Page 1


University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee spring 2008/Visual Certainty

The intention of this book is for the study of the solar energy and its inuence to architectural design.

Carlos J. Rivera

2


index WHAT ARE PHOTOVOLTAICS? PV CELL PV MODULE PV ARRAY PV SYSTEM HOW DOES IT WORK? WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP OF A PV SYSTEM AND THE SUN? INCIDENT SOLAR RADIATION PV RESPONSE TO AZIMUTH AND TILT WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT PV OPTIONS? BUILDING INTEGRATED PV ECONOMIC IMPACT OF A SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEM WHAT IS THE PV DEMAND WHAT IS IT’S PERFORMANCE? AMOUNT OF PV UNITS TO ACHIEVE HOUSEHOLD DEMAND HOW DOES PV AFFECT ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN? ARCHITECTURAL APPLICATIONS FOR PV DEVICES SOLAR DECATHLON STUDIO CASE STUDIES 4


5


what are photovoltaics?

“Photovoltaics are a locally generated productive-mode energy source that provides a clean, quiet and pollution-free energy source. As a general guide 1 square meter of PV panels will be able to generate approximately an average of 100 watts of electrical energy” There are three different types of PV panels produced today. There is the single-cristal (monocrystaline), polycrystalline (gallium-arsenide cells), and amorphous silicone cells. Different types of photovoltaic cells have different efficience coefficients. (ken yeang 244)

6


pv cell

Hahn-Meitner Institut Berlin

7


pv module

8


pv array

Solar cells come in different sizes. They are often connected together to form PV modules that may be up to several feet long and a few feet wide. Modules in turn can be combined and connected to form PV arrays of different sizes and power output. The size of the array depends on several factors, such as the amount of sunlight available in a particular location and the energy demand of the consumer. The modules of the PV array make up the major part of a PV system, which can also include electrical connections, mounting hardware, power conditioning equipment, and batteries that stores solar energy for use when the sun is not shining. (USDOE/pv physics,1)

9


pv system

The main component of the solar PV cell array is the power inverter. The inverter is a key component of PV power production; it transforms the direct current (DC) produced by the solar cells to alternating (AC) at grid voltage. ken yeang

There are currently two types of PV modules: 1. Thin ďŹ lm (amorphous) panels: In this panel the PV elements cover the entire panel, and they contain no glass. They also have lower efďŹ ciencies, are generally cheaper, and lose less power under high temperature conditions-than crystalline panels. 2. Crystalline (single and multi) panels: These earliest PV modules are more efďŹ cient and also more expensive. (kwok/Grondzik,197)

10


11


how does it work?

kw/h per year <1100

>2100

Photovoltaics are a system that produce electricity through the direct conversion of incident solar radiation. A photovoltaic cell provides direct current (DC) output. This DC output can be used directly to power DC loads, can be stored in a battery system or can be inverted into alternating current (AC) to power AC loads or to be fed into an electrical grid. Stand-alone PV systems have no grid interconnection. (Kwok/Grondzik,197)

12

ken yeang ken yeang


The sun emits almost all of its energy in a range of wavelengths from 2x10-7 to 4x10-6 meters. Most of this energy is in the visible light region. Each wavelength corresponds to a frequency and an energy. Red light is at the low energy end of the visible spectrum and violet light is at the high energy end, where it has half as much energy as red light. In the invisible portion of the spectrum, radiation in the infrared region, has more energy than in the visible region. Radiation in the infrared region, which we feel as heat, has less energy than the radiation in the visible region. (USDOE/pv physics,1)

13


what is the relationship of a pv system and the sun?

14

(Brown/Dekay,315)


The sun provides the earth with an immense amount of solar energy. This energy is transmitted like solar radiation. A portion of this radiation is reďŹ&#x201A;ected to the atmosphere and the rest will be transmitted to the earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s surface. The diagrams on the left represent the path of the sun and therefore the zone where the sun produces the most energy. The solar pvs can only collect a portion of that energy. The path of the sun will also dictate the optimal tilt for the best performance of the photovoltaics.

(Yeang,196)

15


incident solar radiation

INCIDENT SOLAR IRRADIANCE

INCIDENT SOLAR IRRADIANCE

250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0

250000 200000 150000 100000 50000

16

0


0

10'-0"

1 117.9 Kw/h

2

131.9 Kw/h

192.0 Kw/h

243.5 Kw/h

1000000 BTU

186.19 Kw/h

2000000 BTU

100 FT

514.2 Kw/h

3000000 BTU

10'-0"

748.1 Kw/h

681.7 Kw/h

948.7 Kw/h

4000000 BTU

TOTAL ENERGY RECEIVED IN A YEAR 8 564.208 773 9 kilowatt hour

1 097.5 Kw/h

5000000 BTU

1 366.8 Kw/h

1 335.2 Kw/h

MONTHLY AVERAGE ENERGY RECEIVED ON A 100 FT 2

Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec 17

1 Btu = 0.000 293 071 083 33 kilowatt hour


pv response to azimuth and tilt

70° 60° 55° 50° 45°

40° 35° 30° 25° 20° 15° 10° 5° 0° 18

65°

75° 85°

90°


83% 87% 91% 93% 96% 97% 99% 99% 100% 99% 98% 96% 94% 92% 89%

N 19


what are the differrent pv options?

20


INCIDENT SOLAR IRRADIANCE

50000 0

0

10'-0"

100 FT

2 10'-0"

1 117.9 Kw/h

1 366.8 Kw/h

TOTAL ENERGY RECEIVED IN A YEAR 8 564.208 773 9 kilowatt hour

1 097.5 Kw/h

948.7 Kw/h

2000000 BTU

748.1 Kw/h

681.7 Kw/h

3000000 BTU

131.9 Kw/h

4000000 BTU

514.2 Kw/h

5000000 BTU

1000000 BTU

243.5 Kw/h

100000

186.19 Kw/h

200000 150000

1 335.2 Kw/h

MONTHLY AVERAGE ENERGY RECEIVED ON A 100 FT 2

250000

192.0 Kw/h

building integrated pvs

Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec

1 Btu = 0.000 293 071 083 33 kilowatt hour

Photovoltaic systems can be installed essentially as an add-on system with little integration with other building elements or aesthetics, or as building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). A BIPV approach involves more consideration of multifunctional uses (such as PV shading devices) and/or the complete integration of PV with another technology (such as glazing or rooďŹ ng products).

21


economic impact of a solar energy system cost/year

0

$42

$83

$125

$166

$208

1000

1500

2000

2500

Electric Blanquet Home Computer Television Microwave Oven DehumidiďŹ er Well Pump Aquarium/Terrarium Dishwasher Electric Cooking Freezer Water Bed Clothes Dryer Washing Machine Refrigerator Pool Pump Spa(pump and heater)

kwh/year 22

0

500


LONG TERM ENERGY COSTS- 10 YEAR OUTLOOK LOCAL UTILITY COSTS SUN EDISON COSTS

YEAR 1

YEAR 5

YEAR 10

INCIDENT SOLAR IRRADIANCE

1 366.8 Kw/h

2 10'-0"

1 117.9 Kw/h

1 097.5 Kw/h

10'-0"

100 FT

748.1 Kw/h

948.7 Kw/h

TOTAL ENERGY RECEIVED IN A YEAR 8 564.208 773 9 kilowatt hour

Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec

1 Btu = 0.000 293 071 083 33 kilowatt hour

PV SOLAR ANALYSIS

0

243.5 Kw/h

2000000 BTU

Carbon Neutral {c+/-}House

0

681.7 Kw/h

3000000 BTU

514.2 Kw/h

4000000 BTU

192.0 Kw/h

5000000 BTU

1000000 BTU

50000

131.9 Kw/h

100000

186.19 Kw/h

150000

1 335.2 Kw/h

MONTHLY AVERAGE ENERGY RECEIVED ON A 100 FT 2

250000 200000

LONG TERM ENERGY COSTS- 10 YEAR OUTLOOK LOCAL UTILITY COSTS SUN EDISON COSTS

YEAR 1

YEAR 5

YEAR 10

PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFICIENCY COMPARISON 0° West

45°

South +Value azimuth

90° 0° 0° 90°

20° West of South

45° west of South 0°

90°

23


what is the pv demand?

1,239 kwh/year

440 kwh/year

77 kwh/year

536 kwh/year

137 kwh/year INCIDENT SOLAR IRRADIANCE

10'-0"

1 366.8 Kw/h

1 117.9 Kw/h

1 097.5 Kw/h

948.7 Kw/h

2

748.1 Kw/h

681.7 Kw/h

10'-0"

100 FT

1 Btu = 0.000 293 071 083 33 kilowatt hour

PV SOLAR ANALYSIS

0

TOTAL ENERGY RECEIVED IN A YEAR 8 564.208 773 9 kilowatt hour

Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec

Carbon Neutral {c+/-}House

0

243.5 Kw/h

2000000 BTU

1000000 BTU

50000

514.2 Kw/h

3000000 BTU

100000

192.0 Kw/h

5000000 BTU

4000000 BTU

150000

131.9 Kw/h

1 335.2 Kw/h

MONTHLY AVERAGE ENERGY RECEIVED ON A 100 FT 2

250000 200000

186.19 Kw/h

940 kwh/year

LONG TERM ENERGY COSTS- 10 YEAR OUTLOOK LOCAL UTILITY COSTS SUN EDISON COSTS

YEAR 1

YEAR 5

YEAR 10

PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFICIENCY COMPARISON 0°

1200 kwh/year

West

45°

+Value azimuth

90° 0°

20° West of South

45° west of South 0°

24

South

0° 90°

90°


25


what is their performance? 40

Photovoltaic performance on a 0째 tilt. unisolar

35

mitsubishi first

30

wurth schott

25

shell

20

kyocera bp 7195

15

sanyo sun pwr

10 5 0 26

0째

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

T


40

Photovoltaic performance on a 0° tilt.

35

INCIDENT SOLAR IRRADIANCE

44° latitude 25

0

1 366.8 Kw/h

2 10'-0"

1 117.9 Kw/h

1 097.5 Kw/h

948.7 Kw/h

10'-0"

100 FT

748.1 Kw/h

681.7 Kw/h 243.5 Kw/h

TOTAL ENERGY RECEIVED IN A YEAR 8 564.208 773 9 kilowatt hour

Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec

1 Btu = 0.000 293 071 083 33 kilowatt hour

PV SOLAR ANALYSIS

0

2000000 BTU

Carbon Neutral {c+/-}House

50000

3000000 BTU

1000000 BTU

186.19 Kw/h

100000

514.2 Kw/h

5000000 BTU

4000000 BTU

200000 150000

192.0 Kw/h

1 335.2 Kw/h

MONTHLY AVERAGE ENERGY RECEIVED ON A 100 FT 2

250000

131.9 Kw/h

30

LONG TERM ENERGY COSTS- 10 YEAR OUTLOOK LOCAL UTILITY COSTS SUN EDISON COSTS

YEAR 1

YEAR 5

YEAR 10

PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFICIENCY COMPARISON 0° West

South +Value azimuth

SCHOTT PERFORMANCE

90° 0° 90°

20

40

45°

20° West of South

45° west of South 0°

90°

15

35

KILOWATT PER HOUR

30 25 20 15

0 TILT

10

40 TILT 90 TILT

5 0

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

10 5 0

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

27


44째 latitude 40

Photovoltaic performance on a 40째 tilt. unisolar mitsubishi

35

first wurth

30

schott

25

shell kyocera

20

bp 7195 sanyo

15

sun pwr

10 5 0 28

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

T

40째


T

90째

30

Photovoltaic performance on a 90째 tilt. unisolar mitsubishi first

25

wurth schott

20

shell kyocera

15

bp 7195 sanyo

10

sun pwr

5 0

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 29


Unisolar Mitsubishi

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

First Solar

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

Sun Power

Sanyo

BP 7195

Kyocera

Shell

Schott

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

Wurth Solar

amount of pv units to achieve household demand

30

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Here is a representation of the amount of photovoltaic modules units needed for a demand of 3,000 kwh per year according to the pv efficacy. This in particular is a 40° tilt facing south. The units on the graphic on the left represent a panel unit according to the specifications of the product manufacturer.


ovoltaic hotovoltaic taic Photovoltaic performance performance performance performance on aon 0°aon tilt. 0°aon tilt. 0°atilt. 0° tilt. unisolar unisolarunisolarunisolar mitsubishi mitsubishi mitsubishi mitsubishi first

first

first

first

INCIDENT SOLAR IRRADIANCE

wurth wurth wurth wurth 10'-0"

1 Btu = 0.000 293 071 083 33 kilowatt hour

0

PV SOLAR ANALYSIS

1 366.8 Kw/h

1 117.9 Kw/h

1 097.5 Kw/h

2

748.1 Kw/h

681.7 Kw/h

948.7 Kw/h

10'-0"

100 FT

Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec

Carbon Neutral {c+/-}House

0

243.5 Kw/h

1000000 BTU

50000

186.19 Kw/h

100000

schott schott schott schott

TOTAL ENERGY RECEIVED IN A YEAR 8 564.208 773 9 kilowatt hour

2000000 BTU

514.2 Kw/h

3000000 BTU

192.0 Kw/h

4000000 BTU

150000

131.9 Kw/h

1 335.2 Kw/h

MONTHLY AVERAGE ENERGY RECEIVED ON A 100 FT 2

5000000 BTU

250000 200000

shell shell

shell shell

LONG TERM ENERGY COSTS- 10 YEAR OUTLOOK LOCAL UTILITY COSTS SUN EDISON COSTS

YEAR 1

YEAR 5

kyocerakyocerakyocerakyocera

YEAR 10

PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFICIENCY COMPARISON 0° West

45°

South +Value azimuth

90° 0° 0° 90°

20° West of South

45° west of South

Mitsubishi First Solar

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

Sanyo

BP 7195

Kyocera

Shell

Schott

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46

Sun Power

90°

bp 7195 bp 7195bp 7195 bp 7195

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

Wurth Solar

Unisolar

sanyo sanyo sanyo sanyo

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

sun pwr sun pwrsun pwrsun pwr (Energy Information Administration)

31


Photovoltaic Photovoltaic Photovoltaic Photovoltaic performance performance performance performance on aon 0°aon tilt. 0°aon tilt. 0°at how does PV 40affect architectural 40 40 40 35 35 35 35 design?

1 366.8 Kw/h

1 335.2 Kw/h

2 10'-0"

1 117.9 Kw/h

100 FT

Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec

1 Btu = 0.000 293 071 083 33 kilowatt hour

0

20 20 20 20

PV SOLAR ANALYSIS

0

Carbon Neutral {c+/-}House

1000000 BTU

50000

243.5 Kw/h

100000

748.1 Kw/h

1 097.5 Kw/h

10'-0"

2000000 BTU

131.9 Kw/h

948.7 Kw/h

TOTAL ENERGY RECEIVED IN A YEAR 8 564.208 773 9 kilowatt hour

681.7 Kw/h

3000000 BTU

514.2 Kw/h

4000000 BTU

150000

192.0 Kw/h

25 25 25 25

MONTHLY AVERAGE ENERGY RECEIVED ON A 100 FT 2

5000000 BTU

250000 200000

186.19 Kw/h

30 30 30 30

INCIDENT SOLAR IRRADIANCE

LONG TERM ENERGY COSTS- 10 YEAR OUTLOOK LOCAL UTILITY COSTS SUN EDISON COSTS

YEAR 1

YEAR 5

YEAR 10

PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFICIENCY COMPARISON 0° West

45°

South +Value azimuth

90° 0° 0° 90°

20° West of South

45° west of South

Mitsubishi

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

First Solar Wurth Solar

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

Shell Kyocera BP 7195 Sanyo Sun Power

10 10 10 10

90°

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46

Schott

15 15 15 15

Unisolar

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Here is a series of designs for a solar powered home developed by the School of Architecture at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. 5 5 5 5 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Solar Decathlon Team 2008 0 0 0 SPRING 0

Jan Jan FebJan Feb Mar Jan Feb Mar Apr Feb Mar Apr May Mar Apr May Jun Apr May Jun JulMay Jun Jul Aug Jun Jul Aug SepJul Aug Sep Oct Aug Sep Oct No

32


The tilt and orientation of PV panels will have a large impact on the system efďŹ ciency.

33


Photovoltaic Photovoltaic Photovoltaic Photovoltaic performance performance performance performance on aon 0°aon tilt. 0°aon tilt. 0°at

40 40 40 40 35 35 35 35

2 10'-0"

1 366.8 Kw/h

243.5 Kw/h

100 FT

Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec

0

20 20 20 20

PV SOLAR ANALYSIS

0

1 Btu = 0.000 293 071 083 33 kilowatt hour

Carbon Neutral {c+/-}House

50000

1 117.9 Kw/h

1 097.5 Kw/h

10'-0"

2000000 BTU

1000000 BTU

748.1 Kw/h

948.7 Kw/h

TOTAL ENERGY RECEIVED IN A YEAR 8 564.208 773 9 kilowatt hour

681.7 Kw/h

3000000 BTU

150000 100000

131.9 Kw/h

4000000 BTU

200000

514.2 Kw/h

1 335.2 Kw/h

MONTHLY AVERAGE ENERGY RECEIVED ON A 100 FT 2

5000000 BTU

250000

192.0 Kw/h

25 25 25 25

INCIDENT SOLAR IRRADIANCE

186.19 Kw/h

30 30 30 30

LONG TERM ENERGY COSTS- 10 YEAR OUTLOOK LOCAL UTILITY COSTS SUN EDISON COSTS

YEAR 1

YEAR 5

YEAR 10

PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFICIENCY COMPARISON 0° West

45°

South +Value azimuth

90° 0° 0° 90°

20° West of South

45° west of South

Mitsubishi

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

First Solar Wurth Solar

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

Shell Kyocera

0

34

5

5

Sanyo

BP 7195

5

Sun Power

10 10 10 10

90°

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46

Schott

15 15 15 15

Unisolar

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

5

0 0 0 Jan Jan FebJan Feb Mar Jan Feb Mar Apr Feb Mar Apr May Mar Apr May Jun Apr May Jun JulMay Jun Jul Aug Jun Jul Aug SepJul Aug Sep Oct Aug Sep Oct No


J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 30 63 97 am noon 113 111 pm 106 88 50 17 1 0 0 0 0 0 pm 0 mid am

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 51 90 120 136 150 140 116 76 40 8 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 5 33 71 107 151 179 188 179 150 107 63 22 2 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 6 31 70 114 156 187 208 209 199 178 130 78 36 8 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 10 44 87 137 170 204 222 220 197 175 146 100 56 16 1 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 1 16 56 107 158 197 219 235 224 215 199 163 112 67 25 3 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 11 44 93 136 174 197 232 233 211 187 155 112 70 24 3 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 4 28 70 118 169 208 202 206 212 180 136 94 47 13 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 1 17 57 104 148 173 196 191 170 150 115 66 20 3 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 7 34 80 125 152 167 155 141 116 76 32 5 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 41 76 104 120 122 104 78 42 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 26 55 78 92 92 89 62 33 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0

1-100

101-250

Washington D.C.

Mean Hourly Global Horizontal Radiation (Btu/ft2)

>250

J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 32 64 92 am noon 104 107 pm 90 64 32 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 pm 0 mid am

0

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

0 0 0 0 0 0 1 16 47 87 118 129 136 121 89 57 21 2 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 10 43 82 114 146 155 152 144 118 81 41 11 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 10 44 91 127 156 189 188 193 175 144 105 64 26 4 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 3 24 61 111 152 174 202 219 230 202 177 146 94 48 12 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 6 33 74 127 164 202 233 237 236 217 199 151 109 61 23 3 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 3 22 63 104 144 182 213 216 231 215 187 157 111 63 21 2 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 11 45 87 135 181 200 223 211 196 168 133 86 41 9 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 4 27 68 107 144 166 185 190 170 139 96 52 12 1 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 10 42 80 111 136 147 142 118 86 49 16 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 2 16 44 72 92 97 94 79 51 23 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 28 53 75 84 76 69 46 18 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1-100

101-250

Milwaukee

Mean Hourly Global Horizontal Radiation (Btu/ft2)

>250

35


Sun Power

monthly energy production in kw/h 35 32

30 28

kw/h

25

29

25 22

20

19

15 10

31

15 10

15

9

8

5 0

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

The photovoltaic array in the case of the design for the solar decathlon conceived as a collective product is integrated onto the roof as an operable surface. The same is intended to tilt in order to achieve the maximum efďŹ ciency. In this particular design the array is estimated to produce about 12,000 kwh per year. Cloudy skies or scattered solar radiation condition have not been considered. Actual energy production may vary.

250000 200000 150000 100000 50000

36

0


PHOTOVOLTAICS

FRAME WORK

FRAME WORK BATHROOM AREA ROOF KITCHEN ISLAND

DROPPED CEILING SHELVING UNIT

BUILT IN STORAGE

RAIN SCREEN

MECHANICAL SIP CONSTRUCTION

GUARD RAIL

MULLION DECK

MULLION INFILL

DUAL SHELVING UNIT

SWING DOORS GARDEN WALL

SHADES

MAIN RAMP

FRONT LAWN LOW-E GLAZING FLAT PLATE SOLAR COLLECTORS

BASE STANDS

37


architectural applications for pv devices

Technisque Universitat Darmstadt solar house design for the Solar Decathlon competition. Here the photovoltaic cells are incorporated on the shading devices serving a dual operation. On the next page the relationship of different shading devices and its possible connection to a pv system.

38


39


South 0째 Tilt (Horizontal) January December

5000

February

4000 3000

November

March

2000 1000

October

April

September

May

August

June July

40


0째

T

Architecturally integrated pvs are very common applications. The there is also a direct relationship with the types of heating system. Solar-thermal being one example. On the left different design and shading strategies designed by UW-Milwaukee School of Architecture students. Design for the 2009 Solar Decathlon competition.

41


South 20째 Tilt January December

5000

February

4000 3000

November

March

2000 1000

October

April

September

May August

June July

Daylight (fc) 185.00 180.00 175.00 170.00

Using the EIS software you can have a graphic representation of the amount of footcandles transmitted if the space. 15.00 10.00 5.00 0.00

42


20°

67°

68°

61°

80°

70°

90°

60° 50° 39° 29°

40°

30°

23° 20°

December

November

October

August

June

May

April

March

February

September

10°

January

The graph on the right represents the relationship between the tilts and angle of incidence In this case the angle of the sun in relationship to a pv at a 90° tilt in the winter will be equivalent to a horizontal surface (0° tilt) when the summer. Note results for pv production on page 23.

61°

July

T

43


20 20 20 20

YEAR 1

YEAR 5

YEAR 10

PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFICIENCY COMPARISON 0° West

45°

South +Value azimuth

90° 0° 0° 90°

20° West of South

45° west of South 0°

Mitsubishi First Solar

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

BP 7195

Kyocera

Shell

Schott

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46

Wurth Solar

Unisolar

15 15 15 15

5 0

5

5

Sun Power

Sanyo

10 studies 10 10 10 solar decathlon studio case

90°

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

T

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

40°

5

0 0 0 Jan Jan FebJan Feb Mar Jan Feb Mar Apr Feb Mar Apr May Mar Apr May Jun Apr May Jun JulMay Jun Jul Aug Jun Jul Aug SepJul Aug Sep Oct Aug Sep Oct Nov SO

South 40° Tilt January December

According to different studies of the pv manufacturers and their performance here is represented one of the most productive solar units in a 40° tilt facing south. Also is displayed the solar radiation reflected in that surface condition.

5000

February

4000 3000

November

March

2000 1000

October

April

September

44

May August

June July


Sun Power

monthly energy production in kw/h 30

30

30

30

28 26

25 23

24

26 23

20 kw/h

19 16

15

15

10

5

0

T

40째

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

45


T

90째

Sun Power

monthly energy production in kw/h 25 22 20

20

19

19 17

kw/h

15

17 15

14

15

20

South 90째 Tilt (Vertical)

16

January

16

December

3000

February

2500 2000

November

March

1500

10

1000 500

October

5

46

0

April

September

May August

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

June July


40 40 40 40 35 35 35 35 209

0

200

5 0

255

5 244 250 5

10'-0"

286 289 290

PV SOLAR ANALYSIS

1 366.8 Kw/h

1 335.2 Kw/h

1 117.9 Kw/h

1 097.5 Kw/h

948.7 Kw/h

748.1 Kw/h

131.9 Kw/h

243.5 Kw/h

186.19 Kw/h

2

Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec

1 Btu = 0.000 293 071 083 33 kilowatt hour

0

Carbon Neutral {c+/-}House

0

100 FT

LONG TERM ENERGY COSTS- 10 YEAR OUTLOOK LOCAL UTILITY COSTS SUN EDISON COSTS

YEAR 1

YEAR 5

YEAR 10

PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFICIENCY COMPARISON 0° West

45°

South +Value azimuth

90° 0° 0° 90°

20° West of South

45° west of South

290 288

Unisolar

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

Shell

285 279

10 273

90°

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

Mitsubishi

15

50000

Schott

20

10'-0"

2000000 BTU

1000000 BTU

First Solar

281

TOTAL ENERGY RECEIVED IN A YEAR 8 564.208 773 9 kilowatt hour

681.7 Kw/h

3000000 BTU

100000

514.2 Kw/h

4000000 BTU

200000 150000

Kyocera

20

production of a single 20 20 20 SunPower pv panel facing south in 15 15 tilt 15 different conditions. measured in 10 10 10 kw/h

MONTHLY AVERAGE ENERGY RECEIVED ON A 100 FT 2

5000000 BTU

250000

BP 7195

40

268

Solar25 energy 25 25 25275

192.0 Kw/h

30 30 30 30 248 258

60

INCIDENT SOLAR IRRADIANCE

Sanyo

80

TILT

236

Wurth Solar

223

Sun Power

100

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

T

40°

264

5

300

0 0 0 Jan Jan FebJan Feb Mar Jan Feb Mar Apr Feb Mar Apr May Mar Apr May Jun Apr May Jun JulMay Jun Jul Aug Jun Jul Aug SepJul Aug Sep Oct Aug Sep Oct Nov Se ON

According to the tilt of the building integrated photovoltaics there is an impact on the design of the architecture. Here is the different responses of the wind according to the physical form of the building. There is also a relationship of temperature and human comfort.

47


References Brown DeKay, Sun, Wind and Light, Architectural Design Strategies, 2nd ed. Wiley & Sons, 2001. Dirk U. Hindrichs,Klaus Daniels ,Plus Plus minus 20째/40째 latitude, latitude ed. Axel Menges, Stuttgard/London. 2007. Alison G. Kwok,AIA+Walter T. Groundzik,PE, The Green Studio Handbook, McGraw-Hill ed. 2007. Ken Yeang, Ecodesign A manual for Ecological Design, Wiley Academy ed. 2006. Olgyay & Olgyay, Solar Control and Shading devices, devices Princeton University Press 1957. Mattew Buresch, Photovoltaic Energy Systems Design and Installation, Installation McGray-Hill ed. 1976. Edward Mazria, The Passive Solar Energy Book, Book Library of congress,1979. Stein,Reynolds,Grondzik,knok, Mechanical and Electrical Equipments for Buildings. Buildings Wiley & Sons, 2006 Energy Information Administration,, http://www.eia.doe.gov/ U.S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Laboratory http://www.nrel.gov/ Michael D. Utzinger, Building Integrated Photovoltaics, Photovoltaics Spreadsheet.

48


Visual Certainty - The Impact of the Sun  

This is an analysis of how architectural design is affected by environmental focus on integrated photovoltaic systems. The analysis tries to...