synoptics Jesus’ opponents are described as Sadducees, Pharisees and scribes; in John Sadducees and scribes are not mentioned, and the opponents are described overwhelmingly as ‘the Jews’. The synoptic gospels are built from short, independent incidents, sayings and parables; John contains no parables, and many fewer incidents. But these much longer incidents, described in detail, with extended dialogue, often develop into reflective and meditative discourses by Jesus or the evangelist. Most significant of all, in the synoptics Jesus is bent on establishing the Sovereignty or Kingdom of God, while in John the Kingdom of God is mentioned only once, and Jesus principally reveals himself and his relationship to the Father. Paradoxically, the portrait of Jesus is at once the most human and the most transcendent of the gospel portraits, so that Augustine wrote, ‘John, as though scorning to tread upon earth, rose by his very first words not only above the earth, above the atmosphere, above the heavens, but even above the whole army of angels and all the array of invisible powers’.

John and History In a previous age scholars considered that John was the least reliable historically. More recently it has become apparent that many of the historical details in John are superior to those of the synoptics. Where John and the synoptics both have a saying, the form given in John is often more primitive, e.g. John 20.23 compared with Matthew 18.18. The author’s familiarity with the city of Jerusalem and the surrounding country is considerably more detailed. Especially in the longer discourses, however, Jesus often speaks in a style which is quite unlike that of the pithy sayings reported by the synoptics, and markedly similar to John’s own meditative style.

The Composition of the Gospel The structure of the gospel is also a puzzle: several sections of the gospel seem detachable or misplaced. The poetic and theological prologue (1.1-18) is of a quite different stamp to the rest of the gospel. The final chapter seems to be an additional epilogue, making a new start after the concluding verses, 20.20-21, reiterated in 21.25. Chapter 6 on the Bread of Life may have been inserted to illustrate the statement about Moses in 5.45. The Raising of Lazarus (chapter 11) seems to have been added after the conclusion to Jesus’ public ministry in 10.4042. There seem to be three versions of the Discourse after the Last Supper, which partially overlap (chapters 14, 15-16 and 17). Nevertheless, there are traits of style running throughout the gospel which show that the final version is the


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JOHN 1

I. PROLOGUE

1 2 3 4 5

6 7

8

9

10

11 12

13

a

In the beginning was the Word: b the Word was with God and the Word was God. He was with God in the beginning. Through him all things came to be, not one thing had its being but through him. All that came to be had life in him and that life was the light of men, a light that shines in the dark, a light that darkness could not overpower. c A man came, sent by God. His name was John. He came as a witness, as a witness to speak for the light, so that everyone might believe through him. He was not the light, only a witness to speak for the light. The Word was the true light that enlightens all men; and he was coming into the world. He was in the world that had its being through him, and the world d did not know him. He came to his own domain and his own people did not accept him. e But to all who did accept him he gave power to become children of God, to all who believe in the name of him who was born f not out of human stock or urge of the flesh or will of man but of God himself.

1 a. The prologue introduces the central ideas of the gospel: light, life, acceptance/ rejection, the divine glory of the Word. It is constructed concentrically: on God, v. 1 – John’s witness, v. 6 – light, v. 9 – rejection, v. 10 – children of God, v. 12 – acceptance, v. 13 – glory, v. 14 – John’s witness, v. 15 – in God, v. 18. The whole gospel is a drama of acceptance or rejection of Jesus, cf. 1.11e. b. Starting his gospel ‘In the beginning’, Jn alludes to the creation, Gn 1.1. God created by his Word, and by his Wisdom, which existed in God before the creation, one with God but somehow not identical, Pr 8.22-31; Ws 7.2526. Similarly, God’s Word accomplishes the divine purpose and returns to God, Is 55.1011. In contemporary Jewish writing (Philo), God’s Word gives order, sense and purpose to creation, just as the divine Wisdom does; Si 42.15c. Jn uses Word, logos, rather than Wisdom, sophia (the two are equated in Ws 9.1),

possibly because it is masculine. c. Lit. ‘grasp’. With typical Johannine ambiguity, this could mean either ‘understand’ or ‘overpower’. d. ‘The world’ is often (but not always) used by Jn in a pejorative sense of the oppo sition to God and to Jesus, 7.7; 12.31; 14.17; 15.18-19; 16.8; 17.14. e. The theme of acceptance and rejection runs throughout Jn. The gospel is a great trialscene, in which Jesus is accepted or rejected, and people are accepted or rejected by their reaction to Jesus, climaxing in 18.28-19.16. Legal terms abound: ‘witness’, ‘truth’, ‘judge’, ‘condemn’, cf. 3.11c. f. If this MS reading is correct it refers to Jesus’ divine origin. However, there are strong arguments in favour of the alternative MS reading, ‘who were born’, referring to the divine origin of the children of God, v. 12.


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THE PSALMS

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PSALM

THE PSALMS Introduction Note on the numbering of the psalms: the psalms were all originally written in Hebrew and were translated centuries later into Greek. For that translation the Hebrew psalms 9 and 10 and the Hebrew psalms 114 and 115 were each joined into one, but conversely the Hebrew psalms 116 and 147 were divided into two. This means that from 10 to 148 the numbering of the Hebrew is one higher than that of the Greek. On the whole Roman Catholic writing and liturgy (following the Latin Vulgate) preserves the Greek numbering, while Protestant writing and liturgy revert to the original Hebrew numbering. Here the Greek numbering is used.

The prayerbook of Israel The psalter is the prayerbook of Israel, the treasury of Israel’s hopes and fears, successes and failures, loves and hates. The 150 psalms of the Hebrew Bible are only a part of the rich harvest of sacred songs contained in the Bible. Other such canticles can be found elsewhere in the OT (e.g. the Song of Hannah in 1 Samuel 2) in the New Testament (the Benedictus and the Magnificat, the canticles of Mary and Zechariah from Luke 1, which form part of Morning and Evening Prayer respectively), and in the hymn collection of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Authorship of these psalms is attributed to King David, not least because he soothed King Saul by his playing of the harp, but also because he was revered as the founder of the Temple liturgy. Many of the psalms were subsequently imaginatively prefaced by a title which attached the psalm to particular events in David’s life. In fact their composition cannot be limited to David and spans a thousand years. Some are based on ancient Canaanite hymns, still retaining traces of the pre-Israelite religion of Canaan, hymns to the god of storm, thunder and lightning (Ps 28). Others reflect the triumphs and glory of the monarchy in Jerusalem (Ps 43, 109). Still others sing of the sadness of exile in Babylon, when the nation was carried off to captivity and servitude, leaving in ruins Jerusalem and its Temple (Ps 136). It was during this period of exile that observance of the Law became the dominant feature of Judaism, so that psalms of this period are characterised by love of the Law (Ps 1 and 118) and by the repentance for sin which was so dominant in the spirituality of the Exile (Ps 50). Still other psalms, especially the Psalms of Ascent (Ps 119–133) may sing of the joy of returning to Jerusalem on pilgrimage for the great festivals. There are psalms of national victory and psalms of national defeat, psalms of individual achievement and psalms of individual failure, psalms which hymn the work of God in nature and psalms which celebrate the work of God in the history of Israel. Some psalms beg for release from trial, others thank God for deliverance. It can be quite useful when praying a psalm to reflect for a moment on the principal context and likely original purpose of the psalm.

Psalms and the Liturgy Singing, dancing and instrumental music were important elements in the Temple liturgy. Sacrifice, processions and other liturgical activities are frequently mentioned in the psalms, which suggests that they were used for such


896 490

PSALM 1

The Psalms a PSALM 1b The two paths 1

2

3

4

5 6

Happy c indeed is the man who follows not the counsel of the wicked; nor lingers in the way of sinners nor sits in the company of scorners, but whose delight d is the law of the Lord and who ponders his law day and night. He is like a tree that is planted beside the flowing waters, that yields its fruit in due season and whose leaves shall never fade; and all that he does shall prosper. Not so are the wicked, not so! For they like winnowed chaff shall be driven away by the wind. When the wicked are judged they shall not stand, nor find room among those who are just; for the Lord guards e the way of the just but the way of the wicked leads to doom.

PSALM 2 a The messianic drama Ac 4.25-26

1

Rv 19.19

2 3

4 5

Why this tumult among nations, among peoples this useless murmuring? They arise, the kings of the earth, princes plot against the Lord and his Anointed. “Come, let us break their fetters, come, let us cast off their yoke." He who sits in the heavens laughs; the Lord is laughing them to scorn. Then he will speak in his anger, his rage will strike them with terror.

1 a. The text here used is that of the Grail Psalter. b. This Wisdom psalm, placed as a preface to the psalter, sums up the blessing of delight in the Law of the LORD. It uses concentric balance: description – image (tree) – image (chaff) – description. c. Not necessarily merry, but blessed by God. Such ‘beatitudes’ are frequent in the Bible: Ps 118.1-2; Si 14.1; 25.8-9; Mt 5.3-11par; 13.16 par; 16.17; Lk 11.27-28; Rv 1.3. d. The faithful who murmurs the Law halfaloud until it becomes part of the whole being.

e. Lit. ‘knows’, a word often denoting emotional or even sexual, Gn 4.1, 17, closeness as well as protection, cf. Jn 10.14. 2 a. Closely related to Ps 109, this Ps is regarded as messianic in the NT. It is a coronation chant, mocking the uprisings which often occurred at the accession of a new monarch, and countering them with the Egyptian idea of a divine adoption of the king at his accession. vv. 1-3, rebellions; vv. 4-5, the LORD’s mockery; vv. 6-9 adoption by the LORD; vv. 10-12b, reply to the rebellious.


648

B. Scripture Readings for Sunday Mass Table of the 3 prescribed readings for Sunday Mass throughout the year (3 year cycle: A, B & C) * These readings are the same for every year Day Yr 1st Reading 2nd Reading Gospel Advent A Is 2.1-5 Rm 13.11-14 Mt 24.37-44 Wk 1 B Is 63.16-17,64.1,3-8 1 Co 1.3-9 Mk 13.33-37 C Jr 33.14-16 1 Th 3.12-4.2 Lk 21.25-28,34-36 A Is 11.1-10 Rm 15.4-9 Mt 3.1-12 Wk 2 B Is 40.1-5,9-11 2 P 3.8-14 Mk 1.1-8 C Ba 5.1-9 Ph 1.4-6,8-11 Lk 3.1-6 A Is 35.1-6,10 Jm 5.7-10 Mt 11.2-11 Wk 3 B Is 61.1-2,10-11 1 Th 5.16-24 Jn 1.6-8,19-28 C Zp 3.14-18 Ph 4.4-7 Lk 3.10-18 A Is 7.10-14 Rm 1.1-7 Mt 1.18-24 Wk 4 B 2 S 7.1-5,8-16, Rm 16.25-27 Lk 1.26-38 C Mi 5.1-4 Heb 10.5-10 Lk 1.39-45 Christmastide Christmas * Is 62.1-5 Ac 13.16-17,22-25 Mt 1.1-25 Vigil Christmas * Is 9.1-6 M’night Christmas * Is 62.11-12 Dawn Christmas * Is 52.7-10 Day A Si 3.2-6,12-14 Holy B Gn 15.1-6;21.1-3 Family C 1 S 1.20-22,24-28 Mother * Nb 6.22-27 of God 2nd Sun * Si 24.1-4,12-16 Christmas Epiphany * Is 60.1-6 Baptism A Is 42.1-4, 6-7 of Our B Is 55.1-11 Lord C Is 40.1-5, 9-11 Wk 1 Wk 2 Wk 3

Tt 2.11-14

Lk 2.1-14

Tt 3.4-7

Lk 2.15-20

Heb 1.1-6

Jn 1.1-18

Col 3.12-21 Mt 2.13-15,19-23 Heb 11.11-12,17-19 Lk 2.22-40 1 Jn 3.1-2,21-24 Lk 2.41-52 Ga 4.4-7

Lk 2.16-21

Ep 1.3-6,15-18

Jn 1.1-18

Ep 3.2-3,5-6 Ac 10.34-38 1 Jn 5.1-9 Tt 2.11-14;3.4-7 Lent A Gn 2.7-9;3.1-7 Rm 5.12-19 B Gn 9.8-15 1 P 3.18-22 C Dt 26.4-10 Rm 10.8-13 A Gn 12.1-4 2 Tm 1.8-10 B Gn 22.1-2,9-13,15-18 Rm 8.31-34 C Gn 15.5-12,17-18 Ph 3.17-4.1 A Ex 17.3-7 Rm 5.1-2, 5-8 B Ex 20.1-17 1 Co 1.22-25 C Ex 3.1-8,13-15 1 Co 10.1-6,10-12

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Mt 2.1-12 Mt 3.13-17 Mk 1.7-11 Lk 3.15-16,21-22 Mt 4.1-11 Mk 1.12-15 Lk 4.1-13 Mt 17.1-9 Mk 9.2-10 Lk 9.28-36 Jn 4.5-42 Jn 2.13-25 Lk 13.1-9

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Weekday Mass Readings Day

1st Reading

Gospel

Wk 4

Mi 7.7-9

Jn 9.1-41

Mon Tues Wed Thur Fri Sat

Is 65.17-21 Ezk 47.1-9,12 Is 49.8-13 Ex 32.7-14 Ws 2.1,12-22 Jr 11.18-20

Jn 4.43-54 Jn 5.1-16 Jn 5.17-30 Jn 5.31-47 Jn 7.1-2,10,25-30 Jn 7.40-54

Wk 5

2 K 4.18-21,32-37

Jn 11.1-45

Mon Tues Wed Thur Fri Sat

Dn 13.1-9,15-17,19-30,33-62 Jn 8.1-11 (Jn 8.12-20) Nb 21.4-9 Jn 8.21-30 Dn 3.14-20,91-92,95 Jn 8.31-42 Gn 17.3-9 Jn 8.51-59 Jr 20.10-13 Jn 10.31-42 Ezk 37.21-28 Jn 11.45-56 Holy Week Is 42.1-7 Jn 12.1-11 Is 49.1-6 Jn 13.21-33,36-38 Is 50.4-9 Mt 26.14-25 1st Reading 2nd Reading Gospel

Mon Tues Wed

Day Thur, Is 61.1-3,6,8-9 Rv 1.5-8 Lk 4.16-21 Chrism Mass Easter Season Weekdays Day 1st Reading Gospel Wk 1 Mon Ac 2.14,22-33 Mt 28.8-15 Tues Ac 2.36-41 Jn 20.11-18 Wed Ac 3.1-10 Lk 24.13-35 Thur Ac 3.11-26 Lk 24.35-48 Fri Ac 4.1-12 Jn 21.1-14 Sat Ac 4.13-21 Mk 16.9-15 Wk 2 Mon Ac 4.23-31 Jn 3.1-8 Tues Ac 4.32-37 Jn 3.7-15 Wed Ac 5.17-26 Jn 3.16-21 Thur Ac 5.27-33 Jn 3.31-36 Fri Ac 5.34-42 Jn 6.1-15 Sat Ac 6.1-7 Jn 6.16-21 Wk 3 Mon Ac 6.8-15 Jn 6.22-29 Tues Ac 7.51-8.1 Jn 6.30-35 Wed Ac 8.1-8 Jn 6.35-40 Thur Ac 8.26-40 Jn 6.44-51 Fri Ac 9.1-20 Jn 6.52-59 Sat Ac 9.31-42 Jn 6.60-69

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