number 011. January/february 2015
CONTENTS published CARTIF Research Centre Boecillo Technology Park. Valladolid, Spain www.cartif.com
staff CARTIF Communication Department
One of us
CARTIF Head of Technology Areas
photography CARTIF Archive. Back cover: Typopótamo
EDITOR’S NOTE CARTIF being recognized by the scientific community for its activity, knowledge production and the merits and results achieved within its central research lines is the main objective of the Centre’s Research Plan. Without a doubt, CARTIF must act as a predominant agent in the development of the economy of knowledge in its environment, and with this purpose it is necessary to improve constantly the process of knowledge production, its transformation into ideas and innovative instruments, and their dissemination and use. The fast development of ideas in an increasingly interconnected world and without barriers, with an unprecedented rate in creation, accumulation, transformation, use and even devaluation of knowledge, today enables a technologically cutting-edge and profitable organization to reach obsolescence quickly if it does not found a good management program and a permanent renovation of its knowledge capital. The state of economic and systemic crisis that we are facing in our country and the rest of the European Union is not far from these reflections. Precisely as there are an increasing number of difficulties to carry out a quality investigation, we have decided to cover our work in investigation in this issue: the “R” in R&D&I, without which progress in industry and society would not be possible.
R” IN R&D&I
cartif news This news selection is just a small sample of the Center activities in the last months. You can follow us through our web and social networks. E2VENT, A NEW PROJECT IN ENERGY EFFICIENT VENTILATED FACADES With the Kick off meeting hosted by the Project coordinator (NOBATEK), this month begins the development of the E2VENT Project. Its aim is to demonstrate and validate a cost effective, high energy efficient, low CO2 emissions, replicable, low intrusive, systemic approach for retrofitting of residential and commercial buildings, able to achieve NZEB retrofit standard levels, through the integration of an innovative adaptive ventilated façade system.
CARTIF’S NEW H2020 PROJECT IN THE FIELD OF AUGMENTED REALITY INSITER is a research project within the EU research programme “Horizon 2020”. The key innovation of INSITER is the intuitive and costeffective Augmented Reality (AR) for self-inspection. The use of AR –that connects virtual and physical buildings in their environments at real-time– will ensure that the targeted performance in the design model is realised. INSITER will thus eliminate the gaps in quality and energy-performance between design and realisation of energy-efficient buildings made of prefabricated components.
CARTIF HOSTED REMOURBAN PROJECT KICK OFF MEETING From 17 to 19 February, CARTIF hosted the REMOURBAN project KoM, a project selected under the EUâ€™s Lighthouse project scheme whose guiding principles are impact and replicability. REMOURBAN is a 22-strong European partnership whose ultimate goal is drive forward urban regeneration in towns and cities to ensure social progress and environmental sustainability. To achieve this, the project will have five years to draw on pioneering solutions from energy, ICT, and mobility sectors using three lighthouse cities as demonstrators, and two follower cities as replicators.
CARTIF RESEARCHERS BEGIN A NEW EUROPEAN PROJECT IN BUILDINGS REFURBISHMENT The overall objective of BRESAER project is to design, develop and demonstrate an innovative, costeffective, adaptable and industrialized envelope system for buildings refurbishment including combined active and passive prefabricated solutions integrated in a versatile lightweight structural mesh. A real demonstration will be performed in an education building in Turkey. Four additional virtual demonstrations will be done in using real building in other European countries covering complementary climatic zones, constructed before the EPBD requirements were enacted.
keywords research lines congresses Research in a technology centre such as CARTIF, emerges from the necessity of improving the processes of production, diffusion and use of scientific and technological knowledge. A technology centre within the system sciencetechnology-society has to acquire a dual role: on the one hand, transferring the latest developments to companies, and on the other, acting as a producer of ideas and knowledge that may give way to new developments. Besides incorporating various research lines throughout the last 20 years, CARTIF has a Research Plan to guide its researchers from the production of new knowledge, to its management, use, commercial exploitation and diffusion. The work organization in the Centre has been planned traditionally into units of work called Divisions. Part of the success of the projects developed is due to the transversality of knowledge of these Divisions and to how the various research lines interact to offer the customer a comprehensive service.
Research lines The Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Division relies on a settled line of research included in the â€œIntelligent Knowledge-based Systems.â€? Within this field, the Division elaborates and applies the investigation to problems in the social sphere, industrial environment and services with the objective of obtaining technological, economic and socially viable solutions with a significant added value. Throughout the last 20 years, the main areas of application of this line of investigation have been the intelligent conservation and maintenance
thesis publications of infrastructure; human and social factors: eInclusion, eTraining, Ambient Assisted Living; and document management through incoherence detection and management. This research activity has determined diverse projects. Standing out among them, the CIBIC project meant an improvement in the services that companies of conservation of infrastructure provide. This is based on the application of new technologies to perform the concept of computational intelligence, in order to help enhance the quality and innovation of these services. As for the OPTIRAIL project, its main objective is
to develop an intelligent framework based on knowledge that helps optimize as much the operations of railway maintenance as the process of decision making on this maintenance in the European Union. As for the Robotics and Computer Vision Division, it has been performing an intense work of research, supported by a significant number of research projects and agreements as well as scientific publications. Researchers work on three research lines: Industrial and Service Robotics, recognition of shapes and textures and 3D-Color digitalization. Industrial Robotics allows the integration of sensors and custom-fitted actuators (embedded, joined or external) and acquisition systems for monitoring and control, line that combines with the recognition of shapes applied to a quality control in the agri-food and manufacturing industry. As for Social Robotics, it has resulted in the development of robots for transport of goods in
industrial and service sectors, as well as inspection, cleaning, and specific robots. Besides, another line of robots with the ability of social interaction is being currently worked on, with features such as speech recognition, facial recognition, dialog management, and speech emotion recognition, which can also provide services to people. The lines of recognition of shapes and digitalization are used in the infrastructure, construction, and the artistic heritage sectors, as they allow the development of infrastructure inspection systems for civil and railway engineering (roads, tunnels, bridges). Subsequently, their digitalization and the deformation analyses are performed, along with the monitoring of the damaging process. Besides, this line works on the quantitative characterization and automatic extraction of blueprints, the immersion in graphic environments, virtual or augmented reality and the production of computerized catalogs for documentation, diagnosis, intervention and diffusion. Among the projects performed by this Division’s research staff, one of the most emblematic is “Service robots with interaction capacity. Validation through large periods in the hotel area.” In this project, a social robot named “Sacarino” has been developed to perform the role of a bellhop in a hotel. After years of investigation, it is already in the process of being introduced to the market. The Food and Agriculture and Sustainable Processes Division comprises the majority of the staff in CARTIF, and addresses the investigation taking into account the principles of Circular Economy. That is why among its six lines of investigation there is the extraction and purification of natural compounds and inclusion on the matrix of products with higher added value (from the agri-food, cosmetic and/or pharmaceutical sectors, working on the design of the extraction process until it is scaled up in the pilot plant), and the application of processes and biotechnological tools into the agri-food industry. The DIANA project exemplifies the first of these lines when obtaining healthy food products
from new formulations of natural antioxidants, while the VALORPLUS project, included in the KBBE program, and resulting from our work in the second line, bets on the development of integrated closed-cycle biorefineries, making a complete use of biomass, minimizing waste production and generating the highest possible value from the available resources. The project â€œExtraction of 2nd generation biofuel through the application of co-gasification; Biorefineries based on thermochemical principles,â€? from the PID Program, would make a good example of the performance within the line of development of co-gasification technology, pyrolysis and roasting for their industrial application. There are three more lines in the environmental sphere. First, the energetic evaluation and waste material and derivatives, which covers the treatment from a physical perspective (separation processes, micronization, thermoforming, additivation), chemical (solvolysis, cracking, thermolysis) and biological (biomethanation of organic waste). Second, the line of advance technologies on the treatment of effluents, which studies systems of filtration, including the elimination of emerging contaminants such as endocrine disruptors, as well as the recovery of products of high added value in the biotechnological sector. The TECOAGUA project evaluated technologies that could lower THMs below legally established levels in the water for human consumption that the water purification plants provide. Finally, the line of development of products and formulations to apply in urban environments towards the elimination of gas pollution has been working on the sensing of contamination and the methods to add TiO2 in materials such as mortar, paint or asphalt pavements, and its functioning in action. Two patents resulted from this line: a device that monitors air quality and a photocatalytic formulation for the treatment of asphalt that eradicates contamination produced by traffic.
In the Automation and Industrial Control Division, the research lines are directed towards an improvement in the efficiency of the processes and an increase in the productivity of factories. In the most traditional scope of the Predictive Maintenance and Industrial Diagnosis, diagnostics algorithms have been developed or adapted based on spectral analysis, physical models or artificial intelligence applying them to specific problems. Using them along with statistical and mathematical methods to detect changes in signs, it is possible to predict the future development of the detected errors. On the other hand, investigation in the Optimal Control of Industrial Processes aims for the precise functioning in the lines of production that accomplishes an agreement between the various requirements, often conflicting, that take control in the process. Some methods have been developed and applied in this field for the energetic optimization or the
systems, and installed at the paint area in the Renault factory in Valladolid. The machine learning techniques have been used in the maintenance of suburban trains, developing a decision-making system to predict breakdowns and generate optimal maintenance plans automatically.
improvement of performance so as to reach the defined operational marks. Among the latest research lines, there is the Machine Learning, Expert Systems and Data Science Techniques. These are transversal tools that may be applied to various Big Data issues in the industrial sphere. The methods that have been developed these past years include tools for the classification of faults from the measured data, the adjustment of functioning models and decision making. Also, these methods can be used for the prediction of human behavior. These research lines and others developed in the Automation Division have been applied to numerous projects, thereupon allowing their validation in the industrial environment. For instance, the LASHARE and CLET projects have developed new methods to monitor quality in laser welding. CARTIF has developed a predictive maintenance system for electric engines of variable speed, applied in this case to ventilation
The Mechanical Engineering Division relies on competences of experimentation and simulation of the mechanical and structural behavior in the different machine materials and components. Even though simple analyses are enough to cover most of the design needs and prototyping can be, some cases require more sophisticated calculations. Among them, material nonlinearity stands out due to the lamination of metals, the structural damage or the mechanical fatigue. Material nonlinearity has been the target of various research projects with notable scientific and technical productivity. Likewise, some methodologies have been proposed to cover geometric nonlinearity due to issues of local contact and large distances. Precisely, following the actual disposition to use materials with a better performance, it has become necessary to consider aspects which traditionally did not determine design. There is a new need to implement systems to add structural damping in order to restrict vibratory movements of big structures such as industrial chimneys, solar trackers, wind turbines or pedestrian bridges. It is important to be aware of the big oscillations that these structures suffer due to indeterminate actions (turbulent air, pedestrian transit). For this, one turns to systematic formulations of structural and fluid mechanics models, something that requires high computational abilities. In this regard, CARTIF has actively cooperated with research groups from other national universities (UCLM, UPM) and foreign (Sheffield and Warwick, UK). This cooperation consisted in long stays by the research staff, obtaining PhDs with European mention and joint participation in the organization of conferences such as the recent 6WCSCM, on monitoring and structural control.
In collaboration with the Clinical Hospital of Valladolid and based on computational simulations, another research line has developed a multiscale model that allows the prediction, with enough precision to be clinically relevant, of the risk of disruption of abdominal aortic aneurysm upon personalized bases of the patient. Through biomechanical factors, one can formulate the socalled Risk Measure, expected to be applied as a tool for medical decision making. The previous activities take part in the field of mechanical engineer, having interconnections with other branches of engineering such as automation, control and information technology or medicine. In this regard, as a result from the multidisciplinary work, new low-cost monitoring systems have been implemented, and new patents on electromagnetic devices have been registered. The Biomedical Engineering Division suggests an approach called “Integrated Health Technologies,” whose objective lies in the development of methods, technologies and health solutions that allow the application of robot systems in direct interaction with a human being, taking into account the physiological state of the individual and being capable of handling high quantities of data, information and knowledge (through its capture or interaction with external systems) with the reliability, security and efficiency needed in this field. The work is focused on two areas: one is the development of technology for the treatment of chronic patients and the other is robotics applied to health. The first line means one of the big challenges in Europe currently: population ageing. The actions suggested to ease this problem are bidirectional: one is directed towards the development of integrated and innovative socialsanitary management models, and the other is to build the technology to support these new models. In CARTIF, research has specialized in the use of international standards of interoperability in information systems in health care environments; said standards are those that allow multiple
information systems, applications in the patient’s permanent residence, health centre, hospital or other health service providers to be able to show and understand the information that they share. This has not been resolved at a technological level and still remains a hot line of investigation. The second line works on the development and evolution of robotics applied to rehabilitation. Physiobot is a Cartesian robot with haptic control, whose task is to stimulate neuroplasticity in patients who have suffered a cerebrovascular accident (CVA), using games and applying the “Assist as needed” paradigm (complementing movement assisting according to the specific needs). In addition to the technological development, we are collaborating with Brain Damage Units for a clinical validation, with interesting preliminary results. The Energy Division started focusing its investigation on the development of wind prediction tools. Our teams have developed techniques for the energy prediction in wind farms, relying on in-situ measures and meteorological
variables with a short-term forecasting horizon (from 8-24 hours in isolated networks, and 24-48 hours in inter-connected networks). Another supplementary line was the Interaction of wind energy with the electrical grid and the accumulation in hydrogen. Drawing from the study of the impact that wind technology has within the electrical grid (on a quality level and discontinuity of output power level), systems have been designed based on fuel cells and electrolysers so as to improve its management, assuming the power variations of wind farms. Therefore, through a parallel operation, the network provider has to see in the combination wind generation-fuel cells a flexible system facing the demand variations. The Systems of remote management and control line is based on the remote management of installations of any nature in order to improve their reliability and minimize maintenance expenses. If we are talking about buildings, the aim is to ensure comfort and minimize energy expenses.
The Cooling through renewable sources line works on the integration of alternative air conditioning systems in buildings, using jointly solar thermal energy and photovoltaic energy, geothermal energy and cooling through absorption refrigerators. The BaaS project is the best example on the line of Home control and automation, and creation of intelligent systems. It seeks the optimization of energy yield within the
application domain of non-residential buildings, during their operating stage. The Baas system encompasses a data management system, a platform of middleware systems, predictive energy models and service control, and APO services (advanced planning and optimization). Finally, one of the most successful lines of investigation within the Division and CARTIF is that of Energy efficiency in buildings and districts. SMART CITIES. Through the projects underway, a new model of a comprehensive and sustainable urban regeneration is under development. This model lies in the urban implementation of innovative technological solutions into the energy, transport and ICT sectors, for the purpose of accelerating the transformation of the European cities into intelligent urban areas towards social progress and environmental recovery, as well as catchment areas and those that contribute to economic growth. The DIRECTION, R2CITIES, CITyFiED and REMOURBAN projects are the best current examples of the work performed in this line.
Scientific contributions The development of these research lines, at a scientific level, has been recorded in prestigious national and international publications, of which more than a half belong to magazines indexed in JCR-SCI (Journal Citation Reports). The complete list can be consulted from the CARTIF website. Besides, the Centre keeps alliances with academic and research institutions from all over the world, and their researchers participate in the international congresses of reference in their subjects of research.
SCIENTIFIC CONTRIBUTIONS 2004 - 2014 RESEARCH LINES
one of us
one of us Ramón Verea (Galicia, Spain 1833 - Buenos Aires 1899)
Journalist, writer. He devised the first calculating machine. In 1848, following the wish of his uncle to for a priestly career, the young Ramón enrolled the Seminario Conciliar in Santiago de Compostela. Verea stayed in the seminary for six years and appears immediately as a great student, achieving remarkable results in philosophy, Hebrew, etc. Verea’s curious mind however always tried to investigate the reason behind everything, thus his numerous questions could not get the appropriate answers from his religious teachers. In 1855 Verea shipped to Cuba, to begin his real life adventure. There he started as a school master and teacher, wrote two novels and writes as a journalist for newspapers like El Progreso. In 1865 Verea moved to New York, USA, looking for better luck. There he started as a journalist in a biweekly Spanish-language newspaper. At the same time, Verea kept his interest in inventions and in machinery. In 1875 established an “Industrial Agency for the Purchase of Machinery and Effects of Modern Invention”. Hearing the complains of his Spanish friends and insinuations of his American friends, that
the Spanish have fallen behind in the historical process of scientific and technical progress, that the Spanish had no capacity to adapt, that his time had passed, he decided to prove the opposite, creating a very interesting directmultiplying calculating machine. Verea’s calculator was a made of iron and steel machine about 22 kilograms, 35 cm long, 30 cm wide and 20 cm high. It was able to add, multiply and divide numbers of nine figures, allowing up to six numbers in the multiplier and fifteen in the product. The multiplication solved through the direct method, based on a mechanism patented by Edmund D. Barbour in 1872. Verea saw how to do the whole multiplication in one stroke of a lever. During a demonstration, the device could solve 698,543,721 x 807,689 in twenty seconds, an amazing speed for the time. The prototype of Verea’s machine, which was sent by the inventor to the US Patent Office, together with the application in July, 1878, was kept in the tanks of the headquarters of IBM in White Plains (New York).
Secchi,N; Giunta, D; Ruiz García, M; Bioconversion of ovine scotta into lactic acid with pure and mixed cultures of lactic acid bacteria. JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY Scotta is the main by-product in the making of ricotta cheese. It is widely produced in southern Europe and particularly in Italy where it represents a serious environmental pollutant due to its high lactose content. The aim is evaluating whether scotta bioconversion into lactic acid can be considered as an alternative to its disposal, besides providing it with an added value. The outcomes indicate that ovine scotta can be utilized for the biotechnological production of lactic acid with yields up to 92%, comparable to those obtained on cheese-whey. Moreover, the use of mixed cultures for scotta bioconversion reduces the need for nutritional supplements, with no detrimental effects on the productive parameters compared to pure cultures.
Vélez, F; Segovia, J; Quijano, A; A technical, economical and market review of organic Rankine cycles for the conversion of low-grade heat for power generation. RENEWABLE AND SUSTAINABLE ENERGY REVIEWS.
Gómez, J; Zalama, E, and Feliz, R; Automated registration of 3D scans using geometric features and normalized color data. COMPUTER-AIDED CIVIL AND INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING.
This paper presents an overview of the technical and economic aspects, as well as the market evolution of the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). This is an unconventional but very promising technology for the conversion of thermal energy, at low and medium temperatures, into electrical and/or mechanical energy on a small scale. As it makes a greater and/or more intensive use of its energy source, this technology could facilitate an electricity supply to unconnected areas, the self-production of energy, the desalination of seawater for human consumption, or even to increase the energy efficiency in the industrial sector respecting the environment.
Laser range sensors are playing an increased role in construction. These devices are used to collect a large number of points from different locations and then, those points are registered in a common framework. This article describes a new procedure for the registration of point clouds, especially suited to the fields of architecture and cultural heritage. Often, in these fields, the registration of point clouds is subject to errors due, but in this article, an accurate and efficient approach for 3D data registration based on Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm is proposed, which takes advantage of the color data acquired along with range data.