Brewsome Magazine 2nd Edition

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We often talk about teams and teamwork. Often those terms are used in the context of high performance and alignment of goals. Those words from Archbishop Tutu, however, have always stuck with me because they remind us that it is not just about the end result, but more importantly, the real value lies in how we get those results. While being focused on the destination, it is the journey which brings out our true human nature. Putting this into our perspective, we all know the importance and value of communicating our goals clearly. Whether it be budgets, KPIs or targets, alignment on achieving our individual or collective objectives is what binds us as a team. Determining how tightly we are bound to each other though, comes down to the team dynamics we wish to adopt. We can choose to be the team that gets there with just a few high-performing members overextending themselves and dragging the rest forward or choose to be the team which leaves no one behind, even if that means sacrificing the accomplishment of a milestone temporarily to serve the greater good. One might argue that both paths bring the same result, but the former option is unsustainable and can lead to resentment, demotivation and a lack of commitment to future projects. However, the benefits of the latter approach far outweigh the setbacks which can be encountered. For example, it builds muscle in the team, energises and motivates success and creates harmony among team members on and off the field.

The fulfilment and contentment we can experience from knowing that we succeeded as a team and contributed to that success by playing our role as required goes a long way in creating the culture of high performance and gratification which we strive for.

It is commonly uttered that a chain(team) is only as strong as its weakest link. Too often, our first response to mitigate any such risk is to perform triage and deal with the challenge that appears to be most urgent. Although this is usually the appropriate response, it must not be our only response. It is crucial that we take the time to delve into the root cause and tackle the deeper, albeit hidden or unspoken, source of the haemorrhaging. Let’s go upstream and find out why and ensure that we remedy most, if not all the underlying causes so that we will have fewer people to pull out of the river.

I continue to be proud of the Beverage Sector Supply Chain team and all who contributed to this 2nd issue of our Brewsome magazine. The energy, excitement and commitment to continuing to showcase our learnings, projects and amazing people all play a meaningful role in our success.

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Akash
“There comes a point where we need to stop just pulling people out of the river. We need to go upstream and find out why they’re falling in.” – Desmond Tutu

The White Knights

The art of brewing beer goes back over 9000 years. In every culture, there was somebody, a Shaman, a Medicine man, or an Alchemist who had the secret, that one person who hoarded all kinds of materials to concoct a Brew or a Potion. Time evolved so that the “Mystery” of the concoction was transferred to the early Monks (Friar Tuck) who took the opportunity to support the Monastery by brewing and selling beer commercially. Over the years, the Brew Master, Head Brewer or Brewmeister held the Brewing process as sacred and cradled the creation of beers as one would do a baby. The Brewery revolved around the Brewer. He was responsible for the creation of iconic products that outlived generations. Creating folkloric gems that anybody can tell a story about after having a few of them.

The Brewery and Brewery life was a realm on its own. The Brewer many times lived as if the outside world was secondary. His real family was in the brewery and going to his official home was just an interlude in his daily life. Every brew was monitored and cared for as a doctor would do for his patient. So, every temperature change or out-of-range pH was a do-or-die emergency and demanded an “on plant” presence. Christmas day, Birthdays, and family gatherings had to share the presence of the Brewer. Some felt that injury, being pregnant, or the delivery of a baby is never an excuse for being away from the Brewery. That is the hypnotic effect of being a Brewer. The profession embraces the very vows of marriage, “in sickness, and in health, till death do us part”. The romance between the art of brewing and a Brewer gives a euphoric sense of freedom. To create and see the creation enjoyed is the ultimate accomplishment for the Brewer. As time passes for the senior brewers, the sight of the younger generation enjoying the product that they

were once instrumental in creating or protecting gives a feeling of nostalgia and pride. Caribbean Development Company has had a number of “Beer Keepers”. Transitioning from Walters Brewery where Colin Craig’s father was the Brew Master, most of them did not come on board as Brewers but were in-house indoctrinated and then later professionally trained at some Brewing institution. They became the white knights joining the realm and protecting the authenticity of the call… “A beer is a Carib”!

Synonymous with the company’s name, “Caribbean Development”, brewers were the vanguards, birthing products along the journey of existence. Below is the ancestry of this remarkable Carib brewers’ family tree and the products they would have been intricately involved in creating. Let’s recognise and celebrate

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Carib Brewery Trinidad 1947 to Present

Ole Humle: The first Head Brewer, Creation of the Original Carib Formula

Colin Craig (aka Papa Q): Colin Craig’s father was the Head Brewer at Walters Brewery, the first Brewery in Trinidad, and where we inherited the Royal Extra Brand and Black Velvet Milk Stout

Michael Redhead (aka The Phantom Silver): Worked at both St. Kitts and Grenada Breweries during the early years

Mr. Thompson

Stanley Tempro

Allan Chu Fook (aka D Fook): Ginger and Nutmeg Shandy, Caribe Beer, Original Carib light Beer

Rudy Moore: Malta Carib, Reformulated RES, Solved some serious issues with our Yeast strain

Derek Sooyee: First to transition from manual brewing to new modern computer assisted technology

Virginia Clarke (First Female Carib Brewer): Black Wolf, Reds, High Gravity brewing, Systems upgrade, Along with Derek, transitioned from the old manual brewing system to the new computer assisted technology

Anabel Thomas

John Afong Zane Barns

Ian Forbes (aka Pockets): Carib Light, Ultra Malt, Carib and Stag transition to Hop extract, Black Wolf and Reds, RES formula Optimisation

Abdon Ramdass: Shandys, Carib Strong, Caribe Beer, Toffee Malta, Ciders, HRIPA, HRpils, Seltzers, Flavoured Mackeson, Rockstone Tonic Wine, Hand Sanitizer

Roger Ible

Averne Pantin

Arlene Romero

Richard Clarke: Carib Strong

Delano Pasea: Shandys, Carlsberg, Black Wolf, Reds, Bad Dog, Systems upgrade, Star Malt

Akash Ragbir: Smirnoff, Carlsberg (now Supply Chain Director)

Rampaul Persad: Black Wolf, Systems improvement, Hand Sanitizer, Seltzers

Atiba Rique: Carib Light, Stag Light, Carib Blue

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Carib Brewery St. Kitts 1960 to present Stag Brewery

The Microcosmic life of the Brewery continues to exist even as it takes on a more commercialised face. So too is the intrigue of brewing, luring new Brewers to embrace the fate of “once a Brewer always a Brewer”! And to proudly shout:

“I BREW THE BEER I DRINK!!”

About the Author

Carib Brewery Grenada 1960 to present

William

Nigel

Abdon “The Practical Brew Master” Ramdass joined the Brewery in 1978 as a laboratory technician and then went on to work as a Shift Brewer; Project Brewer, National Brewing Company; Brew Master and Technical Manager, Antigua Brewery; Operations Manager, Grenada Breweries; and presently Technical Support Manager, Carib Brewery Trinidad. He is an American Brewing Academy and Siebel Institute of technology graduate, and holds a Diploma in Brewing, Master of Brew styles and PMP certification. Under his stewardship, Antigua Breweries received two Monde Selection Gold Medals and two Grand Gold Medals between 1996 and 1999.

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Calvin Cable Colin Craig Michael Redhead Rudy Moore Liebird Peter Dickerson Linkon Maynard Kevin Wilkinson Desroy Tate: Caribe Mimosa and Brut, Rockstone Tonic Wine Colin Craig Michael Red Head James Benoit Steel Ishmael Pierre Downs: HRpils, Bad Dog, HRIPA, Star Malt Anthony Forsyth Norris Charles: First Head Brewer Steven Gibbons

Management of Change in Carib Brewery

Abstract

Management of Change is intended to minimise the probability of unintended consequences and their associated risk to the business. Increasing change across the Beverage Sector has resulted in a greater need for agility and synergy, which is facilitated by greater robustness of structures around change. The digitisation of the Management of Change form is a key step in the journey to achieve the organisation’s strategic goals across the sector.

What is Management of Change?

Management of Change (MoC) is a process to evaluate and properly manage any risks that may result from modifications made within an organi sation.

In the Beverage Sector, the main types of changes encountered are:

• Process/Procedure

• Equipment

• People

• Infrastructure

• Raw Materials and Packaging

• Software

Since every organisation’s risk exposure is different, it is important for leaders to define what constitutes a change in their business context. In the Beverage Sector, both modifications to existing systems as well as the introduction of new systems constitute a change.

Why is MoC Important?

With the business transforming at a record pace, synergy and agility are required more than ever across the Sector.

“Agility is the ability of an organisation to renew itself, adapt, change quickly, and succeed in a rapidly changing, ambiguous, turbulent environment. Agility is not incompatible with stability - quite the contrary. Agility requires stability for most companies” - Aaron De Smet [1]

That stability is supported by a robust and structured MoC process that allows the members of the organisation to successfully navigate change.

An effective MoC Process provides the following benefits:

• Enhanced communication and engage ment amongst stakeholders of change

Greater visibility of the change through the various phases of the process

Greater clarity around the roles and responsibilities of those involved in the change

• Minimisation of undesirable and unintended consequences of change

MoC is also a key requirement of our Quality Man agement systems, such as ISO 9001 and Food Safe ty System Certification 22000 (FSSC 22000) for the Sector. Therefore, it is critical that our MoC system is structured to ensure compliance.

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Common Misconceptions about MoC

The most common misconceptions surrounding MoC in the organisation are as follows:

Table 1: Shows the most common misconceptions around MoC

Roles and Responsibilities

Everyone has a different role to play in the MoC Process to ensure the successful completion of the change. In Carib Brewery, some of the key roles in the change process are defined as follows:

• Change Initiator – Responsible for compiling and submitting the change request. They must also complete or follow up on all action items required for implementation

• Change Owner – Responsible for ensuring adherence to policy and procedure related to the MoC as well as the change outcome

• Change Approver – Reviews MoC submission and requests changes as necessary

• Change Authoriser – Makes the final decision on whether a change request should be approved, and a change implemented.

Stages of the MoC Process

There are 3 key stages of the MoC Process:

Figure 1: Diagram of Stages of MoC Process

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Digital MoC Form and SharePoint Site

As part of Carib’s drive towards continuous improvement, the MoC process has been digitised via Power Apps!

Figure 2: Snapshot of Section 1 of MoC Approval Form [2]

The application has created a central repository in which all change requests can be viewed and stored. The form includes the following features geared towards enhancement of the MoC process:

• Automatic assignment of a unique change number to each change for easier tracking

• Draft mode to allow change initiators to start compiling a change request and save it as work in progress before submitting

• Convenient drop-down lists for selection of owners, approvers, authorisers etc

• Flexible selection of approvers based on the nature of the change

• The ability to select the Brewery location of the change so that all breweries across the Sector can submit change requests.

• Notification of requests for edit / approvals/rejections via email

• Automatic email notification to designated persons of the affected departments of the change

• An alert function that allows users to track and be notified of changes

• Mobile access to MoC Forms

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The intention is to have a one-stop shop that facilitates self-learning and helps to embed MoC into the culture of Carib Brewery. The site features:

• A document library that includes but is not limited to procedures, policies, forms etc. related to MoC

• Frequently Asked Questions on MoC

• Change Spotlights which highlight changes across the Sector

• MoC-based news articles for learning

The Future of MoC

You can’t really know where you are going until you know where you have been.” — Maya Angelou. The future of MoC will see the digitisation of the Review stage of the MoC process so that changes can be closed off successfully and lessons learnt can be transferred across the organisation.

The new digitised MoC form was piloted and rolled out in Carib Brewery Trinidad and Tobago (CBTT) in April 2022. Rollouts in Carib USA (CBUSA), Carib Brewery Grenada (CBG) and Carib Brewery St. Kitts and Nevis (CBSKN) are scheduled for the latter half of 2022.

References

[1] De Smet, A. (2015). The keys to organizational agility. (L. Collins, Interviewer)

[2] MoC Approval Form. URL: https://apps. powerapps.com/play/e/default-4499cfa1-1a1d47c8-a72f-f6ae39651951/a/34623d5f-2283-41bcb84a-34f8deb50817?tenantId=4499cfa1-1a1d47c8-a72f-f6ae39651951&source=portal

[3] Management of Change. URL: https://ansamcal. sharepoint.com/sites/BeverageSector/moc

About the Author

Rayanna Richards joined Carib in 2016 as an Ex ecutive Management Trainee as part of the ANSA McAL Champions program. On completion of the 2-year programme, she started her current role as Process Improvement Engineer. She has a BSc in Mechanical Engineering and an MSc in Produc tion Management from UWI St. Augustine. She has gained certification in Brewing and Packaging from the Institute of Brewing and Distilling and is a Prosci Certified Change Practitioner.

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In addition to the form, a SharePoint site was created as a hub for the Management of Change. Figure 3: Snapshot of MoC SharePoint Site [3]

Hard Seltzer, Our Innovation of the Future

Introduction

Innovation creates new products that change the basis of competition. The ability to change and adapt is essential for survival [1]. Adapting a company’s strategy or product mix to align with the fast-paced consumer goods market is key to ensuring an organisation’s future. Hard Seltzers are one of those innovations that changed the nature of competition in the market. Jake Kirsch, Vice President of Innovation at Anheuser-Busch, stated, “Hard Seltzer is the biggest phenomenon to happen in the beer industry since light beer” [2]. This is significant because the introduction of light beer changed the beer market by cannibalising the sales of regular lagers such as Budweiser, Coors, and Michelob.

History of Hard Seltzers

Five women walked into a bar in Westport, Connecticut. At this bar was a fifth-generation brewer named Nick Shields who sat at the bar having drinks. He noticed the group of women ordering rounds of vodka sodas. This piqued the curiosity of Mr Shields as he thought he could make a better product. So he retreated to the sanctuary of his garage to create and innovate a new product. And in November 2012, Nick Shields created 2000 cases of Spiked Seltzer, a West Indian Lime flavoured hard seltzer. By 2015 Spiked Seltzer was selling 250,000 cases per year. Since then, the hard seltzer market has grown by 226.4% in 2019.

Market Size and Growth

Hard Seltzers are the latest trend in the brewing industry. In the US market alone, hard seltzers are projected to generate $2.5 billion in sales [4] for 2021. Seltzer sales surpassed these projections with $4.1 billion in actual sales (see Figure 1). Hard seltzers projected growth of $6.5 billion in sales by 2024 [5] and globally, the market is valued at $23.8 billion [6] (see Figure 2).

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[3]
Figure 1: 2021 Actual vs. Projected Sales [4] Figure 2: Hard Seltzer Growth US Market [6]

Market Drivers

These sales were driven by the health conscious, the hybrid nature of the hard seltzer liquid being a wine, cocktail and beer type liquid, millennials, Gen Z and investment from large breweries such as Anheuser Busch, Constellation Brands and Molson Coors releasing hard seltzer brands of their own capitalising on the upsurge in sales (See Figure 3).

Figure 4: Popular Hard Seltzer Brands

We chose to test our brewing knowledge and brew our seltzers rather than using a spiked product. This required the development of a brewing recipe to create the alcohol base, sourcing ingredients, a vessel for fermentation and defining the process route for brewing, filtration and clarification. See Table 1 for Trial Considerations.

Figure 3: Hard Seltzer Brands from Global Leaders

Therefore, Caribbean Development Company (CDC) embarked on trials to develop our own special blend of hard seltzer, under the direction of Mr. Abdon Ramdass, also known as the Practical Brewer.

Planning & Development Phase

Hard seltzers can be either spiked or brewed and contain carbonated water, alcohol ranging from 4.0 – 5.0 % v/v, and fruit flavourings such as mango, watermelon, ruby grapefruit, and natural lime. The typical seltzer popularised by Truly, White Claw and Bon & Viv (formerly Spiked Seltzer) are shown in Figure 4.

Table 1: List of Trial Requirements and Considerations

Nonetheless, one of our challenges was finding a vessel suitable to ferment our 30 hl trial. Due to our scale, we lacked the ability to properly process such a small volume in our 1800 – 3200 hl fermentation vessels. Consequently, a tank previously used in our Dosimat system was retrofitted by the engineering department to allow us to ferment the trial (See Figure 5)

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Figure 5: Modified Dosimat Tank

Process Phase

Sugar Wash

The process of creating a seltzer base required that a sugar wash be brewed and fermented using yeast, initially targeting an alcohol v/v of 8 % and then increased to 12 % v/v in subsequent trials. The sugar wash comprises water, a sugar source such as sucrose or glucose and trace vitamins and minerals such as calcium and zinc, which aids in the fermentation and taste of the final product.

Fermentation

Fermentation is the process of converting sugar to alcohol through glycolysis, which releases energy in the form of heat, CO2, esters, and ethanol [7]. Hence it is critical to have a conducive environment for the yeast for fermentation to occur. The two initial fermentation trials were underwhelming, to say the less. We failed to achieve final attenuation, high yeast stains were abundant, plummeting pH levels and low yeast growth were some of the challenges we encountered (see Table 2).

Therefore, we had to go back to the proverbial drawing board. Consequently, we discovered that high alcohol and low pH levels were poisoning the yeast. The lack of free amino nitrogen (F.A.N), abundant in malt for the reproduction of yeast cells, was absent in the sugar wash. We needed a new yeast strain that was viable and resistant to high alcohol, high osmotic pressure, and low pH, which could withstand the rigours and conditions of seltzer fermentation. See Table 3 for Findings.

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2:
Seltzer Trial 1
Table
Fermentation Tracker -

Table 3: Findings and Corrective Action

Table 4: Successful Seltzer Fermentation after Corrective Action

Once the stated variables were controlled, we achieved a high alcohol seltzer base with zero residual sugars, primed and ready for filtration and clarification. See Table 4.

Filtration & Clarification

Filtration

After successfully fermenting the sugar wash and reaching final attenuation, the alcohol base was deep cooled to 0ºC and the yeast needed to be removed, hence the Vertical Leaf Filter (VLF) was utilised.

The VLF is fitted with a stack of vertical leaves that serve as filter elements. The leaf is constructed with ribs on both sides to allow free flow of filtrate towards the neck and is covered with coarse mesh screens that support the finer woven metal screens or filter cloth that retains the cake. The slurry, which consists of product and kieselguhr, is pumped under pressure into the VLF. Once a filter bed is established, the product is passed through the filter cake, trapping suspended particles, and producing a clarified product.

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Figure 6: Construction of Vertical Leaf Filter

Clarification

Activated Carbon’s effectiveness is largely due to its surface area. Physical adsorption is the primary method by which activated carbon filters out a given substance. As liquid or air comes into contact with activated carbon, intermolecular forces draw molecules into the millions of pores and pockets on the surface of activated carbon. See Figure 7. Hence, the effective removal of odour and colour from our alcohol base. Our challenge was that we did not have a trialsized activated carbon filter. This was sourced by The Practical Brewer from EUWA, with an overwhelming capacity of 1 hl/hr. See Figure 8.

Figure 8: EUWA Trial Activated Carbon Filter

Figure 7: Activated Carbon Granule

Blending

The blending of hard seltzers brings together the key components of the product, marrying the alcohol base with fruit flavours, additives, buffering agents, de-aerated water and CO2, bringing to life a clean, crisp refreshing product ready for the market.

Figure 9: Example of Blended Hard Seltzer

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Conclusion

Valuable lessons were learnt in the development of this innovation.

•Plan, Do, Check, Act is vital to the innovation process

•Persistence, patience, and teamwork are vital for successful innovation.

•If you do not succeed, try, try, and try again - the third try might be the charm.

•The yeast is one of your most valuable assets –do everything to craft a conducive environment through controlling variables such as pH, nutrient levels, oxygenation, temperature, and carbohydrate sources.

•The value of your company lies in your future markets. Consequently, if innovation is the key to the future, a scalable solution is required for small brewed and fermented innovations.

https://www.usatoday.com/story/life/2020/09/03/ future-of-hard-seltzers-more-flavors-morebrands-more-for-consumers-to-love/3245005001/

[3] Gray, J and Goldfine, J. (2021). How hard seltzer became the alcohol industry’s party trick. The Business of Business. URL: https://www. businessofbusiness.com/articles/history-ofhard-seltzer-white-claw-truly-bud-light-cacticomparison-travis-scott-constellation/

[4] Ignatius, A. (2014). Innovation on the Fly. Harvard Business Review.

[5] Colby, C. (2020). Hard Seltzer Production Methods. Brewer and Distiller International, Vol. 16, No. 11.

[6] O’Connor, M. (2020). Big Brewers Pop Top on New Hard Seltzer Brands. S&P Global Market Intelligence.

[7] Market Data Forecast. (2021). Hard Seltzer Market. URL: https://www.marketdataforecast. com/market-reports/hard-seltzer-market

[8] Kunze, W. (2014). Technology Brewing and Malting. VLB: Berlin.

About the Author: Nigel Irish is an Assistant Brewer and has been with Carib Brewery for the past 20 years. He holds an MBA. in Leadership, Entrepreneurship and Innovation, a Certificate in Brewing and is presently pursuing an International Diploma in Brewing Technology from the Siebel Institute and World Brewing Academy.

References

[1] Trott, P. (2012). Innovation Management and New Product Development. Pearson: Harlow, England.

[2] Hines, M. (2020). Hard seltzer, once believed a fad, is showing no signs of fizzling. USA Today. URL:

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Bottling of Non-Carbonated Tonic Wine

– Buckfast Tonic Wine tagline which was pro duced by Monks in the late 18th century [1]

Introduction

As part of the Beverage Sector innovations agenda, Carib Brewery St. Kitts and Nevis (CBSKN) was tasked with the production and bottling of a noncarbonated Tonic Wine using the Krones Mecafill. During routine bottling of products, a minimum pressure of 2.5 bars of carbon dioxide (CO2) is used for the evacuation of air from the filling tube and the pressurization of bottles with CO2, after which the bottles are filled with product. A counterpressure is also maintained on the filling bowl. The Tonic Wine is a non-carbonated product, and as such, the objective is to determine the minimum CO2 pressure required to bottle the product effectively with minimal dissolution of CO2 during bottling. This initiative is new to CBSKN as all our products are carbonated ranging from 2.1 to 3.5 volumes. Moreover, we have always observed a marginal increase in carbonation levels from the bright beer tank (BBT) to the bottle indicating that some amount of the CO2 used by the filler is dissolved during bottling. The trial was done over a two (2) day period, with filtration, laboratory trial, blending, and bottling as the main processes completed.

Literature Review

It is known that temperature and pressure play an important role in determining the equilibrium concentration of CO2 in solution. Increasing the pressure leads to a linear increase in CO2 solubility in beer, while decreasing the temperature gives a nonlinear increase in CO2 solubility. As a result, the equilibrium concentration cannot be attained without either increasing the pressure or decreasing the temperature. Thus, the closer the carbonating temperature is to 0°C and the higher the pressure, the greater the CO2 absorption. The amount of CO2 that dissolves is a function of time, with the rate decreasing exponentially as equilibrium is approached. [2]

The solubility of a gas in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of that gas in the atmosphere above the liquid as stated by Henry’s Law, where the lower temperature equals higher solubility and higher pressure equals higher solubility. This means if we reduce the pressure at a constant temperature, the amount of CO2 in the solution would decrease.

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“Three small glasses a day for good health and lively blood.”

Results and Findings

A pressure of 10 psi and a temperature of 3°C were maintained on the BBT during the bottling process, and the filler bowl was pressurized to 0.35 bars with a ring bowl level of 60mm. The temperature of the product was 3 °C, and at the start of bottling, the filler speed was 200 bpm. When the fill heights were within specification and there was no foaming of the product, the filler bowl pressure was reduced to 0.10 bars. The filler speed was then increased to 350 bpm for the final 30 minutes of bottling. The packaging loss was 5% due to the small volume and the number of filler stops to make adjustments. Table 1 shows the results.

Table 1: Results of tonic wine trial

*CO2 of 1.5% volume was present in the first 5 cases as a result of residual CO2 in the product line. Subsequently, the checks indicated a pressure of 1 psi and a temperature of 3°C inside of the bottles which equates to a CO2 of less than 1 volume.

1: Bottles of Tonic Wine on the conveyor

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Figure Figure 2: The final trial product – Rockstone Tonic Wine

Conclusions and Recommendations

Based on the results achieved it can be concluded that our Krones Mecafill Bottle Filler is capable of bottling non-carbonated products with a negligible amount of CO2 in solution, which is not easily detected by the average taster. It is also believed that during commercial production we will have a greater margin to adjust both the CO2 pressure on the BBT and the pressure on the filler during bottle filling.

It is recommended that the batch size be increased to 50 hectolitres and for the beverage sector to acquire a pilot system which can be used for product innovation resulting in greater levels of control. Additionally, we should consider commercial production with carbonation levels at 0.5 volumes. A further recommendation is that the Tonic Wine should be bottled immediately after blending and not be recirculated as this leads to excessive foam ing at the Bottle Filler.

References

[1] BBC News. Buckfast monks reject blame for ‘tonic wine crime’. URL: https://www.bbc.com/ news/uk-england-devon-25236076

[2] Apex Publishers. The Brewer’s HandbookChapter 16 Beer Carbonation. URL: https://www. beer-brewing.com/beer_brewing/beer_brewing_ carbonation/principles_beer_carbonation.htm

Bibliography

Eblinger, H.M. (2009). Handbook of Brewing: processes, technology, markets. Wiley. Kunze, W. (1999). Technology Brewing and Malting. VLB Publishing: Berlin. McCabe J.T. (1999). The Practical Brewer. Master Brewers Association of the Americas.

About the Author

Desroy Tate has been with Carib Brewery for the past 14 years. He holds a BSc in Agriculture and a Master’s in Business Administration. He is also a certified HACCP training manager and a certified internal auditor. Mr. Tate is a graduate of the World Brewing Academy and holds an International Diploma in Brewing Technology.

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Carib Brewery USA: On the road to sustainability with a Membrane Bioreactor technology (MBR)

Abstract

Critical aspects of the CBUSA business strategy are its sustainability, the continual development of its wastewater treatment plant, the reduction of waste, and the reusability of its water and by-products. The previous article presented an overview focused on the challenges and solutions concerning wastewater treatment - a system by which Conventional Activated Sludge (CAS) and a bioreactor with an external membrane bioreactor (MBR) are combined: CAS-MBR.

The CBUSA Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) will reduce the concentration of:

• Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)

• Total Nitrogen (TN or TKN)

• Total Phosphorus (TP)

• Total Suspended Solids (TSS)

In this article, we will present the actual results before and after the changes were implemented. We will also briefly review how the brewing process influences differing levels of nutrients and how those influences are necessary for a more than satisfactory treatment performance.

By taking such measures, CBUSA is learning how our brewing processes and each differing step can and are impacting the wastewater profile. This knowledge is imperative to the improvement of the management of the WWTP.

Comparison between CAS and MBR

Conventional Active Sludge (CAS) mainly consists of two steps. Step one involves an aeration tank where wastewater is treated, aided by active microorganisms (i.e., active sludge). Step two occurs when the treated water and the activated sludge are separated in the sedimentation tank or secondary clarifier. Activated sludge cannot be completely separated in the sedimentation tank, and usually, a lighter fraction is carried out along with the treated effluent.

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In the CBUSA WWTP, because it is an MBR, most of the activated sludge can be separated to protect the membranes [1]. The advantages and disadvantages of MBR over CAS are summarized in Table 1.

Table 1: Advantages and disadvantages of MBR compared to CAS [1]

CBUSA Insights of Wastewater Improvements.

Since 2019, the city of Cape Canaveral (CCC) has been taking samples of our wastewater from lift station #6 (LS6) and recording the results. It was during such an exercise that they realized the situation concerning our waste. In June 2021, CBUSA, as part of the sustainability strategy, saw a noticeable improvement in the waste being collected and measured. They found that the wastewater was more homogenous and stable enough to define a clear trend of nutrient concentration. Using the data from CCC and the CBUSA lab, we can show the improvements of these actions taken so far –the comparison shows current wastewater under control but not within code (see figure 1 A-B). This is the first step to applying any treatment defined as a stable trend of pH and nutrient concentration (COD, BOD, TN, and TP).

In researching wastewater treatment systems, we found several options to treat the water, each with varying costs, engineering methods, designs, and other difficulties. The fact is, MBR is gaining importance because it offers more advantages concerning wastewater treatment than many others. Even with the fouling phenomena, MBR is proving to be the most lucrative option for many in the beverage industry. After the comparisons presented in Table 1, CBUSA has decided to use these two treatments together CAS-MBR.

When CBUSA started checking the wastewater (WW) result and started to understand “the other side” of the brewing process, such as influents characterization, waste separation, and wastewater collection, we changed the standard operation procedure of clean in place (CIP), started a solid improvement plan and wastewater homogenization. Figures 1-5 show the homogenization of the WW. Figure 1.A COD = (3,616± 4,560) mg/L, and Figure 1.B COD = (5,616 ± 1,316) mg/L, and the others figures 2,3 & 4 compare before and after and show a stable trend.

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Figure 1:

CODmg/L Comparison in Effluent, before and after the wastewater improvements: A. CCC lab results; B. CBUSA lab results

The outcome of this analysis:

1. Importance of a homogenous influent in the wastewater tanks to have a homogeneous effluent

2. The revision of the brewing process influents, and have a deep understanding of “the other side” of the brewing process, with the clear goal to meet the wastewater codes:

COD < 400 mg/L, TN < 40 mg/L, TP < 10 mg/L pH 6.5 – 8.5, BOD < 250 mg/L.

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Figure 2.

Effluent Total Nitrogen concentration before and after improvement Table 2 sumarises the WW parameter trend with the standard deviation (SD)

Table 2.Wastewater parameter average and standard deviation before and after installation of the tanks

With this process under control, it is easier to understand when and what actions we can take to remove solids, increase aeration, pH regulation, etc. to keep the process under control and determine how the treatment design will improve the current wastewater trend to meet the specifications required by CCC codes. CBUSA is committed to a better environment and is following the rules to make Carib Brewery an example for others to have a better world for future generations.

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Figure 3. Effluent Total Phosphorus concentration before and after improvements

Figure 4. Effluent pH trend, before and after improvements.

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To achieve the current wastewater trend, we applied to following actions:

1.Most solids from the brewing process have been pumping into the spent grain silo, reducing the COD, BOD, TN and TP in the effluent.

2.CIP acid changed from phosphoric – nitric mix to Sulfuric acid, reducing the TN and TP in the effluent.

3.Drainage adjusted to send all influent into the WWTP.

4.Wastewater tanks installation to homogenise influent and balance the pH before dumping them in the sewer.

All the actions above improved the wastewater profile, as presented in Figures 1-4.

Brewing process and the WWTP

From the brewing process, we extract the images from Figure 5, which shows what part of the brewery is impacting the WWTP. As we can see, the red boxes, Brewhouse influent, spent grain and the cellar discharges are at a higher level. Most of the spent grain was pumped out of the system into the spent grain silo from the brewhouse, but still, some were leftover as part of the influent to the WWTP, affecting the TSS, COD, TN and TP levels. The filtration influent was improved, moving the solids from the centrifuge discharge to the spent grain silo, reducing a large proportion of the nutrients into the WWTP - this was a big improvement. In Figure 5, the green boxes represent a reduction by dilution of the nutrient. To have a balanced influent the brewing side must run with the packaging side, using these two influents to have COD < 6,900 mg/l. The WWTP alone cannot handle all discharges by itself as it has limitations like any other equipment. The design was based on 15,000 gpd with 6,900 mg/L of COD.

Figure 5. Influent breakdown in CBUSA; red boxes: COD>6,900 mg/L, the yellow box: COD 6,900 – 3000 mg/L and the green boxes: COD < 3000 mg/L

CBUSA wastewater system insight.

Figure 6 shows the plan of the CAS-MBR system, already installed, excluding the cooling tower, the heat exchangers, and the drying bed. Figure 6 shows six (6) tanks, each with air diffusers and three (3) air blowers feeding the diffusers to flood them with air microbubbles - this saturates the water with oxygen to keep the microorganisms alive and the water treatment ongoing.

Figure 6. WWTP CBUSA CAS-MBR: the plan shows 6 tanks interconnected in series by overflow, all of them with an air diffuser for aeration (CAS) in the container of the MBR [2]

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Conventional Activated Sludge (CAS)

Details of the air diffusers are shown in Figure 7thirty-two (32) diffusers per tank, installed to cover the whole tank bottom. This ensures good oxygen saturation to keep the microorganisms alive, reducing the nutrients in the water and raising the TSS which will later be removed by pumping into three (3) drying bags, to use for landfill and/or reused by the local farmers as topsoil.

The details presented in Figures 6-8 describe the CBUSA CAS – MBR but Figures 7-8 focus on the CAS section of the WWTP. This section contains six (6) tanks, each with a 5K gallon capacity and thirty-two diffusers creating air microbubbles to keep the biological process running, transforming the nutrients into removable solids. This biological action will reduce the nutrients in the solution by about 80%.

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B
9. A: Air diffusers during the installation. B: Aeration system testing with 700 gallons of wastewater Figure 7. Details of the diffuser installation in the tanks for CAS [2] Figure 8. 3D view of diffuser air piping system [2]
A
Figure

During the installation, we had challenges with the condition of the tanks, such as the smell, gases, and heat. Between the tanks, we installed strainers, starting with ½ inch mesh to transfer water from tank 1 to tank 2 and reducing the mesh size to ¼ inch from tank 5 to tank 6, reducing the solids to prepare the wastewater to feed the final filter before the membranes.

Currently, we are testing the system in the CAS section to determine how the aeration quality is helping with the nutrient reduction, the time needed to reduce 80% of the nutrients, changes in the pH, changes in the influent profile, and how they will affect the performance of the WWTP. For this purpose, we will use the COD as a process indicator to measure the actions taken. Figure 10 shows the reduction under non-favourable conditions with a pH = 4.7, COD influent of 9,760 mg/L with different aeration conditions:

1.No Aeration (NA): no changes in the COD concentration

2.Poor aeration 48 hours (PA): big air bubbles, and poor oxygen saturation, resulting in a 15% reduction of COD.

3.Good aeration 48 hours (GA 48), air microbubbles resulting in a better COD reduction of about 37% 4.Good aeration 72 hours (GA 72), air microbubbles with 68% reduction of COD.

Figure 10. COD reduction in the CAS system installed in CBUSA

Another observation during this trial was the total suspended solids (TSS) removal and the Aluminium sulphate addition as coagulant and flocculant to further clarify the wastewater and reduce the nutrient.

The aeration quality using air microbubbles double the reduction compared with poor aeration or no aeration. The aeration time is another critical variable because by adding 30% more time in the CAS, the COD reduction was twice higher than 48 hours. An important consideration is to allow the biomass build-up to achieve the goal of 80% COD reduction in 48 hours. This action takes 2-4 weeks of aeration to have a CAS fully activated to perform the biological process as expected.

Figure 11. COD reduction vs the treatment applied

The other consideration to improve results is to have wastewater with a balanced pH, between 6.5 – 8.5, to get a CAS with a high reduction efficiency.

Figure 12 shows how the pH drops with the aeration quality and how the COD concentration affects the changes in the pH. This is a good example of how the influent profile could affect the WWTP performance, specifically in the CAS.

The pH dropped quickly when the aeration was present and the COD was high. On the other hand, when the aeration is absent and the COD is low, the pH dropped slowly.

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Figure 12. pH changes vs COD concentration and reaction time

The CAS must build up the active sludge to have an effective 80% reduction within 48 hours. Aeration quality and aeration time are the key factors that reduce COD and nutrients. Good aeration in the CAS must run non-stop (24/7) to build up the sludge and keep them alive to process the COD and nutrients in the wastewater. It is critical to build healthy activated sludge to accomplish the mission of 80% reduction in 48 hours. However, this is only possible when all six (6) tanks work simultaneously for good oxygen saturation and an effective COD reduction.

Table 3. Ultrafiltration membrane use in CBUSA WWTP [3]

Ultrafiltration Membranes (UF) – External Membrane Bioreactor (MBR)

The membrane bioreactor (MBR) is on installation in CBUSA. The membranes were built by Berghof [3], one of the best membranes suppliers. The UF type 63G I8 membrane, with a housing of fibreglass, is made of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) material, which is more durable and has higher chemical resistance, making it ideal for sequencing applications [3].

Molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) is an important term in membrane filtration. It describes the pore size or rejection capability of a membrane [4][5][6].

Figure 13 shows a comparison of pore size from microfiltration (MF) up to reverse osmosis (RO), where the UF ranges from 20 nm up to 100 nm.

Figure 13. Filtration range comparing different pore sizes [7].

With the UF membranes, we can retain macromolecules, colloids, protozoa, bacteria, and viruses, while in the membrane bioreactor (MBR), to keep reducing nutrients by biological action and physical retention. This process will result in another 75-80% nutrient reduction.

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The membrane material, PVDF, and the cross-flow will keep the membrane with low transmembrane pressure (TMP) and low fouling risk as the crossflow creates turbulence in the membrane to keep the sludge from fouling it. This action, in combination with an established clean-in-place protocol from Berghof©, will ensure a high efficacy for this process.

We are waiting for the CAS with the sludge to be fully operational and the two (2) UF Modules to be interconnected to start testing the operation, CIP process and water treatment.

Conclusions.

1. CBUSA is improving the quality of the wastewater to discharge it within codes, reducing the waste and reusing the water and by-products.

2. The CBUSA brewing process is already segmented by COD load.

3. CAS is reducing the nutrient load and needs more time to build up the active sludge

4. The pH is a critical factor for CAS and must be within 6.5 – 8.5

5. The temperature for CAS must be below 40 degrees Celsius to protect the activated sludge.

References

[1] Al-Asheh, S., Bagheri, M. and Aidan A. (2021). Membrane bioreactor for wastewater treatment: A review. Case Studies in Chemical and Environmental Engineering. Vol. 4, pp. 1-15. http:// doi.org/10.1016/j.cscee.2021.100109

[2] UAT engineering. (2021). CBUSA Wastewater project drawings.

[3] Berghof.com (2013) Membranes, the world can rely on. pp. 19-22.

[4] Lenntech. (2022). Molecular Weight Cutoff (MWCO). URL: https://www.lenntech.com/ services/mwco.htm#ixzz7UtRJyDoT

[5] Sutariya, B. and Karan, S. (2022). A realistic approach for determining the pore size distribution

of nanofiltration membranes. Separation and Purification Technology. Volume 293, pp. 7.

[6] Arkhangelsky, E., Duek, A., and Gitis, V. (2012). Maximal pore size in UF membranes. Journal of Membrane Science. Vol. 394–395, pp. 89-97.

[7] Emis. (2010). Ultrafiltration. URL: Ultrafiltration | EMIS (vito.be)

About the Author

Juan Romero holds a BSc. in Chemistry with a deep passion for the science behind the brewing process. He developed his career in the Pharmaceutical, winery, and the brewery industries over the past 20 years, taking special focus on product and process improvement. In his career he achieved the stability of the caramel colour in Maltin Polar (Venezuela) reengineering of process, as well as the effect of heavy metals as precursors of beer aging, and the most current, the installation of the CBUSA wastewater treatment plant using MBR, which has been the most challenging one. Since he started this project, he has increased his beer consumption.

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Restoration and Impacts of Exit Temperatures in Tunnel Pasteurization

Introduction

At Carib Brewery Trinidad, we continuously strive to ensure that our products meet and surpass the customers’ expectations by constantly delivering great-tasting beverages on time and in full. All breweries worldwide are tasked with delivering consistency in production, be it the physical characteristics such as appearance and dress packaging or flavour profile. All our departments share this goal and are fully committed to this endeavour. It begins with our careful and rigorous selection of raw materials, followed by the technical and precise processes of brewing and packaging. As we know, Carib Brewery Trinidad has a variety of products ranging from alcoholic to non-alcoholic beverages. However, the focus will be on our lagers and the beer characteristics as it relates to shelf life. When discussing the appearance and flavour of lagers, most of the focus is typically shifted towards the brewing process, filtration, and filter aids, but packaging and pasteurisation also play an integral role in said characteristics, which will be discussed further while providing concise and simplified concepts about pasteurisation. This article focuses on the Tunnel Pasteurization process, the effects of exit temperatures on sensory characteristics and the restoration of these temperatures on Line #3Returnable Glass Line.

Method of Operation

Pasteurisation is a heat treatment process used in the Packaging department to prevent the growth of beer spoilage microorganisms, ideally stopping secondary fermentation within the package. In doing so, the shelf life of beer is extended. There are two main types of Pasteurization techniques: Flash Pasteurisation (pasteurising only the liquid) and Tunnel Pasteurisation (pasteurising both the liquid and packaging). Tunnel Pasteurisation is ideal for a Returnable Glass Line due to the reduction in possible contamination from bottles.

Figure 1: Flash Pasteuriser

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Figure 4. Cold Spot

Figure 2: Tunnel Pasteuriser

Tunnel Pasteurisers are essentially large stainlesssteel ovens that convey liquid-filled cans/bottles through various zones. Hot water is sprayed onto the product to facilitate heat transfer. The conveying system carries products through the regenerative zones i.e., pre-heating, heating, holding, and precooling. A gradual temperature change must be maintained throughout the various zones to prevent thermal shock (product breakage).

Figure 3: Regenerative Zones

The process is quantified using pasteurization units or PU. PU are measured at the product’s cold spot (1/3 of the way up from the bottom of the package). One PU is defined as a product’s exposure to a temperature of 60°C for 1 minute.

PU= t x 1.393(T-60)

t= holding time in minutes

T= holding temperature in °C [1]

The Tunnel Pasteuriser used on line #3 has a throughput of 1100 bpm with a run time of 60 min utes [2]. The pasteuriser consists of eight (8) zones: three (3) pre-heating zones, heating, holding and three (3) pre-cooling zones. The level and tempera ture controls are automated using electro-pneu matic valves. Steam and water consumption are significant factors in the tunnel pasteuriser with a maximum steam requirement of 82,000 BTU/min on start-up and water at 500 GPM at 30 °C. Utili ty consumption can significantly affect the cost per case, so every effort is made to minimise these utility consumptions. Steam is an inevitable cost due to the heating design and requirement. However, greater efforts can be made in reducing process water con sumption. This was reduced with the installation of a water recovery cooling loop. Essentially tanks one to eight (1-8) overflow into a 6” main manifold which supplies a 15.29m2 underground sump. The water is then pumped to a crossflow vertical cooling tower where the temperature is reduced by a ΔT of 17°C and then return to the pasteurisers’ main inlet on demand. A pressure release valve also regulates the flow, and excess water is redirected back into the sump, reducing the need for fresh water.

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Figure 5: Line #3 Pasteuriser Recovery Loop

The Pasteuriser inlet temperature is a critical parameter due to its regenerative design as it supplies the third pre-cool zone at 30 °C. This is the final spray zone/cooling step and is also referred to as the beer out or exit temperature. The exit temperature plays a vital role in the storage and preservation of the product, as higher temperatures will lead to changes in the sensory characteristics and shelf life.

Exit Temperatures and Shelf Life

Shelf life is predominantly based on the sensory characteristics of the product - the appearance and flavour. All customers expect a filtered beer to be clear, bright, non-hazy and refreshing. Hazy or off-flavoured products are often regarded as expired or defective. Their flavours can be described as oxidised, stale, and papery [3].

The sensory characteristics are both affected by oxidation. Oxygen continues to be one of the main challenges in packaging and the product’s shelf life. Oxygen is soluble in beer at various temperatures and is present in many processes throughout brewing and packaging. It is therefore inevitable to have traces of oxygen present in our products. The question then arises: What is the correlation between oxygen and shelf-life degradation? The answer is temperature. The increase in temperature acts as a catalyst in the oxidation process to form haze and papery off flavours (oxidised lipids) [3].

The haze/turbidity depends on colloidal stability and the formation of colloids within the beer via hydrogen bonding between proteins and phenols/flavonoids (malt & wheat). When chilled to 0°C, these colloids can reflect light, making them visible to the naked eye. When beer is reheated, the hydrogen bonds break, and the colloids dissipate into solution. This phenomenon is called chill haze, and this can progress to Permanent Haze.

Figure 6: Fenton & Harber-Weiss reactions [4]

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Flavour degradation testing is conducted using descriptive analysis of the beer’s flavour profile during and at the end of its shelf-life period, indicating the rate of deterioration.

Figure 7: Haze Formation [5]

The oxidation process is accelerated in pasteurisation and then continues over time in storage, hence the importance of exit temperatures as it decelerates and halts the pasteurisation process, allowing the product to cool to ambient temperatures, decelerating the rate of oxidation and beer spoilage conditions. This can be measured using various techniques.

Haze forced testing

Flavour degradation testing

Thermal degradation Units

Haze forced testing is a laboratory test in which samples are collected at the exit of the Pasteuriser and placed inside an incubator at 57ºC (± 2ºC) for seven (7) days (± 2 hours). The samples are then cooled and chilled for 24 hours (± 1 hour) at 0ºC to simulate storage, chill haze, and the oxidation period over the stated shelf life. The samples are then analysed using a haze meter which measures the amount of haze in a product in EBC units, a change of 0.1 EBC can affect a product’s clarity.

Figure 8: Flavour Wheel

Thermal degradation units measure the flavour changes resulting from a chemical reaction caused by the pasteurisation process. These reactions occur twice as fast for every increase in 10ºC, hence the importance of exit temperatures which ideally stop the Pasteurization process and decelerate oxidation.

TDU= t= time (minutes) T= Temperature (ºC) [6]

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Exit Temperature Deviation

Statistical process control and trend analysis are evaluation techniques that both the Quality and Packaging departments utilise to monitor deviation trends in control parameters i.e., run charts. Any trend observed to be varying out of the standard deviation is flagged for intervention. A deviation of the exit temperatures was noticed from 1st September 2020 - 30ºC to 40ºC trending upward resulting in an internal investigation into the root cause failure analysis of Line #3 Pasteuriser exit temperatures.

Failure Modes

1.Pneumatic Level control failure in the heating and holding tanks: This resulted in constant flooding in both tanks causing increased temperatures in the sump to 57 ºC, thus raising the heat load on the

Figure 9: Exit Temperatures September 2020

2.Recovery loop pressure release valve failure: This resulted in the reduction of the supply flow to the Cooling Tower and prevented cooling within the secondary loop i.e., sump > cooling tower> sump thus raising the heat load on the cooling system to 57 ºC.

Figure 10: Forced Haze Results September 2020

Problem Description

What is the root cause of the variance of Line #3 Pasteuriser exit temperatures?

Figure 12: CLA-VAL Pressure reducing valve

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Figure 11: Pneumatic level valve

3.Damaged and corroded Cooling Tower sump basins resulting in reduced efficiency of the cooling tower:

o Excessive heat load @ Inlet 57 ºC

o Inadequate fill material - PVC heat capacity @ 49 ºC

o Accelerated corrosion from water treatment program - excess free Cl 0.5 ppm and lack of corrosion metrics

o Damaged manifold resulting in uneven flow distribution to fill (dry spots)

o Repairs were classified as low priority

Figure 13:

Accelerated Cooling Tower Basin and Fill deterioration –rated @ 49oC

5)Corrosion Coupons installed to simulate the rate of corrosion of the basin materials which will be monitored to avoid material failure.

6)Revised inspection frequencies for preventative maintenance program.

Corrective Actions

1)The pneumatic level controlling valves were repaired by replacing the defective solenoids and the respective inspection PMS was revised.

2)The Recovery loop pressure release valve was repaired by an external vendor and reinstalled and the respective inspection PMs was revised.

3)The corroded basins and fill were replaced with a higher heat capacity rated material CPVC - 65.5 ºC to decelerate the material degradation over time.

4)Revised Water Treatment to incorporate shock treatment (oxidising & non-oxidising biocide) for CFU and free Cl reduction.

Figure 14: Refurbished Cooling Fill

Figure 15: Refurbished Cooling Tower Basin and nozzles

Figure 16: Corrosion Coupon Rack

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Evidence of Effectiveness

The corrective actions stated above were implemented over 15 months by the engineering department, which entailed the replacement of several failed components and the generation of capital expenditure for the restoration of the cooling tower. Graphical trending and real-time analysis were used to evaluate the results of said repairs shown below.

EBC (very slightly hazy). The restoration initiative was confirmed to be successful based on the data. Haze showed a 0.3 EBC reduction, thus reflecting the correlation between Tunnel Pasteurization Exit Temperatures and shelf life.

References

[1] Craft Metrics. The Science of Pasteurizing. URL: Https://craftmetrics.ca/blog/2019/pasteurizationpart-1-the-science-of-pasteurization.html

[2] Barry-Wehmiller companies, Inc. BarryWehmiller Pasteuriser Training Manual Serial no. 6891. 8020 Forsyth Boulevard, St Louis.

[3] Craft Beer and Brewing. The Oxford Companion to Beer Definition of Oxidation. URL: Oxidation, | craft beer & brewing (beerandbrewing.com)

Figure 17: Exit Temperatures after Restoration August 2021

[4] Aron P. and Shellhammer, T. (2010). A Discussion of Polyphenols in Beer Physical and Flavour Stability. Journal of the Institute of Brewing. Vol. 116, No. 4, pp. 369-380

[5] Mastanjevic, K., Krstanovic, V., Lukinac, J., Jukic, M., Vulin, Z. and Mastanjevic, K. (2018). Beer – The Importance of Colloidal Stability (Non-Biological Haze). Fermentation, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 91

[6] Redpost. Pasteurisation. URL: Redpost - PU Monitors - Science (redpostltd.com)

Figure 18: Haze values after Restoration August 2021

As previously shown with the failed components in September 2020, a ΔT of 12ºC was obtained resulting in an exit temperature of 40ºC and an average haze of 1.6 EBC (very slightly hazy). After the restoration process in August 2021, a ΔT of 20oC was obtained resulting in an exit temperature of 30oC which is the desired specification and an average haze of 1.3

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About the Author

Travis Laltoo is an Engineer at Caribbean Development Company Ltd for the past 5 years. He joined CDC in 2017 tasked with bridging the gaps between Engineering, Operations, Quality and HSE by managing the Bottling Operations of the Returnable Glass line (Line #3). Travis has spent over 8 years in Production Management and Engineering. He holds several industry qualifications, a Bachelor of Applied Science (B.A.Sc.) in Process Engineering, a General Certificate in Brewing (IBD) and a General Certificate Packaging from the institute of Brewing and Distilling (IBD), and a PROACT Root Cause Analysis Certification from Reliability Center Inc.

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Do you Know your Carib Family?

KHADIJA FERNANDEZ

I grew up in Champs Fleurs, on William Street located at the top of Industrial Lane coincidently located opposite Carib Brewery. It is quite amazing that throughout my life’s path to this point I find myself “home”. In 2012, I made the decision to return home to Trinidad upon completing my undergrad in Chemistry at the College of Saint Benedict’s and St John’s University in Minnesota USA. I started my professional tenure in the beverage sector in 2013 and was hired by Caribbean Development Company in March of 2014 as a lab technician assigned to the production line. After one (1) year in this position, I was assigned to assist with the implementation of ISO 9001 Quality Management Systems.Shortly after CDC achieved ISO 9001 certification, I was promoted to Environmental Technician in the Main QA lab. Things were really looking up! I like to take things on head-on! I thrive in change; I love to learn new things and seek continuous improvement! I think all processes can be improved and working smarter is always acknowledged. Evidently, with traits like these, you are rewarded with additional work! After two (2) years of environmental testing, I was tasked with refining and developing the raw materials entrance control plan at CDC and becoming an internal auditor for ISO 9001. In 2018, I enrolled at the University of the West Indies to pursue an MSc in Production Management. The pandemic changed my career trajectory at CDC, in the best way possible for me. One month before the pandemic in February 2020, the CDC microbiologist resigned, and naturally, I was considered for this temporary assignment. Due to the pandemic, I was in this position longer than originally planned. I learned, grew, developed, and surprisingly enjoyed it. The pandemic also allowed me to learn more about Integrated Management Systems.

In 2021 I was promoted to Quality Assurance Technician in the packaging lab; however, I was reassigned to Quality Systems Officer in September 2021 due to a resignation. January 2022 I was awarded my MSc and in June 2022, I obtained the general certificate in brewing. Currently, I am still part of the Integrated Management Systems Team, working towards achieving Food Safety Certification for CDC. In my personal life, I love to dance! I danced with the Carol La Chapelle dance company for thirteen (13) years before I attended university. I currently only dance in my bedroom, but it is still a hobby I enjoy. I have three (3) fur babies and enjoy travelling. I am the oldest of three (3) sisters and I strive to be an example for them. I live by the words “work smart”, staying positive even at times when it is difficult and trusting that you are exactly where you need to be. I have enjoyed my nine (9) years at CDC, and I look forward to my future. I am young in my career, and I have more to offer.

“Be fearless in the pursuit of what sets your soul on fire”- Jennifer Lee.

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I am Nicholas “Nick” Camacho, and I live in Santa Cruz, Trinidad and Tobago. I am a young professional with 10+ years’ service at Carib, currently in the Procurement Department (8 years) after working in the Logistics Division (both Customs Dept and EPW). I also have four (4) years of experience in customer service from a previous engagement in the Medical Services Sector. A past student of St. Mary’s College, I obtained my Diploma in Business Management at Humber College, Institute of Technology and Advanced Learning, in Toronto, Canada, while still unsure of the direction my career would take. I hold an ISO 9001:2015 Certificate in Internal Quality Auditing from CIQ International Ltd/ Complyworld, UK. During my employment at Carib, I have grown to have an insatiable desire to add value in the fields of Logistics and Supply Chain. To satisfy my personal goals, I have embarked on a journey to develop my skills further and currently completing my MBA in Logistics and Supply Chain Management (2023). I am competent in Microsoft Programs, including PowerPoint, Excel, Visio, Access, Outlook and Dynamics (D365). If you need help, feel free to check Nick in the Procurement department and ease up IT. On the personal side, I am quite an easy-going person, friendly, love to help others, and a great team player, especially when there is a problem to solve. I am a cricket lover, having competed in the past as a member of Queens Park Cricket Club (QPCC), but now I enjoy cricket recreationally and as a spectator. I am also a huge supporter of Juventus Football Club, with Alessandro Del Piero being my favourite all-time player for his class, both on and off the field. Now I mostly play table tennis recreationally at every opportunity I get. I also love cooking, have a wide variety of dishes in my arsenal, and am usually the designated chef when liming. I believe there is nothing I cannot cook but only dishes I have yet to try making. I am single/never married with three (3) pets (2 Boxers and 1 Pitbull) that keep me on my toes. I enjoy reading (although most of my current reading has been for academic purposes, it is equally interesting and rewarding) and western movies, with “The Outlaw Josey Wales” and the HBO series “Deadwood” being two of my favourites. I have not travelled much beyond the Caribbean. My dream would be to travel to Turin, Italy, to watch a Juventus game in the Allianz Stadium and then experience what the other parts of Italy have to offer. I am not much of a partier and prefer smaller gatherings with friends/family. Although I have never played mas (in costume), I am definitely looking forward to the 2023 carnival season after two years of lockdown and Covid restrictions.

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NICHOLAS CAMACHO
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A Proactive Safety Culture in the Beverage Sector Unsafe Condition & Unsafe Behaviour Reporting/Closure

In 2019 the Beverage Sector launched our Unsafe Condition Unsafe Behaviour (UC-UB) Reporting Program as a sector initiative. It originated from a global beverage industry leader and the Beverage Sector Leadership endorsed the program as part of our proactive approach to safety in the workplace due to the safety performance seen with this World Class company who operates in our region and very nearby. So from our humble beginnings of using a Safety tag [Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) Safety Pillar] where persons had to physically tag something or send a Safety observation report through the Tag station, a report of an unsafe condition or unsafe behaviour goes immediately to your manager or supervisor and to the HSE department.

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The step change with UC-UB is that when you are assigned to fix a UC-UB report as part of one’s daily responsibility, the closure must be done within the shortest possible to be effective in preventing an incident/ accident. This was made possible by the change from a manually populated Excel spreadsheet to our own Carib Brewery UC-UB Application (UC-UB App) in each brewery of the sector putting accessibility at your fingertips. The UC-UB reporting card is maintained for persons who do not have a company email address to channel their reports to their manager or supervisor through the App. This proactive approach to safety in the workplace has changed the safety culture to Leading Performance Indicators instead of relying on the Lagging Performance Indicators. All of us have seen that the direct positive impact in our Safety Culture where accidents have reduced and the focus on making the workplace safer has grown by leaps and bounds.

Safety Observation Report UC-UB

What happens when you raise a UC-UB?

App

UC-UB reports look at our physical environment and the behaviour of our people. Now, it is generally determined that behaviour change may not always be as simple as a physical fix, and this latter aspect requires training and communication to ensure our employees understand why adherence to our safety rules and regulations are important. When a UC-UB report is made, that information is analysed and prioritised by the HSE department for closure. Based on the potential level of risk associated with the UC-UB, we work in conjunction with the area management and using the Hierarchy of Controls assign, determine and execute closure of corrective actions related to the problem reported.

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By identifying trends in reports, the organisation is able to prioritise the allocation of resources to correct deficiencies and determine which parts of our HSE management system requires improvement. Therefore, the UC-UB reports are used in tandem with other initiatives across the Sector.

By now we are all familiar with our mascot Humptee Dummee who joined the safety line up in October 2020 with his vibrant messages that we can all make safer choices in the workplace. He went across the sector helping us to strengthen our systems and procedures by promoting good employee behaviour.

Cumulatively over the last 3 years with over 20,000 UC-UB reports generated by our staff across the sector this has not only served to reduce the number and frequency of our accidents, but your feedback in the Pulse surveys says that the organisation is doing more to make work safer. One of the more significant achievements which passed without much fanfare due to the impact of the pandemic was that at the end of January 2022, for the first time the Sector was able to post an achievement of 2 years without a Lost Time Incident.

The Way ahead

Our UC-UB Programme is linked to every employee’s performance objectives (Key Performance Indicators) and with active participation from every level in all countries we have been able to met and exceed all our targets for reporting and closure.

Our 2022 target of two reports per month from every employee gets us closer to the best in industry practice of one report every week.

On our journey toward World Class Safety Performance requires all of us to demonstrate safety leadership and work steadfastly to continuously improve all aspects of safety. So be on the lookout for Carib Brewery’s Life Saving Rules and our Safety mascot saying, “Don’t be a Humptee Dummee!”

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Chiller and Refrigeration Trade Assets

Chiller and Refrigeration

- Ice Cold or Slightly Chilled?

Chiller refrigerated units create a cold environment with varying temperature ranges, depending on the product type. For alcoholic beverages, the temperature range is between -4˚C to +4˚C, and for non-alcoholic beverages, +1˚C to +4˚C. These units are used as a tool by the Sales and Marketing department to promote the sale of cold products with various Branded Equipment on Display. This normally results in a 15% uplift in sales versus a customer that does not have a chiller. The units are owned by Carib Brewery Limited (CBL), exclusive to CBL merchandise and implemented with contractual Agreements.

Our Piece of the Puzzle Chiller and Refrigeration

The Chiller and Refrigeration Department:

•Provides highly technical support and recommendations to the Marketing and Sales Department to fulfil their sales targets and advertising goals.

•Assesses space, electrical and overall technical feasibility of unit installation on Customer’s premise.

•Receives, via the “Chiller Hotline: -(868)395-8402 Mon to Friday 8:00am to 4:30 pm”, all Equipment breakdown requests for repair and dispatches same day.

•Conducts repairs within 48 hours.

•Conducts Preventative Maintenance on all Carib Brewery’s refrigerated units in Trinidad & Tobago.

•Retrieves, Relocates and Distributes/ Installs all Chiller and Refrigerator units.

Types of refrigerated units owned by CBL

Figure 1: Population size of the vertical sub-zero and non-sub-zero refrigerators in Trinidad and Tobago

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Vertical sub-zero refrigerators:

These comprise the largest in the chiller population, and you can find these units in Bars, Supermarkets and Restaurants. This unit can hold 12 to 15 cases of product with an internal capacity of 14 to 19 cubic feet. It takes 8-10 hours for the product to chill. The Chiller temperature ranges from -40˚C to +40˚C, for a serving temperature of +10˚C to +40˚C.

Case charger refrigerators:

CBL has twenty (20) case chargers, and you can find these units outside the entrance of Wholesalers and supermarkets. Their temperature ranges from -40˚C to +40˚C and can hold 50 to 70 cases. There are no shelves in this unit - you pack whole cases and sell whole cold cases. The internal capacity is 150 to 190 cubic feet, and it takes 8-10 hours for the product to chill.

Figure 2: Photo of a vertical sub-zero refrigerator and a listing of its main features

Features:

•Thermoformed illuminated header

•Electronic

•Heavy duty hinges with self closing mechanism

•Recessed door handle

•Full color decals to attract consumers at the point of sale

•Modern high impact plastic front grill

•Curved foamed-in-place door made of galvanized steel ( FROSTER 280)

•UL Classified to ANSI/NSF 7

•Self contained heavy duty R 290 condensing unit

•Forced air evaporator for rapid temperature “Pull Down”

Figure 3: Examples of case charger refrigerators

Walk-in refrigerators:

CBL has twelve (12) walk-in units, and you can find these units in Sports bars. Their temperature ranges from -100ºC to -20ºC and can hold 50-100 cases. Twenty-five to fifty (25-50) cases can be packed on the shelves, and the other cases can be packed at the back of the walk-in unit. In this way, the customer will never run out of cold product. This unit has the largest internal capacity, and it takes 8 -10 hours for the product to chill.

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thermostat with digital thermometer to show consumer the temperature inside

Figure 4: Front view of walkin refrigerator

Figure 7: A Coil-Type Condenser

Key points in the contractual agreement between CBL and the Service provider (JMC ENTERPRISES, AB SERVICES and COFFEE EXPRESS Ltd.) - the Service provider must ensure that the Chiller Unit is functional by checking the following:

Figure 5: Rear view of walk-in refrigerator

Preventative Maintenance

With proper preventative maintenance service, a commercial chiller can increase its life span between 30 to 50%. The service cycle time depends on the CONDENSER TYPE - quarterly for Fin-Type Condensers, and biannually for Coil-Type Condensers.

Key Features of the New Refrigerated Units

Low maintenance condenser:

•Zero aluminium fins mean less accumulation of dirt or dust, allowing free circulation of air - a clean condenser prolongs the life of the compressor and reduces energy consumption. As a result, the preventative maintenance cycle decreased from four (4) times to two (2) times a year - a direct cost saving to Carib Brewery.

Energy-saving

electronic controls:

•Saves up to 40% in energy consumption which will directly reduce the customer’s electricity bill.

Figure 6: A Fin-Type Condenser

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Evaporator fans
Condenser Fans
Door gaskets
Temperature Settings

•The energy-saving mode can be activated either by pressing the ECO button on the digital screen or automatically three (3) hours after the door was opened. Once the outlet is closed and the chiller is not in use, the ECO mode will be activated and will maintain a temperature of +30ºC. The ECO mode will turn off when the Chiller door is opened. This is all programmable by the manufacturer

R290 refrigerant:

•R290 refrigerant is a natural hydrocarbon refrigerant, which is environmentally friendly and has negligible Global Warming Potential versus R134a – 1g of R134a would have the same global warming effect as releasing 1,410 grams of carbon dioxide.

About the Author:

Jehdash Madoo is the Assistant Manager – Draft and Refrigeration at Carib Brewery Trinidad and Tobago.

•It allows up to 10% savings on energy consumption versus the older refrigerant R134a, which is a further cost saving to the customer on the electricity bill.

Conclusion

As of 2022, I am pleased to announce that CBL has purchased and delivered over 500 SMART, ENERGY SAVING, LOW MAINTENANCE and ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY vertical Fogel chillers on the trade.

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Technological Advancements in Fleet Management

Abstract

Improvements in technology over the years have resulted in increased efficiency and contributed to improving the environment by reducing carbon footprints. The use of Technology in Fleet Management helps the company to save both time and money.

Automation in the Forklift Industry

Robotic trucks are the future of the forklift Industry. These do not require an operator. Instead, they use a combination of software and sensor-based guidance systems such as lasers and optical sensors to navigate. [1]

Capabilities of Robotic Trucks

The return on investment (ROI) is 1.5 years for multiple shift companies. However, thorough research and development and planning are required before these units can be introduced to the fleet at Carib Brewery Ltd.

Benefits of Using Robotic Lift Trucks

Figure 1: Robotic Trucks [2]

Telemetry System

A Telemetry system is a wireless monitoring system installed on forklifts. This system was installed on all of the forklifts in our fleet. It is designed to protect the equipment from neglect and unauthorized operation. Activation cards are assigned and registered to each operator to monitor operator performance, driving habits, etc.

It is also equipped with impact sensing, preventative maintenance tracker and access control applications. An alert sounds when the forklift crosses the speed threshold.We have seen a reduction in the number of forklift accidents since the installation of the system.

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Transport of single or double pallets to staging areas
Handle
width pallets
unstack
·
·
smaller
and stack or
loads · Deposit and retrieve loads from as high as 30 ft. · Load and unload a trailer
· Reduce labour cost · Continuity · Efficiency · Reduced Safety Risk · Reduced maintenance cost

Scan the QR codes to view the robotic lift trucks in action.

About the Author(s)

Liz Rajkumar is a dedicated and loyal employee. She is also a proud mother to two boys and enjoys spending quality time with them. She has been the Fleet Coordinator at Carib Brewery Ltd. for the past nine years. Mrs. Rajkumar oversees the maintenance and repairs of the Company’s fleet of forklifts (45) and vehicles (128). Mrs Rajkumar is efficient in all tasks assigned.

References

[1] Hyster. Position yourself for the future with Hyster Robotics. URL: https://www.hyster.com/ en-us/north-america/industry-solutions/robotics/ hyster-robotics

[2] Eastern Lift Truck Co., Inc. Hyster Robotic Forklifts. URL: https://www.easternlifttruck.com/ robotic-forklifts/hyster

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Videos

Our Innovation Agenda

The Importance of Innovation

Innovation holds significant importance to us here at Carib Brewery as we strive for growth within a dynamic environment. Innovation requires a different way of thinking and working. It challenges the Status Quo (Business as Usual) and can be a contributor to causing tension within the workplace.

1. Some people like how things currently are and don’t want change.

2. Some people protest because of the changes that innovation brings.

3. Some people think the idea of innovation isn’t valid.

However, Innovation is necessary for us to achieve long-term sustainable growth!

Alcohol Category Trends

The Trinidad and Tobago economy is forecasted to grow by approximately 5% in 2022. The total alcohol beverage category projects a 5-year compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 7.6% (20212026), with the largest growth estimated to take place within the Ready-to-drink (RTD) & Beer categories.

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For St. Kitts, it is estimated that tourism will return to pre-pandemic levels in early 2023.

The total alcohol beverage category projects a 5-year CAGR of 8.3% (2021-2026), with the largest growth estimated to take place within the Spirits & RTD categories.

Pre-pandemic, Grenada had one of the highest gross domestic product (GDP) growth rates within the Caricom region. Post-2022 this is expected to resume.

The total alcohol beverage category projects a 5-year CAGR of 2.2% (2021-2026), with the largest growth estimated to take place within the RTD category.

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Our Innovation Strategy

Growth pillars require us to:

• Defend our leader position in the Beer category.

• Expand our RTD portfolio.

Our 2022 Innovation Agenda is guided by two category expansion levers, premiumization and accessing new occasions.

This will enable us to continue our journey in building a superior beverage portfolio.

We have an official Stage Gate Approval Process for Product Development. Our Innovation Ambition cannot be realised without partnership with the Supply Chain Team, which is key to its success.

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Innovative Culture

An important element as we strive for growth is to develop a Culture of Innovation! Culture comprises behaviours, attitudes and mindsets. Generally, organisations can have all the necessary processes and organisational structures; however, they must get the right culture to unlock creativity to foster innovative ideas and ways of work. While everyone knows Innovation is important, people are busy and as such Innovation tends to slip to the bottom of the to-do list. Innovation in many instances is positioned as “additional” work, and when we are super busy, not doing the additional 10% (Innovation) can be considered acceptable. So, people will prioritise their core responsibilities above innovation. As we set the tone of the importance of Innovation here at Carib Brewery, our Leaders across all Departments must exemplify excitement and be willing to invest their time, efforts, and resources to support the Innovation Agenda to enable our long-term sustainable growth objectives.

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Inputs from Supply Chain Team members are required from product development through to manufacture phases.

About the Author

Karina Hyland is the Innovation Manager for the Beverage Sector. She has nineteen years of experience in the field of brand management and communication, working at companies such as Mc Cann Erickson Trinidad, Publicis Caribbean Limited, All Media Projects Limited (AMPLE), SM Jaleel and Company Ltd., and Nestlé Trinidad & Tobago Ltd. She then realised her passion for Project Management and improving operations through innovation and returned to SM Jaleel and Company Ltd. briefly as a Project Manager before joining Carib in 2021 to assist in driving the Innovation Agenda to achieve sustainable growth.

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The road to FSSC 22000 version 5.1 certification

Integrated Management Systems Coordinator (IMSC), Caribbean Development Company Ltd, Trinidad and Tobago

What we have achieved.

June 27th, 2016 was a milestone achievement for Caribbean Development Company (CDC). This marked the day we were awarded our certificate for accreditation in ISO 9001:2015 Quality Management system. At that time, I worked in the Quality assurance Department and being a Qualified ISO 9001:2015 Internal Auditor, I could feel a sense of pride and accomplishment throughout the company. Obviously, the work did not end there. While that marked one event in history, maintaining the certificate was a day-today activity for the entire supply chain. Looking back at the past charters our new course towards the future.

Food Safety certification was next on the agenda. In 2021, CDC announced the initiative to become Food Safety Systems certified. It was officialthe company had taken a strategic decision to implement the requirements of Food safety systems certification FSSC 22000 V5.1.

Our Future. Where are we headed.

ISO 9001:2015 section 10.3 speaks about Improvement, which includes the development of our Quality Management System (QMS) into an Integrated Management System (IMS).

An IMS integrates two (2) or more ISO standards under the same scope of the organisation.

Figure 1: Integrated Management System

While there are vast benefits to implementing FSSC 22000 Version 5.1, the most important and rewarding goal is the production of a food-safe beverage for our consumers. This involves verifying that the control measures we have implemented are effective at reducing or eliminating food safety hazards in our finished product.

FSSC 22000 is a combination of three (3) standards; ISO 22000:2018 Food Safety Management System (FSMS), ISO/TS 22002-1 2019 Prerequisite program - Food manufacturing and FSSC 22000 additional requirements. Implementation of FSSC 22000 has several benefits, illustrated in Figure 2.

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Figure 2: Benefits of FSSC 22000

The Food safety Road Map

One may think that as we are a food manufacturing plant, this should be an easy undertaking. But a deep dive into understanding the requirements of the standards reveals a great deal of work required for compliance. So how did we venture to take on such a mammoth task? Firstly, the development of an intrinsic plan. My role as the Integrated Management Systems Coordinator (IMSC) was vital in the execution of the plan with the assistance of an external Food Safety Consultant. This meant working with colleges at all levels across the entire supply chain.

The Food Safety Road map was rolled out to Management and key Team members on the 2nd of June 2021. Formulating Key Teams like the Food Safety Team (FST) and the Internal Audit Team, which comprised of existing employees, was our driving manpower for implementation.

The benefits of being ISO 9001:2015 certified laid the foundation for an already implemented Quality Management System with a process approach and risk-based thinking. Therefore, Gap assessments (Document and Physical) were conducted together with the Consultant to determine where we fell short of compliance. The findings and gaps were shared and communicated with the Team in meetings and on SharePoint forums.

Figure 3: Gap assessments

Food Safety Training was rolled out to the Food Safety Team and the Internal Audit Team for three (3) weeks. Specific one-on-one training was conducted with Managers / Process owners and consulting to implement the requirements. As we were still in the midst of the Covid-19 Pandemic, we had to use Virtual forums to steer meetings, training, and audits.

The next step was Implementation. This was piloted and monitored through weekly meetings with Process owners and the Food Safety Team. Each member held responsibilities for key tasks for implementation. We maintained a task list with completion rates and continuously followed up with the Team for any emerging issues and roadblocks they faced.

The Internal audit team was responsible for conducting integrated audits to evaluate compliance against both ISO 9001:2015 & FSSC 22000. Completion of a full cycle (1 year) of integrated audits was required for compliance.

It was difficult to keep a steady Team as members left the organisation. This caused a pause in some of the work, but as new members emerged, they adopted the responsibility and led the changes required.

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The Food Safety Team was the driving force for the implementation of the FSSC 22000 standard. Every Team member was cooperative and committed to getting the work done. They were employees taking on additional roles apart from their day-to-day jobs. Together we completed documentation for Prerequisite Programmes (PRP) / Good manufacturing practices (GMP) and hazard assessments. Prerequisite Programmes implementation took months as it required physical changes to the process, infrastructure and building layout. One of the biggest tasks was the Hazard analyses. We sat down over Microsoft Teams meetings late on afternoons, Saturdays and Sundays reviewing the Hazard Analysis Critical control point (HACCP) in detail. It was intense for the Team, but we pulled together a well-developed HACCP.

The threat - TACCP and vulnerability - VACCP assessments were conducted, and the Food defence plan was developed.

Stage 1 FSSC 22000 Audit

The 1st stage FSSC audit was held virtually on the 28th and 29th of March 2022, and all hands were on deck. With all the preparation done, we were successful and passed the 1st Stage audit. Next, we had to address the findings and fully prepare for the 2nd Stage audit in August 2022. The next couple of months were a routine of preparations: individual department meetings for guidance and execution, weekly follow-up meetings on progress, task completion, execution of GMP and internal audits, and conducting data analysis and validation of the effectiveness of the food safety systems controls implemented. Food Safety awareness and training campaigns were deployed to train and bring this information to all the employees. Caribbean Development Company

(CDC) and Carib Glassworks Limited (CGL) launched a World Food safety day on the 7th of June 2022. There were interactive games, activities and refreshments all geared towards engaging the employees on the Food Safety initiative.

Figure 4: World Food safety day

A training plan was rolled out and many training sessions were held, which also presented a forum for employee engagement and feedback. We ensured we complied with non-negotiables and high-risk items and documented long-term plans for improvements. An organisation must complete and pass both Stage 1 and Stage 2 audits to become FSSC 22000 certified. We are just one step away from success, next….2nd Stage FSSC 22000 audit.

Figure 5: Successfully passing 2 stages of audits to gain FSSC 22000 certification

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About the Author(s)

Akita Rattan for over ten (10) years in the Quality Assurance department. She currently holds the position of Integrated Management Systems Coordinator (IMSC), leading the Trinidad team towards Food Safety Certification. She says her contribution has always been to make a quality and Food safe beverage for our consumers.

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RE A CH F O R

THE L ON G TI M E

Spotlight on our Team Interview with our Sensory Manager, – Nerissa Moore

1. When did you join Carib?

I joined Carib in July of 1990. One week after, the 1990 coup took place.

2. What’s your Nickname?

My father and older siblings call me Sa Sa

My youngest sibling calls me Rissie

My maiden name is Moore, and it so happened my Husband’s surname is also Moore.

He calls me “Moore-Moore”

Some of my co-workers call me “Moore or Less”

3. Best meal you can cook?

Split peas, ochro and rice cook up with bay-leaf stewed chicken complemented with coleslaw and avocado slices.

4. Favourite Carib brewery product?

The attractive ruby red colour, appealing clarity, spicy, warm clove aroma, and the perfect balance of lager, sweetness, and flavour, without hesitancy, Shandy Sorrel is easily my favourite Carib brewery product!

5. Hobbies/past times?

Listening to inspirational lectures

Experimental baking and cooking Reminiscing on my musical career by listening to classical music played on the pan and attending jazz concerts that sadly occur infrequently.

6. What do you typically do on a Saturday night?

Look at the television while I relax with my husband and chat with our children on a three-way call.

7. Favourite movie?

Life is too short for a favourite movie, especially as I am a TV addict. I have a passion for strong action movies and binge-watch them, especially on long weekends: Mission Impossible (s), London has Fallen, Olympus has Fallen, The Foreigner, Transformers, The Bourne Identity, Supremacy, Ultimatum, Legacy and Jason Bourne, Robin Hood Prince of Thieves, Brave Heart, Marvel movies (Love the Thanos character) and The Gray Man; a must see.

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I quell the adrenaline by following up action movies with sitcoms: The Big Bang Theory, Last Man Standing, Seinfeld, Mike and Molly, Bob and Abeshola, The Neighbourhood, Doc Martin and cannot leave out good comedy with the likes of Johnny English.

8. Favourite sports team?

I am an emotional supporter of my T&T sportsmen and women win or lose.

9. Favourite quote?

“Don’t Love and Love Stupid” - Eudora Moore

10. If you were CEO for a day and could change one thing, what would it be?

I would host an organized virtual town hall meeting where I would reach out to the Carib Brewery workforce and solicit their support for the needed changes to the culture of the company: to satisfy Food Safety Certification and the anticipated increase in international marketability, enhance customer satisfaction, avoid recalls and to sustain the company’s credible reputation when achieved.

11. What goals do you think Carib as a company is not focused enough on achieving?

Improving the skills and knowledge of workers in the respective departments to meet the rapid growth of the company. Ensuring that lower-level managers are adequately renumerated for their responsibilities. Being proactive with succession where necessary for workers nearing retirement.

12. Best advice you can give to a new hire?

You are in a specialized industry, learn all that there is to learn about it, be familiar with all the brands and safeguard the company’s overall reputation.

13.

What

tips have you picked up on your job that has helped your overall life?

My job drove home the saying “Procrastination is the thief of time”. I avoid it at all costs in my everyday life and have instilled this discipline in the lives of both my children. The 5S methodology, namely, “A place for everything and everything in its place”, makes managing one’s workspace and household so much easier.

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Spotlight on our Team

Interview with our Quality Assurance Manager, Carib St. Kitts/ Nevis - Desroy Tate

1. When did you join Carib?

March 12, 2007

2. What’s your Nickname?

Tate

3. Best meal you can cook?

Curry Chicken & White Rice

4. Favourite Carib brewery product?

Stag previously now Rockstone

5. Hobbies/past times?

Playing dominoes and Walking

6. What do you typically do on a Saturday night?

Socialize with friends and family

7. Favourite movie?

Braveheart

8. Favourite sports team?

Cricket- West Indies

9. Favourite quote?

“ Unless you are growing you are dying”

10. If you were CEO for a day and could change one thing, what would it be?

I would place more emphasis and focus on development, trainings, and opportunities for non-management team members.

11. What goals do you think Carib as a company is not focused enough on achieving? None currently

12. Best advice you can give to a new hire?

Focus on the opportunity, undersell but overdeliver

13. What tips have you picked up on your job that has helped your overall life?

There is always a way, half filled versus half empty

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Training Corner: Training Activities within the last 12 months

All training at Carib, namely the departments of the Supply Chain, is now being brought under the umbrella of Carib University. So, to keep everyone aware of the ongoing and new training initiatives, all issues will include this segment to highlight the training that took place since the last issue and communicate those that are upcoming.

Supervisor CEO Cohort 2

As stated in our last issue, the Supervisor CEO Programme’s second cohort began in August 2021 with new modules and fresh faces. Participants included: Garvin Barnes (Raw Materials Warehouse), Jason Lamont (Stores), Patrick Chung (Stores), Khadija Fernandez (Quality) and Riad Paul (Brewery).

Hybrid and virtual sessions were facilitated due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the restriction on the use of meeting rooms. This affected the amount of interaction during the modules, but the participants persevered. We also changed the final assignment halfway through the programme – instead of presenting on a fictional company, participants were now required to create and present a business plan for their department. This included a mission, goals, analysis of metrics, suggestions for improvement initiatives and SWOT analyses of their team members.

The purpose of this assignment was to allow participants to view their departments as a subsidiary of Carib, explore where their subsidiary is currently at and develop a plan to advance their subsidiary under their leadership. The cohort responded well to the change and delivered great presentations.

The modules were delivered by: Abdon Ramdass (Leadership, Emotional Intelligence and Production), Trishel Gokool (Lean Thinking and Communication), Ainsley Pustam (Quality), Sharon Edwards and Marlene Gervais (HR), Antron Forte (Marketing), Onella Maharaj (HSE), Aleem Hosein (Finance) and Yashwant Singh (Logistics).

The participants agreed that their favourite module was Marketing, as they got a sneak peek of the Carib campaign featuring DJ Khaled, Shenseea and Kerwin Du Bois.

The programme culminated with the “A Moment with the Supply Chain Director” segment in which Akash Ragbir answered all questions, difficult or easy, posed to him by our participants. The session ended with the distribution of certificates and prizes. The marketing team generously donated cooler bags filled with goodies for all of our participants. Figures 2 to 6 show the participants receiving their certificates.

Khadija Fernandez received the prize for Best Report and Riad Paul for Best Presentation. Figures 7 and 8 show them receiving their prizes (their cooler bags were filled with extra titbits).

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1: Participants having their Moment with the SCD

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Figure Figure 4: Khadija Fernandez Figure 5: Patrick Chung

HSE 10-hour General Industry Training for Managers and Supervisors

In May 2021, the HSE Department, assisted by myself, began a 10-hour General Industry training for all of the Supervisors and Managers in the Operations and Logistics departments of CDC. This involved coordinating over eighty (80) persons, some of whom worked on shift and all had busy schedules. The training also began at the start of another COVID-19-related lockdown, with shifts being modified and office staff working on rotation or from their homes. Moreover, the requirements for social distancing meant that there were severe restrictions on the number of persons allowed in our training and meeting rooms.

Many challenges were faced, but we pressed on, using a hybrid training structure with each module being held in-person at the Hospitality Suite or Logistics Conference room and being streamed to other inperson attendees at the South Brewery Conference Room and virtual attendees via Microsoft Teams. In addition to our local employees, twenty-eight (28) employees from Carib Brewery St. Kitts and Nevis also attended one or more modules virtually. The training was conducted by the HSE Officers, Onella Maharaj and Dolan Pope, and the modules included:

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• Introduction to OSHA
Accident Reporting
Walking and Working Surfaces
Electrical Safety
Manual Handling
Personal Protective Equipment
Hazard Communication
Figure 6: Riad Paul Figure 7:
Khadija Fernandez receiving her prize
Figure 8: Riad Paul receiving his prize

• Machine Guarding (Operations only)

• Hand and Power Tools (Operations only)

• Permit to Work (Logistics only)

• Driving Safety (Logistics only)

• Exit Routes, Emergency Action Plans and Fire Protection

Makeup sessions had to be arranged in September and October for those who were unable to attend the previous sessions due to their modified shifts, vacation, or quarantine. However, these alone were not enough, and the session recordings were distributed as “on-demand” modules with employees having to view the recording, complete the online quiz and sign the attendance register. Sixty percent (60%) of the Managers and Supervisors in the Operations department completed all modules and fifty-seven percent (57%) in the Logistics department. Carib University Certificates of Completion, designed by Natasha Raggobeer, were awarded to these forty-seven (47) employees. Figures 9 to 17 show some of the employees proudly showing off their certificates. Materials

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his certificate
(R
Supervisor) receiving
from Onella Maharaj
- HSE Officer)
Supervisor)
10: Liz Rajkumar (R – Fleet Coordinator) receiving her certificate from Trishel Gokool (L – Technical Training Coordinator) Figure11: Subirus Rampersad (Sr. Utilities Technician)
Figure 12: Stephanie Harridan (Warehouse
Figure

Supervisor CEO Cohort 3

The training department strives for continuous improvement, and as a result, we once again made improvements to our flagship programme. This involved adding new modules, modifying existing ones and changing the way the participants were assessed and awarded certificates.

Cohort three (3) began in January and ended in May with five (5) participants - initially six but two dropped out and one was admitted. These participants were: Clayton Hospedales (Line 6), Maxwell Bartolo (FPW), Quincy Matthews (Line 3), Leon Baptiste (Line 3) and Ricardo Lawson (Stores).

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Figure 13: Nirvana Mohan (Technical Clerk) Figure 16: Dexter Irish (Plant Inspector) Figure 17: Curtis Cooper (Warehouse Supervisor) Figure 15: Lutchman Tiplal (Plant Inspector)

Beginning this cohort, the programme was split into two parts, with part one (1) focussing on building foundational skills such as Leadership, Emotional Intelligence, Communication, Lean Thinking and Project Management. Part one (1) was exclusively delivered by Abdon Ramdass and me – the training department. Part two (2) focussed on cultivating business acumen where the managers of each key department in CDC introduced their department functions and the role it plays in the bigger picture. Participants also got the opportunity to ask questions, voice their concerns and suggest improvements to the initiatives these departments presented. The departments included once again: Production (Abdon Ramdass), Logistics (Yashwant Singh), Human Resources (Marsha Bowrin and Marlene Gervais), Finance (Aleem Hosein), Health, Safety and Environment (Nirmal Ramsamooj), Marketing and Sales (Antron Forte) and Quality (Rienzi Sookram).

Also, beginning this cohort, learning assessments now included a sixty (60) question multiple choice exam that covered all modules in addition to the Department Business Plan project and presentation. These graded assessments now enabled us to categorise the certificate levels into Pass (50-64%), Merit (65-79%) and Distinction (80% and higher) which will be the standard moving forward. The final session, A Moment with the Supply Chain Director, was held on May 13th, 2022, and ended with the graduation ceremony. The top performer, Clayton Hospedales was awarded a plaque, and all participants received a beautifully wrapped Carib six-pack and a Carib University branded coffee mug. Also, for the first time, participants were awarded the redesigned Carib University Certificate which now features our Approved Seal. Special thanks to Allana Lovell, Donna Whyte, Natasha Raggobeer and the team at Pat and Max for assisting me with my vision. Figures 18 to 23 show the highlights.

Figure 18: Akash answering the hard questions over

Figure 20: Certificate and tokens

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We hope that all of our Supervisor CEOs apply what they learned and continue leading and learning as they progress in their careers.

Other Training

Other short training initiatives, conducted by our equipment manufacturers, suppliers or internally, were also conducted during the past year. These included:

• Microsoft Dynaway EAM: All Maintenance personnel and Operations Managers and Supervisors were trained on the new EAM system that replaced COGZ. This was facilitated through in-person and virtual sessions.

FSSC Audit: The Food Safety and Internal Audit teams were trained on the FSSC requirements and auditing techniques. This intensive training was conducted virtually.

Microbiology:

Our sister breweries benefitted from a three (3) hour, three (3) week Microbiology training facilitated by CBTT’s Lab Manager, Roopnarine Ramharrack, and Laboratory Technician –Microbiology, Sabiha Mohammed, via MS Teams.

• Water Sampling: Our Quality Assurance department participated in a two (2) day water sampling training conducted by CARIRI.

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Figure 21: Top performer Figure 23: Closeup of Clayton’s plaque – designed, wrapped, and decorated by me

• Vilter Ammonia Compressor: Utilities Operators and Technicians attended training on the ammonia compressor. This training was done by Boyd Embleton of Sertesa, Grenada.

• Safe Chemical Handling: Ecolab, one of our chemical suppliers, conducted training on the safe use and handling of Oxxium 200. This training was attended by the Utilities Operators.

• Gas Monitor Usage: In an effort to train Operations personnel on the use of the Multi-Rae and Q-Rae Gas Monitors, our Projects Engineer, Telbert Irish, arranged training by Rose Environmental. The training was also attended by HSE personnel.

• Warehouse Safety: A training session on warehouse safety was conducted in February 2022 by Onella Maharaj for the Raw Materials Warehouse staff.

• Walkie Stacker: All Packaging Senior Process Technicians and Process Technicians and Brewery Operators were trained to operate the electric Walkie Stackers. They were each awarded Certificates of Completion from the National Safety Council.

• Food Safety Prerequisite Programmes (PRPs), Operational Prerequisites (OPRPs) and Critical Control Points (CCPs): Each department, led by the Food Safety Team, conducted training on their revised food safety documentation for PRPs, OPRPs and CCPs in preparation for the Food Safety Audit in August 2022.

• Cross Training: Packaging personnel were trained on the Labeller and Kister machines. This training utilised our new format of two (2) weeks of classroom self-study, a written assessment, a few weeks of practical training (based on the standard training time of the machine, reason for training, advice of Coach/Supervisor) and a practical assessment. Trainees require a minimum score of 70% in the written assessment to progress onto the practical training. Kister Trainees included Wesley O’Brien and Roen Alexis. Labeller Trainees included: Leif Mohammed and several Casual employees.

• Mead and Kister: Nelson Ruiz from TSE trained Maintenance and Packaging personnel on the operation and maintenance of the Mead and Kister packing machines, as well as the Lid Inserter.

• HSE Audit: Virtual sessions on the new HSE audits were held in July and August 2022 for all Managers and Supervisors in CBL and CDC. These sessions were facilitated by Onella Maharaj and Kieliyph Blondell.

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Upcoming Initiatives

Planned and proposed training activities include:

• Collaborating with an external training provider to deliver a tailored in-house Leadership training programme for Managers, both Junior and Senior.

• Expansion of cross-training in the Packaging department.

• Filling of skills gaps in the Maintenance department.

• In-house Certificates in Brewing and Packaging.

• Using our current software (Q-Pulse and Microsoft Suite) to support the training function.

About the Author

Trishel Gokool is the Technical Training Coordinator at Caribbean Development Company Ltd. Before joining CDC, she was a Management Trainee at Ansa Polymer under the Champions Development Programme and lead various research and improvement projects throughout the company’s departments. She holds a BSc. in Mechanical Engineering (First Class Honours) from The University of the West Indies and a MSc. in Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Systems Management (Distinction) from the University of Manchester.

• Updating competency matrices (heat maps), training plans and training material for all of Supply Chain’s departments.

• Carib University branded merchandise for tokens and prizes for participating in training.

Look out for the next issue to see how far we get with implementing these initiatives.

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Pilot System Launch: CBUSA Insider Look

Shift Brewer, Carib Brewery, USA

Introduction

Brewing with a pilot brewhouse creates a promising opportunity to dial in new brands to release on the market. Another opportunity it presents is the ability to brew creative, outside-the-box brews for the taproom, bringing diversity and excitement to the taproom consumers.

What is a Pilot System?

A pilot system is a secondary system that a brewery uses to brew smaller batches of beers than their primary system [1]. These pilot systems vary in size, depending on the company making the system, and the breweries’ desired pilot batch size. Blichmann and SS Brewtech are the leading companies from which breweries purchase pilot systems. At Carib Brewery USA we chose to go with the Blichmann 55-gallon system with HERMS coils for step mash capabilities.

Blichmann Pilot System

Blichmann Engineering is a staple in the brewing industry for equipment both for the professional brewer and the homebrewer who wants to brew like a professional.

The 55-gallon model is the top-of-the-line homebrewing system with the largest volume and can be used in a professional setting.

Figure 1: Blichmann Engineering’s 1 BBL Electric HERMS Pilot System [2]

Breakdown of Brewhouse

The pilot system is an electric system with three (3) vessels and four (4) heating coils controlled by two (2) Brew commanders and two (2) relay modules.

The Brewhouse needed four (4) 240V 30 Amp GFCI L630R outlets and one (1) 120V 15 Amp GFCI outlet to power this system. The first vessel is the Hot Liquor Tank (HLT). The HLT on the pilot system has two (2) coils for heating our brewing water to the strike and sparging temperatures. It also houses the HERMS coils submerged under water. Wort is run through these coils to create the desired step temperature of

Figure 2: HERMs Coil in Electric 55 Gallon Kettle [2]

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The second vessel is the Mash Tun. The Mash Tun has a false bottom that, in diameter, is a perfect fit on the bottom of the Tun. It has a BrewMometer, which, under specific temperatures, tells us when we hit the protein, conversion, and lauter temperatures.

The third vessel is the Boil Kettle. The Boil Kettle has two (2) heating coils and a whirlpool valve, so the wort can whirlpool inside the kettle.

The Brew Commanders are digital control boxes that operate the HLT and Boil Kettle. They have a temperature probe to display real-time temperature, and a timer start feature for the HLT to allow you to heat water hours before you start mashing. Lastly, they have a plug which allows you to control the pump digitally.

The Riptide pumps from Blichmann are 120V pumps controlled by a manual twist valve located at the front. They mount on the front of our kettle table. One is used strictly for the HLT, and the other for the Mash Tun for vorlauf and Boil Kettle for whirlpool and knockout.

The last pieces of equipment from Blichmann are the Therminator, ThruMometer, and Oxygen Flow Regulator. The Therminator is the plate chiller Blichmann offers for their one (1) barrel or smaller pilot systems. The ThruMometer is a piped thermometer placed right after our inline oxygen. The Oxygen Flow Regulator is a regulator that allows us to control the flow without us having to adjust throughout the knockout.

Our Cellar

Along with the pilot system, we purchased the SS Brewtech’s 1-barrel Unitank Fermenter, 1-barrel brite tank, ¾ hp glycol chiller, and temperature control kits for both tanks. The one-barrel Unitank from SS Brewtech is built not only for pilot systems in a professional brewery, but is also a tank for someone who wants to take their homebrewing to the next level. The tank has

a 1.5” tri-clamp set up on the temperature port, sample port, racking arm, and carb stone, with a 3” and 8” tri-clamp on top of the tank and a 1.5” for the pressure reducing valve (PRV). It comes with a 1.5” tri-clamp vent arm and a 1.5” tri-clamp gauge. The one-barrel brite has a similar set-up except for the NPT (national pipe taper) set-up for the temperature, sample port, and carb stone. Also, the brite does not have a vent arm. [3]

The ¾ hp glycol chiller from SS Brewtech is their top-of-the-line glycol chiller. It has twelve (12) ports for a maximum of six (6) tanks. The chiller can work with six (6) 1bbl Chronical fermenters, Unitanks, or brites, four (4) 2bbl Unitanks, two (2) 3.5bbl Unitanks, or one (1) 7bbl Unitank at once. It also has a 22-gallon reservoir tank for glycol. [4]

CIP on Brewhouse and Cellar

Let us start with the brewhouse clean-in-place (CIP). First, we fill our Mash Tun with fifteen (15) gallons of hot water and two (2) litres of caustic.

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Figure 3: SS Brewtech’s 1 BBL Unitank
[3]

CIP on Brewhouse and Cellar

Let us start with the brewhouse clean-in-place (CIP). First, we fill our Mash Tun with fifteen (15) gallons of hot water and two (2) litres of caustic. We circulate this through the spray ball for thirty (30) minutes, and in the meanwhile, we fill our HLT with room temperature water for rinsing. After 30 minutes, the caustic from the Mash Tun is transferred to the Boil Kettle and circulated for 30 minutes before draining. Once we drain the caustic, twenty (20) gallons of water are pulled from the HLT and run through the spray ball in the Mash Tun. The water is then pulled from the Mash Tun, run through the spray ball in the Boil Kettle and drained. Next, we refill the Mash Tun with 15 gallons of water and 1.2 litres of acid, run the acid through the spray ball and then transfer it to the Boil Kettle and do the same. After draining the acid from the brewhouse, we do the final rinses and drain the water from the brewhouse. Now we are ready for the next brew. While the CIP is underway, we fill a keggle with 7.5 gallons of water followed by 1 litre of caustic, and this is run backwards through the heat exchanger for thirty (30) minutes. After thirty (30) minutes, we run water through the heat exchanger for five (5) minutes. In the next step, we fill a keggle with 7.5 gallons of water and 6.5 mL of acid and run the acid backwards through the heat exchanger for twenty (20) minutes. After the acid, we rinse for five (5) minutes with water. Lastly, we fill the keggle with 7.5 gallons of water and 100 mL of peracetic acid (PAA) and run this through the heat exchanger for fifteen (15) minutes. When the PAA cycle is over, we close the valves, and now the heat exchanger is clean and ready for use.

Brewing on The System

On the pilot system, we have brewed four (4) beers and have completed and packaged three (3) beers. We brewed two (2) wheat bases (one for key lime and the other was crepe Suzette), Hazy IPA, and Berliner Weise. We have found that in a 32-gallon batch, we have a 1-gallon loss to evaporation and, on average, fermenting 28.5 gallons while averaging 25.5-26 gallons kegging.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the pilot system is a fantastic way to bring new beers to your consumers in the tap room and design beers to eventually enter into distribution. It allows a brewery to be innovative without having high costs and the opportunity to dial in on the profile of the beer.

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References

[1] Craft Beer Joe. (2018). Investing In Innovation: Why Pilot Brewing Systems Are Critical for Future Success. URL: https://www.craftbeerjoe.com/craftbeer-talk/pilot-brewing-systems

[2] Blichmann Engineering. Features. 1 BBL Pilot System. URL: https://www.blichmannengineering. com/1-bbl-electric-herms-pilot-system.html

[3] SS Brewtech. Features. 1 BBL Unitank. URL: https://www.ssbrewtech.com/collections/allunitanks/products/1-bbl-nano-series-unitank

[4] SS Brewtech. Features. ¾ HP Glycol Chiller. URL: https://www.ssbrewtech.com/products/ glycol-chiller-3-4hp

About the Author

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James “Jim” Heilman is a Shift Brewer at Carib Brewery USA.

Implementation of EAM in D365 Finance & Operations – Our New CMMS

Plant Mechanical Maintenance Manager, Carib Brewery, Trinidad & Tobago

Abstract

The implementation of the Enterprise Asset Management (EAM) Module in D365 Finance and Operations (F&O) has been a decade-long wait. The Computerised Maintenance Management System (CMMS) Software used previously, COGZ, was insufficient to progress the Organisation’s upgrades into the new age of Maintenance. This implementation boasts a completely paperless system, with the ability to record and update or share live data with other modules within the current EAM.

The Organisation can now share information related to Asset Management, recorded across multiple Departments. We will have the ability to track the cost associated with both Preventive and Corrective Maintenance. This will be done by assigning the cost of parts used and Manhours worked directly to the Equipment and the related Department’s budget.

Another notable benefit of using the EAM in D365 is that it will allow all Sector Companies using this software to share information on spare parts by referencing the part identification numbers. This can lead to reduced stocking of costly spares across all Breweries. There is added cost to this implementation which will be discussed later in the article.

Our 10-year Journey

As some may recall, CDC went live with AX Dynamics in 2011, ahead of most other group companies that followed in 2012. At that time, the CMMS used was COGZ, a stand-alone solution which does not interface with any other software. Therefore, there could be no sharing of information concerning Costs and Stocking of Spares with other departments. At that time, there was an attempt by companies within the Manufacturing Sector of the Group, to use the Service Module in AX dynamics as a CMMS. However, after a year, this project had to be abandoned, as it would not have solved all the challenges.

COGZ software required a license for use, hence the users were limited to just three (3) accounts within the Engineering Planning Department. One license for each section, two Production Sections (Brewing and Packaging) and a third for Ancillary Services (Utilities). This meant Preventive Maintenance Tasks could only be issued by these licensed users in hard copy printed forms. These prints would then be issued for execution, signed off by the execution team, approved by the Engineers, and then finally stamped and closed both on hardcopy and the software by the Engineering Planning Team.

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FIGURE 1: PM issued from COGZ

In 2017, CDC partnered with Concepts and Services on a Maintenance Improvement plan for the organisation. They employed four (4) on-site Team Members for several months to determine the challenges and implement solutions to assist in moving the Maintenance Programme forward. However, after almost a year, they too found the stumbling block was the limitations of the existing CMMS.

In 2018, CDC began reviewing multiple options to replace the COGZ system. Reviewing several solutions, the most notable ones being Dynaway, Dynarent & IBM Maximo. These Teams all understood the challenges being faced. Their software could all be used to solve our problems at varying costs. Also in that year, CDC and other group companies transitioned from AX Dynamics to Microsoft D365 F&O.

In 2019, CDC again partnered with an external service provider, The London Consultancy Group, to assist with improving processes within the Supply

Chain Team, one section of which is Engineering. At the end of their consultancy period, they had left the Engineering Team with better methods of reporting on the use of the existing COGZ system. However, this did not solve the challenges, and they too indicated that CDC should upgrade its CMMS. Suggesting the use of a system named Upkeep, while also noting the existing Microsoft D365 F&O also has Asset Management capabilities. This led us to further investigate this option, confirming that the existing user licenses covered this software use. After confirming that we were already paying for this service, we decided to use this option as the obvious choice. To implement the software, we went directly to Microsoft and learned that they acquired Dynaway’s Software, which we had previously demoed, to develop their Asset Management Module in D365.

Project Team – Data Configuration/ Migration

To fully utilise the service of Dynaway, a Project Team was formed with multiple Subsidiaries within the ANSA McAL Group of companies, aimed toward Software implementation. With the support of Group IT and a Project Manager, they worked diligently for six (6) months to champion the change.

The Team included members from CDC (Darryl Delochan & Robert Samaroo), ANSA Chem (Dave Rampersad & Reshard Belilam), CGL (Shivan Seeraj & Neil Ramnehal) and ANSA Polymer (Marlon Boucaud & Jonathan Ramdass).

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The Project Team then moved through the following steps in preparation for implementation.

• Defining Equipment Hierarchy – To list Functional Locations and determine the Parent/Child status of Equipment within specific functional locations.

• Data Standardisation – Determination of an agreed nomenclature for Part IDs across all Group Subsidiaries.

• Data Migration & Validation – Uploading all PMs with Maintenance Checklist for testing.

• Business Process Flows – A requirement of Group Audit for review and approval.

• Financial Allocation Setup – for proper cost allocation of all equipment under related budgets.

• Scenario Testing – Used to determine all the possible process requirements that will be needed when implemented.

• End to End Test Script Writing and Testing – Debugging of all scenarios with full testing by all subsidiary Teams.

• Developing Training Manuals – Task Recordings and Curriculum that was used for training all Users

Training and Implementation

The training was done internally by both Darryl Delochan (CMMS Administrator) and me, using the Task Recordings we had developed in the previous Project Stage. As the project was being implemented during the High Period of the Pandemic, completion of the training posed a separate challenge. It had to be done under special conditions, allowing for proper spacing of trainees. This meant limitations on class sizes, therefore increasing the number of training sessions required to cover all users. Some sessions even needed to be done at night in some instances due to the Rostering of employees.

Different users required different segments of training on conducting the tasks they will be required to complete. The training was completed for 105 users across Maintenance, Operations, Quality and Stores Departments. The Engineering Team was additionally trained on the use of Tablets procured to have the PMs conducted on-site. This is where we must mention one issue which is still in the process of being resolved.

To use the Tablets across the plant, the Wi-Fi availability and coverage need to be upgraded, especially within the Bottling Hall. Coverage in other sections is sufficient to allow for full use.

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Once the Bottle Hall Wi-Fi has been upgraded, Tablets should be able to manoeuvre easily through the required pages without the lag that is currently being experienced when the devices are used on either Wi-Fi or Mobile data mode. The upgrade has already been initiated and Service Providers have already put forward bids to have this completed.

Savings and Benefits

By introducing this new software, we were able to remove the use of paper required to execute all Preventive and Corrective Maintenance tasks. The Engineering Team has decreased its paper usage by thirteen (13) reams per month. The reduction in paper usage also means there is no associated filing. As documents are kept for three (3) years, the filing space savings is also very notable.

A further benefit, as mentioned previously, is the ability to fully track the cost of maintenance for each piece of equipment. Parts used from Stores can be assigned to the PM or Corrective Task by creating an item journal under the Work Order. Further to this, parts can be ordered externally through the Work Order, creating a Purchase Request directly related to the work order. This allows us to be able to track all parts usage for a machine. We also have the ability to assign the working hours taken to complete the task. With this information, we can track the average cost of manhours. Using this statistical data, we can make informed decisions on when equipment is too costly to maintain and should be replaced.

For Audits, both internal and external, we can easily retrieve associated documents. All Work Orders carry timestamped signatures when any changes are made therefore each work order remains as its own record of completion. Certificates are scanned and attached to the work order to maintain full documentation. As the Work Order can facilitate attachments, images of machine issues can also be captured and attached, adding to historical data.

Next Steps

As mentioned, a Wi-Fi upgrade is currently in train. Also, steps are being taken to facilitate the implementation of the EAM in both Grenada and St. Kitts Breweries.

About the Author

Robert Samaroo has held the position of Plant Mechanical Maintenance Manager (Caribbean Development Co. Ltd) for the past six (6) years. Robert holds a BSc in Mechanical Engineering from the University of the West Indies. He has amassed fifteen (15) years of Maintenance Management experience gained throughout his career which spans The Food and Beverage, Manufacturing and Energy Sectors.

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3 Steps to Prevent a Malt Mill Mayhem

Engineer II, Carib Brewery, Trinidad & Tobago

Abstract

Malt Mill Mayhem! A tongue twister no Brewer wants to say. Milling malt is a crucial step in the brewing process. It dictates the conversion of starch to fermentable sugars in the mash conversion vessel and influences the separation of wort from spent grains in the lauter tun. The key steps to ensuring excellent efficiency during the mashing and lautering phase are understanding the operation of the malt mill, accurately assessing its current performance, and manipulating the mill to maximise the brewhouse extract yield. It is also of paramount importance to monitor and maintain the malt mill’s operation to guarantee its reliability.

By following these steps, any brewery can increase its brewhouse efficiency and maintain a reliable operating malt mill.

Overview of the Malt Mill

Milling crushes the malted barley into what is known as grist. This increases the exposed surface area of the barley’s endosperm and prepares it for starch conversion whilst preserving the husk for use as a filter bed to clarify the wort.

Producing a grist that is too coarse results in poor mash tun performance as much of the starch remains protected. As such, there is a low conversion of starch to fermentable sugars. A grist that is too fine can lead to poor lauter tun performance and slow wort separation. This is usually reflected in the filter beds becoming choked quickly as the husk of the barley was not preserved during the milling process.

Carib Brewery Trinidad & Tobago employs the use of a Seeger SSM II Type 10 six-roller malt mill. The malt enters the mill at the top and makes its way through the cascading rollers and sieves. The upper pair of rollers cracks open the malt to remove the husk and produce some flour in the process. The middle pair ofz rollers clean the husk, remove any excess endosperm, and produce coarse grist. Finally, the lower pair of rollers produce fine grit I and fine grit II.

Figure 2:

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FIGURE 1: Malted Barley grain (left) alongside its cross section (right) showing endosperm
Six Roller Malt Mill showing progress of grains to grist consisting of Husk (Green), Grit (Red) and Flour (Yellow)

The grist produced by the malt mill is emitted from its lower section and collects in the grist storage bin below. A sample can be taken to ascertain the current performance of the malt mill from the main sampler located at the bottom of the machine.

Step 1 Correctly-Conducting a Grist Analysis

The correct method for taking a grist sample has been highlighted by the Central European Commission for Brewing Analysis (MEBAK) in conjunction with the European Brewing Commission (EBC). A sample of grist should be taken from the malt mill main sampler during operation. The sample port should be open for one second and then closed. This should be repeated until a sample size between 120g and 150g is obtained.

followed by the husk. Coarse grits along with flour and fine flour should contribute the least to the grist ratio.

Table 1: MEBAK standard for ideal grist ratio

Figure 3: Methodology for taking proper grist sample from malt mill

The sample can then be analysed using the sieve analysis methodology. This involves taking the sample to the lab and running it through an automated pan sifter which separates the grist into its constituent fractions. MEBAK has published an ideal grist ratio that can be used to maximise the extract yield from the malted barley once achieved. The obtained sample can then be compared to this ideal standard to establish the current performance of the malt mill. This comparison can give useful insight into what adjustments are required on the malt mill as the fine grits I and fine grits II should make up the majority percentage of the grist closely

Step 2

Ensuring–Adequate

Mill Gap Settings

Adjusting the gap settings of each of the pair of rollers on the malt mill has its own unique effect on the grist ratio. The gap setting simply refers to the distance between the pair of rollers.

Figure 4: Grains crushed between roller pair

For example, increasing the distance between the upper rollers of the malt mill can result in less husk being present in the grist. Conversely, decreasing the gap distance will introduce more husk to the grist. During the overhaul of Carib Brewery TT’s malt mill in 2022, the technician from Joni Brau Service imparted his methodology for adjusting the mill’s roller gap settings to achieve the MEBAK standard established for the grist ratio.

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The first step in adjusting the mill focuses on the upper roller pair. As this roller is responsible for cracking open the malted barley and removing the husk, the distance must be set to accommodate the average size of malt produced during the summer and winter periods. Barley produced in the summer usually ranges between 2.2mm & 2.8mm in length, while barley produced in the winter is smaller and ranges between 1.6mm & 2.2mm. It is best practice to set the distance between the upper pair of rollers to 1.6mm to accommodate the smallest average size of barley. This is done by inserting a feeler gauge between the rollers and running it along the entire length to verify gap size. The gap can then be reduced or increased utilising the motorized adjusters until the feeler gauge has a snug fit when sliding back and forth along the length of the roller. Once this adjustment is made, another grist analysis should be performed to verify that the percentage of husk is within the acceptable percentage.

The second step is adjusting the middle roller pair to ensure the husk is properly cleaned and all the starch is removed. This is reflected in the percentage of coarse grits available to be crushed by the lower roller pair and converted to fine grits I and fine grits II. The adjustment should be made after reviewing the sieve analysis results. Should the percentage of coarse grits, fine grits I and fine grits II be too low, the distance between the roller pair should be reduced by 0.1mm. Another grist analysis should be performed to verify the effects of the adjustment to the grist ratio. Similarly, should the percentage be too high the distance should be increased by 0.1mm followed by a sieve analysis.

The third and final step is the adjustment of the lower roller to increase or decrease the percentage of fine grits I and fine grits II. This should be based on the previous sieve analysis results and adjustments should be made in 0.1mm increments. Each 0.1mm adjustment should be followed by an analysis of the grist to evaluate its effects. This is

key to effectively tuning the mill methodically and chronologically to bring the grist ratio closer to the MEBAK standard with each step.

Step 3 – Effective Malt Mill Maintenance

The reliable operation of the malt mill is just as important as the grist ratio it outputs. The constant flow of grains through the rollers wears them down over time. It is crucial to manage this wear and have it occur evenly over the surface of the roller. It is also important to manage the vibration of the malt mill and minimise it to prevent damage to the mill’s components.

Flow rate management ensures the grains entering the mill are evenly distributed along the length of the rollers. This can be done by setting the grain hopper to maintain a buffer level between the middle and upper-level switches. If the buffer is too low, the grains often tend to one side of the roller and will cause uneven wear. This will also make it very difficult to adjust the mill gap setting the get an even crushing of the grains.

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Figure 5: Malt mill hopper that provides a buffer and controls flow rate into mill with level probes

Vibration monitoring is also very critical to the operation of the malt mill. The upper and lower sieves of the mill are designed to be balanced. Often during excess vibrations, some components may become loose or dislodged. This leads to the sieve system becoming unbalanced, which in turn, leads to further vibrations. This cycle continues getting progressively worse, destroying moving components within the mill.

About the Author

Daniel Mohammed is an Engineer II employed at CDC for approximately four (4) years. He is responsible for maintaining all brewery assets and aims to increase the reliability of the brewing process.

Figure 6: Damaged sieve inside malt mill from excess vibration

Excess vibrations can occur with a build-up of grains within the sieves. Weekly cleaning of the malt mill and its sieves should be done to avoid excess grains within the system. This will ensure that the vibrations are kept to a minimum.

Conclusion

Following the three steps outlined will ensure that any brewery can avoid a malt mill mayhem. Brewhouse extract yield for the malt mill will increase, and this will result in the reliable operation of the malt mill.

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Spotlight on our Team Interview with our Projects EngineerTelbert Irish

1. When did you join Carib?

I’m 95% sure it was July 5th, 1993, as a B-Class Fitter.

2. What’s your Nickname?

It’s mainly Telly or Irie.

3. Best meal you can cook?

My wife and others like when I cook Pelau or stewed chicken… I’m partial to my Lasagna.

4. Favourite Carib brewery product?

It’s a toss-up between Carib Pilsner and Carib Blue.

5. Hobbies/past times?

Playing/watching football, Anime, Video Gaming, and I recently started gardening.

6. What do you typically do on a Saturday night?

Usually, some combination of Videogaming, watching TV/Movies (with the wife) and watching Japanese Anime. Due to the recent restrictions and the loss of some of my friends and colleagues, I have also started to socialise more on the weekends.

7. Favourite movie?

Star Wars: Episode V - The Empire Strikes Back 8. Favourite Sports team? A.C Milan 9. Favourite quote?

“Love all, trust a few, do wrong to none”William Shakespeare, All’s Well That Ends Well

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10. If you were CEO for a day and could change one thing, what would it be?

Educate staff about intergroup goods and services, as well as streamline their ability to obtain them.

11. What goals do you think Carib as a company is not focused enough on achieving?

Improving the physical well-being of their staff. This could be via partial funding of gym memberships, creation of a Sports Club, fun team-based safety drills (for bragging rights), social events, etc.

12. Best advice you can give to a new hire?

•Go the extra mile now to get the experience/knowledge. It should reward you in the long run.

•Listen to the opinion of your support team and the staff with longer tenure. There is usually a lot of wisdom residing there for work & life.

13. What tips have you picked up on your job that has helped your overall life?

I have learned to view most of my activities in a logical way. I weigh rewards against the risks and do whatever I deem is most beneficial to me and those closest to me.

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Spotlight on our Team

Interview with our Head of Brewing – Atiba Rique

1. When did you join Carib?

January 2000

2. What’s your Nickname?

Teebs

3. Best meal you can cook? Pelau

4. Favourite Carib brewery product? Carib

5. Hobbies/past times? Football

6. What do you typically do on a Saturday night? Spend time with family

7. Favourite movie?

The Good, the bad and the ugly

8. Favourite Sports team?

Barcelona FC

9. Favourite quote?

“Keep calm and carry on.”

10. If you were CEO for a day and could change one thing, what would it be?

Construct an onsite sports and recreational facility for all employees

11. What goals do you think Carib as a company is not focused enough on achieving?

I Believe that the company is currently focusing on the right things

12. Best advice you can give to a new hire?

Take time to observe and learn about your work environment. Put in the extra time and effort to learn the job. Don’t be afraid to ask questions and take lots of notes.

13. What tips have you picked up on your job that has helped your overall life?

Never become complacent, always be ready and willing to learn something new each day and accept that there will always be changes… your attitude towards these changes will largely determine your success moving forward.

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A simple act that can improve personal wellness

Project Engineer and Youth Mental Health First Aider, Carib Brewery, Trinidad and Tobago

What is drawn by everyone without pen or pencil?

Breath! A simple but central act in our existence that is critical for our survival and functioning. Breathing is the process of taking air into and expelling it out of the lungs. For many centuries, in eastern culture, breathing techniques have been undisputed for their role in achieving altered states of consciousness [1]. In western culture, breathing techniques are mainly used for therapeutic purposes for wellness and stress management [1]. Many studies have shown our emotions lead to changes in how we breathe. When we are angry, the breath becomes shallower, faster, and irregular, whilst slower, deeper breaths are associated with relaxation and elevated emotions. [2] Conversely, how we breathe can impact our emotions. In the manufacturing environment, the heavy workload and short deadlines are catalysts for stress. This means that the sympathetic nervous system (responsible for the “fight or flight” response) is often activated, which, over prolonged periods, can negatively impact our health. When we take slow deep breaths, this slows the heart rate and stimulates the vagus nerve which triggers the parasympathetic nervous system (which is responsible for the body’s “rest and digest” activities), allowing us to feel calmer and think rationally. [3]

When we inhale, the heart rate speeds up, while when we exhale, it slows down. Simply changing the ratio of your inhale to exhale, allowing the exhale to be longer, can make you feel calmer and help reduce stress. For example, breathe in for a count of four and out for a count of eight for a couple of minutes. Do you feel calmer? A short technique like this can be effective in the moment, however, many variations can be practised daily to train the nervous system for long-term resilience. We are all too familiar with the implications of stress on physical and mental health but improving how we breathe is a simple act that we can use anywhere, at any time, to bring the body and mind back into a state of calm.

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Benefits of Mindful Breathing

• Improve lung strength and capacity.

• Increased oxygen exchange helps strengthen immunity. Oxygenated blood transports vital nutrients more efficiently, thereby allowing the body to get the most out of these vitamins. The quicker the body receives important nutrients, the faster it can fight off illnesses and help recover from them. [4]

Quick Nervous System Reset: Repeat 3 times

• Improved mood and reduced pain: breathing mindfully helps the body release endorphins which are known to make you feel good and decrease the perception of pain. [4,5]

• Lowers blood pressure: breathing exercises promote relaxation of the muscles which causes the blood vessels to dilate, stimulating circulation which is vital to decreased blood pressure. [4,5]

• Proper breathing techniques encourage good posture over a period. [4,5]

• Reduces feelings of stress and anxiety by activating the parasympathetic nervous system which aids in relaxation. [4,5]

• Improves focus and mental clarity. [4]

Diaphragmatic Breathing /Deep Belly Breathing

1) Sit in a comfortable position. Ensure the back is upright and straight 2) Breathe in through your nose until your belly fills with air 3) Breathe out slowly through the nose

4) You can place one hand on the belly and one on the chest. On the inhale, you should feel the hand on the belly rise more than the hand on the chest.

5) Repeat as many times as required for calming.

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Once comfortable with the deep belly breathing, you can add counts to the deep belly breathing:

For Focus:

Inhale for 4 counts. Hold for 4 counts. Exhale for 8 counts.

For relaxation/ sleep:

Inhale for 4 counts. Hold for 7 counts. Exhale for 8 counts.

References

[1] Zaccaro, A., Piarulli, A., Laurino, M., Garbella, E., Menicucci, D., Neri, B. and Gemignani, A. (2018). How Breath-Control Can Change Your Life: A Systematic Review on Psycho-Physiological Correlates of Slow Breathing. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, Vol. 12, Article 353, DOI: 10.3389/ fnhum.2018.00353.

[2] Philippot, P., Chapelle, G. and Blairy, S. (2002) Respiratory feedback in the generation of emotion. Cognition and Emotion, Vol. 16, No. 5, pp. 605-627, DOI: 10.1080/02699930143000392

[3] Seppälä, E., Bradley, C. and Goldstein, M. (2022). Research: Why Breathing Is So Effective at Reducing Stress. Harvard Business Review. URL: https://hbr.org/2020/09/research-why-breathingis-so-effective-at-reducing-stress

Inhale for 4 counts. Hold for 4 counts. Exhale for 4 counts.

[4] Harvard Health. (2022). Relaxation techniques: Breath control helps quell errant stress response. URL: https://www.health.harvard.edu/ mind-and-mood/relaxation-techniques-breathcontrol-helps-quell-errant-stress-response

[5] Clarity Clinic. (2022). The Science of Deep Breathing and Why It’s Vital to Health - Clarity Clinic. URL: https://www.claritychi.com/thescience-of-deep-breathing-and-why-its-vital-tohealth

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After a stressful event:
“When the breath wanders the mind is unsteady, but when the breath is calmed, the mind too will be still.”
– Hatha Yoga Pradipika

Supply Chain Conference 2022 - Awardees

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Welcome Remarks by Beverage Sector Head - Peter Hall Anishka Syne presenting Daniel Mohammed with a token Welcoming Remarks by Group CEO - Anthony N. Sabga III Juan Romero receiving all of the tokens virtually on behalf of his team
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Seesha Sookhai presenting Jehdash Madoo with a token Sana Sammy presenting Desroy Tate with a token Atiba Rique presenting Karina Hyland with a token James Grant receiving the award for Most Consistent Beer from Trishel Gokool Delano Pasea receiving the award for Best Stag from Abdon Ramdass
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