"Moving in Nairobi" - SBAU 2019

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MoVinG in NAiRobi

COMMUTERS TELL TALES FROM THE STREETS

Explore the Kenyan capital of Nairobi through the eyes of four commuters as they walk, ride motorcycles (boda boda), take buses (matatu), and hire Ubers from the wealthy neighborhoods adjacent to the United Nations to the low-income communities in the city center. Human movement data acquired from Uber, cell phones,

and Google’s Traffic API are animated on these walls showing the extent of the city’s congestion. Videos show four people’s daily commute playing in sync as their paths are drawn within this animated map.

Twenty-two people relocate to Nairobi every hour, and this rapid pace of development has

meant that transport infrastructure has not caught up with the needs of the public. Threeand-a-half-million people move through this East African capital every day, and the lack of coordinated transportation planning often causes the city to grind to a halt. Nairobi is ranked fourth among cities with the worst commuting

experience worldwide, with commuters stuck in gridlock for hours on end. Transportation infrastructure must be addressed to improve the lives and economy of Nairobians.

inside PAGE 6 — Who are the people behind Nairobi’s matatus? PAGE 4 — Life of a pedestrian in Nairobi PAGE 2 — Africa’s booming population. VOL. 1, ISSUE 1. 7 SEPTEMBER - 10 NOVEMBER SEOUL, SOUTH KOREA
What’s

URBANIZATION & TRAFFIC IN AFRICA

More than 50% of the world’s now population lives in cities. By 2050 this figure is expected climb to 68%.

Africa is experiencing the one of the highest rates of urbanization across the globe. Though most of the continent’s population is rural, with only 40% living in cities, the number of urban dwellers is increasing faster than any other region on the planet.

In some African cities, like Lagos and Kinshasa, the urban population increases by more than sixty people per hour. In Nairobi, where the four commuters in this project live, that figure is twenty-two people per hour. Compare this to the fastest growing city in the United States: three people moved to Phoenix each hour in 2018.

Peak-hour commuters in Nairobi spend an average of 320 hours a year in traffic. The equivalent of more than 13 days.

One of the consequences of such rapid urbanization in African cities is the increase of urban traffic. People who relocate to Nairobi are met with some of the most brutal traffic jams on the continent. Part of the problem is due to outdated and poorly maintained roads: potholes, crumbling asphalt, and, ironically, road repair equipment, can render lanes on major arterial roads unusable. Traffic in Nairobi is made worse by the sheer number of cars on the road, which has grown exponentially since Uber and other ride-sharing apps hit the roadways. With close to 15% of Nairobi’s population spending an average of 4 hours in traffic to commute to work, the gridlock is unsustainable.

The traffic problem is starkly visible when we compare commute times in Nairobi to those in other high-density urban areas (see Figure 3). A ten-kilometer commute in Seoul takes just twenty-one minutes. In New York, a commuter can cover the same distance in thirty-two minutes, and in London forty. In Nairobi, a commute of ten kilometers takes one hour and eighteen minutes, nearly double the London figure.

To combat the city’s traffic, the Nairobi city government has announced many efforts, including car-free days, bans on busses (matatus) and cars in the City Center, and the construction of bicycle routes and pedestrian paths, but many of these plans are decades-long. In the following pages we will meet commuters and hear of their experiences commuting through hours in gridlock.

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AFRICA’S FASTEST-GROWING CITIES

POPULATION GROWTH PER HOUR, 2010-2030

JOHANNESBURG

(1)

3 MOVING IN NAIROBI 9.07 - 11.10
UN WORLD URBANIZATION PROSPECTS (2014)
Cairo EGYPT SOUTH SUDAN Khartoum COTE D’IVOIRE Abidjan MALI BAMAKO BURKINA FASO Ouagadougou KENYA Nairobi ANGOLA Luanda DRC KINSHASA NIGERIA LAGOS +77 ppl/hr +44 people per hour +22 ppl/hr +21 ppl/hr +21 ppl/hr +21 ppl/hr +23 ppl/hr +19 ppl/hr +61 ppl/hr +34 ppl/hr SOUTH AFRICA
SALON, GULYANY (2019), MOBILITY, POVERTY AND GENDER: TRAVEL ‘CHOICES’ OF SLUM RESIDENTS IN NAIROBI 10 min rush hour New York City 32mins London 40mi s Seoul 21m ns NAIROBI 1hr 18min NYC 32mins
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cover 10Km during peak hours traffic in Seoul,
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(3) Time needed to
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SOMBA BUILDS PUBLIC SPACES IN KIBERA

Twice daily, Somba makes his way on foot through the Kenyan capital to work. Many of his fellow walkers are schoolchildren, who congregate at the sides of busy streets in groups, waiting to cross safely. Somba, who some consider the self-appointed Mayor of Kibera, meets many friends and neighbors walking through Kibera on their way to work in Nairobi’s Central Business District – a journey that can take over an hour.

Somba experiences the struggles of being a pedestrian in Nairobi. In wealthy neighborhoods, where everyone drives or is driven and no one walks, there are sidewalks on nearly every street; in busy, crowded, commercial and lower-income residential areas where many people walk, there are no sidewalks.

Pedestrian safety has become a key concern for the city where 80% of streets do not have a place for pedestrians to safely walk. This concern is echoed on the global scale, as many rapidly developing cities face the same problems. The 2030 Sustainable Development Goal (STG) has made road safety a topic that must be addressed.

The lack of sidewalks in Nairobi has much to do with the lack of planning: many new roads are approved without the addition of sidewalks or ways for pedestrians to cross the street, leaving pedestrians to run across four lanes of highway. Yet, with close to half (47%) of Nairobi’s commuters walking each day, planning must address their safety as deaths due to traffic accidents are now higher than heart attacks. In 2017, 261 pedestrians were

killed in traffic accidents alone, 63% of the total number of deaths in traffic.

Those living in some of Nairobi’s poorest communities, such as Mathare and Kibera, are unable to afford the fare on traditional transit options like matatus (buses) and boda bodas (motocycles) and must walk to work, some walk up to 12 miles each day. The long hours spent on streets that are choked with fumes from matatus, trucks, and cars, create serious health problems for pedestrians, beyond the danger of being unprotected in the middle of traffic. Improving the urban design of the city’s streets to create shared roadways could greatly improve the safety and health of Nairobi’s public.

Somba, does his part to improve his neighborhood. He works at Kounkuey Design Initiative (KDI) and urban design practice focused on improving the urban design and public spaces in Kibera. Somba is seen here standing in front of one of the most well-known projects developed by KDI which transformed a dumping ground into a public space that everyone in Kiberia uses. According to KDI “each element of the public space is part of a system: the pavilion (seen here), for example, is rented out to a school and a church; its roof captures rainwater that helps grow sustainable produce and generate income.” Nairobi residents are keen to do their part towards improving their communities and Somba’s work in Kibera is a great example.

See Somba’s trip on pages 8-9

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(1) Somba Muchiri, pictured in Kibera. (2) Kibera Public Space Project 06 works as sanitation facility and flood protection. (Image credit: kounkuey.org)
1 2 3
(3) Housing density leaves little traditional open space for children to play. This play zone is part of the Kiberia 4 project completed by The Kounkuey Design Initiative (Image credit: kounkuey.org)
I walk one hour each way through the narrow alleys and hills of Kibera. Sometimes the rains make it hard to pass, but I know the shortcuts.”

RIDEHAILER

hailing companies such as Taxify and Little Cab play an important role within the city mobility picture. Demand for ridehailing services in the growing class in Nairobi is making business very attractive to investors.

1-4 adult passengers

Taxi hailing companies such as Uber, Taxify and Little Cab play an important role within the city mobility picture. Demand for ridehailing services in the growing middle class in Nairobi is making the taxi business very attractive to investors.

CAPACITY

city mobility picture. Demand for ridehailing services in the growing middle class in Nairobi is making the taxi business very attractive to investors.

190Ksh / ride

M S L 10 20 30

Matatus are semi-formal buses that enable transit across the city. Over 1/3 of people in Nairobi take matatus to or from work. The matatus, known for expressive interior design with vivid colors and videos, are often the fastest way to get around the city.

prefer

Ksh / ride BODA BODA

1 2 2 adult passenger passengers passengers passengers adult passengers 1-4 adult passengers adult passengers 1 child

Taxi hailing companies such as Uber, Taxify and Little Cab play an important role within the city mobility picture. Demand for ridehailing services in the growing middle class in Nairobi is making the taxi business very attractive to investors.

Walking is the single largest mode of transportation in Nairobi: a growing number of the city’s workers walk to work in order to avoid the daily traffic scramble. 62% of low income commuters prefer walking due to the cost of public transit.

BODA BODA

1 2 2 adult passenger adult passengers

passengers 1 child

50Ksh / ride MATATU

Boda bodas are small motorcycles or mopeds that can weave through traffic and make it across the city in record time. Mostly operated independently, boda bodas will wait near high traffic areas to get commuters in and out of key areas.

380

Matatus are semi-formal buses that enable transit across the city. Over 1/3 of people in Nairobi take matatus to or from work. The matatus, known for expressive interior design with vivid colors and videos, are often the fastest way to get around the city.

adult

190Ksh / ride BODA BODA

adult passenger adult

passengers

passengers 1 child

Boda bodas are small motorcycles or mopeds that can weave through traffic and make it across the city in record time. Mostly operated independently, boda bodas will wait near high traffic areas to get commuters in and out of key areas.

Ksh / ride 13 mins 1 person 60 mins 5 km 5 km 40 mins 5 km 13 mins 5 km 40 mins

Taxi hailing companies such as Uber, Taxify and Little Cab play an important role within the city mobility picture. Demand for ridehailing services in the growing middle class in Nairobi is making the taxi business very attractive to investors.

cost of public transit. = 20 Ksh = 1 Passenger 13 mins 10 min 20 30 40 50 rush hour traffic speed 7.6 km/h 5 km 40 mins 5 km 13 mins 5 km 40 mins $ 0.20 = 20 Ksh enable transit across the city. Over 1/3

5 MOVING IN NAIROBI 9.07 - 11.10 COMMUTING MODES BY INCOME LEVEL TOP 3 $ $ $ $ $ $ Low Income Middle Income High Income 32% 62% 5% 39% 43% 13% 31% 27% 36% HOW MUCH DOES IT COST TO GET AROUND NAIROBI ? NAIROBIANS’ TRANSIT OPTIONS BY INCOME LEVEL (3) Infographics shows the cost and travel time of four different transportation options. (4) Graph showing commuting options by income levels in Nairobi. Walking is the most common transportation option among low-income Nairobians. 4 50Ksh / ride MATATU Matatus are semi-formal buses that enable transit across the city. Over 1/3 of people in Nairobi take matatus to or from work. The matatus, known for expressive interior design with vivid colors and videos, are often the fastest way to get around the city. Boda bodas are small motorcycles or mopeds that can weave through traffic and make it across the city in record time. Mostly operated independently, boda bodas will wait near high traffic areas to get commuters in and out of key areas. M S L 10 20 30 190Ksh / ride BODA BODA 1 2 2 adult passenger passengers passengers passengers adult passengers adult passengers 1 child PEDESTRIAN Walking is the single largest mode of transportation in Nairobi: a growing number of the city’s workers walk to work in order to avoid the daily traffic scramble. 62% of low
commuters
the cost of public transit.
income
walking due to
13 mins 1 person 60 mins 5 km 5 40 mins 5 km 13 mins
--- Ksh / ride
M S L 10 20 30
passengers passengers passengers adult
1 2 2 1-4 adult passengers
PEDESTRIAN
Ksh / ride RIDEHAILER
50Ksh / ride MATATU
COST TIME CAPACITY
Boda bodas are small motorcycles or mopeds that can weave through traffic and make it across the city in record time. Mostly operated independently, boda bodas will wait near high traffic areas to get commuters in and out of key areas.
190
380Ksh / ride RIDEHAILER
of people in Nairobi take matatus to or from work. The matatus, known for expressive interior design with vivid colors and videos, are often the fastest way to get around the city.
adult
1-4
passengers
COST TIME CAPACITY
380Ksh / ride RIDEHAILER
= 20 Ksh = 1 Passenger 13 mins 10 min 20 30 40 50 rush hour traffic speed 7.6 km/h 5 km 13 mins 5 km 40 mins $ 0.20 = 20 Ksh COST TIME CAPACITY
the
= 20 Ksh = 1 Passenger 10 min 20 30 40 50 rush hour traffic speed 7.6 km/h $ 0.20 = 20 Ksh
Taxi hailing companies such as Uber, Taxify and Little Cab play an important role within the city mobility picture. Demand for ridehailing services in the growing middle class in Nairobi is making the taxi business very attractive to investors.
important role within
COST TIME CAPACITY
20 Ksh = 1 Passenger 10 min 20 30 40 50 rush hour traffic speed 7.6 km/h 5 km 40 mins 20 Ksh
1-4 adult passengers
= 1 Passenger min 40 50 speed 7.6 km/h 5 km 3

KEVIN MANAGES CHAOTICMATATUS WITH COMEDY

There is order behind the chaos of matatus, Nairobi’s famous 12-30 person commuter busses, and it is established by the matatu conductor. Kevin is one of these conductors, and his job is daunting: through the peak hours of traffic, conductors facilitate boarding procedures in order to make sure that their matatus leave with no empty seats on board.

Kevin, who was sure to tell me a joke as I boarded the Mad Cow matatu, convinces passengers to board his matatu with his quick wit and advertising the best music DJ in town. Kevin quickly negotiates a cost of 80 Kenyan Shillings as he guides people on board. The process of negotiating fares and convincing passengers to join your matatu is called touting and the better you are at it the more money you make – Kevin is one of the best touts.

During peak hours, matatus operate as an express service with one pick-up point and one drop-off point – different from the off-peak hours when they can stop along the way. It is the conductor’s job to advertise these drop-off points, and to fill every seat as quickly as possible to ensure an on-time departure. Often, many matatus will serve a similar route, so competition for passengers is stiff. To vie for attention, conductors and drivers will often adorn their busses with colorful decorations and amenities, like monitors, fans, and music.

The Mad Cow matatu is painted like a cow, with fun riddles printed on the side such as “Only milk and juice come in 2 Liters,” “Milk

ATM,” and “Another one from God,” -- meaning this matatu is another one made possible my God. The matatu is as fun to look at as Kevin is to talk with and these extra touches mean they can charge a bit extra for their service.

Matatu owners set the amount of money they expect to make from a matatu in a day and anything over that, Kevin (conductor)and Steve (driver) get to keep, so there is an incentive to set prices high and make sure the vehicles is always full. Therefore, the cost of riding a matatu is driven by demand. On rainy days the cost can be significantly higher, making it hard for commuters to budget their daily travel costs.

Kenyan Bus Services, one of the biggest Matatu companies (also known as Sacco’s) has been advocating for set fares for rides, but for now this privatized system can set the fares based on need. Nairobi’s low-income residents often choose to walk rather than ride matatus: with fluctuating fares, driven higher by unexpected traffic and weather events, only 32% of low income Nairobians can afford riding a matatu regularly.

As a conductor, Kevin helps in making the process efficient, but commuting via matatu does not save the passengers from the ferocious Nairobi morning traffic. Based on the Japan International Cooperation Agency, 15% of matatu commutes in the city take more than 4 hours.

See Kevin’s trip on pages 8-9

MATATUS: PROBLEMATIC BUT LOVED

Matatus are problematic, but also beloved. As one of the world’s most gridlocked cities, Nairobi suffers from extraordinary levels of air pollution from traffic. According to the UN’s Breathe Life campaign, levels of dangerous particulates in the air are 70% higher than the safe level.

One big contributor to these pollution levels is matatu engine idling. Most matatus wait until every seat is filled until they depart; going into the city in the mornings that usually does not take long, but on the homeward commute the boarding process can often take 30 minutes to an hour. To entice passengers onto the bus with the impression of an imminent departure, matatu drivers keep their engines running as the bus fills with passengers. This practice means that matatu engines run for most of the day; based on some interviews collected by UN Environment a matatu engine runs between 14 and 16 hours a day.

But it’s not only efficiency and competition that keep matatu engines running: drivers are often actively discouraged from stopping in certain locations in the city center by the police. In extreme cases, their busses will be seized and they will be slapped with a fine for not keeping

the traffic moving in these congested areas. Engine idling has been struck down in many major cities that hope to address the adverse health effects of engine exhaust. Stopping the practice of engine idling can also lead to huge savings in fuel costs.

cultural fabric of the city. They remain the most ubiquitous means of transportation in the city for most people, and almost everyone who has grown up in Nairobi has boarded a matatu. Matatus are the common ground, the shared lived experience of millions of Kenyans.

Matatus also provide canvasses and forums for the city’s young artists to showcase their work. Most matatus are covered in graffiti done by local artists; music by local musicians blares from their speakers.

The government often mentions plans to institute a BRT (Bus Rapid Transit) network in the city, and sometimes has restricted the matatu’s art and loud music. Some members of the community believe that developments like this would hinder the economy and stifle the creativity that is allowed to flourish on these busses. Being so embedded in the transit infrastructure of the city, and in the consciousness of its citizens, it’s unlikely the matatus will be going anywhere anytime soon.

Though matatu engine idling practices contribute to the detrimental effects of air pollution, matatus themselves are a central and adored part of Nairobian life, and a vital thread in the

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In extreme cases, buses will be seized and drivers will be slapped with a fine for not keeping the traffic moving in congested areas.
1 2
People love my Mad Cow because it’s fun, with plenty of music and things to watch… we have wifi too.”

A LOOK INSIDE NAIROBI’S MATATUS

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(1) Kevin is a matatu conductor. He works with Jackson (driver) on the well known Nairobi MadCow matatu. (2) Inside Kevin’s matatu (Mad-Cow) lots of monitors play Kenyan songs and videos. (3) Matatu picking up passengers in Jogoo Road.
3 4
(4) Kevin and Jackson checking Google Traffic on Jackson’s smartphone.
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9 MOVING IN NAIROBI 9.07 - 11.10 Map Data: Google Maps, Digital Globe, OpenStreetMap Contributors
Somba’s
Trip – Pedestrian Kawera’s Trip – Matatu Nelson’s Trip – Boda Boda Kate’s Trip – Ridehailer

A RIDE ON NELSON’S BODA BODA: FASTEST WAY AROUND

Nelson is a boda boda driver who serves the Nairobi’s wealthy neighborhoods of Gigiri, Runda, Westland, and Parklands. Not originally from Nairobi, Nelson is among the city’s hundreds of thousands of boda boda drivers who ferry passengers to work and around town. Nelson owns his boda boda outright and is always prepared: he carries a small toolbox with wrenches and screwdrivers to immediately fix any issues his motorbike might have. Owning your own motorcycle means you have more control of the amount of money you can make.

Riding a boda boda is the best way to beat the infamously brutal congestion in Nairobi: while busses and taxis can sit in gridlock for hours, boda bodas can weave between lanes and travel more easily on narrow or unpaved roads. Some of Nelson’s customers are UN officials, who rely on his driving to get to work on time each morning. Because Nelson is known for his safe rides he has standing daily pickup times and monthly salary arrangements with some of his customers. A typical ride on Nelson’s boda boda costs about 200 Kenyan Shillings, or $1.94.

But work is not that stable for all boda boda drivers: because of the ever-swelling numbers of boda bodas on the road (in 2017, boda bodas accounted for a shocking 70% of newly registered vehicles in the country) competition for

passengers is stiff. Some drivers stand out from the crowd with vibrantly painted bikes and gear, and for a steady stream of passengers, most are increasingly relying on ride-hailing apps like Uber and Taxify, through which passengers can hire a boda boda instead of a car. There is also a new app called Safeboda that is meant to do a better job at checking drivers safety record, providing a helmet, and ensuring the vehicles are well maintained.

Though riding a boda boda is certainly the fastest way to get around town, it is also one of the most dangerous: data from 2017 shows that 1,177 people died in motorcycle crashes in a 12-month period. Often, fatalities and serious injuries occur because the driver and the passenger are not wearing enough protective gear, such as biking jackets or—more importantly— helmets. Nelson, aware of this, always provides a helmet for his passengers.

While I knew that Nelson was not following the traffic laws as he weaved between the cars and speed past traffic on the wrong side of the road, I found myself addicted to this new form of transport as it meant no longer sitting in hours of traffic. This balance between safety and swiftness has made the use of boda boda controversial.

See Nelson’s trip on pages 8-9

BAN ON BODA BODAS IS A BUST

There have been recent efforts to regulate the boda boda industry, due to the increasing use of boda bodas by gangs in the City Center (CBD). These gangs are known drive alongside pedestrians grabbing their bags and speeding off with no way to catch them. With hundreds of thousands of boda bodas on the road there was no easy way to recognize or identify the vehicle or driver; gangs took advantage of this industry-wide anonymity and began using boda bodas as getaway vehicles.

In 2018, the Boda Boda Association of Kenya introduced an effort to defeat this criminal activity by establishing a boda boda registration system. In this new system, boda boda drivers wear a yellow reflective vest with a registration number on it. Riders and other drivers can then type this number into the Association website and get the boda boda driver’s name and motorcycle registration number.

Another effort to regulate boda bodas, spearheaded by the Nairobi County Government, was more extreme. In January 2018, the government announced an immediate ban on boda bodas in the Central Business District. Boda boda driv-

ers had to drop their passengers off at locations around the perimeter of the city, from which the commuters could catch busses to work.

Passengers and drivers alike complain that the sanctioned dropoff stations become overcrowded at peak commute times.

The effect for boda boda drivers and the passengers who rely on their service has been mostly negative. In the first year of the ban, many motorbikes were impounded, and their drivers had to pay a steep fine; passengers and drivers alike complain that the sanctioned drop-

off stations, which are few, become overcrowded at peak commute times.

Because of this overcrowding, more and more boda bodas are trickling back into the City Center, where drivers still face fines and vehicle impoundment if caught by the police. As of summer 2019, the government had released 800 of the impounded motorcycles back to their drivers, encouraging them to follow the rules of the ban.

As the ban was being introduced and enforced, ride sharing apps appeared in the boda boda industry. In early 2018, Taxify, now known as Bolt, entered the scene, offering price-guaranteed rides on boda bodas in all Nairobi neighborhoods except the Central Business District. Eight months later, Uber introduced UberBoda with slightly higher rates. Ride hailing apps, which obviate the need for cash and give the passenger the ability to share their location with friends and family, promise to make the boda boda industry safer for riders. But of course, ease of hailing does not diminish the high risk of injury that drivers and riders face on boda bodas.

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My highest priority is to get customers to their destination both safely and on time.”
point.
Nelson, pictured in Westlands after completing his ride from Gigiri to Westgate. Boda bodas pick-up

THROUGH COMMUTERS’ EYES

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5 6 4 3
Nelson driving his boda boda in Wayaki Way.
during
Kate driving her Uber in Upper Hill afternoon peak hours. Kevin’s matatu stuck in traffic in Jogoo Rd on its way to CBD at 8:15am. Somba meets a lot of primary school students during his daily walk to KDI in Kibera.

UBER: LONG HOURS AND LOW PAY

Driving an Uber in Nairobi often means long, grueling hours on the road, and for Kate it’s no different. Morning traffic heading in to the city from its suburbs can be so bad that she often can only complete one trip, picking up one passenger in the early morning, and dropping her off hours later after slogging through a traffic jam. Apart from the health and environmental concerns around engines idling in traffic for hours, there are also financial concerns: with so little passenger turnover, Kate can work 10-hour days and earn as little as $5. Most of the time, Kate carries passengers from CBD to the western neighborhood of Kilimani and Karen. Even if Ngong road offers a direct connection to these areas, this road is often overcrowded with both matatus and private cars. In order to make the commute more pleasant to her customers, Kate has a wide variety of charging cords for her clients’ phones, so they can listen to music or watch videos on YouTube.

In March 2017, drivers protested against Uber and the low fares that prevented them from making ends meet and, after years of price cuts to keep their service competitive with other companies, Uber responded with a minimum fare increase from $1.94 to $2.91. However, just months later in May, Uber slashed prices again by introducing a cheaper service called UberGO. The minimum fare for this service is just $1.45. ”

Uber has pioneered a program that helps their drivers buy their own cars: the company helps drivers secure car loans, with an agreement from the drivers that they stay with the company until the loan is paid off. Paying off a loan typically takes three years. However, Uber has run into some problems with this program, as this type of loan is not common in Nairobi and many drivers do not understand that interest rates make the car cost more money, and are not familiar with the consequences for not making payments on time. Moreover, many Uber drivers did not have a bank account before driving an Uber. Uber has found themselves developing classes to teach drivers about banking and loans, but still, the lack of knowledge about basic banking practices has created set-backs for some drivers who now feel the pressure paying back their loan in a market now flooded with competition.

While Uber is controversial, most drivers will stay with the company, despite the brutal traffic and the low wages, because it allows for more freedom and flexibility than most other transportation jobs in Nairobi. Kate makes up a small percentage of women Uber drivers who have picked up the work as a way to make extra cash while their children are in school. Safety is a concern, and Kate says she rarely picks up passengers in the evening, but for now it provide a little extra cash in her pocket.

See Kate’s trip on pages 8-9

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RIDE HAILING GONE HAYWIRE

Uber has two major competitors in Nairobi: Nairobi-based Little and Estonian ride-hailing company, Taxify. As with many transit options in Nairobi, competition for passengers is stiff, and each ride-hailing service has endeavored to differentiate itself.

Taxify, which is backed by German car giant Daimler, recently changed its name to Bolt. The name change, and specifically removing “taxi” from its name, suggests that Bolt is repositioning itself as a provider of multiple transit options, rather than just private cars. Moreover, the company’s CEO, Marcus Villig, has said, Bolt wants to move away from the use of vehicles with combustion engines and toward electric vehicles. In Nairobi, they were the first to launch an electric scooter service within the same app as their ride hailing service, and Mr. Villig has hinted that Bolt will soon add other electric and public-transit-oriented services in the coming years. Bolt’s footprint is large: with 25 million users in 30 countries across Europe and Africa, they are an international player and a true competitor on the same scale as Uber.

Little operates on a smaller scale, with services in Kenya, Uganda, Zambia, Tanzania, and Ghana, and focuses on attracting drivers and riders with seemingly small perks that have a big local impact. Little’s service is available to users who do not own smartphones, thanks to their partnership with mobile operator Safaricom. Little’s CEO, Kamal Budhabhatti, says that about 20% of their rides come from non-smartphones. Little attracts drivers by offering them traditional employment benefits like healthcare and discounted mobile phone service.

But of course, among these three firms, there is still a race to the bottom in pricing, with Uber leading the charge. Having launched UberGO last year, Uber has now introduced an even cheaper service called Uber Chap Chap. Chap Chap, Swahili slang for “hurry, hurry,” is made possible by a deal with CMC Motors, a Kenyan car importing company. Through this partnership, Uber was able to acquire 300 Suzuki Altos, a functional and inexpensive sedan and offer them, with financing, to highly rated driv-

ers. The minimum cost for a ride, just 99 cents, is possible because the Altos are about twice as fuel-efficient as the average UberX, at 58 miles per gallon.

Ride-hailing

But lower prices for riders means lower profit margins for drivers. Uber Chap Chap was initially intended to just operate in the Central Business District and its immediate surround-

ings; since its launch, however, it has expanded its services to include most of Nairobi. While drivers were able to make a decent wage on the low-cost service with short rides, longer rides across town slash their profit margin to almost nothing. And what Uber does, so does Bolt. Both ride-hailing services have either introduced cheaper services or have brought minimum prices down to remain competitive. Throughout 2018 and into 2019, drivers have protested these price cuts, calling for ride-hailing companies to remove their lowest-cost services and for the government to step in and protect local drivers from the exploits of foreign-owned firms.

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services have either introduced cheaper services or have brought minimum prices down to remain competitive.
(1)Kate, while checking her Uber account on her smartphone before getting the first afternoon customer in Kilimani. (2)Nairobi traffic during peak afternoon hours in the city center. (3)Because of heavy traffic,some Uber clients prefer jumping off their Uber cars and walk to reach their destination. 2 3
Because of Nairobi’s terrible traffic, I can only complete one Uber trip in the mornings. This is about 250 Ksh (2.5 USD) for five hours of work.”
MOVING IN NAIROBI 14 9.07 - 11.10 LANGATAROAD LIMURUROAD KIAMBU ROAD WAIYAKI WAY NGONG ROAD ARGWINGS KODHEK RD NORTHERN BYPASS MAGADIROAD LOWERKABETEROAD BOMA ROAD SOUTHERN BYPASS LIMURUROAD KIAMBUROAD KIAMBU ROAD ELDORET-MALABARD GETATHURUROAD GATAKAROAD NGONGROAD DAGORETTIROAD 46K 46P 46P 118 119 103 107 106 11F 11A 116 48W 120 100 120 121 121 120 135 103 106 107 116 14 6 69 33SB 12C 33 12D 12C 12D 33F 33PM 405 14B 16 15126 125 14A 16 24C34L 24 33NG 32A 8 7C 32A 15 34L 125 126 126 24 111 24C 24C 111 126M 4W 2 102 2 1 102 105 135 115 115 114W 105 46K 48C 48O 48O 48B 48B 48A 119 118 129 119A 119 118 11 30 30 24 135 100A 46P 56 56 48 48C 48 48B 46P 48K 48K 48 48C 48C 48C 48O48B 48A 115 114W 114W 105 103 22/23 119A 116 108 48K 48W 129 118 125 126 Alternate Route by Gataka Rd. Mini-Bus 126RK 5 125 110ATH 24BK Langata Barracks Langata Cemetary Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) HQ Aga Khan Hospital Sarit Safaricom Hurlingham Village Market NORFOLK Serena St. Marks Museum Impala Uchumi Hyper Langata Rd Kenya School Of Government Mwimuto Brookside Drive Spring Valley Spring Valley Police Station Langata Police Station Uchumi/ Nairobi West Valley Road Daystar Mater Carnivore Racecourse Meteorological Headquarters Adams Arcade Uchumi University of Nairobi Chiromo Campus Nairobi School Muthaiga Muthaiga Station Runda Rock Ridgeways Thindigwa WILSON AIRPORT Airport LANGATA WOMEN’S PRISON LANGATA BARRACKS UNIV. OF NAIROBI SCIENCE CAMPUS KETRI AND KARI RESEARCH INSTITUTES NAIROBI SCHOOL Kibera CUEA MMU Montessouri Integrity Centre/Panafric Makueni Kasuku Centre Strathmore School CATHOLIC UNIV. OF EAST AFRICA MULTIMEDIA UNIV. OF KENYA GIRAFFE CENTRE KAREN BLIXEN MUSEUM Kangemi Mountain View Waruku NAIROBI DAM KARURA FOREST NGONG ROAD FOREST NAIROBI NATIONAL PARK CITY PARK GIGIRI FOREST BOMAS OF KENYA GOLF COURSE ARB. KARI HEADQUARTERS MUTHAIGA GOLF KIAMBU GOLF MUTHAIGA KIAMBU BLUE SKY/ T-MALL DAGORETTI JUNCTION KISERIAN GITHUNGURI BOMAS INTERCHANGE / GALLERIA CITY STADIUM NGUMO STRATHMORE NGONG KAREN GICHAGI KARURA BANANA TERMINUS HIGH RIDGE REDHILL KWAHERI NDUMBERI WESTLANDS WANGIGE KWA NGWACII KIKUYU DAGORETTI KABERIA KREP/ EQUITY KAWANGWARE UTHIRU ABC VALLEY ARCADE LAVINGTON CONGO AYANY / KIBERA HIGHWAY ESTATE SOUTH C PRESTIGE YAYA CENTRE ONGATA RONGAI RUAKA CITY CENTER SEE INSET LIMURU NDUMBUINI GIKOMBA NAIROBI HOSPITAL CHIROMO KANUNGAGA GITANGA NGUMO STAGE / KENYATTA MARKET ST MARY’S HOSPITAL NYAYO SOUTH KING’EERO GATHIGA UNITED NATIONS WESTLANDS LINKROAD LANGATA JAMHURI
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(1) The Digital Matatus map is the first map ever made of the matatu semi-formal transit system in Nairobi. This map shows the matatu routes operating in the city, based on the summer 2018 data collection.
15 MOVING IN NAIROBI 9.07 - 11.10 MOMBASAROAD THIKAROAD OUTERRINGROAD KANGUNDOROAD MOMBASAROAD JUJA ROAD JOGOO ROAD EASTERN BYPASS ENTERPRISERD 45 49 44 25 43 25A 25A 49 145 45P 45K 44Z 44K 44G 42 42 41 38/39 14 49 43 18C46 14 41 18C 32D 18C 17A32D 41 32D 18C 32D 41 36 23KS 10 58 36 6E 23KS 58 36 19C 19C2 18C 19C 34B 17A 33 33 33PM 33F 34J 33H 33B 34J 33F 33D 70/71 34J 33F 34J 11 20 237 237 237 25 25A 107D 107D 39 145B 145B 39 10 36 26 23KS 36 26/26S 145 145 145 19C 19C 14 17B 17B 20 20 237 17B 44 45 6 26S 27 27 33FED 33J 33UTW 145D 53 44 26S 17Aky 33PM 33PJ 1960 1961K 1961CK 33PM 33PJ 38/39 19C2 35/60 3738 17A 17Aky 110ATH 110KIT 33PM 1961K 3738 38/39 3738 19C2 38/39 1960 1960 17Aky 17Aky 29/30 17Aky 33F 1960 110ATH110KIT 33PJ 33PM 33F 33D 70/71 110ATH 110KIT 110ATH 110KIT 110AK JOMO KENYATTA INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT Airport Junction Safari Park Greenfield Estate Greenspan Estates Mall Mowlem NJIRU Clayworks Kahawa Sukari Kahawa Wendani Kasarani Police Naivas Corner Stone Academy Seasons Choaka Tuskys Garden City Homeland Drive Inn KCA Utalii Bahati Harambee Uhuru Hamza Uchumi Mater Hospital Muthaiga Police Station City Ridgeways Thindigwa GSU EASTLEIGH NORTH MAKADARA YARD GENERAL SERVICES UNIT HEADQUARTERS M COFFEE ESTATE KENYATTA UNIVERSITY Mosque Car Wash USUI Roysambu Footbridge PARK MUTHAIGA GOLF WINDSOR GOLF MUTHAIGA HURUMA KIAMBU UTAWALA BEE CENTRE SAIKA KAYOLE JACARANDA TOTAL PETROL GENERAL MOTORS DONHOLM CALTEX FEDHA ESTATE / EMBAKASI AIRPORT CITY STADIUM CABANAS IMARA DAIMA KWAHERI RUIRU TOWN GITHURAI SUNTON MWIKI NGUMBA PROGGIE ROYSAMBU/ KASARANI BABA DOGO LUCKY SUMMER ALLSOPS DANDORA HIGHWAY ESTATE MATHARE NORTH CALTEX JOSTER RIKANA EASTLEIGH THIKA TOWN BYPASS RUAI ATHIRIVER KITENGELA KANISANI UMOJA RUAI BYPASS MAMA LUCY MASIMBA KWA CHIEF GIKOMBA BURUBURU OUTER RING MARKET MARINGO MAKADARA DONHOLM KARIOBANGI ROUNDABOUT KARIOBANGI NORTH KARIOBANGI ESTATE KENYATTA UNIVERSITY KOMAROCKS ROUNDABOUT UTAWALA JUNTION KARIOBANGI SOUTH PIPELINE / TAJ MALL HAZINA B ROASTERS MARURUI KAHAWA WEST 4946 46 19C 19C 5819C35/60 7 33PM 33F 5819C 45G 4646 33 33PM 11 33PJ 10 23 26 25A 25 45 44 43 49 48A 46 48B 48 107 34 106 106 107 11F 19C 34B 46 6 11F 100A 1 120 121 1A 116 6 46 119A 119 118 30 115 15 16 32D 33 45G 24 14 100 120 121 8 102 4W 2 111126 125 27 24C 14B 14A 12D 12C 32D 14 105 22/23 35/60 38/39 1960 1961K 110KIT 1110ATH 29/30 49 TUK Uon Main Campus Nairobi y Park Wakulim Market GIKOMBA MURANG'AROAD KENYATTAAVE 25A 25 HAILESELASSIEAVE UHURUHIGHWAY Parliament Holy Family Basilica Supreme Court CityHallWay City Jogoo House Ministry of Foreign Affairs Office of the President Sheria House Intercontinental 32 7C 24C 4646 HarambeeAve Lifestyle 29/30 33 33 33 WakulimaRd LANDHIESROAD D R G N R 100 120 121 45G 43 27 1960 1961K 32D 14 PANGANI KARIOKOR ROUNDABOUT OTC BUSSTATION/RAILWAYS 33F 106933PJ70/71 FACTORYST FIGNGARA/ TREE LIMURU ROAD 11A TERMINALTUSKER/MAINSTAGE 14 43 TOMMBOYAST& MOIAVE 33F33PM 7 7 46 KINYANJUIST 6 25 A 5 2 29/30 29/30 119 FORREST ROAD Gymkhana Jamuhuri High School Pangani Girls Secondary School New Ngara Kahama Nairobi Murang’a Rd Primary River Bank Primary Ngara Secondary Muslim Academy Nairobi Technical Training JUJA RD 46 145 145 58 17B 17B PumwaniRd 6 NGARA RD PARK RD 100 100A RACECOURSE RD NGARAEQUITY 17B 17B 27 27 114W 135 MUTHURWA STIMA 119A KOJA/ODEON KENCOM/HOTELAMBASSADEUR 22/23 Route Stop Terminus Outbound From City Center Inbound To City Center Junction 46K/Y Kawangware/Yaya 46P Kawangware (Loop) 19C Komarocks 34B Jacaranda 1960 Kayole 1961C Kayole 12C South C 12D KPA 33B/FED Fedha Estate 110ATH Athiriver 110KIT Kitengela 7C KNH 8 Kiberia 24 Karen 24C Hardy 32A Ayani 33NG Ngumo 111 Ngong 4W Kaberia 2 Dagoretti 102 Kikuyu 25A Lucky Summer 43 Ngumba 44G/Z KU 145 Ruiru Town 45G Githurai 49 Sunton 29/30 Mathare N 25 Baba Ndogo 119 Wangige 119A Gathiga 118 Wangige 33PJ Pipeline Jogoo 34J JKIA 70/71 Lunga Lunga 33PM Pipeline Mombasa 11F Ruaka 106 Banana 107 Ndenderu 108 Gichagi UN 11A Highridge 120 Githunuri 121 Ndumberi 100/100A Kiambu 14 Kariobangi N 17A Kayole Rndbt. 17AKY Kayole Eastleigh 18C Komarocks Eastleigh 41 Gikomba Dandora 46 Huruma 3738 Ruai Rndbt. 6 Eastleigh KAYOLE MOMBASA RD. NGONG RD. EMBAKASI LANGATA RD. 14B Deep West 15 Langata 16 Highrise 34L Langata KNH 125 Rongai 126 Kiserian 14A Strathmore 48A Lavington 48B/O Valley Arcade 48 Yaya Westlands 33SB Ngumo South B OTHER ROUTES 1 Dagoretti Karen Mwiki Mama Lucy 20 6E Joster Rikana 42 Dandora Allsops 405 Nyayo City Stadium 69 GM City Stadium 24 Bomas Dagoretti 129 Wangige Kikuyu 103 Wangige Dagoretti Jct. 11 Hazina 239 Thika Ruiru 110AK Kitengela Athiriver 36 33 48B 48B KODHEK RD. DAGORETTI PARKLANDS RD. LIMURU RD. KILELESHWA WAIYAKI WAY 114W/115/135 Limuru 105 Kikuyu 30 Uthiru 22/23 Kangemi 10 Maringo 23KS Kariobangi S 36 Dandora Stadium 58 Buruburu 26/26S Kariobangi N Makadara THIKA RD. KIAMBU RD. JUJA RD. JOGOO RD. KANGUNDO RD. Umoja 35/60 Ruai 38/39 Komarocks Donholm 19C2 107D Marurui Ruaka 17B Mwiki City Center 1961CK Kayole Caltex 27 Kariobangi KU 44K Roysambu 45K KU 45P Proggie Githurai 237 Thika Town 32D Dandora 33H Ruai Bypass 33UTW Utawala 56 Kanungaga 48C Yaya 39 Cabanas Bypass Ruiru 145B Ruiru Bypass 145D Torrents (Loop) Ruiru Town 116 Limuru 48W Redhill Congo 48K Congo Westlands 5 Jamhuri 53 Marurui Roasters Data developed through a research collaboration between the Civic Data Design Lab, MIT; Center for Sustainable Urban Development, Columbia University; School of Computing and Informatics, University of Nairobi; Groupshot. Research funded by the Rockefeller Foundation. Data Collected by: University of Nairobi School of Computing and Informatics, C4DLab Paper Maps Illustrated by: Wenfei Xu and Sarah Williams (Civic Data Design Lab)
CITY CENTRE FOR FEEDBACK & MORE INFORMATION: http://www.digitalmatatus.com Created June 2019
NAIROBI MATATU ROUTES

SOURCES

Urbanization and traffic in Africa

Association for Free Research and International Cooperation (AFRIC) (2018, November 13). Traffic Congestion in African Cities: Causes and Consequences. Retrieved from https://afric.online/3286-traffic-congestion-in-african-cities-causes-and-consequences/

Khreis, Haneen and Mark Nieuwenhuijsen (2018, July 4). Nairobi is planning car-free days. They could bring many benefits. Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/ nairobi-is-planning-car-free-days-they-could-bring-manybenefits-99301

Mutavi, Lillian (2017, April 17). Traffic jams makes Nairobi world’s ‘second-worst’ city. Retrieved from https://www. nation.co.ke/news/Nairobi--is-world-s-second-worst-city/1056-3892294-1208syiz/index.html

United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2019). World Urbanization Prospects 2018: Highlights. Retrieved from https://population. un.org/wup/Publications/Files/WUP2018-Highlights.pdf

United States Censu Bureau (2019, May 23). Fastest-Growing Cities Primarily in the South and West. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/newsroom/press-releases/2019/subcounty-population-estimates.html

Salon, Gulyany (2019), Mobility, poverty and gender: Travel ‘choices’ of slum residents in Nairobi

Pedestrians

Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (2013, December 9). Matatus and Mass Transit: ITDP Studies Transit Patterns in Nairobi, Kenya. Retrieved from https:// www.itdp.org/2013/12/09/matatus-and-mass-transit-itdp-studies-transit-patterns-in-nairobi-kenya/

Kinyanjui, Maureen (2018, November 16). Nairobi records

drop in road fatalities. Retrieved from https://www. the-star.co.ke/news/2018-11-16-nairobi-records-drop-inroad-fatalities/

Cummings, Clare and Beatrice Obwocha (2018, March). At the crossroads: the politics of road safety in Nairobi. Retrieved from https://www.odi.org/publications/11072-crossroads-politics-road-safety-nairobi

Mueni, Jemimah (2019, July 23). City Hall to convert 3 more streets to one-way traffic lanes. Retrieved from https:// www.capitalfm.co.ke/news/2019/07/city-hall-to-convert3-more-streets-to-one-way-traffic-lanes/

Muoki, Moses (2019, July 26). Once dilapidated Luthuli Avenue gets new look. Retrieved from https://www.capitalfm. co.ke/news/2019/07/in-pictures-once-dilapidated-luthuli-avenue-gets-new-look/

Mwangi, James (2019, July 17). Revamped Luthuli Avenue excites Nairobians. Retrieved from https://www.standardmedia.co.ke/article/2001334203/revamped-luthuli-avenue-shakes-off-congested-tag

Otieno, Jeckonia (2018, March 23). Study finds road constructions cause of increased pedestrian deaths in Nairobi. Retrieved from https://www.standardmedia.co.ke/article/2001274207/study-finds-road-constructions-causeof-increased-pedestrian-deaths-in-nairobi

Wafula, Jemima (2018, August 30). Nairobi county sets funds to reduce pedestrian deaths. Retrieved from https://www. the-star.co.ke/news/2018-08-30-nairobi-county-setsfunds-to-reduce-pedestrian-deaths/

Matatus

Japan International Cooperation Agency (2014). The Project on Integrated Urban Development Master Plan for the City of Nairobi Jensen, Jon and Katy Scott (2017, March 26). Matatus—Nairobi’s loud, vibrant minibuses—face an uncertain road. Retrieved from https://www.cnn.com/travel/article/mata -

PROJECT TEAM: Sarah Williams, Carmelo Ignaccolo, Dylan Halpern

Peter Waiganjo Wagacha

Dan Orwa

Jackie Klopp

Steve Osoro

Joe Ndiritu

Nelson Mangwali

tu-culture-nairobi/index.html

United Nations Environment Programme (2018). Nairobi matatus’ odd engine idling culture pollutes, harms health. Retrieved from https://www.unenvironment.org/newsand-stories/story/nairobi-matatus-odd-engine-idling-culture-pollutes-harms-health

Boda bodas

Ilako, Cynthia (2018, January 23). Newly registered boda bodas nearly double in 10 months. Retrieved from https:// www.the-star.co.ke/counties/2018-01-23-newly-registered-boda-bodas-nearly-double-in-10-months/

Kimani, Trizza (2019, April 20). City Hall tussles with boda bodas over CBD ban. Retrieved from https://www.the-star. co.ke/counties/nairobi/2019-04-30-city-hall-tussles-withboda-bodas-over-cbd-ban/

Kinyanjui, Maureen (2019, June 8). Bodaboda CBD ban still on, Sonko tells operators. Retrieved from https://www. the-star.co.ke/news/2019-06-08-bodaboda-cbd-ban-stillon-sonko-tells-operators/

Oluoch, Derrick (2018). You will now know the name, ID number of Nairobi boda boda riders. Retrieved from https:// www.sde.co.ke/article/2001276561/you-will-now-knowthe-name-id-number-of-nairobi-boda-boda-riders

Ramtu, Samuel (2018, January 22). Boda bodas banned from Nairobi CBD. Retrieved from https://citizentv.co.ke/news/ boda-bodas-banned-from-nairobi-cbd-188884/ World Health Organization. Motorcycle-related road traffic crashes in Kenya Facts & figures. Retrieved from https:// www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/road_traffic/ countrywork/factsheet_kenya.pdf

Uber

Fick, Maggie (2018, February 12). Uber tests cheaper ‘Hurry Hurry’ service for errands in Nairobi. Retrieved

Contributors: Lambert Coleman (photographer), Paula Aguillera (multimedia producer) Tess McCann

Local partners: Peter Waiganjo Wagacha, Dan Orwa,Jackie Klopp, Steve Osoro, Joe Ndiritu, Nelson Mangwali, James Mshimba, Somba Muchiri, Jackson Mugo, Kevin Karani, Kawera Naitore, Kate Nancy Wanbury.

James Mshimba

Somba Muchiri

Jackson Mugo

Kevin Karani

Kawera Naitore

Kate Nancy Wanbury

from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-uber-kenya/uber-tests-cheaper-hurry-hurry-service-for-errands-in-nairobi-idUSKBN1FW1UQ de Freytas-Tamura, Kimiko (2017, May 22). Kenya’s Struggling Uber Drivers Fear a New Competitor: Uber. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/22/world/africa/ uber-kenya-driver-protest.html

Lunden, Ingrid (2019, March). Taxify rebrands as Bolt as it expands transport options beyond private cars. Retrieved from https://techcrunch.com/2019/03/06/taxify-rebrands-as-bolt-as-it-expands-transport-options-beyondprivate-cars/

Madegwa, Clinton (2019, August 12). Little Cab launches health insurance scheme for its drivers. Retrieved from https://www.dignited.com/51023/little-cab-launcheshealth-insurance-scheme-for-its-drivers/

Mohammed, Omar (2019, February 22). Kenya ride-hailing firm Little has big plans for Africa expansion. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/kenya-tech-little/ kenya-ride-hailing-firm-little-has-big-plans-for-africa-expansion-idUSL5N20H0XP

Omboki, Aggrey (2019, July 15). City online app taxi drivers protest over reduced earnings. Retrieved from https:// www.nation.co.ke/news/Police-break-up-Uber-driversstrike/1056-5196908-c2l52hz/index.html

Reuters (2018, June 5). Little cab sells stake of around 10 percent for $3 million. Retrieved from https://www. standardmedia.co.ke/article/2001282939/little-cab-sellsstake-of-around-10-percent-for-3million

Wahito, Margaret (2017, March 16). Uber increases price in Kenya after drivers’ protest. Retrieved from https://www. capitalfm.co.ke/business/2017/03/uber-increases-pricein-kenya-after-drivers-protest/

MOVING IN NAIROBI 16 9.07 - 11.10
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(1) Newspaper hawkers are often located close to the main transit hub in the city. such as Koja stage in CBD.
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Thanks to our local partners & participants for making this work possible.
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