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°“√Õπÿ√—°…忓殑µ√°√√¡Ω“ºπ—ß (ŒŸª·µâ¡) „π®—ßÀ«—¥¡À“ “√§“¡ The Conservation of Mural Paintings (Hoop - Tam) in Maha Sarakham Province (Northeast Thailand)


∫∑∑’Ë 2 °“√¥”‡π‘π°“√

Part 2 Studying Procedures

∑’Ë¡“·≈–§«“¡ ”§—≠ ‚≈°∑’Ë°”≈—ß°â“«‰ª Ÿà¬ÿ§‚≈°“¿‘«—µπå„π¢≥–π’Èπ—Èπ  àß º≈„Àâ·π«∑“ß°“√æ—≤π“ª√–‡∑»µâÕß¡’°“√ª√—∫‡ª≈’ˬπ ·π«π‚¬∫“¬µà“ßÊ „Àâ Õ¥§≈âÕß°—∫°√–· ‚≈°‰ªæ√âÕ¡Ê °—∫°“√√—°…“§ÿ≥§à“∑“ß«—≤π∏√√¡¢Õß™“µ‘‰ª¥â«¬ ´÷Ëß ‡ªìπ°“√∫√‘À“√ª√–‡∑»∑’ˉ¡àßà“¬π—° ·π«‚πâ¡°“√æ—≤π“ ∑’Ë¡ÿà߇πâπ¥â“π‡»√…∞°‘®‡æ’¬ß¥â“π‡¥’¬« ·≈â«≈–‡≈¬§ÿ≥§à“ ∑“ß«—≤π∏√√¡ ¬àÕ¡ àߺ≈°√–∑∫µàÕ°“√æ—≤π“ª√–‡∑» „π¿“æ√«¡‡™àπ°—π Õ¬à“߇™àπ π‚¬∫“¬°“√‡ªî¥ª√–‡∑» Õ¬à“߇ √’ °“√√—∫‡Õ“°√–· ∫√‘‚¿§π‘¬¡ À√◊Õ«—µ∂ÿπ‘¬¡ ®“°µà“ߪ√–‡∑»‡¢â“¡“‚¥¬‰¡à‰¥â°≈—Ëπ°√Õß ®π∑”„À⇰‘¥ ªí≠À“°“√‡ ◊ËÕ¡∂Õ¬∑“ß —ߧ¡·≈–«—≤π∏√√¡∑’Ë¥’ß“¡¢Õß ™“µ‘ ∑’ˇªìπÕ¬Ÿà„π¢≥–π’Èπ—Èπ ®“°ªí≠À“¥—ß°≈à“«Õߧ尓√ À ª√–™“™“µ‘‰¥â°”Àπ¥·π«∑“ßæ—≤π“‚≈° ‚¥¬„Àâ™ÿ¡™π‚≈° „™â¡‘µ‘∑“ß«—≤π∏√√¡‡æ◊ËÕ°“√æ—≤π“ª√–‡∑»‡ªìπ‡§√◊ËÕß¡◊Õ °“√æ—≤π“ ‚¥¬°“√°√–µÿâπ„Àâ§π„π —ߧ¡¡’ ”π÷°‡™‘ߧÿ≥§à“ ·≈–§«“¡¿“§¿Ÿ¡„‘ ®„π«—≤π∏√√¡¢Õßµπ‡Õß Õ—π®– àߺ≈„Àâ ‡°‘¥°“√æ—≤π“∑“ߥâ“π‡»√…∞°‘®·≈– —ߧ¡„π√–¥—∫™ÿ¡™π‰¥â ·π«∑“ß°“√æ—≤π“®÷߇πâπ∑’°Ë “√§âπÀ“ ‘ßË ∑’¡Ë Õ’ ¬Ÿ·à ≈â«„π™ÿ¡™π π”¡“øóôπøŸ ª√–¬ÿ°µå ·≈–ª√–¥‘…∞å ‡ √‘¡ √â“ß ‘Ëß„À¡à ∫π √“°∞“π ‘Ë߇°à“ ´÷Ëß∂◊Õ«à“‡ªìπ°“√æ—≤𓉪„πµ—« ‚¥¬‡©æ“– °“√π”‡Õ“§ÿ≥§à“ß“π»‘≈ª–·≈–«—≤π∏√√¡∑’¥Ë ß’ “¡¡“ª√–¬ÿ°µå º ¡º “πÀ√◊Õ √â“ß„À¡à∫π√“°‡ÀßⓇ¥‘¡ „Àâ Õ¥§≈âÕß°—∫ ªí≠À“·≈–°“√æ—≤π“ ∑—Èßπ’È™ÿ¡™πµâÕßÕ“»—¬°√–∫«π°“√ ™ÿ¡™π∑”ß“π√à«¡°—π ¥—ß∑’Ëæ√–¬“Õπÿ¡“π√“™∏𠉥â°≈à“««à“ ç...«—≤π∏√√¡ ®–‡ª≈’Ë¬π‰ª‡ªì𧫓¡‡®√‘≠‰¥â Õ¬Ÿà∑’˧π„π —ߧ¡¡’ªí≠≠“ §«“¡ “¡“√∂§âπæ∫ ‘Ëß∑’Ë¡’Õ¬Ÿà ·≈–ª√–¥‘…∞å ‘Ëß„À¡à ∫π √“°∞“π ‘Ë߇°à“ ‡æ◊ËÕ√—°…“‡ ∂’¬√¿“æ·≈–∫ÿ§≈‘°¢Õß —ߧ¡ µπ‡Õ߉«â °“√‡ª≈’ˬπ·ª≈߉ª¢â“ßÀπⓇ∑à“π—Èπ∑’Ë®–∑”„Àâ «—≤π∏√√¡¡’‡ ∂’¬√¿“æ ‡√’¬°«à“ «—≤π∏√√¡¡’æ≈«—µ√ ·≈–

Introduction The world moving towards globalization age results national development policies to be adjusted and national cultural value to be conserved. Doing that is not an easy national administration. The development tendency that focuses on economics only and ignores cultural value would surely affect national development as a whole. For example, open-country policy, consumerism, and materialism would lead to degeneration of cultures and societies. According to the problem, the United Nation has determined development process for the world by making the world community use a cultural dimension, as an means, to develop their countries, and encouraging them in realizing value and worthiness of their own cultures which will result economics and social development to happen at local levels. The development process focuses on searching for what communities have got, improving it, applying it, and inventing new things based on the original assets. This is called improvement, especially, when values of art works and culture are applied, combined, or renewed based on their original roots in accordance with problems and development of the communities. By the way, the communities must rely on team working.

As Phraya Anuman Ratchathon said, ç...A culture will change and become to development only if its people use their intellect in finding what they have and invent new things based on the original in order to keep stability and characteristic of the community. Only improving change leads the culture to its stability. This is called ùpower of


°“√Õπÿ√—°…忓殑µ√°√√¡Ω“ºπ—ß (ŒŸª·µâ¡) „π®—ßÀ«—¥¡À“ “√§“¡ The Conservation of Mural Paintings (Hoop - Tam) in Maha Sarakham Province (Northeast Thailand)

„π°“√‡§≈◊ËÕπ∑’ˉªπ—Èπ À“°‰¡à¡’°“√ ≈—¥¢Õ߇°à“∑’Ë¡’§«“¡  Õ¥§≈âÕß·≈â«∑‘È߉ª‡ ’¬∫â“ß æ√âÕ¡°—∫µàÕ‡µ‘¡‡ √‘¡·µàß  ‘Ëß„À¡à‡¢â“‰ª °Á®–∑”„Àâ«—≤π∏√√¡‡°‘¥Õ“°“√≈â“·≈–‡ ◊ËÕ¡‰ª ®π„π∑’Ë ÿ¥°Á®–¡’°“√µ—¥∑‘Èß«—≤π∏√√¡¢Õßµπ‡ ’¬ ·≈â«√—∫‡Õ“ «—≤π∏√√¡Õ◊Ëπ‡¢â“¡“·∑π∑’ˇªìπº≈„À⠗ߧ¡π—ÈπµâÕß Ÿ≠‡ ’¬ ∫ÿ§≈‘°≈—°…≥–¢Õßµπ„π∑’Ë ÿ¥..é ¥—ß®–‡ÀÁπ‰¥â™—¥‡®π·≈â««à“ ¡‘µ‘°“√æ—≤π“ª√–‡∑»µâÕ߉¡à∑‘Èߧÿ≥§à“∑“ß«—≤π∏√√¡ ·µà  “¡“√∂π”»‘≈ª–·≈–«—≤π∏√√¡¡“µàÕ¬Õ¥ øóôπøŸ ª√–¥‘…∞å §‘¥§âπ„À¡à∫π√“°∞“π«—≤π∏√√¡‡¥‘¡ ¥—ßπ—πÈ ‚§√ß°“√Õπÿ√°— …忓殑µ√°√√¡Ω“ºπ—ß (ŒŸª·µâ¡) ∑’Ë«—¥‚æ∏“√“¡ ·≈–«—¥ªÉ“‡√‰√ µ”∫≈¥ß∫—ß Õ”‡¿Õπ“¥Ÿπ ®—ßÀ«—¥¡À“ “√§“¡ ®÷ߥ”‡π‘π°“√µ“¡·π«∑“ߥ—ß°≈à“«

cultureû To improve the culture, if there is no abandonment of some of the original assets while making some change, the culture itself will be worn out, declined, and finally replaced with another culture, causing the community to lose their characteristic...é Itûs obvious that dimension of development must not be without cultural value but be able to continue, improve, invent, and create new things based on the original culture. Thus, the Mural Paining (Hoop-Tam) Conservation Project at Wat Pho Tharam and Wat Pa-Rerai, Dong-Bang sub-district, Na Dun district, Maha Sarakham province has been on the same direction.

·π«∑“ß°“√¥”‡π‘π°“√ ·π«∑“ß°“√Õπÿ√—°…å  — ß §¡‰∑¬ ‡ªì π  — ß §¡æÿ ∑ ∏»“ π“¡“™â “ π“π æÿ∑∏»“ π“‰¥âºŸ°µ‘¥°—∫«‘∂’™’«‘µ¢Õߧπ‰∑¬ µ—Èß·µà‡°‘¥ ®πµ“¬ ·¡â·µà°“√ √â“ß ‘Ëß°àÕ √â“ß ‚¥¬‡©æ“– ‘Ëß°àÕ √â“ß ∑“ß»“ π“∂◊ Õ «à “ ‰¥â ∫ÿ ≠ ∫“√¡’  Ÿ ß  ÿ ¥ Õ“®®–¡’ ≈— ° …≥– ‡√’¬∫ßà“¬ µ√߉ªµ√ß¡“·∫∫æ◊Èπ∫â“π ®π∂÷ß ‘Ëß°àÕ √â“ß∑’Ë¡’ §«“¡´—∫´âÕπ«‘®‘µ√æ‘ ¥“√ ߥߓ¡ ∑’˵âÕß„™â«— ¥ÿ∑’˧ß∑π µà“ßÊ ≈â«π‡æ◊ËÕµÕ∫ πÕߧÿ≥§à“∑“ß®‘µ„®¢Õߧπ„π —ߧ¡ ∑—Èß ‘Èπ „π™à«ß Õß√âÕ¬ªï∑’˺à“π¡“ π—∫µ—Èß·µà¬ÿ§°“√ªØ‘«—µ‘ Õÿµ “À°√√¡ ®π°≈“¬‡ªìπ°√–· °“√æ—≤π“‚≈°‰ª„π∑’Ë ÿ¥ ·π«∑“ß°“√æ—≤π“ª√–‡∑»‰∑¬ °ÁµâÕߪ√—∫‡ª≈’Ë¬πµ“¡‰ª ¥â«¬ ∑”„Àâ ¿“栗ߧ¡‡°…µ√·µà‡¥‘¡π—È𠇪≈’Ë¬π‰ª‡ªìπ°“√ æ—≤π“ ∑’ˇπâπÕÿµ “À°√√¡‡ªì𠔧—≠ ∑”„Àâ§π„π —ߧ¡°Á µâÕ߇ª≈’ˬπ«‘∂’°“√¥”‡π‘π™’«‘µ‰ª¥â«¬ ·≈–√«¡‰ª∂÷ßÕ“§“√  ‘Ëß°àÕ √â“ß∑’ˇªìπ¢Õ߇°à“ ∂Ÿ°∫ÿ°√ÿ° ·µà߇µ‘¡ ·≈–‡ª≈’ˬπ·ª≈ß ‰ª®π‰¡à‡À≈◊Õ‡§â“‚§√߇¥‘¡Õ’°µàÕ‰ª §ÿ≥§à“ß“π»‘≈ª°√√¡∑’Ë  ¡—¬Àπ÷Ë߇§¬‡ªìπµ—«·∑π¢Õ߬ÿ§ ¡—¬π—Èπ ∂Ÿ°°≈◊πÀ“¬‰ª À¡¥ ‘Èπ  ∂“π∑’Ë ”§—≠∑“ߪ√–«—µ‘»“ µ√å¢Õß™ÿ¡™π∑’ˇ§¬  ßà“ß“¡°ÁÀ¡¥§ÿ≥§à“≈ß ‰¡à«à“®–‡ªìπ°“√√◊ÈÕ∂Õπ ∑”≈“¬ ≈–‡≈¬ ª≈àÕ¬√â“ß°Á¡’„Àâæ∫‡ÀÁπÕ¬Ÿà‰¡àπâÕ¬ ∑—ÈßÊ ∑’Ë ‘Ë߇À≈à“π’È

Implementations Conservation Method Thai community has been the community of Buddhism for a long time, so the communityûs ways of life, from giving birth to dying, rely on Buddhism, even in constructing buildings, especially ones for religious purposes which are believed giving the greatest merit. The buildings might have simple or more complicated structure that can be very artistic and beautiful, and requires durable and strong materials. All of them are to fulfill spiritual value of the people in the community. In the past two hundred years, since the revolution of industry, industrialization has become worldûs development. Thailandûs development plans have to be adjusted in order to catch up with that, causing agricultural communities to focus on industry based development, and the peopleûs ways of living to change. Old buildings are interfered and changed to hide their original structures causing value of art works, represented uniqueness of historical periods, to fade away and disappear. Important historical sites of the communities, once were so remarkable, now have no value. Demolishing, destroying, and deserting old buildings and historical sites can be seen quite a lot even though they attract many

°“√Õπÿ√—°…忓殑µ√°√√¡Ω“ºπ—ß (ŒŸª·µâ¡) „π®—ßÀ«—¥¡À“ “√§“¡ The Conservation of Mural Paintings (Hoop - Tam) in Maha Sarakham Province (Northeast Thailand)

‰¥â¥ß÷ ¥Ÿ¥„Àâπ°— ∑àÕ߇∑’¬Ë «„Àâ¡“™◊πË ™¡§ÿ≥§à“∑“ߥâ“π»‘≈ª°√√¡ ·µà™ÿ¡™π°≈—∫≈–‡≈¬‡æ‘°‡©¬µàÕª√–«—µ‘»“ µ√å¢Õßµπ‡Õß ¥â«¬§«“¡‰¡à‡¢â“„®·≈–µ√–Àπ—°„π§ÿ≥§à“ ¥—ßπ—Èπ ®”‡ªìπÕ¬à“߬‘Ëß∑’Ë™ÿ¡™π®–µâÕßÀ—π¡“„À⧫“¡  ”§—≠°—∫¡√¥°∑“ß»‘≈ª°√√¡¢Õß∑âÕß∂‘Ëπ ¥â«¬°“√§âπÀ“ »—°¬¿“æ¢Õß™ÿ¡™π∫πæ◊Èπ∞“π¢Õß°“√Õπÿ√—°…å ·≈– ◊∫∑Õ¥ ‰ª Ÿà§π√ÿàπµàÕ‰ª ‚¥¬∂◊Õ«à“‡ªìπ∞“𠔧—≠µàÕ°“√æ—≤π“ ´÷Ëß µâÕ߇°‘¥®“°§«“¡√—° ·≈–‡ÀÁπ§ÿ≥§à“«—≤π∏√√¡¢Õßµπ‡Õß ‡ªìπÕ—π¥—∫·√°‡ ’¬°àÕ𠂧√ß°“√π’È „™â°√–∫«π°“√∑”ß“π·∫∫¡’ à«π√à«¡ (PAR=Participatory Action Research) ‚¥¬¡’¿“§’ ∑—Èß¿“§√—∞ ™ÿ¡™π ·≈–π—°«‘®—¬ ∑”ß“π√à«¡°—π„πæ◊Èπ∑’Ë ¢—ÈπµÕπ°“√¥”‡π‘π°“√ 1. °√–∫«π°“√»÷°…“™ÿ¡™π ‡ªìπ°√–∫«π°“√∑’Ë ∑”ß“π¢Õßπ—°«‘™“°“√„πæ◊Èπ∑’ˇªÑ“À¡“¬‰¥â√Ÿâ®—°°—∫°≈ÿࡺŸâπ” ‡√’¬π√Ÿâª√–«—µ‘»“ µ√å  ¿“懻√…∞°‘®  —ߧ¡ «—≤π∏√√¡ √«¡∑—Èß ∂“π°“√≥åµà“ßÊ ¢Õß™ÿ¡™π ´÷Ë߇ªìπ°√–∫«π°“√ »÷°…“¢âÕ¡Ÿ≈‡∫◊ÈÕßµâπ ¥—ßπ’È 1.1 ª√– “πß“π√à « ¡¡◊ Õ °— ∫ Õß§å ° “√∫√‘ À “√  à«πµ”∫≈¥ß∫—ß ∑—Èß𓬰Õߧ尓√∫√‘À“√ à«πµ”∫≈¥ß∫—ß ·≈–π—°«‘™“°“√¥â“π°“√»÷°…“ ‡æ◊ËÕª√– “π·ºπß“π·≈– ∑”ß“π√à«¡°—π πÕ°®“°π’È ¬—߉¥â¥”‡π‘π°‘®°√√¡µà“ßÊ ¢ÕßÕߧ尓√∫√‘À“√ à«πµ”∫≈¥ß∫—ß ∑’Ë®—¥¢÷Èπ ·≈–∑”§«“¡ √Ÿâ®—°°—∫°≈ÿࡺŸâπ”µà“ßÊ ‡æ◊ËÕ™’È·®ß‚§√ß°“√œ 1.2 À≈—ß®“°π—Èπ‰¥â≈ßæ◊Èπ∑’Ë„πÀ¡Ÿà∫â“π‡ªÑ“À¡“¬ ‚¥¬°“√·π–π”µ—«·≈–™’·È ®ß°“√¥”‡π‘π‚§√ß°“√·°àº„Ÿâ À≠à∫“â π ·≈–ºŸâπ”™ÿ¡™π ‡æ◊ËÕª√÷°…“À“√◊Õ‡°’ˬ«°—∫°“√¥”‡π‘π°“√ √à«¡°—π √«¡∂÷ß Õ∫∂“¡ºŸâ∑’ˇ°’ˬ«¢âÕßµà“ßÊ ∑’Ë “¡“√∂„Àâ ¢âÕ¡Ÿ≈ ‡æ◊ËÕ∑”°“√»÷°…“™ÿ¡™π„πª√–‡¥Áπ°“√æ—≤π“  ¿“æ ªí≠À“  ∂“π°“√≥å∑—Ë«‰ª¢Õß™ÿ¡™π 1.3 ®“°π—Èππ”¢âÕ¡Ÿ≈ ¿“æ™ÿ¡™π∑’‰Ë ¥â¡“ª√–™ÿ¡ √à«¡°—∫Õߧ尓√∫√‘À“√ à«πµ”∫≈¥ß∫—ß ·≈–∑’¡∑’˪√÷°…“ ‚§√ß°“√ æ√âÕ¡°—∫√—∫øíߢâÕ‡ πÕ·π–„π¥â“πµà“ßÊ ‡æ◊ËÕ ¥”‡π‘π°“√„Àâ Õ¥§≈âÕß°—∫™ÿ¡™πµàÕ‰ª ¥—ßπ’È


tourists who appreciate value of the art works. On the other hand, the communities themselves ignore their own history without awareness in the value. Thus, it is very important for the communities to pay more attention to local art heritages by finding abilities in conserving the virtues and carrying them to the next generations, taking this as an essential basis for community development which must be from love and awareness for their own cultural value as priority. This project used Participatory Action Research (PAR) enhanced to Research and Development (R&D) with cooperation of tambol Dong Bangûs Administration Organinzation, communities, and local assistant researchers work together. Stage of Implementations 1. Community study is a process for the researchers in the target area to meet with the communitiesû leaders in order to learn their history, economy, social, culture, as well as other information of the communities. The following are how the process was used to study the basic information. 1.1 Cooperated with Dong Bang Administrative Organinzation members, such as, chairman of Dong Bang Administration Organinzation and academicians, in order to, together, plan and work. The researchers joined activities Organized by the local administration and met with the communitiesû leaders for the purpose of introduction the project to them. 1.2 Visited to the target villages, introduced the researchers, gave information about the project procedures to the head of the villages and the communitieû leaders in order to consult the procedures together, as well as, interviewed concerned people who could give useful data regarding development, problems, and general information of the communities. 1.3 Discussed the gathered data with DongBang Organinzation Administration and the project supervisors and shared suggestions which were applied as following:

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°“√Õπÿ√—°…忓殑µ√°√√¡Ω“ºπ—ß (ŒŸª·µâ¡) „π®—ßÀ«—¥¡À“ “√§“¡ The Conservation of Mural Paintings (Hoop - Tam) in Maha Sarakham Province (Northeast Thailand)

1.3.1 „π™à«ß°“√ √â“ß°√–∫«π°“√‡√’¬π√Ÿâ ‚¥¬°“√°”Àπ¥°≈ÿࡇªÑ“À¡“¬„Àâµ√ß°—∫§«“¡µâÕß°“√Õ¬à“ß ·∑â®√‘ß ‡πâπ∫∑∫“∑¢Õß∑ÿ°°≈ÿࡇªÑ“À¡“¬ ‡πâπ„À⧫“¡ ”§—≠ ‰ª∑’˺Ÿâ ŸßÕ“¬ÿ°—∫‡¥Á° ‡æ◊ËÕ∑’Ë®–¥÷ߧπ 2 °≈ÿà¡ ‡¢â“¡“∑”ß“π √à«¡°—π ‡æ√“–ß“πÕπÿ√—°…凪ìπß“π∑’˺Ÿ°æ—π°—∫ºŸâ ŸßÕ“¬ÿ¡“° °«à“°≈ÿà¡«—¬∑”ß“π 1.3.2 √Ÿ ª ·∫∫°“√∑”ß“π‰¥â ª √— ∫ ‰ª Ÿ à °√–∫«π°“√∑”ß“π™ÿ¡™π ‚¥¬°“√»÷°…“™ÿ¡™π‡æ◊ËÕ √â“ß ¢âÕ¡Ÿ≈™ÿ¥Àπ÷Ëß ´÷Ë߇ªìπ¢Õß™ÿ¡™π‡Õߢ÷Èπ¡“°àÕπ „π‡«∑’°“√ ª√–™ÿ¡π’ȉ¥âæ∫À≈“¬ª√–‡¥Áπ∑’Ë™“«∫â“π π„® ·µà‡√◊ËÕß ‘¡ ¬—ßµâÕ߇ªìπ ◊ËÕ‡æ◊ËÕ§âπÀ“§π∑’Ë∑”ß“π·≈– π„®Õ¬à“ß·∑â®√‘ß „π¿“¬À≈—ß®“°π—È𠉥â𔧫“¡√Ÿâ‡™‘ß«‘™“°“√‚¥¬°“√®—¥Õ∫√¡ „À⧫“¡√Ÿâ‡√◊ËÕß°“√Õπÿ√—°…å·À≈àß‚∫√“≥ ∂“π ·≈–‡√◊ËÕß∑’Ë ‡°’ˬ«¢âÕßÕ◊ËπÊ ‡æ◊ËÕ¬°√–¥—∫§«“¡√Ÿâ¢Õß™“«∫â“π¢÷Èπ¡“∑’≈–π‘¥ ‚¥¬™“«∫â“π “¡“√∂Õ∏‘∫“¬·≈– “¡“√∂∂Õ¥§«“¡√ŸâÕÕ°¡“ ®“°°“√§âπæ∫ ¥â«¬µπ‡ÕßÕ¬à“ß¿“§¿Ÿ¡‘„® ‚¥¬‡πâπ√Ÿª·∫∫ °“√∑”ß“π√à«¡°—π 1.3.3 »÷°…“ ¿“懻√…∞°‘®- —ߧ¡ ¢Õß ·µà ≈ –™ÿ¡™π ·¡â«à“®–¡’§«“¡§≈⓬°—π·µà‰¡à‡À¡◊Õπ°—π ‡ ’¬∑’‡¥’¬« °“√𔉪 Ÿà°“√æ—≤π“¥â“πÕ◊ËπÊ ®–µâÕß°√–µÿâπ °√–∫«π°“√ ¬Õ¡√—∫¢Õß™“«∫â“π‡ ’¬°àÕπ  ‘Ëß∑’Ë™“«∫â“π µâÕß°“√°‘®°√√¡π—ÈπÊ ®–µâÕß Õ¥§≈âÕß°—∫«‘∂’™’«‘µ¢Õß ™ÿ¡™π·≈–µâÕß∑∫∑«π Õߧ姫“¡√Ÿâ‡¥‘¡¢Õß™ÿ¡™π∑—Èß∑’ˇªìπ «—≤π∏√√¡∑’Ë®—∫µâÕ߉¥â·≈–®—∫µâÕ߉¡à‰¥â „Àâ„™â°√–∫«π°“√ ¡’ à«π√à«¡ °√–µÿâπ„Àâ™ÿ¡™π‡°‘¥°“√√—°…“ ¿“æ·«¥≈âÕ¡ ¢Õß™ÿ¡™π‰ªæ√âÕ¡Ê °—∫‡ªìπ°“√ √â“ß°√Õ∫·≈–‡°√“– ªÑÕß°—π ‘Ëß®Ÿß„®∑’ˇªìπªí®®—¬‡ ’ˬ߮“°¿“¬πÕ° 1.3.4 ®“°‡«∑’™“«∫â“π®–‰¥â°√–∫«π°“√ µ—¥ ‘π„®«à“Õ–‰√§«√/‰¡à§«√ ∑’Ë®–√—∫‡¢â“¡“„πÀ¡Ÿà∫â“𠧫“¡  ”§—≠„πÕߧ姫“¡√Ÿâ‡√◊ËÕߢÕ߇°à“π—Èπ®–¡’ª√–«—µ‘µ‘¥µ—«¡“ ´÷Ëß®–∑”„À¡à‰¡à‰¥â ª√–°Õ∫°—∫§«“¡®”‡ªìπ∑’˵âÕß√—°…“‡Õ“‰«â ©–π—Èπ«—≤π∏√√¡™ÿ¡™π®–∑”Àπâ“∑’ˇªìπ∑—Èßµ—«‡°Á∫·≈– ◊∫∑Õ¥ ‰«â„π‡«≈“‡¥’¬«°—π ·≈â« “¡“√∂∑”„ÀâÕÕ°¥Õ°ÕÕ°º≈‡ªìπ Àπâ“∑’˵à“ßÊ (functions) ∑’ˇªìπª√–‚¬™πå ”À√—∫™ÿ¡™π‡Õß µàÕ‰ª‰¥â ‡æ◊ËÕ‡¢â“ Ÿà°√–∫«π°“√µ—¥ ‘π„®‡≈◊Õ°«à“ ‡√◊ËÕß„¥

1.3.1 Created a learning process by setting target groups relevant to their exact needs, and focusing on functions of every group, especially, elderly and children in order to allow them to work together for conservation is bound to elderly more than those in working age group. 1.3.2 Adjusted the working pattern to be community based working process, by studying the communities and creating a set of their data first. During sup-group projects meetings, many villagers showed interest in many issues except Sim which needed some people, who were really interested, to work on later. Then, academic knowledge trainings on historical sites conserving and other related issues were organized in order to improve the villagersû background knowledge. After the trainings, they could explain and share their knowledge, gained from their self studying that focused on team-working pattern. 1.3.3 Socio-economic of each community was studied. Even though the villages have things in common, but they are not alike. To move to further development, the villagersû acceptance needed to be stimulated first. The activities selected by the villagers needed to be relevant to the communitiesû ways of living and their, both concrete and abstract, background knowledge on culture, needed to be reviewed through participatory action research, encouraging the cultural environment of the communities to be long lastingly conserved. This had to be done while building the projectûs work frame preventing it from external temptation and other factors. 1.3.4 From the sub-group projects meetings, the communities could decide what to or what not to bring to the villages. The knowledge is very importance and has histories that cannot be renewed but conserved. Thus, cultural communities would be the key to keep and carry on the knowledge at the same time, applying and dividing it into functions which will be useful for the communities. This leads to decision making process that only the

°“√Õπÿ√—°…忓殑µ√°√√¡Ω“ºπ—ß (ŒŸª·µâ¡) „π®—ßÀ«—¥¡À“ “√§“¡ The Conservation of Mural Paintings (Hoop - Tam) in Maha Sarakham Province (Northeast Thailand)

 “¡“√∂π”¡“§‘¥À√◊Õ∑”µàÕ¬Õ¥ «à“‡√◊ÕË ß„¥§«√§à“µàÕ°“√‡°Á∫ √—°…“‰«âÀ√◊Õ ‘Ëß„¥∑’˧«√§à“µàÕ°“√ √â“ß°‘®°√√¡‡ √‘¡ ∑—Èßπ’È µâÕߺà“π°√–∫«π°“√µ—¥ ‘π„®∑’ˇ°‘¥®“°™“«∫â“π‡Õß∑—ÈßÀ¡¥ 2. °“√®—¥ª√–™ÿ¡°≈ÿ࡬àÕ¬¢Õß·µà≈–™ÿ¡™π µ“¡ ‚Õ°“ ∑’ˇªìπ‰ª‰¥â¢Õß·µà≈–À¡Ÿà∫â“π ‰¥â·°à ∑’Ë∫â“π¥ß∫—ß ‡ªìπ∑’˵—ÈߢÕß«—¥‚æ∏“√“¡ ·≈–∫â“πÀπÕßæÕ° ‡ªìπ∑’˵—Èß «—¥ªÉ“‡√‰√ ‚¥¬∑”°“√·¬°ª√–™ÿ¡À¡Ÿà∫â“π„π™à«ß§Ë” ‡æ◊ËÕ «‘‡§√“–Àå  ∂“π°“√≥å¢ÕßÀ¡Ÿà∫â“π «—¥ ·≈–¿“殑µ√°√√¡ Ω“ºπ—ß (ŒŸª·µâ¡) πÕ°®“°π’È ™“«∫â“π¬—߉¥â¡’°“√‡ πÕ √Ÿª·∫∫°“√∑”ß“π„π°‘®°√√¡µà“ßÊ ‡æ◊ËÕÀ“«‘∏’°“√Õπÿ√—°…å ·À≈àß»‘≈ª°√√¡∑âÕß∂‘ËπµàÕ‰ª 3. °“√ √â“ß°≈ÿࡇ§√◊Õ¢à“¬„π√–À«à“ß∑’Ë∑”°“√»÷°…“ ™ÿ¡™ππ—Èπ ‰¥â¥”‡π‘π°“√§âπÀ“°≈ÿࡵà“ßÊ ´÷Ëߪ√–°Õ∫¥â«¬ 8 °≈ÿ¡à ‰¥â·°à °≈ÿ¡à Õ“™’æ∑պⓉÀ¡ °≈ÿ¡à ºŸπâ ” °≈ÿ¡à ‡¥Á°·≈–‡¬“«™π °≈ÿà¡æ√– ß¶å °≈ÿà¡‚√߇√’¬π °≈ÿà¡»‘≈ª–æ◊Èπ∫â“π (Àπ—ß ª–‚¡∑—¬) °≈ÿ¡à º≠“- √¿—≠≠– °≈ÿ¡à √“™°“√ ‰¥â‡ πÕ·π«∑“ß °“√∑”ß“π ·≈–§—¥‡≈◊Õ°°‘®°√√¡∑’ˇªìπ‰ª‰¥â ‡æ◊ËÕ«“ß·ºπ ¥”‡π‘π°“√„Àâ Õ¥§≈âÕß°—∫°“√Õπÿ√—°…å·À≈àß‚∫√“≥ ∂“π ·≈–¿“殑µ√°√√¡Ω“ºπ—ßµàÕ‰ª ‡π◊ËÕߥ⫬°‘®°√√¡µà“ßÊ ¡’√–¬–‡«≈“°“√¥”‡π‘πß“π —Èπ Õ’°∑—Èß„π∫“ßÀ¡Ÿà∫â“π¡’ªí≠À“ §«“¡¢—¥·¬âß√–À«à“ß°≈ÿà¡°—πÕ¬Ÿà∫â“ß ·µà°Á‰¡à‡ªìπªí≠À“ ”§—≠ ¥—ßπ—Èπ ®”‡ªìπµâÕߪ√—∫∑—»π§µ‘„Àâ “¡“√∂∑”ß“π√à«¡°—π‰¥â ‡ ’¬°àÕπ ®÷ß∑”„Àâ°“√¥”‡π‘πß“π„π∫“ß°‘®°√√¡≈à“™â“ÕÕ°‰ª 4. °√–∫«π°“√®—¥µ—Èß°≈ÿà¡∑”ß“π ‡ªìπ°√–∫«π°“√ §âπÀ“°≈ÿࡺŸâ∑”°‘®°√√¡√à«¡°—π ´÷Ë߉¥â¢âÕ‡ πÕ·π–®“°∑’¡ ∑’˪√÷°…“ ª√–°Õ∫¥â«¬ °≈ÿࡵà“ßÊ „πÀ¡Ÿà∫â“π ‚¥¬∑’Ë·µà≈– °≈ÿà¡ “¡“√∂‡ πÕ°‘®°√√¡∑’Ë®–¥”‡π‘π°“√ ‚¥¬°“√‡¢’¬π ‚§√ß°“√¬àÕ¬ „π™à«ß·√°π’ȉ¥â∑—Èß ‘Èπ 7 °‘®°√√¡¬àÕ¬ ¥—ßπ’È 4.1 °‘®°√√¡°“√Õ∫√¡„À⧫“¡√Ÿâ‡√◊ËÕß°“√Õπÿ√—°…å ·À≈àß‚∫√“≥ ∂“π·≈–¿“殑µ√°√√¡Ω“ºπ—ß 4.2 °‘®°√√¡®à“¬º≠“ ·≈–¢—∫√âÕß √¿—≠≠– ‡≈à“‡√◊ËÕß√“«®“°ŒŸª·µâ¡ 4.3 °‘®°√√¡°“√∑պⓉÀ¡≈“¬ŒŸª·µâ¡ 4.4 °‘ ® °√√¡°“√Õ∫√¡¡— § §ÿ ‡ ∑»°å √— ° …å · À≈à ß ‚∫√“≥ ∂“π »‘≈ª°√√¡∑âÕß∂‘Ëπ

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communities can choose which to be thought over, continued, conserved, or implemented. 2. Sub-group projects meetings were organized according to opportunities given by each village. For example, at Ban Dong-Bang, at where Wat Pho Tharam is located, and Ban NongPhok, at where Wat Pa-Rerai is located, the meetings were organized at night to analyze current issues and situation of the villages, Wats, and the mural paintings (Hoop-Tam). Moreover, the villagers suggested working patterns for activities in orderthat they can find ways in conserving local art works by themselves. 3. Building network groups, during studying the communities, 8 groups were set: silk cloth weaving, the communitiesû leaders, children and youth, monks, schools, local arts (Pamo-Tai or shadow puppets showing), paya and sora-phanya, and the communitiesû officials. They suggested working processes and selected sub-group activities possible for planning for local historical sites and mural painting conservation. According to limitation of time for conducting each activity and some conflicts among the groups, the villagers had to adjust their point of views in working together first which delayed some activities. 4. Work group setting is a process to find groups in villages, who could work together, under suggestions from the project supervising team. Each group could propose an activity(s) that they would like to do by writing up a sup-group project proposal(s). At this point, there are 7 sup-projects, as following : 4.1 Knowledge training on historical sites and mural painting conservation 4.2 Phaya poem and Sora-phanya singing, based on stories from the mural paintings 4.3 Silk cloth weaving with Hoop-Tam Patterns 4.4 Local guide training for local art sites conservation

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°“√Õπÿ√—°…忓殑µ√°√√¡Ω“ºπ—ß (ŒŸª·µâ¡) „π®—ßÀ«—¥¡À“ “√§“¡ The Conservation of Mural Paintings (Hoop - Tam) in Maha Sarakham Province (Northeast Thailand)

4.5 °‘®°√√¡°“√∑”Àπ—ßµ–≈ÿßÕ’ “π (ª–‚¡∑—¬) 4.5 Pamo-Tai showing (Shadow puppets making) 4.6 Arts Camp : Hoop-Tam Conservation 4.6 §à“¬»‘≈ª–√—°…匟ª·µâ¡ 4.7 Historical Documents about history of the 4.7 °“√∑”‡Õ° “√√Ÿª‡≈ࡇ°’ˬ«°—∫ª√–«—µ‘À¡Ÿà∫â“π villages, Wats, Sims, and Hoop-Tam «—¥  ‘¡ ·≈–ŒŸª·µâ¡

°“√Õπÿ√—°…忓殑µ√°√√¡Ω“ºπ—ß (ŒŸª·µâ¡) „π®—ßÀ«—¥¡À“ “√§“¡ The Conservation of Mural Paintings (Hoop - Tam) in Maha Sarakham Province (Northeast Thailand)

°√Õ∫°“√¥”‡π‘π°“√ Standingûs Work Frame ¢âÕ¡Ÿ≈ª∞¡¿Ÿ¡‘ Primary Data

¢âÕ¡Ÿ≈∑ÿµ‘¬¿Ÿ¡‘ Secondary Data °“√ √â“ß°√–∫«π°“√¡’ à«π√à«¡ Building Participatory Action Research (PAR) - °“√Õ∫√¡„À⧫“¡√Ÿâ (Knowledge training) - °“√ √â“߇§√◊Õ¢à“¬·≈–°≈ÿà¡∑”ß“π (Building work-group network) - °√–∫«π°“√‡√’¬π√Ÿâ√à«¡°—π (Learning Ponticipation)

 ‘Ëß∑’ˇ°‘¥¿“¬„π™ÿ¡™π Internal community

ª√– ∫°“√≥å Experience

ªØ‘∫—µ‘ Practice

°“√§âπÀ“ Searching

°“√∑¥≈Õß Tests

º≈¬âÕπ°≈—∫ Reaction °“√µ—¥ ‘π„® Decision Making

°“√«‘‡§√“–Àå Analyzing

·π«§‘¥À√◊Õ —ß°—ª Concept

‚§√ß°“√∑’ˇ°‘¥®“° §«“¡µâÕß°“√¢Õß™ÿ¡™π Community Need Based Project √Ÿª∑’Ë 1 °√Õ∫°“√¥”‡π‘π°“√ Picture 1 Projectûs Work Frame

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°“√Õπÿ√—°…忓殑µ√°√√¡Ω“ºπ—ß (ŒŸª·µâ¡) „π®—ßÀ«—¥¡À“ “√§“¡ The Conservation of Mural Paintings (Hoop - Tam) in Maha Sarakham Province (Northeast Thailand)

§π à«π„À≠à®–¡’√Ÿª·∫∫°“√‡√’¬π√Ÿâ ‚¥¬®–· ¥ß∂÷ß §«“¡‡ªìπµ—«¢Õßµ—«‡Õß„π 4 ·∫∫¥â«¬°—π §◊Õ °√–∫«π°“√ °“√§‘¥§âπ °“√«‘‡§√“–Àå °“√µ—¥ ‘π„® ·≈–°“√· ¥ßÕÕ° ´÷Ëß„π·µà≈–·∫∫π—Èπ®–¡’‡§√◊ËÕß¡◊Õ∑’Ë„™â„π«—Ø®—°√°“√‡√’¬π√Ÿâ ∑’Ë · µ°µà “ ß°— π ÕÕ°‰ªµ“¡§«“¡‡À¡“– ¡ ´÷Ë ß ‡°‘ ¥ ®“° ª√– ∫°“√≥å∑’Ë·µ°µà“ߢÕß·µà≈–§π °“√ àߺ≈¬âÕπ°≈—∫ „Àâæ‘®“√≥“∑∫∑«π´È”°Á‡æ◊ËÕ·ª≈߉ª Ÿà·π«§‘¥À√◊Õ —ß°—ª (concept) ¢Õßµπ‡Õß ®“°π—È π °Á ® –≈ß¡◊ Õ ªØ‘ ∫— µ‘ µ “¡ °√–∫«π°“√‡√’¬π√Ÿâ∑’˺à“π¡“ ·µà„π√–¥—∫™ÿ¡™π®”‡ªìπµâÕß „™â°√–∫«π°“√‡√’¬π√Ÿâ·∫∫¡’ à«π√à«¡ ®÷ß®–∑”„À⇰‘¥°“√ · ¥ß»—°¬¿“æ¢Õß™ÿ¡™π‰¥â„À⇪ìπ∑’˪√“°Ø‰¥â

Most people have learning patterns that show their self confidence in 4 ways : inventing, analysis, decision making, and action. Each requires different tools according to its suitability which is from previous experience of each person. Their results would lead to repetition of the processes to get their own overall concept. Then, follow the learned lessons. By the way, at a community level, participatory action is needed so that the ability of the social can be performed.

‡§√◊ËÕß¡◊Õ°“√¥”‡π‘π°“√ 1. °√–∫«π°“√¡’ à«π√à«¡‡ªìπ·π«∑“ß°“√¥”‡π‘π °“√ °≈à“«§◊Õ √Ÿª·∫∫°“√¡’ à«π√à«¡∑’ËÕ“»—¬°“√‡√’¬π√Ÿâ √à«¡°—𠇪√’¬∫‡ ¡◊Õπ√ࡧ—π„À≠à ´÷Ëߪ√–°Õ∫¥â«¬ «‘∏’°“√ ∑’˧≈⓬§≈÷ß°—π¡“°¡“¬ ‰¡à«à“®–‡ªìπ‡√◊ËÕß°“√‡¢â“∂÷ß (Approaches) «‘∏°’ “√ (Methods) ·≈–惵‘°√√¡ (Behaviors) √«¡∑—Èß«‘∏’°“√∑’ˇ√’¬°«à“ æ’ Õ“√å ‡Õ (PRA=Participatatory Rapid Appraisal) Õ“√å Õ“√å ‡Õ (RRA=Rapid Rural Appraisal) ·≈–«‘∏’°“√Õ◊ËπÊ ‡ªìπµâπ ‚¥¬∑—Ë«‰ª·≈â«·π«§‘¥°“√¡’ à«π√à«¡∑—ÈßÀ≈“¬‡À≈à“π’È ¡’°√Õ∫ß“π§≈⓬°—π §◊Õ°“√„™â°√–∫«π°“√¡’ à«π√à«¡ ¢Õߪ√–™“™π‡¢â“‰ª Ÿà°√–∫«π°“√ √â“ß°“√‡√’¬π√Ÿâ√à«¡°—π „π√–¥—∫™ÿ¡™π ‡æ◊ËÕ§âπÀ“§«“¡µâÕß°“√·≈–°“√· «ßÀ“ ‚Õ°“ µà“ßÊ √à«¡°—π ‡æ◊ËÕ𔉪 Ÿà·π«∑“ß°“√ªØ‘∫—µ‘∑’Ë ‡ªìπ®√‘߉¥â ‚¥¬‡°‘¥®“°°“√«‘‡§√“–Àå‡ß◊ËÕπ‰¢ °“√«“ß·ºπ °“√µ‘ ¥ µ“¡ ·≈–°“√ª√–‡¡‘ π º≈µ“¡·π«∑“ߪؑ ∫— µ‘ Õ¬à“߉√°Áµ“¡ °“√„™â°√–∫«π°“√¡’ à«π√à«¡π—Èπ¡’‡ß◊ËÕπ‰¢ ∑’Ë∑”„À⇰‘¥§«“¡ ”‡√Á®À√◊Õ≈⡇À≈«‰¥â¥â«¬‡™àπ°—π ¥—ßπ—Èπ µâÕßæ‘®“√≥“§«“¡‡ªìπ‰ª‰¥â¢Õß°“√®—¥°√–∫«π°“√ (µ“√“ß ∑’Ë 1 ·≈– √Ÿª∑’Ë 2) ¥—ßπ’È

Projectûs Tools Participatory Action Research (PAR) enhanced Research and Development (R&D) is a tool used in conducting this project, and a pattern of knowledge exchange and learning process, like a big grid which consists of similar processes such as, Approaches, Methods, and Behaviors, as well as, Participatory Rapid Appraisal, (PRA) and Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA),and etc. In general, ideas about all these have similar work frames: participatory method among the people led to knowledge sharing and learning process in the communities in order to, together, find the real needs and opportunity to achieve a realistic project operation which must be from analyzing the projectûs conditions, planning, follow-up, and evaluation of the application. However, participatory procedure has limitation that might lead to either success or failure. Thus, possibility of the management is analyzed (Table 1 and Picture 2) as follow:

°“√Õπÿ√—°…忓殑µ√°√√¡Ω“ºπ—ß (ŒŸª·µâ¡) „π®—ßÀ«—¥¡À“ “√§“¡ The Conservation of Mural Paintings (Hoop - Tam) in Maha Sarakham Province (Northeast Thailand)

µ“√“ß∑’Ë 1 ªØ‘ —¡æ—π∏å√–À«à“ß°“√®—¥°√–∫«π°“√¡’ à«π√à«¡ ®”π«π§π 3-6 §π 7-10 §π 11-18 §π 19-30 §π ¡“°°«à“ 30 §π

°“√µÕ∫ πÕß°—∫°“√¡’ à«π√à«¡ ∑ÿ°§π查 ‡°◊Õ∫∑ÿ°§π查 ¡’§π‡ß’¬∫‰¡à查À√◊Õ查πâÕ¬ 1 À√◊Õ 2 §π ‰¡à查‡≈¬ ®–¡’ 5 À√◊Õ 6 §π ∑’Ë查¡“° ·≈– 3 À√◊Õ 4 §π 查µ“¡‚Õ°“  ®–¡’ 3 À√◊Õ 4 §π ∑’˧√Õ∫ß”§«“¡§‘¥ ‚Õ°“ °“√¡’ à«π√à«¡®–πâÕ¬≈ß

Table 1 Interrelationships in Participatory procedures management Number of people

3-6 7-10 11-18 19-30 Over 30

The peopleûs response towards the procedures

Everybody talked. 1 or 2 didnût talk at all. 5-6 were talkative and 3-4 were occasionally did. 3-4 didnût share their opinion. Participation among them was lessened.

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°“√Õπÿ√—°…忓殑µ√°√√¡Ω“ºπ—ß (ŒŸª·µâ¡) „π®—ßÀ«—¥¡À“ “√§“¡ The Conservation of Mural Paintings (Hoop - Tam) in Maha Sarakham Province (Northeast Thailand)

ºŸâ¡’ à«π‡°’ˬ«¢âÕß°—∫ª√–‡¥Áπªí≠À“·≈–º≈ª√–‚¬™πå√à«¡ Steakholders related to issues and benefits

¬ÿ∑∏»“ µ√å°“√∑”ß“π°“√∑”ß“π√à«¡°—π®“°∫π Ÿà≈à“ß·≈–≈à“ߢ÷Èπ∫π Working strategy from top to bottom level and bottom up level

ºŸâ¡’ à«π‡°’ˬ«¢âÕß°—∫°√–∫«π°“√‡√’¬π√Ÿâ Steakholders related to learning processes °Æ·≈–¢âÕµ°≈߇°’ˬ«°—∫§«“¡√à«¡¡◊Õ Rule and Agreement of Cooperation

¡ÿà߇πâπ®ÿ¥ª√– ß§å‡æ◊ËÕ𔉪 Ÿà°“√‡ª≈’ˬπ·ª≈ß Focuses on purposes for better changes

§ÿ≥≈—°…≥–¢ÕߺŸâ∑’Ë¡’ à«π‡°’ˬ«¢âÕß Characteristic of Steakholders

‡°’ˬ«¢âÕß°—∫Õ”π“®·≈–§«“¡¢—¥·¬âß Õ¬à“ß¡’ µ‘ Being related, though cognizance, to power and conflicts ‡°’ˬ«æ—π°—∫°“√‡ª≈’ˬπ·ª≈ßÕߧå°√ Being related to changes in the organization

°√Õ∫‡«≈“·≈–°√–∫«π°“√‡√’¬π√Ÿâ Duration Framework and learning process ∑”ß“π√à«¡°—∫ à«πµà“ßÊ Working with other units

∑”ß“π√à«¡°—∫√–¥—∫µà“ßÊ Working with other work-group levels

√Ÿª∑’Ë 2 §ÿ≥≈—°…≥–¢ÕߺŸâ¡’ à«π√à«¡ Picture 2 Characteristic of Steakholders

2. °“√¡’ à«π√à«¡ ¡’ 2 ®ÿ¥ª√– ß§å¥â«¬°—π§◊Õ 2.1. °“√¡’ à«π√à«¡„π∞“𖇪ìπ«‘∏’°“√ À¡“¬∂÷ß °√–∫«π°“√‰¥â¡“‡¡◊ÕË ‡√‘¡Ë ¥”‡π‘π°“√æ—≤π“Õ¬à“ß¡’ª√– ‘∑∏‘¿“æ ∑—È߇ªìπ°“√ π—∫ πÿπ·≈–°“√ àߺ≈ ”‡√Á®∑’Ë®–‡°‘¥¢÷ÈπµàÕ‰ª ‡∑§π‘§·≈–«‘∏’°“√¡’ à«π√à«¡∑’Ë·µ°µà“ß°—πÕÕ°‰ªπ—Èπ “¡“√∂ 𔉪„™â§πâ À“·π«§«“¡§‘¥¢Õß¡πÿ…¬å‡æ◊ÕË °“√«“ß·ºπæ—≤π“ ·≈–°‘®°√√¡µà“ßÊ 2.2. °“√¡’  à « π√à « ¡„π∞“𖇪ì π ‡ªÑ “ À¡“¬ À¡“¬§«“¡«à“ æ≈—ߢ—∫‡§≈◊ËÕπ¿“¬„π¢Õß¡πÿ…¬å  “¡“√∂ ™à«¬¡πÿ…¬å‡æ◊ËÕ§âπÀ“∑—°…– §«“¡√Ÿâ ·≈–ª√– ∫°“√≥å „π§«“¡√—∫º‘¥™Õ∫∑’Ë Ÿß¢÷Èπ‰¥â‡æ◊ËÕ°“√æ—≤π“µπ ·≈â« ¬—ߧâπÀ“§«“¡ —¡æ—π∏凙‘ß‚§√ß √â“ß·≈–°“√¡’ à«π√à«¡ ‡æ◊ËÕ„™â‡ªìπ‡§√◊ËÕß¡◊Õ·°â‰¢°“√‡ª≈’ˬπ·ª≈߉¥â Õ¬à“߉√°Áµ“¡√–¥—∫°“√¡’ «à π√à«¡ “¡“√∂®”·π°‰¥â ¥—ßπ’È 1. °“√®—¥°“√ - ‡ªìπ°“√‰µà∫—π‰¥¢—ÈπµË” ÿ¥ ∑’ˇªìπ  ∂“π°“√≥å·∫∫°“√‰¡à¡’ à«π√à«¡ ´÷Ëß°“√¡’ à«π√à«¡¥—ß°≈à“« ‡°‘¥®“°°“√«“ß·ºπ‰«â·≈⫇æ◊ËÕ‡¢â“∂÷ß‚Õ°“ µ“¡∑’˵—Èß„® ¡“°àÕπ

2. Participatory procedure focuses on two purposes: 2.1 As a method, it is a process achieved once the project development was effectively started. It is also a support to achieve another future goal. Different techniques and participatory method can be used in seeking humankindûs concepts in planning and developing activities. 2.2 As a goal, it means that power of motivation in humankind can help them seek skills, knowledge, and experience, in themselves, when given more responsibilities in order to improve themselves and be able to find their structural relations and participatory actions that can be used as problem solving tools. Participatory procedure consists of the following: 1. Manipulation-is moving towards from the lowest step, non-participation. Participation is an early planning in order to approach opportunities.

°“√Õπÿ√—°…忓殑µ√°√√¡Ω“ºπ—ß (ŒŸª·µâ¡) „π®—ßÀ«—¥¡À“ “√§“¡ The Conservation of Mural Paintings (Hoop - Tam) in Maha Sarakham Province (Northeast Thailand)

2. ¢âÕ¡Ÿ≈ - ºŸâ¡’ à«π√à«¡∂Ÿ°°”À𥉫â·≈â« 3. °“√„À⧔ª√÷°…“ - §”∂“¡¢ÕߺŸâ¡’ à«π√à«¡  “¡“√∂µÕ∫‰¥â 4. °“√𔉪„™â - 𔉪„™â°—∫ºŸâ¡’ à«π√à«¡®“°°≈ÿà¡ µà“ßÊ 5. °“√ ”¡–‚π - °“√ªØ‘ —¡æ—π∏å¢ÕߺŸâ¡’ à«π√à«¡ ·≈–°“√«‘‡§√“–Àåªí≠À“·≈–À“º≈ √ÿª¢Õß‚§√ß°“√√à«¡°—π 6. °“√µ—¥ ‘π„® - ºŸâ¡’ à«π√à«¡µâÕß√«∫√«¡°“√ µ—¥ ‘π„®µà“ßÊ 7. §Ÿà√à«¡§‘¥ - ‡ªìπ°“√·≈°‡ª≈’ˬπ√–À«à“ßß“π∑’Ë¡’ §«“¡‡∑à“‡∑’¬¡°—π‰ª Ÿà‡ªÑ“À¡“¬‡À¡◊Õπ°—π 8. °“√®—¥°“√¥â«¬µ—«‡Õß - ºŸâ¡’ à«π√à«¡‡°‘¥¢÷Èπ „π‡√‘Ë¡·√°

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2. Information - Participants are specified. 3. Consultation - Participantsû questions can be answered. 4. Implementation - can be used with participants from different groups. 5. Consensus Building -Interaction, problems analysis, and project conclusion between participants. 6. Decision making - Participants must gather decisions. 7. Partnership - is a sharing from equal works to similar goals 8. Self-management - Participants are built.

Project Duration √–¬–‡«≈“°“√¥”‡π‘π°“√ October 2007 September 2008 (12 months) extended µ—Èß·µà‡¥◊Õπµÿ≈“§¡ 2550 ∂÷ß ∏—𫓧¡ 2551 to 3 months √«¡ 15 ‡¥◊Õπ

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°“√Õπÿ√—°…忓殑µ√°√√¡Ω“ºπ—ß (ŒŸª·µâ¡) „π®—ßÀ«—¥¡À“ “√§“¡ The Conservation of Mural Paintings (Hoop - Tam) in Maha Sarakham Province (Northeast Thailand)

hooptam 2