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More information: Michel Geernaert Tel +33 2 35248300 Fax +33 2 35248308 michel.geernaert@kalmarind.com

RTGs get HIGHER at Gdynia Heightening project boosts BCT Gdynia’s handling capacity by 50%

100th Kalmar

straddle carrier delivered in France

A bon voyage for French container handling The owner of La Compagnie Nouvelle de Manutention (CNM), Fernand Brasseur, introduced straddle carriers into the French port industry in 1987 with the purchase of the first Kalmar straddle carrier. Last autumn, therefore, when Kalmar delivered its 100th straddle carrier to France, it was only right that the recipient of this particular machine should also be CNM. Compagnie Nouvelle de Manutention Portuaire (CNMP), the division of CNM is today one of the largest terminal operators in the Port of Le Havre. This latest addition to CNM’s straddle carrier fleet is now operating alongside that very first Kalmar straddle carrier delivered over 18 years ago, which is still running with 37,000 working hours under its belt.

Mr Brasseur has been a visionary, spearheading the development of French container handling for decades. These days, Mr Brasseur is widely regarded as one of the pioneers of the French container terminal industry due to his recognition of the possibilities that the increased speed and flexibility offered by straddle carriers could have for French ports and their customers. His faith in Kalmar’s straddle carrier has been borne out by the fact that there are now 100 units operating in several major ports around the country. Progressive development

Left Mr Fernand Brasseur, President of CNM, with Juhani Lukumaa, President of Kalmar Container Handling, at a party to celebrate the delivery of the 100th Kalmar straddle carrier to France.

While CNM’s origins date back as early as the 1920s, Mr Brasseur decided to create a materials handling company in 1944 to deal with the difficulties of getting goods to and from the port. He started the company with just four colleagues, who are still involved in the business today – along with a further 500 employees. During the past 60 years, he has progressively developed container handling, forwarding, warehousing and basically every-

thing relating to modern terminal operations. Today, Mr Brasseur could justifiably be content to sit back and enjoy the fruits of his a successful business. “But the real satisfaction in life comes from working together with good colleagues,” he says. However, he admits that things haven’t always been easy. In fact, he says that there were times in his life when he could see no light at the end of the tunnel. One such time came with the decommissioning of the French navy after the second world war. Mr Brasseur had been in the navy and believed it to be his life, so when it suddenly disappeared he had to reconsider his whole future. In everything he has done he says Mr Brasseur says he has always followed his intuition and kept a clear goal in his mind. He is a firm believer in sticking to the chosen route. And it obviously works. CNM has been involved in each and every major step that has seen Le Havre emerge as the country’s busiest container port. Port of Le Havre has grown markedly over the years and volumes are continuing to expand. The figures from 2003 show an annual growth of 15 percent in container traffic, which now stands at almost 2 million TEUs.

Kalmar and Baltic Container Terminal Ltd (BCT) in Gdynia, Poland, have signed an agreement under which Kalmar is to increase the height of the eight Kalmar rubber-tyred gantry cranes (RTGs) currently in operation. This modification will raise the lifting capacity of the cranes from 1 over 3 to 1 over 5 containers and increase BCT’s handling capacity from an annual 400,000TEU to 600,000TEU. As part of its expansion plans, BCT has also placed an order for four new Kalmar 5+1 wide RTGs capable of lifting 1 over 5 containers high. BCT Gdynia urgently needed to increase its container handling capacity and crane heightening proved to be the fastest and most cost-effective way to go about it, especially considering that the machines are reasonably new and still in excellent condition. Kalmar will supply the technical calculations, electricity and PLC programmes and documentation as well as the materials needed for the rebuild. The customer will perform the installation under Kalmar’s supervision. The work begins at Gdynia in late May and should be completed by October. The BCT project is extensive as the machines will be dismantled and then re-assembled with the new parts. The schedule is tight, but it has been agreed that the customer will be able to continue daily operations with minimal disturbance. Kari Ronkainen, General Manager, Parts and Projects says that the development of a successful technical solution such as this is an important step forward for Kalmar. He explains: “It is a solution that will be valuable for many terminals where physical grounds cannot be extended and the only possible direction for growth is upwards. By extending the container stacking height, capacity can be increased considerably.

world Kalmar around the

A G L O B A L B U S I N E S S M A G A Z I N E F R O M K A L M A R I N D U S T R I E S, N O. 1 / 2 0 0 4

Record-breaking order MSC Home Terminal opts for Kalmar's reliable technology and delivery times. Continues on page 8

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A smart future The rapidly growing consumption power of Turkey’s 70 million-strong population is generating an explosion in container traffic through the country’s ports. In addition, the government is keen to develop domestic coastal services to help alleviate the heavy congestion on its roads, while there are also plans to transform the Marmara area into a hub for feeder services bound for the Black Sea. Turkey’s largest private port, Kumport, in Istanbul, is busy preparing itself for future challenges.

Leif Wallin

Interview of General Manager, Cüneyd Acar (pictured) on page 16.

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Tractors triumph in Esbjerg Scandic Terminal in Esbjerg has 11 new Kalmar terminal tractors operating in the terminal.

Continues on page 18

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Good service Kalmar supplies equipment and contract maintenance services to Hamina Multimodal Terminals Ky (HMT). Continues on page 20

An expanding product portfolio In 2002 Kalmar launched a completely new medium-weight truck, with a 9- to 18-ton lifting capacity. It is now launching a complete series in the weight class below this. Explains Leif Wallin, President, Kalmar Industrial Systems: “The launch of our new series of 5- to 9-ton trucks is a part of our expansion. It provides excellent breadth, ranging from the Premium model to a more basically equipped model that will give us the opportunity to reach customers in new markets. “A comprehensive range of versatile and powerful products is important to our industrial customers. We are involved in the entire logistics chain: during production, at the warehouse and in transportation. Our most important product is the counterweight

truck, which ranges in lifting capacity from 5 to 50 tons, but terminal tractors, reachstackers and specialist machines are also included in the series.” Kalmar’s President and CEO Christer Granskog, comments on

the company’s growth in the industrial handling segment: “In recent years we have expanded our container handling

business, both through acquisitions and by virtue of organic growth, so that we are now the world leader in the field. We have also consolidated our position in the heavy industrial field and, bearing in mind that Kalmar has its roots in industrial handling, we have sound experience and expertise within the company. This is a resource that gives us profound insight into this sector’s demanding handling requirements. Our ambition is to grow further and we intend to do this by offering the best products and the best service in the market.”

Continues on page 4


C

No fluke that IKEA in Älmhult are driving Kalmar machines.......................................3

No fluke that

Kalmar challenges expectations with powerful new series of precision light fork-lift trucks ..........4

O

Heavy handling solutions .......................................6

Record-breaking gantry crane order ......................8

Global trends present great opportunities for container handling specialists

Five-year service offering swings Interforest STS deal ................................................8

N Winning customers over with the personal touch .......................................10

“Terminal tractors were the most environmentally porter needs. And when it comes to reachstackers, we

Peinemann bakes a cake for RSC.........................11

the US and becoming more common in Europe. This creates again more traffic flows and new logistics needs. In Europe, most forecasters are anticipating a mini version of the China syndrome coming with the expansion of the EU from 15 to 25 countries. Many larger companies are switching production capacity to Eastern Europe and the process is expected to accelerate as these ten new countries join up. This all results in changes to logistics routes and shipping services that are taking place at the moment creating new needs. The impact on those involved in container handling, be they ports, inland rail or barge terminals, or suppliers of services and equipment to the industry, is vast. What added value can partnership with Kalmar offer our customers when they find ways to cope with the changing business environment? They can be sure that high quality, reliable equipment from our comprehensive product portfolio will be available. They also can be confident that full servicing capabilities exist, no matter where the operating location may be. Santos or Shanghai, Montreal or Mumbai, Kalmar is there. Operating worldwide gives Kalmar extensive knowledge of what is happening in the industry and allows us to predict with reasonable certainty its future needs. Our customers know that our continuous R&D efforts guarantee models that suit their specific needs. Kalmar is itself a global company, it is well-positioned to work with the largest container terminal operators that may have facilities located all around the world. Working with a single office that has global purchasing responsibilities is routine for Kalmar. Consequently, I am confident in saying that Kalmar customers, large and small and wherever they are located, have a reliable partner in facing the challenges of today and tomorrow when they work closely with Kalmar.

had no choice if we wanted to be efficient.”

T

Hassle-free handling of high-value kit..................14

Keeping it fresh! ...................................................15

E

Kumport goes from strength to strength ............16

Terminal tractors triumph in Esbjerg ...................18

N Good service breeds close co-operation ..............20

GreenSeas Trust....................................................22

A Box for Europe...................................................23

T

100th Kalmar straddle carrier delivered in France A bon voyage for French container handling ..................................24

RTGs get HIGHER at Gdynia ..................................24

Jan Helgesson is in charge of purchasing at IKEA’s large centralized warehousing facility, Centrallager Syd, in Älmhult, Sweden. And what IKEA doesn’t know about low costs and efficiency is not worth knowing! IKEA – that thoroughly Swedish enterprise that has come to virtually symbolize efficiency and low costs and whose founder, Ingvar Kamprad, continues to fly economy-class. Those penny-pinching Smålanders People from the Swedish province of Småland – Smålanders, as they’re known – are generally regarded as being rather stingy. But Smålanders aren’t really mean; they’re cost-conscious! That’s something which is very much reflected at IKEA too. They used to use ordinary tow cars to move trailers, semitrailers and containers around

IKEA’s gigantic storage facility immediately outside Älmhult. A facility covering an area of 240,000 square metres and 180,000 cubic metres of warehousing space, handling 700,000 cubic metres of goods every year. Efficiency is a must “It goes without saying that we have to be efficient,” Jan Helgesson says, “and Kalmar’s terminal tractors and reachstackers are more cost-effective.” “Much of the freight arriving at IKEA’s central stores in Älmhult reaches us in containers and requires reloading before being sent out to the individual superstores. But a large proportion of the goods also arrives by lorry (approximately 100 trucks a day) or by rail.” At the multimodal terminal adjacent to the stores, two reachstackers work to unload goods from trains for ongoing transportation to the warehouse by tow car or terminal tractor.

Little option

Flexible and clean

“Since things are so cramped at the combi-terminal, we really didn’t have any alternative to reachstackers if we wanted to be efficient,” Jan Helgesson explains. “Especially as we need to store containers two-deep to make room for all the goods.” The two reachstackers in the service of IKEA are each in operation for about 1,500 hours and perform more than 20,000 lifts a year. “To all intents and purposes, servicing and maintenance are performed by our own in-house service shop in Älmhult, which has been given basic reachstacker training at Kalmar’s factory in Lidhult, Sweden.” “Our reachstackers not only give us efficiency, but flexibility as well,” says Jan Helgesson. “They can be used to lift both containers and trailers.”

Within the warehouse area, the two terminal tractors operate about 1,500 hours a year in two shifts. A large part of the goodsmoving operations has been carried out using the terminal tractors. “They’re flexible and more efficient than the old tow cars we used to use, as well as meeting the environmental requirements we have for vehicle engines,” Jan Helgesson relates. “And what’s more, they’re cheaper to run!”

S

The so-called China syndrome, whereby production is being transferred from wealthy countries to those with much lower labour costs, is a widely discussed topic today. China’s already huge export volumes continue to increase – 2003 saw containerized exports increase 32.9% – and we already see that seven of China’s ports (plus Hong Kong) are now ranked in the world’s top 30. Even if forecasters are right and the rate of increase in China’s exports will decrease to ‘only’ 15% in 2004, that is still a lot of extra containers that need to be handled. Ships outbound from Asia for Europe and North America have been sailing full for over a year and Drewry Shipping Consultants estimated that at the end of 2003, there were almost 500 post-Panamax container ships aggregating three million TEU in service or on order. Ports are somehow expected to cope with this size increase by building bigger berths and dredging deeper approach channels. Inevitably, there is a downside too, especially for the carriers. The deepsea trades out of Asia are becoming imbalanced, requiring hundreds of thousands of containers to be shipped back as empties, and factors such as the US removing quotas on imported apparel and textile products at the end of 2004, will further exacerbate this problem. For terminals, of course, every box, empty or full, has to be handled and so even this growing imbalance means new business opportunities. For the time being, at least, the major areas of consumption stay in Europe and the US. Imports from manufacturing areas lead to the development of bigger logistics centers which are very common already in

in Älmhult are driving Kalmar machines friendly and cost-effective way for us to meet our trans-

Moving the monster Airbus..................................12 Big changes to logistics routes and shipping services are taking place at the moment. Companies involved in the international transportation of goods by land and sea are facing challenges as they are working to meet demand for their services in the growing business environment with more materials moving and more container traffic.

IKEA

world Kalmar around the

Christer Granskog President and CEO Kalmar Industries

2

Publisher: Benoît Passard Kalmar Industries PO Box 878, Kungsgatan 70 SE-101 37 Stockholm Tel + 46 8 700 51 40 benoit.passard@kalmarind.com

Editor: Aija Kalander Kalmar Industries P.O.Box 387 FIN-33101 Tampere Tel +358 3 2658 111 aija.kalander@kalmarind.com

Layout: imageneering | worldwide partners, Tampere, Finland

PRINTED BY: Offset Ulonen Oy, Tampere, Finland, 2004

More information: Jan Ohlsson Tel +46 8 445 3800 Fax +46 8 445 3838 jan.ohlsson@kalmarind.com

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Kalmar has launched a new, improved series of fork-lift trucks with a capacity of 5 to 9 tons. Three different cab concepts, power, diesel or LPG drive and a number of accessories mean customers can custom-build the exact machine they require. The new FLT series ranges from the cuttingedge Premium model to a more basically equipped model, designed for those customers who do not require the benefits that come with the premium model and its advanced solutions. The main objective of the new series is to offer customers a powerful and suitably equipped machine that combines minimal downtime with low overall costs and a high level of productivity.

“FlexCab/FlexGuard are robust, flexible cabs that do not incorporate the same high level of equipment as the Spirit Delta cabs. Similarly, the trucks do not offer all the electronic functions provided in the Premium models. This truck will allow us to reach new customers who previously considered Kalmar machines to be too advanced and thus too expensive.” According to Mr Rietz, a key aim of this machine is to offer owners minimum total costs: “Increased availability and fewer unplanned stoppages are the most important factors in achieving lower costs. Strong basic construction and a number of component improvements contribute to this, while easy access for daily inspection and servicefriendly solutions are also important.”

The new series combine technology and efficiency for a unique

driving experience The new range incorporates the latest technology to offer new design features, drive lines and driving environments as well as a number of new component solutions. The overall result is a more

dom to work in the best ergonomic position for the job in question. As a result, the field of vision is better and the risk of injury to driver and goods decreases.” The other cab alternatives are Spirit Delta, which has been further developed with greater width for increased spaciousness, and the new FlexCab/ FlexGuard. This is a solution that basically comprises a roll bar with strong, profiled beams. It can be varied using panes and doors in accordance with the customer’s requirements and climatic variations.

efficient product, explains Stefan Johansson, Development Manager for Kalmar Industrial Systems. Focus on ergonomics

Kalmar challenges expectations

with powerful new series of precision light fork-lift trucks and efficient truck on the market, further broadening our range in the 5- to 9-ton weight class and further refining Kalmar’s complete range of powerful 5- to 50-ton trucks. The new trucks are consolidating our position with existing customers and simultaneously giving us a real opportunity to reach new customers and new markets.” An excellent driving experience Kalmar has always been known for designing well-built and well-equipped machines that meet the very toughest requirements in the field of heavy industrial handling. This new series takes the development a stage further, says Mr Reitz: “Our Premium models – the most advanced trucks in the series – have become even more cutting-edge. The new Spirit Delta Space and enhanced Spirit Delta driving environments are both so well-equipped and spacious that drivers can do more than just drive the truck. They can now effectively look after administration and operate a terminal or PC, which allows them to deal with a lot of the logistics work.”

A scope of drives and engines The range of drives and engines available in the new series is impressive. Customers can choose between a traditional gearbox, a hydrostatic or power drive and a diesel or LPG engine. The trucks with a gearbox are robust, powerful and suitable for various types of demanding industrial handling. The hydrostatic drive provides a superb driving experience and, because the truck’s speed and lifting function are mutually independent, offers maximum precision.

The most important development is the field of vision the range offers to drivers. The counterweights are gently rounded and adapted to give drivers the maximum field of vision to the rear. At the front, cylinders and hoses are positioned so that they conceal as little as possible. Says Mr Johansson: “With the Spirit Delta cab we have established an industry standard that others are trying to achieve, while we are now proceeding to the next stage. For the new 5- to 9-tonner we have developed three alternative concepts to suit the needs of different customers and industries.”

Emission-approved engines Two new turbo-charged diesel engines from Perkins have been introduced too – a four-cylinder option suited to the lighter end of the range and a six-cylinder engine for the upper end. Explains Mr Johansson: “The new engines have good tractive force with a high torque direct from low revs, which is important for efficient handling. The exhaust emissions are very low, exceeding the Stage 2 requirements by a considerable margin. Sound emissions are also far lower than before.” A new V8 LPG engine developed by GM specifically for LPG drive is also available, providing very good fuel economy and remarkable reliability.

Fully rotating seat The electric option There remains a strong market for electric trucks where emission requirements are particularly stringent, such as for indoor work. Kalmar is one of the few manufacturers that can offer electric trucks with a capacity of up to 9 tons. Says Mr Reitz: “We see clear growth potential for electric trucks – growth that will undoubtedly be spurred on by the launch of these new, improved models. This growth is principally in the field of warehouse handling, where electric trucks are an excellent solution for the local environment due to their elimination of exhaust emissions and noise disturbances.”

The biggest cab innovation is called Spirit Delta Space – cab with room for every conceivable item of extra equipment. The driving seat, can be rotated 180 ° in either direction. “Using simple controls the driver is able to fully rotate his seat both quickly and easily. He can drive facing forwards, backwards or in any intermediate position. This gives the driver free-

Freedom of choice Continued from page 1

Kalmar’s product development is progressing at an impressive pace, with the launch of a number of new reachstackers, straddle carriers and terminal tractors in recent years. Just over a year ago the world’s most advanced medium-weight truck was also launched and Kalmar is now following this with a comprehensive new series of trucks in the weight class below.

Unbeatable breadth Mikael Rietz, VP Sales & Marketing, Industrial Systems, Kalmar, comments on the key advantages of this latest range: “With the launch of the new series we are achieving a number of important milestones. We are offering the most up-to-date ?

For customers who do not need the most advanced solutions, a more basic diesel or power-drive model has also been launched, explains Mr Reitz: “To give customers maximum choice in acquiring the machine that best suits their requirements we are now offering a more basic machine with fewer functions and options but with Kalmar quality and reliability at a very attractive price.”

More information on www.kalmarind.com

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“All the engines have as optional extras catalysers and particle filters, which further reduce exhaust emissions. The LPG engine with additional catalyser produces exhaust gases that basically only consist of carbon dioxide and water,” says Stefan Johansson. New hydrostatic drives and gearbox Kalmar is now launching two new hydrostatic drive systems. In the electronically regulated hydrostatic drive the engine, transmission and hydraulics are integrated into the same system. Fast processors and powercontrolled outputs provide immediate response and stable steering. The driver can benefit from extreme precision combined with powerful handling. The second system is a traditional mechanically regulated hydrostat, which provides a good driving experience. Trucks with gearboxes are based on hydrodynamic transmission. Automatic transmission is available as an optional extra. Mr Johansson says: “Thanks to the new electronics, automatic transmission has improved and is now even smoother and softer.” Fast electronics and easy servicing The new truck range features KCS, Kalmar’s new electronics system. Built using fast processors and CAN-bus technology, it provides opportunities for intelligent optional extras. “KCS is a very reliable system, as we know from experience with our medium-weight series. Another advantage is that easily comprehensible symbols are shown on the driver’s display, making the system completely language-independent. A new and easy-to-use servicing tool makes it simple to locate any faults, as well as update software and other settings,” explains Mr Johansson. New ORFS couplings and double seals have been fitted in the hydraulic cylinders, making the system practically leakagefree. Large inspection hatches on the machine simplify daily inspection and by tipping the cab it is easy to expose the entire drive line to carry out major work.


Heavy handling solutions Over the past six months Kalmar has reinforced its position as the leading supplier of heavy forklift trucks for ports and industry. Kalmar has secured a number of orders in its major Europe, Middle East, and Africa

Kalmar machines occupy a leading position in the forestry product industry.

(EMEA) market and made significant progress in North America. Handling paper and forestry products

The orders reflect Kalmar’s acknowledged track-record in tackling diverse and often complex handling assignments, says Mikael Rietz, VP Sales and Marketing, Kalmar Industrial Systems: “We’ve made a number of significant breakthroughs in interesting markets. Kalmar is supplying more and more forklift trucks to both new and returning customers. Wherever heavy handling requirements are growing, Kalmar is in there.” Feeding global port development

Kalmar forklifts make light work of heavy handling for Germany's Hamburger Stahlwerke.

6

SA Stevedores in South Africa has expanded its cargo handling fleet with five additional 15-tonne Kalmar trucks, this time equipped with a detachable counterweight. The machinery is to be used at the stevedore company’s installations in Durban. SA Stevedores, which has been supplied with a number of heavy-duty trucks in the past, is hiring all machines from Saficon, Kalmar’s South African dealer. Meanwhile, P&O Durban has also purchased four medium trucks. Moving to Asia, China continues to report vigorous development. For the brand-new har-

For a long time now, Kalmar machines have occupied a strong position within the forestry product industry. Their excellent accessibility, unsurpassed driver environment and valuable operating economies generate a large amount of business in terms of both new and return customers. International Paper in the US, one of the world’s largest sawmill and paper conglomerates, is a recent convert to Kalmar trucks. In an important breakthrough for Kalmar, the company has now bought its first machine following a trial operating period. Tool Logistics, a member of Germany’s Gluns Group, has recently purchased six Kalmar trucks for inventory management and offloading chipboard in Saarland, while Friesau-based Klausner Holz, another German timber company, has ordered six 15-tonners to handle its lumber. Austria’s Mayr-Melnhof is continuing to expand its fleet with an order for seven Kalmar trucks with a lifting capacity of 16 tonnes to service its operations in the Czech Republic. Kalmar makes its mark on heavy industry. Kalmar’s ability to adapt machinery to extreme handling environments proved the dealclincher when foundry operator Fritz Winter needed trucks to handle its castings. The job called for machines with proper safeguards against heat and steel splash, to guarantee driver safety as well as to prevent machine reliability from being jeopardised. By offering a neatly customised solution, Kalmar was entrusted with the task of supplying ten specially equipped trucks with an 8-tonne lifting capacity. The UK’s Tarmac Concrete, which is part of leading global mining and mineral specialist, Anglo American plc, has again increased its fleet of 10-tonne Kalmar trucks with the purchase of a further seven. The machines are being used to lift Tarmac’s various stone, concrete, brick and tile products.

bourside facilities at Ningbo Port, close to Shanghai, Kalmar is supplying three heavy-duty trucks. The container manufacturer Shunde Shun and the port of Tianjin have both purchased Kalmar empty-container handlers capable of stacking containers five high. Medway Ports in the UK has purchased four Kalmar trucks for its mixed cargo handling operations. These trucks are the first to be delivered to the UK with Kalmar’s new Flexcab and powertrain, the Dana 13000. In addition to forks, they are able to operate with a variety of specialist attachments to handle different types of cargo. Kalmar has also delivered around ten heavy-duty trucks to a number of ports in the Mediterranean. Two of these units are going to the Port of Sokhna in Egypt. Stevedoring Company Sappsa Pasajes in Spain is also using Kalmar machines and at the Black Sea port of Novorossisk, two 20-tonne Kalmar trucks are currently in operation. Meantime, Kalmar has recently closed a deal to supply a customer in Syria with a series of lightweight trucks for cargo handling.

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Kalmar has also achieved an important breakthrough in Turkey through its deal with the Turkish steel producer Içdas for the purchase of six 15-tonne trucks. The machines are to be used for handling large steel wire coils. Kalmar is also supplying 13 trucks to ISPAT Hamburger Stahlwerke for the same kind of activity. Versatility reaps rewards. Through Kalmar’s UK dealer, Masterlift, a wide range of machines have been sold to a variety of users, most recently trucks with an 8-14 tonne lifting capacity and empty-container handlers. UK fertiliser manufacturer ABP Fertiliser has chosen four 9-tonne Kalmar trucks to lift large sacks of fertiliser products. Ford, Opel, BMV, Daimler Chrysler and Audi are major buyers of Kalmar’s larger electric-powered trucks and have over the last year purchased eight machines. These trucks are being used inside the manufacturers’ factories to provide environmentally friendly handling of items such as crates full of car parts and tools for large presses. Norwegian armed forces choose Kalmar Kalmar has also secured a deal with the Norwegian National Defence for a series of 16-tonne trucks with appropriate add-ons for the military airports in Gardemoen and Bodø. The machines will be loading and unloading large Galaxy military aircraft. Another Norwegian customer – this time the brewery Ringnäs – has also chosen Kalmar to handle beer and soft drinks. The company has taken delivery of a truck equipped with a vertically adjustable cab that can be lowered or raised to enhance precision and provide drivers with the best conceivable all-round view.

More information: Mikael Rietz Tel +46 372 26112 Fax +46 372 263 66 mikael.rietz@kalmarind.com


tem, offering a longer rope lifetime and allowing the use of normal wire ropes. Says Mr Kleiss: “With moderate trolley speeds of up to 120-140 m/min a semi-rope concept is favourable. Above that speed – and we do see a lot of specs for speeds over 200 m/min – a full-rope trolley concept is preferable.”

Record-breaking gantry crane order MSC Home Terminal opts for Kalmar’s reliable technology and delivery times Continued from page 1

The biggest European ship-to-shore crane order of all time was awarded to Kalmar at the end of last year when MSC Home Terminal, a joint venture between Hesse-Noord Natie (HNN) and Mediterranean Shipping Company (MSC) at Antwerp's Delwaidedok, ordered ten super post-Panamax gantry cranes with an option for a further eight. With an outreach of 56 metres, these high-speed, heavy-duty cranes will be capable of handling ships over 20 containers wide. The order for ten super post-Panamax gantry cranes also includes an option from HNN for eight similar cranes for the first two berths of its Left Bank concession (Deurganckdok). René Kleiss, Vice-President, Kalmar Ship-to-Shore Cranes, explains why he believes Kalmar cranes won an order for which all major crane suppliers bid: “Simply put, the customer has put their trust in our technology and delivery times. This industry has, in recent years, seen enormous delivery-time problems. We have a good reputation for delivering on time. Customers know that they can depend on that, just as they depend on our technology.”

standardisation of equipment is all very good in theory, but it does not necessarily work very well in reality. Each terminal is its own world with its own individual requirements. Catering to those requirements has consequences throughout the design and manufacturing process.”

“With regards to this particular project, our ability to meet the delivery time is essential. The customer is refurbishing its entire existing terminal, with a quay length of over 2 km, and our ability to integrate our planning with theirs, so that the cranes are delivered at a pace of one per month starting in November, is imperative.”

A weighty issue Crane weight has always been an issue, but is becoming more and more important nowadays. Says Mr Kleiss: “We are confronted with customers specs that require us to give evidence and guarantees of the actual crane weight because terminal operators have noticed in the past that crane weights are not always what they should be. If the crane weight is higher than agreed, it can result in overloading of the rail infrastructure and, consequently, extremely high quayside maintenance costs.” Weight is particularly important for MSC Home Terminal, as Delwaidedok is an old dock and operating loads are limited to 70 tonnes/m of rail. Even with the new landside rail, which will provide a 30 m rail gauge as opposed to the existing 15 m, this is quite a challenge for such large cranes, particularly as the inside clear width has to be 17.5 m while overall width over buffers is limited to 27 m.

Another factor in Kalmar’s favour, according to Mr Kleiss, is the company’s decades of experience in providing cranes to major European operators. “Local knowledge is, in my opinion, once again becoming a valuable commodity. The global

Tailoring design to suit needs The super post-Panamax cranes to be delivered to Home Terminal will incorporate Kalmar's latest ship-to-shore crane technology and design, successfully introduced at Uniport Rotterdam and the Port of Rouen. Says Mr Kleiss: “In general, the goal in crane design is to achieve an optimum balance between the stiffness and the weight of the crane. You can increase a crane’s stiffness by adding more steel in the construction process, but that risks the crane’s natural frequency becoming slower, which reduces driver comfort and makes positioning of the spreader more difficult, thus impacting operational speed.” “Neither is it a good solution to try compensating for extra crane mass by adding more wheels,” says Mr Kleiss. This further reduces the distance between the pivot points of the bogies, meaning wheel loads increase when the crane is subject to a side wind. “The fact is that you do not achieve stiffness by adding steel but by proper design. Kalmar achieves an extremely stiff crane structure by the use of a double box girder and the so-called ‘delta forestay’ which provides continuous support over the greatest length of the boom.” Other features in the new design include a rope support sys-

Five-year service offering swings

Interforest STS deal Pictured from left to right are: Jan Jochmann, Operations Manager, Interforest BV; Cock Angevaren, Project Manager, Kalmar Industries BV; René Kleiss, Vice-President, Kalmar Ship-to-Shore Cranes shaking hands with Bob de Lange, Managing Director, Interforest and Peter van der Donk, Kalmar Industries BV (at the back).

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Existing (auxiliary trolley) and new (powerchain) technology are combined in the MSC cranes in order to improve reliability and reduce maintenance costs. The festoon system has been replaced by powerchain systems, which are advantageous in terms of saving maintenance costs. Increased capacity The MSC Home Terminal order also reflects the success of Kalmar’s cooperation with Hollandia, which produces the steel structures. Comments Mr Kleiss: “Through the alliance with Hollandia we have the capacity to build more and still achieve on-time delivery. This alliance also gives us three or four premises for production purposes and more than 1,200 employees. This year our production capacity aims at growing to over 10 to 15 cranes per year. The design and engineering competence still rests with Kalmar.”

The main parameters for Kalmar’s cranes for MSC are: Safe working load on the ropes / under spreader

80/65 tonnes

Outreach

56

metres

Railspan

30

metres

Backreach

25

metres

Hoisting height

35

metres

Hoisting depth

21

metres

Hoisting speed rated load / empty spreader

90/180 metres/minute

Trolley travelling speed

240

metres/minute

Gantry travelling speed

45

metres/minute

Forest product handling and shipping specialist, Interforest BV, has placed an order for a Kalmar shipto-shore (STS) gantry container crane for its terminal in Rotterdam. The purchase agreement, signed on 14 January 2004, incorporates a full service and maintenance contract covering the first five years after commissioning. Due to the expansion of its terminal, Interforest has decided to acquire its first container crane to shorten ship turnaround times while increasing the number of ship visits.

est’s operations will expand to 18 hectares including a 500 m quay capable of servicing two ships simultaneously. A recent deal with Star Shipping of Bergen, Norway will boost Interforest’s existing annual throughput of 30,000 TEU by an additional 60,000 TEU.

Interforest, owned by the Swedish company SCA, will begin container stevedoring activities on 1 October 2004. Up until now, containers have been handled by Interforest using vessels’ own cranes or neighbouring container terminals, such as ECT Home Terminal. However, as the operator is shipping more of its forest products in containers, this arrangement is no longer economical, says Bob de Lange, Managing Director at Interforest: “This costs time and money and for a liner service it is, of course, important to be able to follow a strict schedule.” Interforest has been renting 6.5 hectares of terminal space from the Rotterdam Port Authority – an area that was recently in use by ECT Home Terminal. The total area reserved for Interfor-

Proactive approach Mr De Lange explains why he chose Kalmar’s ship-to-shore crane: “Kalmar is known to supply quality and reliable container cranes and has many references in Rotterdam, Antwerp and various other European terminals.” “Kalmar’s short delivery time, their proactive approach in offering financing and a competitive pricing for a multi-

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European focus In the ship-to-shore crane market, Kalmar’s focus is primarily on Europe, although in exceptional cases the company may also work with selected customers elsewhere in the world. “There is so much work to be done in Europe and, for the next few years, that’s the market that offers the best prospects for Kalmar when it comes to STS cranes,” says Mr Kleiss. Cranes themselves are also developing at a fast pace, he explains: “We are working on bigger dimensions – for example, cranes with an outreach capable of serving 24-wide container vessels and a hoisting height greater than 40 metres. Tandem lift (handling two 40 ft containers simultaneously) is also under development. An 80tonne capacity on the hoisting ropes is now standard in the majority of cranes. 120 tonnes will be the next step, so why not 140 in the future?” MSC and HNN in The MSC order for ten super post-Panamax gantry cranes will boost capacity for Hesse-Noord Natie (HNN), which was acquired by PSA Corporation Ltd in 2002 and handled 4.3 m TEU in that year. The PSA group has 13 terminal locations in nine countries around the world, including Belgium, Brunei, China, India, Italy, Korea, Portugal, Yemen and Singapore. Between them they handled 24.5 m TEU in 2002. HNN’s partner in Home Terminal Antwerp, Mediterranean Shipping Company (MSC), is one of the largest global container shipping lines. Founded in 1970 and based in Geneva, MSC operates a fleet of more than 200 vessels with a total capacity of over 500,000 TEU. More information: René Kleiss Tel +31 102946702 Fax +31 102946778 rene.kleiss@kalmarind.com

year full service contract sealed our decision to co-operate with them.” The gantry crane is scheduled for delivery 1 October 2004 includes features such as a 38 m outreach, a 15.24 m railspan, a 20 m backreach and a 40-tonne loading capacity under the spreader and up to 60 tons under the rotator. Aside from handling containers, the machine is also suitable for handling breakbulk cargoes. René Kleiss, Vice-President, Kalmar Ship-to-Shore Cranes concludes: “This order proves that after its recent success in selling super post-Panamax cranes, Kalmar is also competitive in the Panamaxsize crane sector.”


Winning customers over with the personal touch The Port de Rouen Vallee de Seine has endorsed the acquisition of its two new ship-to-shore cranes from Kalmar, with a firm thumbs up.

The two container handling cranes ‘901’ and ‘902’ have been operational at the port for several months. Crane 901 was officially inaugurated in October 2002 with the CMA CGM vessel Fort Louis, while Crane 902 made it debut with the Rejane Delmas ship in November last year. Eric Leblond, Ingenieur, Service Technique has been with the Port of Rouen for over 27 years. He explained the reasoning behind the port’s decision to award the contact for the two ship-toshore cranes to Kalmar industries. Contracts on the basis of the technical capability “Before, contracts were awarded by the Port of Rouen based solely on price and delivery times. This has now changed. We now award contracts on the basis of the technical capability of the crane, the price and the adherence to a stipulated delivery time. In the past we have found a lot of manufacturers agreed to our delivery schedules at the outset of a bid, but then failed to deliver on time, incurring both penalties for themselves and problems for us. This was not the case with Kalmar. Keeping the work on schedule was just as important to them as it was to us. In fact,” laughed Leblond, “Normally the Port of Rouen is usually the ones asking the supplier for confirmation of engineering details. This was the first time however, we found a supplier asking us, for them!”

Face-to-face involvement Kalmar’s flexibility and face-toface involvement was also a crucial element for the Port of Rouen. “Kalmar fabricates everything at its factories from inception to completion which was very important for us,” explained Leblond. “The project management staff were both receptive and accommodating with our requests, even to the point of ensuring all the technical and operational manuals were translated in French. We would talk about possible challenges and together, find appropriate solutions. In the beginning we decided to have a meeting every month, between the project managers from Kalmar and the Port of Rouen. After the erection of the cranes, the frequency of these meetings were changed to a weekly basis. These were all person-to-person, which meant that our discussions and decisions were made jointly.” The high level of stiffness of the crane, along with its smooth boom hinge transition point ensures smooth operation. “Our drivers are very happy with the machines,” said Leblond. The crane cabs are spacious, comfortable and ergonomic – a much needed necessity on a shift of 6-8 hours.” Port of Rouen

Peinemann

bakes a cake for RSC Recently, Peinemann Kalmar in the Netherlands celebrated a ten-year collaboration with Rail Service Centre (RSC), the principal rail terminal operator in the Port of Rotterdam.

A longterm relationship RSC has been in business for ten years and started operations using two Kalmar reachstackers. These were supplied by Peinemann on a full service rental basis. At that time, RSC had the capability to handle approximately 100,000 containers per annum. Today, RSC is handling 300,000 containers per annum, a task which requires five reachstackers, and the company is anticipating continued growth towards 400,000 to 450,000 containers per annum. To ensure that its handling capabilities can meet peak demand requirements, it has opted to increase its reachstacker fleet to six, a goal achieved with the delivery of this latest DRF machine.

To mark the occasion, Peinemann Kalmar organised a party where Ad Kornet, Managing Director of Peinemann Kalmar presented Cor Hoenders, Managing Director, RSC with a specially designed birthday cake while the entire RSC workforce, 135 people in all, received Peinemann Kalmar jackets.

Eric LeBlond was in no hesitation when asked if Kalmar would be the preferred choice in the future. “From my experience to date, I can see us working together on future projects.”

High utilisation The four new DRF machines are replacing three older ContChamps. Ad Kornet explains that RSC works its machines very hard, regularly hitting 4,500 hours per annum, and consequently Peinemann Kalmar is replacing them roughly every four years. “Even at the beginning, RSC used to achieve around 3,000

Historically, the Port of Rouen was famous for being the largest commercial port in France. Its close proximity to Paris made it

The Kalmar ship-to-shore cranes have railspan of 27 m, a maximum trolley travelling speed of 150 m/min and a maximum gantry travelling speed of 30 m/min. The cranes are AC frequency controlled and have a Schneider electrical installation in accordance with the Port of Rouen’s requirements, as are its colours, which represents the surrounding area; green for the forest, white for air and blue for the water. With a lifting capacity of 55 tonnes under the spreader, and an outreach of 39 m, the cranes are able to service Panamax size vessels.

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the envy of its time. Today the 80 km port still plays a vital part in traffic for Paris as well as river routes, and as such, it needs cranes that are both reliable and efficient. The Paris-Rouen-Le Havre port complex ranks first among French ports for general cargo traffic and is in third place in Europe as a whole in terms of total tonnage, all traffic taken together. It has approximately 35 million consumers within a range of 250 km. Directly connected by the Seine and enjoying a favourable geographical location, Paris, Rouen and Le Havre are ideally placed for ships on Channel and North Sea routes as well as providing easy access to the hinterland. In order to achieve these high throughputs of container traffic, driver comfort is a paramount factor.

More information: René Kleiss Tel +31 102946702 Fax +31 102946778 rene.kleiss@kalmarind.com

Also presented to RSC at the party were the keys to the last of four Kalmar ContChamp DRF reachstackers which will assist in meeting increased demand for container and swapbody handling at the terminal.

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hours per annum. In such an intensive environment, we prefer to have new machines – the container block train won’t wait if RSC has breakdowns – and we arrange for the older machines to be refurbished and either rented to customers with less punishing requirements or sold.” Remko Vegter, Equipment & Facility Manager, admits to having looked at other reachstacker supplies before committing to the new DRFs: “We were able to reassure ourselves that our Peinemann Kalmar deal is the best solution for us. It’s tailor-made to meet our needs and has proven itself over ten years.” “The two Peinemann Kalmar engineers based at our terminal are regarded as part of our team. They work five days a week, maintaining the reachstackers as well as our terminal tractors, while Peinemann Kalmar operates a 24 hours a day, seven days a week call out service that covers us for unscheduled downtime.” With the likely advent of the LKW Maut German road tolling scheme sometime later this year and with the enlargement of the EU to 25 countries, RSC is already gearing itself up for more growth. Although the limit of the current facility is close to capacity, there is land available for expansion that the company is sure it will need.


Artist's impression of the Airbus A380

Moving the monster

Airbus Airbus A380 will be the world’s largest passenger airliner. In order to deliver essential components – notably the wing and fuselage sections – of the 555800 passenger aircraft to Toulouse, south-west France, for final assembly, Airbus has conceived a totally new logistics system. The company’s biggest -

conundrum was how to transport these components, given that its existing systems were not geared up to handle the aircraft’s unprecedented dimensions. Kalmar deliveries to Airbus include one DCD 120-12 forklift truck, used for the transportation of bulky components such as the aircraft engines, and one

TRX 182 terminal tractor. This terminal tractor is to be used for the transportation over a tailor-made roro ramp of special containers measuring 8 m high x 8 m wide x 12 m long and containing segments of the A380 fuselage.

Sections for previous Airbus planes were moved by road or in the dedicated Airbus A300-600ST Beluga transport aircraft. But even the cavernous hold of the huge, heavy-lift Beluga, specially derived from the Airbus A300 to convey aircraft parts from plant to plant, is unable to transport the extra large components making up the A380. After all, the aircraft, a third bigger than the largest Boeing has a 14,800 kmrange and the wing alone is 36 metres long and 12 metres wide – the largest ever designed and built for a commercial aircraft. Airbus contemplated building a “maxi-Beluga” based on the airfame of its largest aircraft, or an airship. But the enormous development and production costs were judged to be prohibitive. So, vital as it is, the present five-trong Beluga fleet is only one part of the logistics solution in transporting the parts making up the double-decker jet from four European locations for final assembly. By mid-January this year, the new Airbus had attracted 129 firm commitments comprising 112 passenger airliners and 17 freighter versions of the A380 from 11 customers. Clients include Emirates with 43 orders, Lufthansa (15) and Qantas (12). Launch customer Singapore Airlines, Air France, Fedex and leasing company ILFC have ordered 10 each and Virgin Atlantic six. Several other airlines have expressed interest. So, to meet the A380 challenge, the Toulousebased, 80%-20% subsidiary of EADS and the UK’s BAE Systems, Airbus has gone multimodal.

Bordeaux, France. A joint venture of leading French shipowner and dry bulk specialist Louis Dreyfus Armateurs (LDA) and Norway's Leif Höegh & Co ASA beat some forty other candidates to secure the contract for the maritime transport of the A380’s components from various manufacturing plants in Europe to dedicated port facilities at Paulliac. On the strength of a 20-year time charter plus two five-year options, the joint venture of LDA’s subsidiary FRET S.A. and Leif Höeg’s French subsidiary CETAM, has ordered a dedicated single-deck, roll-on roll-off vessel from China's Jinlan shipyard, near Shanghai at a rumoured cost of $22.25 million. From outside, the 5,200 dwt, 154 metrelong, 24-metre wide vessel will look very much like a conventional car-carrier. But inside it will be almost hollow with an 11-metre high load space. The ship, due for completion during the first quarter of 2004, will be managed by LDA, fly the French flag and employ two dedicated 16-strong crews. The agreement with Airbus includes an optional second vessel for delivery in 2007. The so-far un-named vessel will collect the A380’s wings from Broughton via the port of Mostyn, north Wales, its fore and aft sections of the fuselage from Hamburg/Finkenwerder, the tail section from Peurto Real, near Cadiz, Spain and the cockpit and central fuselage from Saint Nazaire, western France. They will then be transported to Pauillac, until now a little-used gateway at the estuary of the River Gironde north of Bordeaux.

A photo from the trials done late last year. The “space frame” on the truck on the left represents the left and right wings (each wing will travel on a separate road truck, but the space frame simulates the contours of both on the same vehicle). The test was aimed at paving the way for the transport of the real sections, by highlighting any interference with buildings, trees, overhead powerlines etc.

The last part of the journey The last section of the A380’s journey – the 240 km road link between Langon and Airbus’s final assembly plant at the Aéroconstellation business park north-east of Toulouse-Blagnac airport – was the subject of a fiercely fought protest by local residents, environmental organisations and left-wing political parties. “Airbus A380, yes! – more trucks No!”, was the slogan of the Save our Valley organisation against plans to widen the roads between to Toulouse which they feared would increase noise, pollution and the way of life of the two peaceful villages of Ségoufielle and Mondonville. The protesters said they did not oppose the A380 but were concerned that, in addition to the giant trucks conveying parts of the new jumbo to Toulouse, the planned widened highway would also attract about half the 80,000 vehicles that daily use nearby Motorway 124. From April 2004, following a period of consultation with the public concerned by the projected route, convoys made up of six 600 hp tractor/trailors with multi-steering capability,

Transport chain Ro-ro barges For the first time in its history, it is adding maritime transport, river barges, harbour cargo loaders and outsized road convoys to its logistics system. And the transport chain to move sections of the A380 – some of which are the biggest ever manufactured for an aircraft – from various plants in Europe for assembly at Airbus’s main site in Toulouse will soon be completed. Manufacture of the A380 is already underway and the siteto-site transport of some components has already started. Last July, Tony Blair, the British prime minister, opened a new 500 million euros, 83,500 sq. metre extension to Airbus’s facility at Broughton, north Wales which produces the A380’s wings. And in mid-September, the Beluga delivered the aircraft’s first wing component from EADS Military Aircraft’s plant in Augsberg, Germany to Broughton. New logistics plan So far, so good. But then the new logistics plan comes into play with Airbus’s plan to ship the largest parts of the mega aircraft by sea from manufacturing sites in the U.K., Germany, Spain and France to Pauillac, near

The building in which the Airbus A380 will be assembled. The main international airport of Toulouse is in the background.

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Once at Pauillac, the huge components will be transferred onto a 150 m-long, 35 m-wide floating dock to continue their 12-hour journey down-river to Toulouse by special 75-metre long, 13.8 m wide state-of-the-art barge, currently being completed being built at the De Hoop shipyard at Heusden, in the Netherlands. They will then be transported down the River Garonne before being transferred onto six-truck road convoys for the 240 km road journey to Airbus’s assembly plant at Blagnac, near Toulouse. The river section of the A380 logistics system, operated by Bordeaux-based shipowner and tanker operator Socatra, will consist in a 12-hour trip down a 96 km stretch of the Rivers Gironde and Garonne to Langon harbour where a dedicated 75 m-long, 15.5 m-wide dock is soon to be completed. The specially designed ro-ro barges will use a variable ballast system and the GPS navigation aid enabling them to pass under bridges, even during springtime floods.

height adjustment and state-ofthe-art guidance systems will transport A380 components on the last leg of their journey. The trailors, operated by French heavylift haulage specialist Transports Capelle, will be up to 14 metres high, eight metres wide and 50 metres long. They will only travel between 10 pm and 6 am at 10-20 kph, typically taking three nights to cover the route and parking in specially conceived dedicated parking bays when not moving. Planning the itinerary includes updating 165 km of existing roads, building 10 km of new highway and five diversionary routes to avoid built-up areas. Near Blagnac, where the opposition to the original route was most intense, 8 km of special road is to be reserved for the convoy. Airbus is to contribute more than half the total cost of modifying road systems in southwest France to accommodate the specially designed transporters carrying sections of the A380. The government and regional authorities fork up the rest. Jeff Apter

A380 s u p e r j u m b o First sections of the aircraft will arrive in Toulouse in spring this year. First flight is early 2005, and deliveries to airlines begin in 2006. The A380 programme, launched in December 2000, represents the culmination of an extensive peace time engineering effort in history. As the most spacious, advanced and efficient aircraft ever conceived, the A380 will provide a technology platform from which all future aircraft programmes will evolve. The definition phase of the first aircraft was essentially complete by the end of 2002. Subassembly of parts for the A380 is now underway at Airbus manufacturing units across the world and delivery to the final assembly line in Toulouse, France, is scheduled to take place in early 2004.

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The fully integrated A380 programme, implemented companywide, currently involves more than 6,000 people, co-located at the various Airbus sites across the world. Transport of the aircraft sections to the final assembly line in Toulouse includes a mix of sea, river and road transport. The full transport itinerary has been undergoing tests and trials, which have so far proved successful, and is scheduled for completion by spring 2004 ready to transport the first of the major sections of the A380.


In mid-2003, Lufthansa Technik Logistik GmbH (LTL) in Frankfurt was faced with the task of acquiring a new, high-performance forklift truck for handling and transporting large, heavy loads. Kalmar dealer responsible for the area, NHK, has developed a close relationship with LTL over the past 20 years and was on hand to help out.

Lufthansa Technik AG is regarded as the world market leader when it comes to the maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) of commercial aircraft. The Hamburgheadquartered concern employs a staff of 12,500 worldwide and has numerous subsidiaries such as Lufthansa Technik Logistik GmbH (LTL). This special service provider seamlessly supplies a worldwide fleet of more than 900 aircraft with spare parts of every kind. The make-up of the components is extremely complex, ranging from the simple washer, worth no more than a couple of eurocents, through to the GE-90 thrust unit for the Boeing 777, which is worth more than $15 million.

Optimum visibility LTL’s handling specifications were for a 12-tonne ultimate load and a 2,000 mm load centre. This is no problem for the heavy-duty truck, which has unmistakable contouring and is equipped with a duplex lift mast. It was this latter feature in particular that clinched the purchase, together with the truck’s 180-degree revolving seat. LTL often has to shift giant crates containing power unit panelling over fairly significant distances to the adjacent Lufthansa shipyard or into the Air Cargo area. In this case, the spacious Spirit-Delta cab with its revolving seat is exactly the right solution because at the press of a button the whole operating gear, complete with pedals, is hydraulically swivelled through 180 degrees, affording the driver a perfect view of the roadway across the sloped engine cowling.

sponsible for the area – NHK in Bensheim/Bergstrasse, just 50 km away – was on hand to help and consequently LTL’s 12-tonner Kalmar forklift, which had been in service for many years, was traded in for a 16-tonne machine from the current DCE series. “Our loads are constantly increasing in size and we have to move not only equipment worth of millions of euros but also transport them more and more often over longer distances”, explains Lutz Walter, Area manager for stock and service.

Two telescoping warning lights on the counterweight alert the driver to spaces through which he can fit. This feature is extremely important as it allows the driver to undertake long-haul movements without needing someone to talk him through the procedure. The acquisition of a goose-neck trailer system could also be a sensible idea for handling future loads of this kind in the future. The seat of the gooseneck is engaged by the forks, the trailer is raised, and with the driver’s seat in the rotated position, the long-haul transportation begins – much like an articulated train. Smooth operator For handling goods worth millions of euros, the Kalmar dealer recommended equipping the truck’s lifting cylinder with a hydraulic accumulator, thereby avoiding jerky load movements. The highly successful DCE series, more than 50 units of which are in operation in Germany

Taking a load off In mid-2003, LTL in Frankfurt needed a new, high-performance forklift truck for handling and transporting large, heavy loads. Thankfully, the Kalmar dealer re-

alone, is powered by Volvo engines. The engines have either a Clark or Dana powershift set, flange-mounted, and each featuring three forward and three reverse gears. For DCE models up to an ultimate load of 16 tonnes, electronically controlled automatic gears are also available. Trusty workhorses LTL is a loyal and longstanding Kalmar customer. The company’s logistics division is currently deploying a Kalmar 6-tonne electrical forklift in its warehouses. These warehouses contain aircraft components worth a total value of some 300 million euro, which are packaged, commissioned and dispatched all over the world. Mr Lutz explains that machine availability and reliability are extremely important to LTL as it runs a three-shifts, year-round operation. “Whenever an aircraft somewhere in the world suffers an unforeseen thrust unit malfunction, we count on speed and reliability to deliver a thrust unit and the assembly gear to a standby freighter. Our Kalmar trucks have not once let us down.”

Keeping it fresh! Fresh Express, based in Salinas, California is one of the major players in the billion-dollar fresh foods industry. Fresh Express’ success is dependent on their ability to ensure their products are fresh and tasty when they hit the mouths of the North American consumers.

Fresh Express had three major purchase components when deciding which machines to purchase. Excellent technical training for the Fresh Express staff, a commitment to parts availability, and the reliability of the machine were those three purchase components. “We cannot afford downtime on our machines, and Kalmar did a great job of meeting our requirements which all contribute to the important uptime factor of the machine” states Mr. Bohn. Local Kalmar dealer, AltaLift, of Selma, California introduced Mr. Bohn to the Kalmar line of products. “We have had a firm relationship with AltaLift for years and their strong belief in the Kalmar product and the support that comes with it played a major role in our decision” states Mr. Bohn. The move to Kalmar also represents a major jump forward in the type of machines that are typically used in the fresh foods industry. Fresh Express had been used to machines that were more of the workhorse variety, but with not much in the way of

To do this, Fresh Express operates as efficient an operation as possible to deliver their highquality fresh foods to major retailers and food service businesses throughout North America. With the recent purchase of two Kalmar DCE240 forklifts, Fresh Express has now included Kalmar in their processing chain that is immensely important when dealing with fresh produce. States John Bohn, Director of Cooling, “Any failure in our process directly effects quality and our forklifts are a major component of the processing chain.” As Fresh Express holds the largest market share in North America for bagged salad products they are moving quite an amount of produce each day, totaling as much as 12-15 million pounds per week. “Our industry dictates that we operate basically year-round, 363 days a year with two shifts a day,” states Mr. Bohn. With such a demanding schedule, Fresh Express requires highquality machines that will operate up to 3500-4000 hours per year.

Long-haul conveyance of a well-packaged thrust unit panel is no problem, thanks to the DCE’s 180-degree swivelling seat and special 2,500 mm forks. The smart machine allows the driver to undertake transportation without the need for an extra person directing him.

Hassle-free handling of high-value kit 14

More information: Andreas Schumacher Tel +49 40 547 305 30 Fax +49 40 547 305 39 andreas.schumacher@kalmarind.com

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ergonomics or engineering. States Mr. Bohn, “With our aggressive work schedule we now have drivers who spend up to ten hours a day in their forklift, and providing a high level of ergonomics and comfort to them was also something we were looking for. The enclosed Kalmar cab with air conditioning, nice instrumentation, and well-placed hydraulic controls has been well received by our operators.” The teamwork between both AltaLift and Kalmar has also contributed to the success at Fresh Express. “Lyn Sheppard and Tommy Harmon from AltaLift have worked extremely hard at taking care of us, and Kalmar has done everything they committed to,” states Mr. Bohn.

More information: Randy Dennis Tel +1 785 229 6378 Fax +1 785 242 8573 randy.dennis@kalmarind.com


Continued from page 1

Since it first started handling containerised cargo in 2000, Kumport has quickly elevated itself into the premier league of Turkish ports in terms of technological know-how, operational standards and equipment. Its trio of state-of-the-art Kalmar RTGs – all featuring the Smartrail® autosteering and container position verification system and the remote crane monitoring system (RCMS) – is soon to become a quartet, with a fourth Kalmar RTG beginning operations in a new reclaimed expansion area in October 2004.

Kumport goes from strength to strength Kumport has worked hard to progressively improve its facilities since it first opened its doors for business in 1994. Following the establishment of container handling operations, the port has evolved into a multi-purpose handling facility, looking after both general cargo and containers. When General Manager, Cüneyd Acar, first received instructions to start gearing the port up to handle containers, he had one goal in mind: to make Kumport the number one port in Turkey. Investment in equipment and facility upgrades together with the implementation of modern information systems have certainly proved fruitful. Kumport has become Turkey’s largest private port, with traffic growing even in times of economic crisis, such as a couple of years ago. Explains Mr Acar: “We are the number one terminal in Turkey with modern, state-of-the-art handling equipment and yard management and information systems. Because of our excellent service levels we have won customers from other terminals and are proud to say that almost all major global carriers, such as Maersk and P&O Nedlloyd, call our port today.”

Targeting transhipment traffic

Reaching the millions Kumport’s inauguration into the container business was a modest affair, with the terminal handling no more than 5,000 TEU in its first year of operations. However, the amount of investment the management was willing to commit to its container operations and the pace of development at the terminal rapidly attracted business. As a result, Kumport handled 440,000 TEU last year, as well as 415,000 tonnes of general cargo. This represented a substantial growth over 2002’s throughput figures, which stood at 280,000 TEU and 392,000 tonnes respectively. Mr Acar outlines one of the reasons behind that growth, as well as the port’s expansion plans for the future: “A lot of general cargo business has moved to Kumport lately because the terminal has a long pier and a 13-meter draft. Moreover, in north Marmara we one of the most important port capable of handling roro vessels,” he says. “In terms of containers, the current facility is now operating close to maximum. As such, we plan to expand the berth and storage areas and increase our fleet of equipment to give us an ultimate capacity of one million TEU. We are currently reclaiming land from the sea between piers 2 and 3 to create additional container storage facilities and we have also started to expand our landside area for stacking empty containers.”

Kumport lies on the European side of Istanbul, 22 sea miles west of the entrance to the Bosphorus, and sits directly on the Marmara Sea, without the encumbrance of an approach channel. Its location makes it ideal for serving the Northern Marmara region, Turkey’s most important commercial and industrial area. The Marmara region has been earmarked by the government for development as the primary transhipment centre for the Black Sea. “There is great potential for increasing the amount of transhipment cargo handled at Kumport,” says Mr Acar. “A lot of carriers have recognised that for cargo bound for the Black Sea region, the best transhipment point is in Marmara. Within a year we’ll see this side of our business developing.” Turkey is surrounded by sea and, according to Mr Acar, the government is trying to take advantage of this by fostering the development of coastal shipping services. “At the moment, distribution of cargo into Turkey’s interior relies heavily on road transportation, due to the lack of a strong rail network and a shortage of coastal shipping services. We haven’t had a single meter of rail built since the 1940s,” he says. “However, it is imperative that traffic is moved off the roads now, due to unacceptable levels of congestion, so the government is initially looking at ways to influence growth in the coastal shipping sector. One of the initiatives it has come up with is to

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offer tax free fuel for domestic shipping services. This will be another growth area for Kumport and we are already preparing to handle more domestic shipping.” Intelligence in action Container handling services at Kumport are handled by three Kalmar RTGs with the Smartrail® autosteering and container position verification system. They are 7+1 wide and can stack containers 1 over 5 high. Kumport recently placed an order for a fourth Kalmar RTG which will be operated on a 10,000m2 site to be reclaimed from the sea. According to Mr Acar, the decision to buy RTGs with the latest technological features has been key to Kumport’s success in attracting new business and the machines will continue to form an integral part of the port’s development. He has been particularly impressed with the RTGs’ Smartrail system: “We decided to fit the RTGs with Smartrail to make the work as simple as possible for the machine operators. It allows them to concentrate on handling. “Our operators are really happy with the automatic gantry steering system and feel very comfortable with it. And because the operators do not need to worry about steering, they can drive the machine at full speed, which makes handling much more efficient.“ “Thanks to Smartrail, we can offer our customers competitive vessel turnaround times. It enables us to locate a container quickly and as soon as a contain-

er is lifted onto or off a chassis, or to or from a vessel, its yard location is automatically updated in the terminal control system, providing us with a real-time terminal inventory.” The RTG operation also benefits from the Kalmar-developed remote crane monitoring system (RCMS). RCMS enables the remote monitoring of the machines by a single operator in either the terminal control room or Kalmar’s customer support department. “We have a direct line through to Kalmar specialists in Tampere factory, who give us excellent support,” says Mr Acar. Alongside the RTGs, the port uses four Kalmar TTX-182LHD, 4x2 terminal tractors transporting containers between the quayside and the container stack. “In selecting the best container handling method for the port,

we had to take into account the terminal layout,” explains Mr Acar. “This presented us with a number of restrictions due to the amount of roads, sharp curves and surface inclinations. Because of this, terminal tractors were found to provide the best method of transporting containers in the terminal area. Kalmar terminal tractors have proved themselves to be well suited to the job since they have enough tractive power for heavy loads, even when driving uphill.” Maintenance of Kumport’s equipment is provided by Kalmar’s local dealer, Toyota Istif Makineleri, which provides a limited amount of stock.

There are, today, more than 100 RTG units around the globe operating successfully with Kalmar’s Smartrail® technology. Kalmar’s patented Smartrail autosteering technology is based on a differential global positioning system (DGPS), providing accurate operations under even the most adverse weather conditions. It is also practically service free since there are no buried wires, transponders or painted lines to be maintained. Utilising DGPS technology, Smartrail steers the RTG along ‘invisible’ tracks, relieving the driver of the need to steer and allowing him to travel at maximum speed between lifts and to concentrate fully on picking up and setting down containers. Smartrail includes a container position verification system meaning that each time the spreader’s twistlocks are activated, the yard management system is automatically updated and the new position of the container is recorded. This means less time is spent looking for lost or misplaced containers.

More information: Keijo Parviainen Tel +358 3265 8111 Fax +358 3 265 8201 keijo.parviainen@kalmarind.com

Turkish partnership

Kalmar’s Turkish dealer, Toyota Istif Makineleri A.S, was originally established in 1988 under the name IGM. Its co-operation with Kalmar started in 1998 with an order for 35 Contchamp reachstackers for Turkey Railways. The company is also the Turkish representative and distributor for other well-known global brands in the materials handling industry, for example, the trailer manufacturer, Buiscar-Holland, and Toyota Industrial Equipment. According to Toyota Istif Makineleri’s General Manager, Ender Erkul, Kalmar is perceived in Turkey as a high-quality equip-

Ender Erkul, General Manager of Toyota Istif Makineleri, and his assistant Meltem Aydogus.

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ment manufacturer with strong after sales support. He reports that existing Turkish users of Kalmar equipment are extremely satisfied with their machines’ performance and quality, as well as Kalmar’s after-sales service and spare parts support. “Once a client has tried a Kalmar machine, they usually buy Kalmar again,” he explains. In addition to the RTGs and terminal tractors delivered to Kumport, recent orders for Kalmar equipment in Turkey include several reachstackers and forklift trucks for a variety of companies.


Over the past two years Scandic Terminal has undergone a dramatic transformation in order to optimise its handling of incoming and outgoing cargo. The main focus has been the loading and unloading of DFDS Tor Lines’ two RoRo vessels Tor Britannia and Tor Swecia, which operate out of Immingham in the UK. One of the vessels docks at Esbjerg every day except

to offer large self-contained stands for trailers, containers, vehicles and other cargo directly alongside the vessels. In addition to this, other stands are located in the vicinity. All the stands are arranged in numbered rows. When a road truck with a trailer comes into the terminal, the driver checks in and is assigned a stand, for example in ”Line 30”. The trailer is booked into the DFDS terminal management system and when it is time to unload, a terminal tractor collects the trailer. The driver enters the ID number of the trailer and drives onboard, disengages the trailer and enters its location on his computer terminal in the cab. The information is then transmitted to the DFDS terminal where unloading will be performed on the other side of the North Sea. “The terminal management system is the most important tool we have to use to manage all the cargo in a rational way,” explains Hans Vejs-Petersen. “Over 115,000 trailers and containers pass through here every year. We are also seeing a steady increase in the volume of cargo.” Previously there was a direct rail line to the terminal. Since the conversion, cargo entering or leaving Esbjerg is handled by railway on an external transfer terminal. This is where the Scandic Terminal’s tractors load or unload the cargo.

for Mondays. In addition to this, the RoPax vessel Dana Syrena runs between Harwich and Esbjerg, transporting cargo and passengers, three times a week. “We concentrate all our efforts on our core business, the fast and efficient loading and unloading of vessels”, says Terminal Manager Hans Vejs-Petersen. “Using ten machines and a team of 25 men, including drivers, we can unload and load the ship in under six hours”. Efficient terminal management Over the past few years the terminal has been converted so as

Unload the ship! Ten terminal tractors and a further 15 people, in addition to the drivers, are needed to load and unload a RoRo ship. The work is planned using the DFDS terminal management system. Every driver is able to see on the computer screen in the terminal tractors which containers and trailers are to be used and where they are located. The driver enters what has been collected and where the cargo has been placed. This requires a lot of discipline but the system is now working very well. Unloading is a period of feverish activity. The terminal tractors drive onboard the ship to the upper and lower decks, collect the cargo and then disembark. Small turning circles, good all-round view and strength and tractive effort are required to negotiate the inclined ramps. It is here that the Kalmar terminal tractors (model TRL 182) really come into their

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Terminal tractors triumph in Esbjerg Scandic Terminal in Esbjerg is the largest RoRo terminal in Denmark, with nine arrivals of DFDS vessels from England every week. More than 1.5 million tons of cargo are handled every year, split between approximately 100,000 trailers and 15,000 containers and smaller volumes of other cargoes. There are currently 11 new Kalmar terminal tractors operating in the terminal (which has an area of 100,000 m2) helping to achieve the efficient handling of cargo.

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More information: Timo Matikainen Tel +358 3 265 8111 Fax +358 3 265 8223 timo.matikainen@kalmarind.com

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own. The machines are very popular with the drivers, who have an excellent view from the cab and can easily manoeuvre their machines in the tight spaces. “When the time came to order new terminal tractors we also tested machines from other manufacturers. But when we then reconsidered the overall benefits of the Kalmar machine the drivers couldn’t really see themselves driving any other machine, ”says Hans Vejs-Petersen. “We have used the same make since the mid 1980s and currently have 19 Kalmar terminal tractors. They are able to handle the stresses and strains involved in the intensive work at Scandic Terminal and are truly reliable.” Their high accessibility and ability to deal with intensive cargo management and the much appreciated driver environment provide yet another distinct advantage for Kalmar. Eleven new Kalmar TRL 182 terminal tractors are now in use at the DFDS terminal in Esbjerg. The machines are leased by Kalmar who, together with the Danish dealer Arne Holst & Co, is responsible for their maintenance. Hydraulic SAT trestles lock Previously the lashing down of loaded cargo required a high degree of manual work. This has been radically reduced by the introduction of the new SAT trestles, which hydraulically lock the trailers onto the deck of the ship. The new Kalmar TRL 182 low rider is countersunk to allow room for the loading trestle between the terminal tractor and the trailer. The loading trestle is connected to the hydraulic system of the terminal tractor in order to close and open the “twist lock” type of locking mechanism. “Three of our new Kalmar TRL182s have also been equipped to operate translifters, which are used for containers placed side by side in special cassettes onboard the ship, explains Hans Vejs-Petersen. Approximately 25 containers per crossing are handled.” The translifters are driven in under the containers so that they can be driven onboard. The containers are placed tightly side by side and only require lashing down in severe weather conditions.


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Good service breeds close co-operation

Kalmar supplies both equipment and contract maintenance services to Finland’s Hamina Multimodal Terminals Ky (HMT). The newest addition to HMT’s fleet is a Kalmar Shuttle Carrier, delivered to the terminal in March 2004.

“We’ve generally worked very well together, even though there is always room for improvement,” says HMT’s terminal chief Per-Olof Nyström.

According to Mr Nyström, quality and fast delivery capabilities played a key role in the company’s decision to choose Kalmar as its equipment supplier. “The availability of spare parts is also very good.”

ful. HMT is our first service agreement and we’ve learned a lot from it,” says Mr Kaivonen. The HMT contract has given Kalmar a feel for how to operate in this type of business, as well as valuable experience in how to organise logistics and identify the necessary tools for doing so. This experience will undoubtedly prove useful to Kalmar in other business activities. The co-operation with HMT has also deepened with time. Agreements were signed for four new machines last year.

vided service quality remains good and the two companies can continue to agree on prices, he believes that the co-operation is likely to continue well into the future. Much is expected of the shuttle carrier Co-operation might very well expand considerably in the near future if the new shuttle carrier meets expectations. “If it proves to be as financially profitable as estimated, then we’ll certainly get another one. It will have to operate on an almost continuous basis to be profitable,” says Mr Nyström. According to Mr Nyström, one of the key reasons HMT chose the shuttle carrier was due to its versatility. “The shuttle carrier’s benefits derive chiefly from its diverse operations. It is really a cross between a lifter and a horizontal mover. Another key benefit is speed,” he says. The introduction of the shuttle carrier means that HMT will have to make some changes to its terminal operations in order to get the most out of the machine. The shuttle carrier will work on its own and also in tandem with other machines. “The shuttle carrier makes the long horizontal trips on its own, while the reachstacker takes down containers from stacks of 3-5 containers high. Similarly, the shuttle delivers containers that have been off-loaded from ships to the terminal, where the reachstacker lifts them into place.”

Maintenance has run smoothly HMT’s maintenance manager Ossi Wilén has been involved in

the service partnership for its five-year entirety. He says that co-operation has improved each year, which in his opinion is not surprising, as teamwork is what it is all about. Now that the parties have got to know each other better, things have also run on a smoother track.

“We’ve learned a lot” Addressing both negatives and positives Regular meetings between Kalmar and HMT at which both the good and the bad elements of the partnership are frankly discussed have strengthened the co-operation between the two companies. Mr Nyström praises Kalmar for taking immediate action when required, recognising Kalmar’s commitment to looking into a problem and making the necessary improvements. “I rate good service very highly when it comes to an equipment supplier. It doesn’t matter how good the product is if you don’t get the service you need. A company might have an excellent product, but it can still lose the deal due to poor cooperation.” Mr Nyström notes the importance of strong after-sales service in light of the fact that spare parts are needed intermittently. Indeed, terminal machinery requires constant attention. Problems always arise, and a good supplier is one that is there to provide advice when it is needed. Mr Nyström says he is satisfied with Kalmar’s service and comments that maintenance has run smoothly even though there have been delays at times. Pro-

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According to Markku Kaivonen, After Sales Manager of Kalmar Suomi, the Finnish Sales Company, the first service contract with HMT was signed in 1999. The existing five-year agreement will be renegotiated next summer. “We probably won the service agreement because we were supplier of the equipment and HMT felt it could trust our delivery capabilities and reliability. Co-operation with HMT has been very important to us financially and also image-wise. Indeed, HMT accounts for almost 20 percent of our service operations.” Kalmar runs a nine-man repair workshop in Hamina responsible for both maintenance and repairs. Mr Kaivonen supervises operations and handles the service contract’s technical aspects and implementation. He is in touch with HMT’s people several times daily, and the repair shop foreman contacts HMT even more frequently. Mr Kaivonen feels that co-operation between the parties has been a marked success and that repairs have been completed on time. Nevertheless, the shop intends to improve its services further by providing even better quality. “Our co-operation has been very close, fast paced, and fruit-

“Our co-operation has proceeded smoothly: the flow of information has improved and machine reports become more comprehensive. Both of us have been flexible and helpful. Though there is still some room for improvement, spare part deliveries have also improved.” The relationship between HMT and Kalmar has been very close, but that is exactly how things should be in service agreements, says Mr Wilén. The beginning of the relationship involved less work, but things have picked up as the machines have become older. Mr Wilén is satisfied with Kalmar’s maintenance and repair service, even though he notes that sometimes things could be handled a bit faster. The agreement has guaranteed, however, that HMT’s machines get priority in the Hamina workshop. “We’ve been able to identify which machine is to be sent for maintenance at any given time. However, a new workshop would provide the space needed for bigger repairs. At present, such repairs require the machine to be sent to Tampere factory.” The service agreement has a positive effect on HMT’s finances in the sense that the company doesn’t need to employ its own service personnel and maintenance is guaranteed. Kalmar’s strong product support is also a valuable asset.

More information: Markku Kaivonen Tel +358 3 265 8221 Fax +358 3 265 8299 markku.kaivonen@kalmarind.com

Hamina Multimodal Terminals Ky Established: 1999 Owned by: Haminan Satama Oy (Hamina Port) Personnel: 60 Net sales: EUR 7.5 million Hamina Multimodal Terminals Ky operates the European container of the Port of Hamina and also provides terminal services to the port’s transit warehouses, shipping firms, railway agents and forwarders. In addition, HMT manages the port’s empty containers and bulk material on and off of ships. In 2003 the company handled a total of 60,000 containers, half of which were in the railway terminal. The company also handles about 40 percent of Hamina port’s sea freight. The container terminal covers 25 hectares and berth length is 600 metres. HMT operates three ship-to-shore cranes and also an up-to-date CTIS yard control system.

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tic materials are a growing problem. Turtles often swallow plastics bags mistaking them for jellyfish, while packaging material which looks like shrimp or fish to other sea animals, invariably means death either through a blocked digestive tract or its toxic by-products. GreenSeas Trust, Registered Charity No 1098649, is trying to halt the decline of the marine environment in the Caribbean with a ‘Litter Kills Marine Life,’ campaign. A pilot program was in Tobago was implemented in 2003. Trustee for the charity, Fazilette Khan, had no prior experience in running a charity, but her background in the merchant navy coupled with her passion for the sea itself provided her with the motivation needed. “It was a sharp, steep learning curve, right from the start,” she explained. Within six weeks however, the Trust implemented its “Bin on the Beaches” project and placed garbage bins along six of the most frequented beaches. Modified oil drums were used for the purpose. “Figuring out where and how to cut, store, and transport them was a problem bearing in

Coral grows at a rate of just 1 cm-10 cm a year. Reefs are ecosystems that thrive in warm, clean, nutrient deficient water that have a stable ratio of sunlight and salinity. When these conditions are varied, algae blooms, depriving the coral polyps of sunlight. A high abundance of algae consumes oxygen in the water and affects the feeding habits of shellfish and other organisms that filter water to obtain their food. Ciguatera, a harmful algae species has been linked to 20000-30000 cases that occur each year in the north-eastern Caribbean region of Puerto Rico and the US Virgin islands. This form of human poisoning is caused by the consumption of subtropical and tropical marine fin-fish like grouper, barracuda, and snapper that have accumulated naturally occurring toxins through their diet. It can cause gastrointestinal inflammation, neurological and cardiovascular disorders. Substances floating on the surface are no less detrimental to the marine environment. Plastics account for being 90% of the floating litter found at sea. Entanglement of sea creatures in plas-

For more information on GreenSeas Trust visit the website:

www.greenseas.org

GreenSeas Trust

ds t n o e In the European shortsea trades, the 45 ft container is operated by a number of lines including Geest, Containerships and Norfolkline. The ability to stack is essential.

A Box for Europe In 2003, the European Commission proposed a draft directive on Intermodal Loading Units (ILU) with the stated aim of facilitating the transfer of freight from one mode of transport to another. It revealed that it aimed to introduce new maintenance, handling and security standards for such units, as well as a new European standard, the European Intermodal Loading Unit (EILU).

This news came as quite a surprise to the European transportation industry even though, when asked, most will concede that there are simply far too many shapes and sizes of ‘intermodal’ equipment out in the marketplace at present, some of which is ill-suited to intermodal handling. The debate about the EILU continues in the corridors of Brussels and most intermodal transport operators hope that the subject will be quietly forgotten, leaving commercial realities to dictate equipment sizes. One of the biggest problems in establishing a standard specification is that different transport operators and different transport flows have different requirements and most would say ‘vive la difference’.

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construction and not usually capable of being top-lifted or stacked when loaded. Swapbodies come in a variety of sizes: 13.6 m is the standard length for transport on semi-trailers but shorter units, typically 7.15 m, 7.45 m and 7.82 m, are used in tandem on road trains. While some are capable of top lifting, many are not and require the lifting unit, be it an FLT, a reachstacker or a gantry crane, to be fitted with arms that can swing down to lock into bottom-lift pockets. While such units make commercial sense for the transport operator, for intermodal terminal operators, these bottom-lift only units can be a real nuisance. They cannot be stacked and even when grounded, need space to be left at the sides so that the bottom-lift pockets can be accessed by the lifting equipment. Consequently they occupy much more space in the terminal than containers. Furthermore, the bottom-lift operation is more time consuming and some terminal operators wish the market would allow them to charge those who use such equipment a higher rate than is applicable to containers.

Shortsea shipping operators in Europe have adopted the 45 ft (13.7 m) long , 2.5 m wide container as their standard box because it offers a pallet capacity similar to a 13.6 m trailer, the longest semi-trailer length permitted to operate throughout the EU. The 8 ft (2.4 m) wide container width, which is universally used in the deepsea trades, does not allow the same pallet loading capability and so a 45 ft long, 8 ft wide container would be at a competitive disadvantage with trailers, say the European intermodalists. The Commission is also proposing a maximum height for the EILU of 2670 mm. This would allow these units to access pretty well most of the existing European rail network and avoid the need for gooseneck trailers, necessary in some European countries when trucking higher containers. However, many existing 45 ft pallet-wide containers are 9 ft 6 in (2.9 m) high and again, operators say they would lose out to trailers if the interior height were restricted. To stack or not to stack Because shortsea shipping lines use lift-on, lift-off ships and marine container terminals, they need the robustness and stackability of a container. They also need top lift capability. However, those transport operators whose traffic flows do not involve maritime legs utilising lift-on, lift-off ships tend to feel that the container is over-engineered – and hence too heavy and expensive – for them. They prefer swapbodies which tend to be of a lighter

Dealing with diversity In addition to these intermodal units, there are also 20 ft and 30 ft tank containers and tank swapbodies of various lengths, some of which have the tank barrels extending beyond the frame and some with only a base and no frame at all. Again, for the terminal operator, these units are not always loved, not least for the

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high risk of damage to the vulnerable areas of these expensive units when being handled. For Kalmar, the wide variety of equipment being freely mixed in European terminals presents technical challenges but so far, none have been insurmountable. Combi spreaders exist which can cope with the various lengths of container and swapbody and with the differing requirements of top-lift and bottom-lift. Kalmar has also worked closely with terminal operators with regard to improved levels of visibility, partly for safety reasons but also to reduce the incidence of damage to both the handling machinery and the units being handled. One recommendation made by the Commission in its draft EILU proposals that seems to have much merit is that intermodal units should be capable of being top-lifted. While technology has solved the problem of bottom-lifting, spreaders that can lift virtually any type of transport unit are inevitably heavier, more complex and more expensive than simple container top-lift spreaders. It would save terminal operators Europe-wide a considerable sum of money if top-lift was possible with 100% of the units they handle. Whatever the outcome of the EILU debate, one thing is certain: Kalmar will be ready with the machines to handle EILUs just as efficiently as any other size of intermodal unit. David Cheslin

wa t c h

As the tourist industry continues to increase, with even the most remote island now becoming accessible, the islands in the Caribbean region are poised to exploit their new found fame. Investment in major infrastructure in terms of airports, seaports, hotels and shopping malls are on the increase but many of the islands' governments have ignored the fundamental reason that keeps the flow of tourists coming. Clean beaches and seas. Islands like Tobago that have vast coral reefs are threatening their economic existence by ignoring the problems of pollution. The Buccoo Reef, long know for its colourful and varied coral is under serious threat and in fact vast areas of it have already succumbed to the inevitable backlash of pollution and are now barren wastes of what was once a beacon to divers. The reason for this ecological catastrophe is simple. Neglect. Insufficient rubbish facilities, coupled with an inadequate sewage treatment plants and a lack of environment awareness has transformed this once enviable coral forest into one now doomed for extinction.

mind our very limited resources. In the end it was a case of going up to people and begging for help in kind.” said Fazilette. “The most heartening thing to see however, was the impact this relatively simple remedy made. What had only a few weeks ago been dirty and littered beaches changed steadily into ones from picture postcard.” Education in schools was the next step for GreenSeas Trust. Between 4-7 volunteers visits a school, each taking a class. This, on average means, between 120-200 students are informed of environmental issues. Using a variety of material students are given the facts and more importantly, the motivation as to why and how their singular contributions can make a difference to marine ecology and eventually to their lives. The Trust is now hoping to develop and run a recycling plant in Trinidad. This is by far its most ambitious plan which will not only benefit Trinidad and Tobago but also its neighbouring islands including St Vincent and the Grenadines. Facilette Khan

Tr

Visualise the Caribbean and the picture which immediately comes to mind is secluded, pristine, white sandy beaches, crystal clear blue seas and palms trees swaying gently in the wind. Threatening this picture of tranquillity however, is a more ugly reality; the ever increasing problem of manmade flotsam and jetsam. Plastics, bottles, cans, polystyrene, car batteries and even household appliances mar not only the aesthetic beauty but effect the ecological environment.


Kalmar Around the World, issue 1/2004