LOMA’S ENVIRONMENT. A NEW URBAN SYSTEM FOR THE COAST OF PERÚ.
THE CASE OF ST. MARIA’S RAVINE. VILLA MARIA DEL TRIUNFO, LIMA-PERÚ
ARCH. CARLOS ESPINOZA
GLOBAL AND LOCAL WATER SCARCITY
FACTS • GLOBAL WATER SCARCITY
20% of World’s population lives in regions with water scarcity. By year 2050 it could reach a 52% 1 Billion people lives in informal settlements with limited access of water resources
• NATIONAL ASYMMETRIES
60% of Peruvian population lives on coastal cities where 80% of the GDP is produced. On the other hand, the Coast of Perú has
2% of our total hydric resources.
• GLOBAL WARMING: PERÚ CHAPTER
22% of Peru’s glacial surface has dissapeared, increasing coastal water stress. 3 • INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS
36% of Peru’s population lives in slums. 4 10,000 millions US$ is the cost
SOURCE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
to extent the traditional water grid over the slum’s 5 hillsides.
https://digital.lib.washington.edu/researchworks/handle/1773/26110 SINIA (2014) Cifras Ambientales 2014.Recuperado el 1 de Marzo del 2016 de http://sinia.minam.gob.pe/cifras-ambientales Ver http://www.minam.gob.pe/cambioclimatico/gestion-de-la-tierra-y-el-agua/ UN Habitat,2008 Espinoza, C (2015) Lomas Costeras. Un nuevo sistema urbano para la otra Lima. En Revista EST. Espacio Sociedad y Territorio. Vol 2, N°3, ene-jun,pp.69-90
67 Lomas in Perú with an extension of 783,000 hectares.
Between May and October, a single fogcatcher can harvest
350 lts of water per day.
Since minimum water consumption per family is 100 lts/day one fog catcher can supply water for
3 families and with low cost
4 It helps to capture urban carbon dioxide and offers
A sustainable urban system for the of Lima’s housing deficit that lives on hillsides where 5 Loma’s ecosystems are developed.
harvesting water for the slums. A sustainable way of
SOURCE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
http://www.sacha.org/envir/deserts/locals/lists/lomaloc.html Recuperado el 1 de Marzo del 2016 en http://www.minam.gob.pe/proyecolegios/Curso/curso-virtual/ Espinoza, C (2015) Lomas Costeras. Un nuevo sistema urbano para la otra Lima. En Revista EST. Espacio Sociedad y Territorio. Vol 2, N°3, ene-jun,pp.69-90 UN-HABITAT PLAM 2035, MML
LOMA’S SPECS AND POSIBILITIES
The generation of a natural
urban border managed and valued by its own citizens. 3
ECOSYSTEMIC SOLUTION_ 3 NEW URBAN ELEMENTS
A NEW URBAN SYSTEM IN LIMA’S PERIPHERY. SAINT MARIA’S RAVINE CASE
Between May trough October of Lomas with every winter.
With El Niño, the Lomas r reach
90,023 ha representing 7% of the territory fo Lima’s province.
79% of Lima’s housing deficit is
located on the hillsides, damaging the Loma’s environment
THE PROBLEM_ HOUSING DEFICIT AND LOMA’S CONFLICT
LOCATION: SOUTH OF LIMA
Traditional/Urban economies Green economies St. Maria Ravine Economic activities should be coherent with its own territorial logic. Thus, the Loma’s environment should promote , within sustainable parameters,local jobs like: • • • • • • •
Agriculture with low water consumption products Forest keeper Recycling chain/ garbage collector Recycling chain/ transformation Recycling chain/ Salesmen Ecotourism Rural coexistence experience
SOUTH OF LIMA PROPOSAL_ENVIRONMENTAL RELATED ECONOMIES
St. Maria Ravine
VILLA MARIA DEL TRIUNFO_ZOOM
Moderate and high slope Low slope Loma’s environment VILLA MARIA DEL TRIUNFO_GEOGRAPHY
PANORAMIC VIEWS OF THE RAVINE
ST. MARIA RAVINE
The absence of an urban border promotes the horizontal growth The invasion savages the loma’s environment Bad built foundations provoke landslides High slope provokes landslides ( 743 degrees) Lack of sewage erodes the soil and casts diseases.
Locals pay 10 more times for a cistern water truck service. In VMT. 69.5% of the population obtains water by the cistern water truck service The ravine is a dormitory suburb which provokes the collapse of the transportation system. People waste many hours on traffic jam There’s a lack of local job offers
ST. MARIA’S RAVINE_PROBLEMATIC ANALYSIS
The fog catcher belt will generate water for human consumption and agriculture. New peripheral roads will decongest traffic and will allow maintenance and surveillance of the belt. Urban agriculture will allow locals to save money, to harvest their own food and offer job opportunities. Sewage treatment by phytodepuration will be reused for irrigating crops and parks. It can also generate biodiesel, biol and compost, important elements for the agriculture. Green streets, will be achieved with the reuse of grey water on each house frontis by phytodepuration New multifunctional houses, built progressively and with spaces that allow to save and generate money (fog catcher-MYPES-Agriculture)
ST. MARIAâ€™S RAVINE_PROPOSAL GUIDELINES
B O R D E R C O N E C T O R H O U S I N G
U R B A N S Y S T E M
ST. MARIA’S RAVINE_BEFORE
All type of vehicles No buses Mototaxi only Fog catcher fields Agricultural border Public spaces Urban equipment
ST. MARIAâ€™S RAVINE_AFTER MASTERPLAN
All type of vehicles No buses Mototaxi only
THE BORDER/ buffer zone Fog catcher fields Agricultural border Public spaces Urban equipment
MASTERPLAN_URBAN EQUIPMENT + PUBLIC SPACE
URBAN BORDER/ BUFFER ZONE
The buffer zone will be located in the limit between the lomas and the city. It will be a border valued and protected by its citizens
Multifunctional border ( Buffer zone) Community Lomaâ€™s environment with limited use MASTERPLAN_URBAN EQUIPMENT + PUBLIC SPACE
The fog catcher belt will generate water for human consumption and agriculture. Water reservoir will store water during winter season (8 months) and use it on summer.(4 months) Agricultural parcels. The crops can be used for familyâ€™s business or consumption. Its platform walls will protect the residents from rockfall.
Each family will have the right to use the agricultural platforms for an agreed length of time. When time passes it will be the next familyâ€™s turn. The platforms are property of the community and ofr agricultural use only. The advantage is that the collective will manage their own interest.
The conservation of Loma’s ecosystem by their own urban community is an innovative idea that is possible by the existent normative and institutional agents that promotes the “National Areas of Conservation”(NAC)
EVALUATES AND CREATES NAC IN ALL PERÚ
FUNDING SEARCH FOR NAC DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL AUTHORITY ON ENVIRONMENTAL RELATED THEMES
AGRICULTURAL BORDER_ Stakeholders
LOMAS DE ATIQUIPA-AREQUIPA, PERÚ Turismo Vivencial Siembra de Olivos_Producción de aceite de olivo Trekking Avistamiento de fauna y flora http://www.conservamospornaturaleza.org/area/lomas-de-atiquipa/
LOMAS DE LACHAY-LIMA,PERÚ Turismo Vivencial Siembra de Olivos_Producción de aceite de olivo Producción de Tara Trekking Avistamiento de fauna y flora SERNANP http://reservanacionaldelachay.blogspot.pe/
LOMAS DE VILLA MARIA DEL TRIUNFO-LIMA,PERÚ Turismo Vivencial Producción de Tara Trekking Avistamiento de fauna y flora Agua para la pobláción NGO ALIMON http://www.alimon.org/10.html
LOMAS DE LÚCUMO-LIMA,PERÚ Turismo Vivencial Producción de Tara Trekking Avistamiento de fauna y flora Deporte de Aventura Asoc. Circuito ecoturístico lomas de lucumo http://www.lomasdelucumo.org/
NATURAL AREAS OF CONSERVATION_ GOOD PRACTICES
5,070 ha 5,070 ha
The 68% of recycled garbage is domestic Recycling workshop: Gathering and transformation
It generates another job opportunity for the dormitory slum. There are nearly 560 business in Lima that are part of the recycling chain of labor. These workshops can teach locals to recycle garbage for building their own panels for their houses. *El 58% de recicladores de VMT tienen un sueldo mensual entre los s/.120 a 550
Phytodepuration ponds The parks will give the final treatment to the black waters received from the nearby houses. Soccer field attractor The sport activity will serve as an estimulus to carry the garbage to the nearby recycling workshop,
WATER AND SEWAGE
Harvest of water Water grid
The fog catcher belt will generate water for human consumption and agriculture. The reservoir will storage water during the winter and autumn seasons ( 8 months) and releases its content the next 4 months Water grid located on selected streets in order to cut expenses Communitary water wells located on every corner of the block. It will provide water for 4 families.( 20 people). The recolection shouldnâ€™t take more than 20 min.(UN-HABITAT)
THE BLOCK_WATER INPUT
PHASE I. INSIDE TREATMENT
PHASE II. OUTSIDE TREATMENT
The 1st phase consists of a system that recycles the sewage of the block to produce biogas. The mantainance of the pipes is done trough a service corrider at the back of the houses. The cost of this can be assumed by all the block
The 2nd phase consists on the independence of the sewage treatment. A family that could afford the price of connecting to the main grid could go solo or associate with more neighbors of the block to cut expenses. The mixed grid of pipes and exposed phytodepuration stairs will produce greener streets
PROGRESSIVE BLACK WATER GRID_PHASES
Two nearby houses can join into a single space by opening holes in the perimetral walls.This will facilitate the cost of building bigger and public buildings.
THE BLOCK_COMMUNITY CENTERS OPT1
Border and conectors (Fogcatchers+Agricultural platform+ Fitoderpuradoras+vĂas vehiculares+red de agua y desague) Strategic/important Public Squares Relocation of people that stablished on the planned buffer zone and on dangerous terrains with big slope.
PHASE II_$1,411,825 Secundary public squeares Urban Equipment: Hospital, College, Kindergardenand community centers
Consolidation of existent house with governemental program of remodelation
MASTERPLAN PHASES AND COST
HOUSING_FUNCTIONALITY + BENEFITS
The Basic house has a deposit where all the flex furniture can be storaged, leaving an empty space. This temporary available space has a closeness to the kitchen and the entrance which allow the functionality of any family business: Restaurant, cafe, or workshop
VIVIENDA TIPO 1
PHASE I. BASIC HOUSE ( WORK+ SHELTER) For 2 to 4 people, consists of concrete slabs, Retaining walls and a nucleus of services ( kitchen,stairs,bathrooms) The partition walls and Facade can be built by the owner using recycled products. It offers flexible spaces to set up a family workshop and a backyard to practice agriculture and save money
PHASE II. RENTAL A second floor is built over the living room for a renting space. The family can save money by renting the second floor to 4 tenants
PHASE II. EXPANSION The densified housing. After saving money trough the many activities that can be done in the house, the owner could build a second floor over the back bedroom for the next family generation.
VIVIENDA TIPO 1
VIVIENDA TIPO 1