number 006. May 2014
SMART CITIES: ENERGY
CONTENTS published CARTIF Research Centre Boecillo Technology Park. Valladolid, Spain www.cartif.com
staff Ana García, María Parcero
collaborations Energy and Environment Area.
One of us
photography CARTIF, Valladolid Municipality, Lunds Kommun
EDITORâ€™S NOTE Energy is a constant in our lives. Our way of life depends on its production and management. A world without power would collapse.
But energy sources are depleted. Its price rises and our quality of life jeopardize and become more expensive. Hence science and technology work towards alternative sources; renewable energies. How to reduce consumption, reduce demand, integrate local energy sources and manage the process efficiently are the main contents of this issue of CARTIF NEWSVIEW. The integration of renewables in buildings, both new construction and rehabilitated, monitory and integrated resource management, the consumption and demand reduction and produce less pollutant emissions are the objectives of more than a dozen ongoing projects in CARTIF. How are thought the best solutions, reflected in projects and results are obtained, speaks part of the Centre Energy team. And the impact of these results and the different scopes in which solutions are sought, the main story. We hope youâ€™ll enjoy it.
N, LESS WASTE, LOWER COSTS
cartif news This news selection is just a small sample of the Center activities in the last month. You can follow us through our web and social networks. PUBLIC PRESENTATION OF CITYFIED PROJECT IN VALLADOLID CITyFiED is a 5-year endeavour cofunded by the EU and led by CARTIF. The consortium comprises 18 partners from Spain, Sweden, Turkey, Belgium and Germany. The underlying purpose of CITyFiED is to develop a replicable, systemic and integrated strategy to transform European urban ecosystems into smart cities of the future. It will focus on reducing energy demand and GHG emissions while increasing the use of renewable energy sources. CITyFiED aims to achieve this by developing and implementing innovative technology and methodologies for building renovation, smart grids, district heating networks, and mobility.
CARTIF WINS THE “BEST PROJECT OF THE YEAR” AWARD This award is given by the Spanish newspaper EL MUNDO, through the special edition “Innovators”. This supplement is dedicated to show the best works in Science and Technology done in Spain. The project awarded this year is focused on preventive technologies for railway infrastructure. These technologies are applied through Computer Intelligence techniques to the domain of transport infrastructures preservation, and it also allows to increase the infrastructures’ lifetime as well as reducing conservation and maintenance costs.
DIRECTION PROJECT WILL BE PRESENT IN THE NEXT EUSEW On occasion of EUSEW 2014, the four projects DIRECTION, BUILDSMART, NEXTBuildings and NEED4B have organized the conference â€œNearly-zero energy buildings in Europe. Recommendations from research, 14 demonstration sites and 30 buildingsâ€?. The conference is organized by four European projects aiming at demonstrating on how low energy efficient buildings can be achieved at affordable costs for the benefit of a sustainable environment and how the users of the buildings can enjoy a comfortable environment at work and in everyday life. The date is on 23 June 2014, at the Committee of the Regions, Brussels.
R2CITIES ATTENDS THE II EECN CONGRESS IN MADRID CARTIF researchers presented the methodology used in this FP7 Project, led by the Spanish Centre. The project aims to develop and demonstrate an open and easily replicable strategy for designing, constructing, and managing large scale district renovation projects for achieving nearly zero energy cities. For this purpose, it will be developed a demonstration and dissemination framework of very innovative strategies and solutions for building energy renovation at district level This Congress is a large event that brought together the main stakeholders of the energy sector in Spain.
keywords energy efficiency zero waste integration of renewable energy Reducing economic and environmental costs of power generation has become in one of main aims of researchers in this area. In CARTIF, the first line of research in this field began to develop fifteen years ago. The renewable energy and its possibilities as alternative of fossil fuels was at the fore of the most innovative projects. Soon, the research turned to the concepts of integration of renewable energy in buildings, remote management, monitoring and control. Home automation and smart environments were the following players. The next step was the concept of â€œsmart citiesâ€?. Both energy production and final consumption, the target is to reduce energy costs and to consume less, produce less waste and lower costs of production (in the case of industry) or electricity expenditure and thermal comfort (heating and cooling).
nearly zero-energy smart cities
through VII PM, began. Its aim was to achieve a building of very low power consumption (less than 60 kw / h per m2 per year), in addition to reducing 60% of CO2 emissions. Apart from coordinating the project, CARTIF offered one of its new buildings as a demonstrator, where new developments would apply.
The projects carried out by the team of CARTIF reflect this evolution. Just two years ago DIRECTION project, co-funded by the EU
The goal is consume less, produce less waste and lower costs of production
Cuatro de Marzo District. Valladolid. R2CITIES Project
mosite. Valladolid. CITyFiED Project
mosite. Lund. CITyFiED Project
Residential building Another step was the R2CITIES project, also with European funding. The project is being developed at district scale. The innovative energy saving and CO2 emission reduction technologies will be demonstrated in fullscale, involving 57,000 m2 housing spread over three districts in three different cities. The planned energy efficiency measures focus on three points: reduce thermal consumption -insulation improvements and implementation of systems based on ICT-monitoring technologies; reduce electricity consumption through sensors in common areas, lighting equipment more efficient or detailed billing; and reduce CO2 emissions through renewable energy systems such as solar photovoltaic, solar thermal and biomass boilers. CARTIF led another great European project even larger scale: CITyFiED. Launched in April 2014, is the biggest challenge of CARTIF getting to apply advanced technologies in energy management. No fewer than 2,328 housing units rehabilitated in the next five years, in three different countries and with different environments and climates. Three demonstrators in residential districts in Spain, Sweden, and Turkey and 7,000 citizens involved in this process.
keywords Non residential buildings The energy consumption in this sector is 40% higher than residential buildings. Public, administrative and commercial buildings are another important stage of the projects in which CARTIF is working. Under BRICKER project, the behaviour of these technologies in educational, administrative and health buildings will be studied. The key asset lies in their replicability so that architects, designers, promoters and end-users alike may adopt these solutions. The project will ensure the widest impact possible through an ambitious dissemination and exploitation strategy. This includes workshops for local stakeholders, training seminars/webinars and a best practice book at the end of the project. CommONEnergy project has the objective to re-conceptualize shopping malls through deep retroffiting, develop a systemic approach made of technologies and solutions sets as well as methods and tools to support their implementation. Geothermal heat pumps to meet the buildingÂ´s energy needs
Mercado del Val. Spanish case study. Commonenergy Project
(hot and cold), efficient lighting elements, an automated control solution for managing the renovation of air flows and the switching of equipment, improved of the covering glass envelope, increasing the energy efficiency with exploitation of hot air currents to meet energy needs. A project that applies its technology in the residential and tertiary sector buildings is INSPIRE. In this case, the aim is to conceiving, developing and demonstrating Systemic Renovation Packages, through the innovative integration of envelope technologies, energy generation (including RES integration), energy distribution, lighting and comfort management systems into deep energy renovation of buildings. In summary, CARTIF will work in the coming years in nearly of 20 European projects directly related to energy management, optimizing production and reducing polluting waste.
CARTIF 3 building. Spanish demosite. DIRECTION Project
talking with… CARTIF Energy Division researchers One of the most common principles in CARTIF is to have a multidisciplinary team that allows to address projects holistically. The team composed of 21 researchers is a good example of that maxim is true and gives great results. These five researchers on behalf of the team, have frequently repeated that the key to success is to share experiences, knowledge and ideas. Miguel Ángel García outlines the four pillars to be addressed in any project related to energy efficiency in the building sector, either for new buildings or regeneration of those existing or urban areas, and are some of the main lines of work of the division in this area: the passive building design, implementation of highly efficient systems, integration of renewable and efficient monitoring and control of these systems in an integrated manner, that requiring the work of multidisciplinary teams. The lines of research in the CARTIF Energy Division have been evolving at the same time of the rest of Europe and as a result of market demand, but, above all, the legislative initiative of community and national governments. As Julia Vicente reminds, the case of Spain has been somewhat different, because in a few years it has gone from over stimulation and promotion of energy production from renewable resources to maintain uncertainty
CARTIF’s goal is acting as a bridge between basic research and final users
about future strategy regarding initiatives of this type. However, all researchers agree that, without the encouragement of governments (economic or legislative action) would not have produced the leap in research on power generation from renewable sources and that has involved the integration of renewable energy technologies and their different technologies in people’s everyday experience.
Changing economic, political and social spheres in the last five years has also been a factor in recent political shifts, according to Rubén Garcia. Ali Vasallo admits that we must also take into account that technologies
Rubén García Pajares. Computer Engineer. Master on Engineering and Process Systems Research. Smart Cities. ICT for energy efficiency
Miguel Ángel García. Architect. Master in Architecture Research. Passive and active systems to improve energy efficiency
take time to be ripe to make the leap to the market and that both factors indicate the lines to be followed by legislators, businesses and consumers. In the case of applied research groups, new project ideas have their origin in past experience, but also in an adaptation to the guidelines set by funders. In the case of Europe, the EC gets advice from certain consultant organisms composed of experts and companies, and legislates and funds research based upon the specific needs of each sector. CARTIF is already present in many of these support agencies, such as the Green Building Council Spain (GBCe), the E2BA (European Association of High Efficiency Building), ECTP (European Construction Technology Platform) or Smart City Valladolid and Palencia (germ of CARTIF’s and both councils work). As Ruben García reminds, it should be noted the paradigm shift from previous Framework Programmes to the new Horizon 2020. If until 2013 the EU funded basic research projects, with excellent results, from 2014 there is a turn towards supporting project with a larger demonstration component, ie,
most likely to hit the market and therefore being economically exploited. It is not enough to involve companies, government and research organizations, but the technology has to reach citizens and they have to benefit directly from it. Hence, most of the projects we are working have a direct impact on a large segment of citizens (for example, cited in the Keywords section of this number). Acting as a bridge between basic researches, which often make universities and public centres, and the end user of the product or service is precisely the philosophy of CARTIF as a research centre. The ideas come to be implemented for different reasons. Sometimes arise in response to a specific need of the client (company, citizen, Publics Entities). Others are a continuation of previous projects that can continue developing the results. And in other cases, the researchers studied carefully the lines financed by public entities such as the EC, and look for how to adapt to the requirements of competitive calls. In words of Susana Gutiérrez, the action that best represents the strategy of a research centre is to risk. CARTIF chose to risk in the European context and after years of hard work, has managed to be a leader in
Julia Vicente. Industrial Engineer. M Sc Eng in Processes and Systems Engineering. Monitoring and control of energy installations
Ali Vasallo. PhD Industrial Engineer. Passive and active systems to improve energy efficiency
certain areas. Ali Vasallo agrees with this view, supplementing with this thought: we must also be able to adapt quickly to research strategies that are coming from Europe and around the world. To which Julia Vicente added that is important transmit the innovation to society as something positive, useful and profitable. Thus, most citizens will perceive that investment in R&D&I have an output. However, ideas are just one part of the proposal, implementation and reporting process of a project. From an idea that is valued as the core of a project until it begins to run can take several years. There are many agents, a lot of explaining and a lot to convince. In line with the guidelines of the new funding EU programs of innovation, projects that are preparing now seeking an active participation of SMEs to get that visibility to the citizen. Maybe that’s why, if they reflect on the challenges of the division for the next five years, researchers agree. Susana Gutiérrez commits to take the final leap in the scale of the district to city within the Smart Cities initiative. Although implies some difficulties (especially, to convince all the agents that participate in the process), Gutierrez believes that the
Centre is at the right time. Miguel Ángel García agrees with this opinion, but emphasizes that align the interests of these agents is difficult and in this challenge, the role of technology centres as articulators is essential.
Risk is the word that better express what a research centre is
Julia Vicente believes that another big challenge is to get citizen involvement, so that technological changes perceived as something positive, something that, according to Ruben Garcia, will happen when starting to see the positive results of the actions undertaken in neighbourhoods and buildings. Ali Vasallo completes these ideas with a more general one: to get R&D&I projects without the financial support of public institutions, only because firms perceive that their investment will have a clear return. Generating business models that do not depend on subsidies is one of the biggest hurdles to overcome in the next decade.
Susana Gutiérrez. Computer Engineer. Master in Advanced Artificial Intelligence (A.I.). ICTs applied to energy efficiency, aimed at the creation of intelligent environments
one of us
one of us Mónico Sánchez Moreno (Ciudad Real 1880 - Ciudad Real 1961) He played a pioneering role in radiology, wireless telecommunications and electrotherapy. The portable X-ray machine was invented by him in 1909. Mónico Sánchez represents the “American Dream” of the beginning of 20s in Spain. He was born in Piedrabuena (Ciudad Real), a town of just 4,000 inhabitants, which 75% were illiterate. He had the opportunity to go to school, where his teacher encouraged him to continue studying and showed him the importance of curiosity. Without Elementary Post-secondary education, he moved to Madrid to study electrical engineering but he could not enroll in engineering school due to student strikes. Later he heard that US Professor Joseph Wetzler was offering a distance course in electrotechnics. The course was in English and Mónico did not know anything about that language but, he get to finished it. Then, Wetzler recommended him for a position in a company in New York. In 1904, he arrived at USA with $ 60 in his pocket. He managed to do several courses, including one at the University of Columbia. After that, he joined as engineer in Van Houten and Ten Broeck Company, specialized in applying electricity to medicine. There he invented a portable X-ray machine. Just weighed 10 kg, compared to
400 for traditional equipment. The French Army ordered 60 units. His next professional step was in The Collins Wireless Telephone Company, who hired him as chief engineer to sell its portable X-ray machine, for which they paid half a million $ of that time. This company meant to develop wireless telephones, but the forecasts failed. The problem was that their telephone with a carbon microphone, gradually warming and fire after 15 minutes to speak without interruption. In 1909, Sánchez participated in the Third Exhibition of Electricity. Standing next to him is the representative for General Electric (Thomas Edison), and behind the latter, the man from Westinghouse (Nikola Tesla). In 1912, Sánchez returned to Piedrabuena as a millionaire entrepreneur and set up the European Electrical Sánchez Company, a high-tech center where he wanted to mass produce its own technology, although, first he had to build a power station since electricity had not come to town yet. After his death, the laboratory was closed. Many of the devices manufactured are displayed in the Spanish National Museum of Science and Technology. More information in
cartif selection GARCÍA-FUENTES, M., HERNÁNDEZ, J., DE TORRE, C., GARCÍA-GIL, D., MEISS, A. (2013). ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND COMFORT CONDITIONS IMPROVEMENT ON HISTORIC BUILDINGS: A METHODOLOGY APPROACH FOR DIAGNOSIS AND INTERVENTIONS. Conference paper. Proceedings of Central European Symposium on Building Physics (CESBP) 2013. Vienna, Austria. DE TORRE, C., SIMONIS, H., MACÍA, A., GARCÍA, M., VALMASEDA, C. (2013). THERMAL ENERGY FLOW BALANCING FOR OPTIMIZING ENERGY PERFORMANCE IN PUBLIC SWIMMING POOLS WITH SOLAR THERMAL MICRO-GENERATION: A CASE STUDY. Conference paper. Proceedings of Central European Symposium on Building Physics (CESBP) 2013. Vienna, Austria.
Apps to encourage home efficiency, the classic from Richard Rogers and two papers from CARTIF researchers are our recommendations this month
OPOWER: SMARTER DECISIONS IN ENERGY USE The Facebook “social energy” app done with Opower lets people compare their energy usage to friends, as a way to encourage home efficiency. Opower works with utilities around the world to help their customers make smarter decisions about their energy use. The main idea is to help people save tens of millions of dollars on their energy bills and in the process stopped more than a billion tons of carbon dioxide from entering the atmosphere.
CITIES FOR A SMALL PLANET. Richard Rogers. Basic Books. 1998. 196 Pgs. 25 € Nothing else damages the earth’s environment more than our cities. As the world’s population has grown, our cities have burgeoned, and their impact on the environment worsened. In Cities for a Small Planet, Sir Richard Rogers, one of the world’s leading architects, demonstrates how future cities could provide the springboard for restoring humanity’s harmony with its environment. Rogers outlines the disastrous impact cities have had and will continue to have on our world. He traces these problems to the underlying social and cultural values that create them—unchecked commercial zeal, selfish individualism, and a lack of community.
LIGHTSMART: HOME ENERGY EFFICIENCY The LightSmart App, is a free app designed to help consumers transition their home lighting to energy efficient technology. Through interactive screens, users are able to take a photo of their room, and see how differences in light would impact their space. Consumers can learn about concepts of energy savings, color, light and wattage, and then create a shopping list to take with them to a store. Available on app store: