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LOMA’S ENVIRONMENT. A NEW URBAN SYSTEM FOR THE COAST OF PERÚ.

THE CASE OF ST. MARIA’S RAVINE. VILLA MARIA DEL TRIUNFO, LIMA-PERÚ

ARCH. CARLOS ESPINOZA


GLOBAL AND LOCAL WATER SCARCITY


FACTS • GLOBAL WATER SCARCITY

20% of World’s population lives in regions with water scarcity. By year 2050 it could reach a 52% 1 Billion people lives in informal settlements with limited access of water resources

• NATIONAL ASYMMETRIES

1

60% of Peruvian population lives on coastal cities where 80% of the GDP is produced. On the other hand, the Coast of Perú has

2% of our total hydric resources.

2

• GLOBAL WARMING: PERÚ CHAPTER

22% of Peru’s glacial surface has dissapeared, increasing coastal water stress. 3 • INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS

36% of Peru’s population lives in slums. 4 10,000 millions US$ is the cost

SOURCE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

to extent the traditional water grid over the slum’s 5 hillsides.

https://digital.lib.washington.edu/researchworks/handle/1773/26110 SINIA (2014) Cifras Ambientales 2014.Recuperado el 1 de Marzo del 2016 de http://sinia.minam.gob.pe/cifras-ambientales Ver http://www.minam.gob.pe/cambioclimatico/gestion-de-la-tierra-y-el-agua/ UN Habitat,2008 Espinoza, C (2015) Lomas Costeras. Un nuevo sistema urbano para la otra Lima. En Revista EST. Espacio Sociedad y Territorio. Vol 2, N°3, ene-jun,pp.69-90


WHY LOMAS?


FACTS

67 Lomas in Perú with an extension of 783,000 hectares.

There are

2

Between May and October, a single fogcatcher can harvest

350 lts of water per day.

3

Since minimum water consumption per family is 100 lts/day one fog catcher can supply water for

3 families and with low cost

4 It helps to capture urban carbon dioxide and offers

environmental services.

POSSIBILITIES

80%

A sustainable urban system for the of Lima’s housing deficit that lives on hillsides where 5 Loma’s ecosystems are developed.

harvesting water for the slums. A sustainable way of

SOURCE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

1

http://www.sacha.org/envir/deserts/locals/lists/lomaloc.html Recuperado el 1 de Marzo del 2016 en http://www.minam.gob.pe/proyecolegios/Curso/curso-virtual/ Espinoza, C (2015) Lomas Costeras. Un nuevo sistema urbano para la otra Lima. En Revista EST. Espacio Sociedad y Territorio. Vol 2, N°3, ene-jun,pp.69-90 UN-HABITAT PLAM 2035, MML

LOMA’S SPECS AND POSIBILITIES

The generation of a natural

urban border managed and valued by its own citizens. 3


HOW?


ECOSYSTEMIC ANALYSIS


ECOSYSTEMIC SOLUTION_ 3 NEW URBAN ELEMENTS


A NEW URBAN SYSTEM IN LIMA’S PERIPHERY. SAINT MARIA’S RAVINE CASE


LIMA

Between May trough October of Lomas with every winter.

21,280 ha

With El Niño, the Lomas r reach

90,023 ha representing 7% of the territory fo Lima’s province.

79% of Lima’s housing deficit is

located on the hillsides, damaging the Loma’s environment

THE PROBLEM_ HOUSING DEFICIT AND LOMA’S CONFLICT


LOCATION: SOUTH OF LIMA


Traditional/Urban economies Green economies St. Maria Ravine Economic activities should be coherent with its own territorial logic. Thus, the Loma’s environment should promote , within sustainable parameters,local jobs like: • • • • • • •

Agriculture with low water consumption products Forest keeper Recycling chain/ garbage collector Recycling chain/ transformation Recycling chain/ Salesmen Ecotourism Rural coexistence experience

SOUTH OF LIMA PROPOSAL_ENVIRONMENTAL RELATED ECONOMIES


St. Maria Ravine

VILLA MARIA DEL TRIUNFO_ZOOM


Moderate and high slope Low slope Loma’s environment VILLA MARIA DEL TRIUNFO_GEOGRAPHY


PANORAMIC VIEWS OF THE RAVINE


ST. MARIA RAVINE


The absence of an urban border promotes the horizontal growth The invasion savages the loma’s environment Bad built foundations provoke landslides High slope provokes landslides ( 743 degrees) Lack of sewage erodes the soil and casts diseases.

Locals pay 10 more times for a cistern water truck service. In VMT. 69.5% of the population obtains water by the cistern water truck service The ravine is a dormitory suburb which provokes the collapse of the transportation system. People waste many hours on traffic jam There’s a lack of local job offers

ST. MARIA’S RAVINE_PROBLEMATIC ANALYSIS


The fog catcher belt will generate water for human consumption and agriculture. New peripheral roads will decongest traffic and will allow maintenance and surveillance of the belt. Urban agriculture will allow locals to save money, to harvest their own food and offer job opportunities. Sewage treatment by phytodepuration will be reused for irrigating crops and parks. It can also generate biodiesel, biol and compost, important elements for the agriculture. Green streets, will be achieved with the reuse of grey water on each house frontis by phytodepuration New multifunctional houses, built progressively and with spaces that allow to save and generate money (fog catcher-MYPES-Agriculture)

ST. MARIA’S RAVINE_PROPOSAL GUIDELINES

B O R D E R C O N E C T O R H O U S I N G

U R B A N S Y S T E M


THE MASTERPLAN


ST. MARIA’S RAVINE_BEFORE


All type of vehicles No buses Mototaxi only Fog catcher fields Agricultural border Public spaces Urban equipment

ST. MARIA’S RAVINE_AFTER MASTERPLAN


All type of vehicles No buses Mototaxi only

MASTERPLAN_TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE


THE BORDER/ buffer zone Fog catcher fields Agricultural border Public spaces Urban equipment

MASTERPLAN_URBAN EQUIPMENT + PUBLIC SPACE


URBAN BORDER/ BUFFER ZONE


The buffer zone will be located in the limit between the lomas and the city. It will be a border valued and protected by its citizens

Multifunctional border ( Buffer zone) Community Loma’s environment with limited use MASTERPLAN_URBAN EQUIPMENT + PUBLIC SPACE


AGRICULTURAL BORDER


The fog catcher belt will generate water for human consumption and agriculture. Water reservoir will store water during winter season (8 months) and use it on summer.(4 months) Agricultural parcels. The crops can be used for family’s business or consumption. Its platform walls will protect the residents from rockfall.

Each family will have the right to use the agricultural platforms for an agreed length of time. When time passes it will be the next family’s turn. The platforms are property of the community and ofr agricultural use only. The advantage is that the collective will manage their own interest.

AGRICULTURAL BORDER


The conservation of Loma’s ecosystem by their own urban community is an innovative idea that is possible by the existent normative and institutional agents that promotes the “National Areas of Conservation”(NAC)

EVALUATES AND CREATES NAC IN ALL PERÚ

FUNDING SEARCH FOR NAC DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL AUTHORITY ON ENVIRONMENTAL RELATED THEMES

AGRICULTURAL BORDER_ Stakeholders


LOMAS DE ATIQUIPA-AREQUIPA, PERÚ Turismo Vivencial Siembra de Olivos_Producción de aceite de olivo Trekking Avistamiento de fauna y flora http://www.conservamospornaturaleza.org/area/lomas-de-atiquipa/

LOMAS DE LACHAY-LIMA,PERÚ Turismo Vivencial Siembra de Olivos_Producción de aceite de olivo Producción de Tara Trekking Avistamiento de fauna y flora SERNANP http://reservanacionaldelachay.blogspot.pe/

LOMAS DE VILLA MARIA DEL TRIUNFO-LIMA,PERÚ Turismo Vivencial Producción de Tara Trekking Avistamiento de fauna y flora Agua para la pobláción NGO ALIMON http://www.alimon.org/10.html

LOMAS DE LÚCUMO-LIMA,PERÚ Turismo Vivencial Producción de Tara Trekking Avistamiento de fauna y flora Deporte de Aventura Asoc. Circuito ecoturístico lomas de lucumo http://www.lomasdelucumo.org/

NATURAL AREAS OF CONSERVATION_ GOOD PRACTICES

20,000 ha

5,070 ha 5,070 ha

150 ha


The 68% of recycled garbage is domestic Recycling workshop: Gathering and transformation

It generates another job opportunity for the dormitory slum. There are nearly 560 business in Lima that are part of the recycling chain of labor. These workshops can teach locals to recycle garbage for building their own panels for their houses. *El 58% de recicladores de VMT tienen un sueldo mensual entre los s/.120 a 550

Phytodepuration ponds The parks will give the final treatment to the black waters received from the nearby houses. Soccer field attractor The sport activity will serve as an estimulus to carry the garbage to the nearby recycling workshop,

MULTIPURPOSE PARK


WATER AND SEWAGE


Harvest of water Water grid

MASTERPLAN_WATER


The fog catcher belt will generate water for human consumption and agriculture. The reservoir will storage water during the winter and autumn seasons ( 8 months) and releases its content the next 4 months Water grid located on selected streets in order to cut expenses Communitary water wells located on every corner of the block. It will provide water for 4 families.( 20 people). The recolection shouldn’t take more than 20 min.(UN-HABITAT)

THE BLOCK_WATER INPUT


PHASE I. INSIDE TREATMENT

PHASE II. OUTSIDE TREATMENT

The 1st phase consists of a system that recycles the sewage of the block to produce biogas. The mantainance of the pipes is done trough a service corrider at the back of the houses. The cost of this can be assumed by all the block

The 2nd phase consists on the independence of the sewage treatment. A family that could afford the price of connecting to the main grid could go solo or associate with more neighbors of the block to cut expenses. The mixed grid of pipes and exposed phytodepuration stairs will produce greener streets

PROGRESSIVE BLACK WATER GRID_PHASES


PRIVATE-PUBLIC STRUCTURES


Two nearby houses can join into a single space by opening holes in the perimetral walls.This will facilitate the cost of building bigger and public buildings.

THE BLOCK_COMMUNITY CENTERS OPT1


PHASE I__$997,779

Border and conectors (Fogcatchers+Agricultural platform+ Fitoderpuradoras+vĂ­as vehiculares+red de agua y desague) Strategic/important Public Squares Relocation of people that stablished on the planned buffer zone and on dangerous terrains with big slope.

PHASE II_$1,411,825 Secundary public squeares Urban Equipment: Hospital, College, Kindergardenand community centers

PHASE III

Consolidation of existent house with governemental program of remodelation

MASTERPLAN PHASES AND COST


HOUSING


HOUSING_FUNCTIONALITY + BENEFITS


The Basic house has a deposit where all the flex furniture can be storaged, leaving an empty space. This temporary available space has a closeness to the kitchen and the entrance which allow the functionality of any family business: Restaurant, cafe, or workshop

VIVIENDA TIPO 1


PHASE I. BASIC HOUSE ( WORK+ SHELTER) For 2 to 4 people, consists of concrete slabs, Retaining walls and a nucleus of services ( kitchen,stairs,bathrooms) The partition walls and Facade can be built by the owner using recycled products. It offers flexible spaces to set up a family workshop and a backyard to practice agriculture and save money

HOUSING_PHASES

PHASE II. RENTAL A second floor is built over the living room for a renting space. The family can save money by renting the second floor to 4 tenants

PHASE II. EXPANSION The densified housing. After saving money trough the many activities that can be done in the house, the owner could build a second floor over the back bedroom for the next family generation.


VIVIENDA TIPO 1


VIVIENDA TIPO 1


New urban system for the coast of peru  
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