IS COFFEE REALLY ENDING? FINE ART WITH COFFEE
Meet Karen Eland
Sospesos to Finjal Shakes Explained
Coffee is ending
Coffee Artist, Karen Eland
Cold brew coffee
Coffee & health
Safe daily dose of caffeine
How coffee spread
A year for better coffee
ICO events 2016
Popular coffee terms and culture
The miracle that is instant coffee
International Coffee Organization
The coffee quality institute
Opening and running a coffee shop
What is iced cappuccino?
Vol 0.0 Feb 2016
We all love what we call Coffee, yes we do. It is debatable where coffee came from, but we agree on the fact that coffee brings us together, regardless of our differences and our interesting cultures. Coffee was founded around 400 years ago, since then there are many changes and challenges coffee business and cultures have been through. In the first volume of Arabica Coffee Magazine we are delighted to bring you a selection of speciality, general, cultural, economical and fun articles about Coffee in regionally and internationally. I wish you will enjoy the density and body of the articles as much as we enjoyed roasting them for you.
Copy Editor Information Editor
Mohammad Bakhrieba Farah Hersi
Ahmed Saifuldeen Hisham Dada Mohammad Oqdah
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Coffee is ending It is true, the coffee business is being affected by different economical and environmental challenges. Climate change is affecting farms and the less rains we have in coffee producing counties, the less coffee we get. As you probably have heard the world is getting warmer and this will affect not only the humans but the farms as well. Therefore, there should be strong action towards reducing climate change and perhaps reversing it by changing aspects of our daily routine, behavior and most importantly how we do business.
On the economical side of coffee the farmers who work hard to grow, pick, peel, dry and ship the coffee are the least lucky persons in the coffee industry. Some farmers grow coffee and trade their yield for food and other life supplies! ICO indicates the price of a ton of coffee is USD 130 while the selling price at the coffee shop is hundreds of times more! This formula makes the farmers less passionate about coffee. Itâ€™s called unfair trade and this has to come to an end. Some international companies have made initiatives to change this but the pace is slow!
Specialists and head of states are campaigning every year to reduce climate change. Coffee can be introduced as a solution as growing coffee can reduces methane emissions in air and this will help cool down the temperature. To incentive farmers, coffee traders have to tune the market a bit towards even distribution of coffee economy. Coupled with the increased demand for coffee, this decrease in supply can be a huge problem. And if something is not done to change the coffee industry, this will sadly spell the end of coffee.
Arar Al-Farouki When we talk about coffee history, we are faced with so many challenges that we need to clear, for example, where was coffee first discovered and how did coffee spread as a beverage? We all have heard about the classic legend of the shepherd named Kaldi and how he noticed that his herd got energetic after they fed on a certain shrub which was the coffee shrub. The legend even mentions that his goats were so energized that they were dancing and when Kaldi tried it himself he had the same effect. 5
Now whether this legend occurred in Ethiopia or Yemen, is still a big debate but what we are sure of is that coffee as a beverage was spread through Arabia. This is provided by the fact that in 1974, when a female mummy was discovery by the scientists in the northern Ethiopia, who was named â€œLucyâ€?, the Carbon-14 test performed on her hair revealed that there were no traces of caffeine but that of nicotine and other substances, this and other new scripts discovered in Arabia recently
proves that coffee did not spread as a beverage through northern Africa and that it definitely spread through Arabia. There are so many mysteries surrounding this magical beverage which scientists must discover and the whole world must learn about as this beverage is becoming one of the most important commodity in our modern world, culturally as well as economically. Coffee is considered as the second most valuable traded commodity after oil, in certain terms of
course due to the number of people involved in the process, the channel of distributions and the added value. Let us hope that more people will have the will and the enthusiasm to discover more about his magical beverage that we call coffee.
KAREN ELAND Karen has been a creator since childhood, but a portrait class at age 14 unexpectedly propelled her into an art career. Her love for coffee was born in the late Kaldi’s Coffeehouse in New Orleans, where she would go everyday to sketch her fellow French Quarter locals while sipping a black coffee with a dash of nutmeg on top. After moving back home to Tulsa, Oklahoma, she was introduced to the joys of top-quality espresso at Nordaggio’s Coffee, and finally the link between coffee and art connected when she began painting with it there in 1998. Soon she learned the art of espresso itself by becoming a barista, and can be spotted sometimes working at Backporch Coffee Roasters in Bend, Oregon, where she now resides. Painting in coffee is a refreshing break from Karen’s work in oils, watercolor, and pencil
THE COLD BREW PROCESS Through a unique 8-12 hour process using pure ice water, ice drip coffee produces a unique flavor not found in regular brewed coffee. Although it looks like complicated lab equipment, the Yama Cold Brewer is very easy to use. Just ice and cold water in the top chamber, set the valve to drip, put ground coffee in the middle chamber and you're good to go. The entire brew process takes about 8 hours and produces about 32 oz of smooth, rich coffee that is very low in acidity. The coffee will keep for up to 7 days in a sealed container in your refrigerator.
HOW I CAME TO LOVE
I wasnâ€™t a coffee lover before as my past experience with drinking different coffee flavors was dreadful. I prefer sugar-free beverages and that is why I enjoyed Turkish and Arabic coffee. A few years back, I remember seeing an advertisement on cold brew coffee and this curiously led me to do my research on the Internet to learn more about this type of coffee and the best techniques to apply to prepare it. When I finally prepared the cold brew coffee and took the first sip, the experience was wonderful and once I started to drink this coffee, it became a regular habit.
Mohammad Bahareth 12
COFFEE & HEALTH Coffee Coffee is more than just a drink: It’s a culture, an economy, an art and a passion. Coffee is referred to as a bean because it resembles the appearance of an actual bean but the fact is that it’s a seed of a piece of fruit known as the coffee cherry. The cherry is handpicked and the seed is separated from the fruit. There are various methods of achieving this, by allowing the fruit to dry first or by removing the seed much sooner. By varying the amount of time for the fruit to dry on the seed, these methods impact the flavor of the finished product. After the beans are dried, the unroasted product is called “green coffee”.
Health benefits of coffee Caffeine is an active ingredient in the coffee; it can keep us awake and focused. There are many effects of caffeine on the brain as it can alleviate mood, improve memory and general cognitive functions. It is said to boost our physical performance as it raises the metabolic rate due to itâ€™s stimulant effect on the central nervous system and it also increases the oxidation of fatty acids. On the other hand, drinking coffee protects the brain in old age and it also lowers the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes, Alzheimerâ€™s disease. The coffee you enjoy each day has taken a long journey to arrive in your cup. Between the time they are planted, picked and purchased, coffee beans go through a typical series of steps to bring out their best. The roasting and subsequent brewing methods affect the final composition and nutritional profile of a cup of black coffee. The addition of milk, cream sugar or other sweeteners, to taste, will affect the final nutritional profile of cup of coffee.
Arch. Alia Khoja
SAFE DAILY DOSE OF CAFFEINE Depending on the age, medical history and many other factors involved an individual may experience reactions depending on the amount of caffeine they consume on a daily basis but it’s recommended that a person can consume safe limit of caffeine in order to avoid any negative effects on one’s health. It is complex to assign an exact amount for caffeine intake for everyone but advanced research has enabled us to make a suggestion based on an individual’s weight, for a healthy adult with no medical issues it is generally agreed upon that 300mg - 400mg of caffeine can be consumed daily.
Since childrenâ€™s brains are continuing to develop and their bodies are growing, limited amount of caffeine is recommended and a recent study showed that itâ€™s important for a child to have a proper sleep as excess intake of caffeine can interfere with their sleep and brain development. For children aged 12 and under consumption of coffee is not recommended. Caffeinated soda and chocolate consumption on occasions by the children aged 4 or under will likely cause no harm and around 45mg per day is recognized as a safe amount but daily intake of caffeine is not suggested.
For children aged 13 to 18, limited caffeine intake to these age groups will be ideal due to the pressure of studies, exams, and sports at school, no more than 100mg of caffeine daily due to the importance of sleep, brain development and possibly unknown medical conditions as they are adolescents and teenager, its noted that coffee consumption with this age groups is very common. Adults and even children with diagnosed or undiagnosed health conditions can have adverse health effects with even small amounts of caffeine intake. Since caffeine is a stimulant that increases the heart rate and blood pressure, limited intake of caffeine is advisable for patients with hypertension, heart arrhythmias, murmurs. It is important to note that caffeine doesnâ€™t cause these medical conditions, those with pre-existing medical conditions should limit caffeine to no more than 200mg daily and are also advised to consult their physician before consuming caffeine.
Research has shown that caffeine doesn’t increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. In fact, it decreases that risk but those already diagnosed with type 2 diabetes should limit caffeine consumption to around 200mg daily and also based on their doctor’s instruction because it can impair glucose metabolism in diabetics. Pregnant and nursing mothers consuming 200mg of caffeine or less a day results in very little risk for the developing fetus and nursing infant. Individuals who feel energetic after consuming caffeine in the morning but fail to fall asleep in the evening are sensitive to caffeine. For this reason, it’s suggested that they should consume small amounts as 50mg and regulate it until they find the amount that work for them but at the same time doesn’t cause any side effects.
HOW COFFEEE SPREAD
The earliest reliable proof of the knowledge about coffee shrubs and coffee drinking appeared in the 15th century around the port city of Mocha in Yemen. Coffee seeds were first roasted and brewed in Arabia. Coffee seeds were first exported to Yemen from Ethiopia where the traders took the coffee and started cultivating the seeds, by the 16th century coffee cultivation spread to the Middle East, Turkey and Africa. The first coffee smuggled in to India from the Middle East was in the year 1670 by a Sufi named Baba Budan from Yemen.
From the Middle East, Coffee spread to Italy, Indonesia and to America. With the blooming of trade between Venice, Egypt, North Africa, Middle East was able to bring in many goods to the Venetian port; from this port coffee was introduced to the rest of the Europe where the first coffeehouse was opened in the year 1645 in Rome. In 1654, coffeehouses became popular in England due to the efforts of the British East India Company, where the Oxford Queenâ€™s lane coffee house is still in existence. Later coffeehouses were opened in France in 1657 followed by Austria and Poland. The Dutch East India Company was the first to import coffee in large scale, later they started growing the crops in Java and Ceylon.
During the American Revolutionary period, coffee demands increased in the country so dealers hoarded the supplies and raised prices because of the limited availability from the British traders. In the 18th century, coffee intake in England dropped giving way to tea as itâ€™s easier to prepare.
In 1727, Coffee was introduced in Brazil but its cultivation took time to spread in the country. And when it started major rainforests where cleared to grow the coffee plants. It then became the worldâ€™s largest producer of coffee by 1852, and between 1910 to 1920 it exported around 70% of the worldâ€™s coffee while Colombia, Guatemala, Venezuela exported 30%. Coffee has become the primary source of revenue and support for many developing countries like Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Ethiopia and some Central American countries.
A YEAR FOR BETTER COFFEE
Economists and specialists have been debating on the changes in coffee prices in 2016, especially Arabica coffee, as it’s getting cheaper. The world biggest producer of Coffee – Brazil shall expect ample rains this year that will boost crops. A rainy weather increases crop yields, declining currencies in coffee producing countries are encouraging farmers to export supplies that in return exchange in hard currencies. According to Rabobank International, the Brazilian harvest is getting ready for a bigger supply next season. Brazilian producers will do everything in their capacity to sell their future crops and lowering the prices is the most favourable option, especially with oil prices and the climate change the chances and challenges for coffee producers and exporters are quite interesting! With the change in the world climate, Central America is expected to produce more coffee this year; on the other hand the oil prices should also contribute to better pricing. The average US retail price fell by 4.3% to 4.412 a pound last November, the lowest since 2011. International brands started talking about reducing the prices of coffee to the end customers too. Brazil is expecting to raise their productions from 48 million bags to 58 million bags this year (each bag weights 60 Kgs). Colombia’s coffee production reached from 12.1 to 14 million in 2015, and may rise to 16 million by 2018. It’s a year for better coffee !
ICO EVENTS 2016
13 - 19 Nov
1 - 3 Mar
19 - 23 Sep
(Kunming, China) ASIC's 26th International Conference on Coffee Science
London, United Kingdom) 117th Session of the International Coffee Council and other ICO bodies
8 - 10 Jul (Heredia, Costa Rica) Costa Rica Expo CafĂŠ
9 - 12 Jun (Singapore) Singapore Coffee Festival
13 - 15 May (Medan, Indonesia) Medan International Coffee Festival (MICF)
1 -3 Mar (Moscow, Russia) Russian Barista Days
(Moscow, Russia) Russian Coffee and Tea Industry Event
World Coffee Conference
6 - 11 Mar
(Addis Ababa, Ethiopia)
116th Session of the International Coffee Council and other ICO bodies
17 - 19 Mar
(San Diego, United States) The NCA Annual Convention 2016
19 - 23 Jan (Mumbai, India) India International Coffee Festival
15 - 17 Jan (Kolkata, India) India International Tea & Coffee Expo
Milk Frother (Battery Operated) Digital coffee machines
Smarter Coffee Machine
Glass Coffee Maker
AROMA Aroma is the fragrance of brewed coffee. The smell of coffee grounds before being brewed is referred to as the Bouquet. Think of the aroma of coffee as "the best part of waking up," however, it may not refer only to the brand that that phrase is associated with. Whenever you enjoy a whiff of brewing coffee, you are enjoying its "aroma." 27
SPICY When cupping coffee, "spicy" describes the flavor of particular spices. When discerning the flavors of coffee, spiciness is similar to what you describe in other foods and drinks. Spice flavors in coffee are just like spices in other foods. Flavors of cinnamon, vanilla, chili, and many other spices can all be discerned in different coffees.
COFFEE POD Coffee pods are a generic term for small, single servings of coffee which work in many different single-serving coffee machines. Coffee pods work with such machines as the Keurig, TASSIMO, and Senseo. Pre-measured coffee pods make brewing the perfect cup of coffee a simple and quick task. They come in a vast variety of flavors, blends, and even specialty drinks such as lattes and cappuccinos.
TONE The appearance or color of coffee is described as its tone. A description of the tone of coffee may look like; "this light toned coffee resembles the brown robes of the Franciscan Order." Pouring your coffee into a clear glass mug will help you to determine its tone, and is a technique for coffee cupping.
You may be familiar with wine "tasting," in which wine drinkers and connoisseurs observe the qualities of wine. When you are discerning the different flavors, body, acidity and other qualities of coffee, it is called "cupping." This is a skill that takes time to learn and develop, but anyone who enjoys coffee can learn cupping with practice.
FASHIONABLE COFFEE CULTURE How many times have you seen a young lady waving her fancy coffee cup while she is talking? Walking? Shopping? Eating? Cleaning? Dressing? In a meeting? And perhaps sleeping! (Just kidding) It has become a fashionable trend to have a fancy cup of coffee, waved by young ladies all day long. No one knows where this came from but ultimately coffee companies made a good deal to increase their sales.
FINJAL SHAKES In the Arab world, a coffee cup â€œ is called Finjal or Finjanâ€? and shaking ithas different meanings. In some cultures it means I have had enough and in others it means I want more! Arab regions mostly share the same traditions and beliefs, however sometimes that same behaviour can mean different things in different regions. Hospitality in the region is always presented by coffee, and you will be warmly served with coffee until you shake your cup or sometimes cover it with the three middle fingers.
SHARING COFFEE SOSPESO A caffè sospeso is a coffee culture tradition that started in Naples, Italy. It’s also called suspended coffee. Sospeso is a love to share coffee with others where some people come to a café shop, order two cups of coffee but drink only one and then when a needy person will come and ask if there is a sospeso, they are served for free! Sospeso is claimed to be more than 100 years old, some companies started sospeso service to boost sales and to promote kindness.
WEDDING PROPOSALS AND SALTY COFFEE When you propose a family to marry their girl, they would tell you the answer in the cup of coffee. Arabs are very emotional and would never insult you in their homes because this is considered as a horrible thing to do! So if the bride and her family likes you, a nice sweet cup of coffee will be given in a decorated serving tray or table, however if you get a salty cup of coffee it means, we have refused your proposal.
NOT DRINKING A COFFEE IS OFFENSIVE When you visit a friend’s house or go to an office for business, people tend to treat you with a rich cup of coffee. It’s nice and gentle gesture to say, I don’t want coffee and I will have just water! But this is not the case in the Arab world, not accepting to drink the coffee is understood as a rejection to the hospitality shown by the host, particularly in small towns this is considered very offensive, especially if the offered coffee is Arabian coffee. 36
YOUR RIGHT LEFT AND YOUR LEFT RIGHT Arabs like to be on the right in every thing they do, while drinking they drink with their right hand, eat with their right hand and also when they walk, they give importance to the one on the right. And when it comes to serving coffee, always make sure to serve the cups with your right hand and hold the Dallah (coffee pot) in your left hand.
THE MIRACLE THAT IS INSTANT COFFEE Also known as soluble coffee or coffee powder, it is manufactured by either freeze-drying or spray-drying brewed coffee beans. These methods help us get coffee that is prepared faster, has lower shipping weight and volume than beans or ground coffee for the same amount of prepared drink, and longer shelf life if kept dry. In freeze-drying, the frozen coffee extract is dried in a vacuum. The stronger the vacuum, the better quality the dried instant coffee will be. As for spray drying, although more economical than freeze-drying, it requires the steaming of coffee particles after drying so they can clump into larger particles. A drawback is that when re-heated the flavour of the coffee can worsen. The earliest version of instant coffee is said to have been invented around 1771 in Britain. The first American version was developed in 1853, and an experimental version (in cake form) was field tested during the Civil War. In 1890, David Strang of Invercargill, New Zealand invented and patented instant coffee which was manufactured using the “Dry Hot-Air” process. In 1901, the first successful technique for manufacturing a stable powdered product was invented by Japanese-American chemist Sartori Kato, who used a process he had developed for making instant tea. It was patented in 1903. George Constant Louis Washington, an American inventor of Belgian descent developed his own instant coffee process after Kato and made a first commercial brand of it in 1910. This product was not very palatable. In 1930, Brazil had large coffee surpluses so the Brazilian Coffee Institute asked the chairman of Nestle to create a flavorful, soluble coffee product which would help with the storage problem and possibly increase overall coffee sales. After years of research and testing, in 1937, Nestle scientist Max Morgenthaler invented a new instant coffee making method. The new product was named Nescafe. In 1938, they began selling it and because the process involved drying equal amounts of coffee extract and soluble carbohydrates, it made a better tasting instant coffee which quickly became very popular. It retained popularity among soldiers and during the Second World War, the U.S. military bought a complete year’s supply for its soldiers’ rations. Freeze-drying, discovered in the 1960s, has become the preferred method of making instant coffee because it generally results in a higher-quality product with better taste.
INTERNATIONAL COFFEE ORGANIZAITION - ICO.ORG The International Coffee Organization (ICO) is the main intergovernmental organization for coffee, bringing together exporting and importing Governments to tackle the challenges facing the world coffee sector through international cooperation. Its Member Governments represent 95% of world coffee production and 83% of world consumption. The ICOâ€™s mission is to strengthen the global coffee sector and promote its sustainable expansion in a market-based environment for the betterment of all participants in the coffee sector.
>> Organizations to follow
THE COFFEE QUALITY INSTITUTE ( CQI ) Is a non-profit organization working internationally to improve the quality of coffee and the lives of people who produce it. CQI has worked on a multitude of coffee programs in central and South America, east Africa, Indonesia, and Asia, completing over 500 training assignments while building a common language of quality used throughout the supply chain. On any given month, we’re in the field, teaching producers how to process coffee more efficiently or teaching a Q Course via one of our talented Q Instructors or working with national coffee associations to instill forward-thinking change. The impact is immense and long lasting. So whenever you’re enjoying a cup of high quality coffee, it’s very likely that CQI has touched the supply chain at some point, creating more value, a common language, and a deeper respect for the commodity we all know and love.
>> Organizations to follow
TRENDING BUSINESS OF OPENING AND RUNNING A COFFEE SHOP Coffee is relished by millions of people from all walks of life; it’s fascinating to know that most of them begin each day with a fresh cup of coffee as a routine worldwide. Presently, we see that a number of coffee shop businesses in the city are growing at a fast speed and if you have ever considered the idea of starting your own coffee shop someday then this is the article for you. There are plenty of things that require your attention from a thorough research on the coffee shops in the city to looking in to what’s going on in the coffee industry and the competition involved, desired coffee types by the people, finding a perfect location for your shop, buying the latest coffee equipments, hiring staff and baristas then training them on the coffee culture. Coffee shops offer hot beverages like cappuccino, espresso, café latte, Turkish coffee, Arabic coffee, Ethiopian coffee and cold beverages like Frappuccino, iced latte, iced mocha, iced cappuccino, and Cold brew press coffee. They may even serve pastries, crepe, deserts, meals and other eatables plus provide free Wi-Fi connection. When we say coffee shop, they are of different types like Coffeehouse, Coffee kiosk, Bistro coffeehouse, Roasters coffeehouse. It completely depends on what you plan to setup and the opportunities you will incur with that decision.
It’s important to explore each of these types of coffee shop businesses in order to prepare a full proof business plan, so let’s begin: Coffeehouse : They are also called coffee shops and cafés, it is an establishment that serves hot and cold beverages. Coffee kiosk : It is a petite building structure in the form of an enclosed bar and or like a store in the middle of the mall or a drive through. Bistro coffeehouse : Bistro coffeehouses or cafés are European style small coffee restaurants in the hotels. Roasters coffeehouse: Roasters coffeehouse are best known to provide specialty grade coffee mostly Arabica, why is the name Roasters? It’s a technique of transforming the chemical and physical properties of green coffee beans into roasted coffee products and this process determines the overall taste that we experience. Sometimes the Coffeehouses roast their own coffee beans and serve coffee to their customers and also this roasted coffee is purchased by the coffee franchises and even supplied to other coffee houses, cafes, bistros in the city.
WHAT IS ICED CAPPUCCINO Iced Cappuccino also called Cappuccino Freddo, itâ€™s the cold version of hot cappuccino and this drink generally has small amount of cold foam milk topped on the drink. Most of the time this drink is already kept prepared in the coffee cafes or coffee kiosks. Example of coffeehouse that sells iced cappuccino is Starbucks, Tim Hortons' under the name Ice Capp. Their coffee drink blend consists of thick black syrup which is mixed at three parts water to one part syrup in a slurpee machine and then the frozen coffee drink is blended with cream or any flavored milk before being served. Iced cappuccino makes a great summer drink. This drink is also prepared with other flavor shots which include whipping the top, finishing it with the chocolate or caramel syrup mixed or scattered with bits of brownies on the whipping cream, the cold milk-based foam topped on the drink is known as aphrogala which is created using an electric frother and cold milk, the foam is then added to espresso poured over ice. 45
International Week of Coffee is held every year in Saudi Arabia in promotion of the International Coffee Cultures, Arabica Coffee Magazine and partners are delighted to invite you to the coming versoin of the IWC in October 2016. For more information please contact us at: Respond@callofculture.com , On social media WEEKOFCOFFEE 46
اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻓﻲ ﻧﻀﻮب! ﺣﻘﺎﺋﻖ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﻔﻨﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻛﺎرن إﻻﻧﺪ ﻗﻬﻮة اﻟﺘﺨﻤﻴﺮ اﻟﺒﺎرد
3 4 5 7 11
اﻟﺼﺤﺔ و اﻟﻘﻬﻮة
ﺤﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﺼ َّ اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ ِّ
ﻛﻴﻒ اﻧﺘﺸﺎرت اﻟﻘﻬﻮة
ﻋﺎم ﻟﻘﻬﻮة أﻓﻀﻞ
ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ َّ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺎت
ُﻣﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎت و ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺎت اﻟﻘﻬﻮة
اﻟﻤﻌﺠﺰة اﻟﺘﻲ ُﻳﻘﺎل ﻋﻨﻬﺎ " ﻗﻬﻮة ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺔ اﻟﺘﺤﻀﻴﺮ"
اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﻨﻈﻤﺔ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ُﻣ َّ َّ ﻣﻌﻬﺪ ﺟﻮدة اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﺷﻴﻮع اﻓﺘﺘﺎح اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻫﻰ وﻣﺠﺎل إدارﺗﻬﺎ اﻟﻤﺜﻠَّ ﺞ ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺔ اﻟﻜﺎﺑﻮﺗﺸﻴﻨﻮ ُ ِّ
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Vol 1.0 Feb 2016
ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺤﺐ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ؟ ُﺣ ﱡﺒﻬﺎ ﻳﺠﻤﻌﻨﺎ .ﻗﺪ ﻳﻜﻮن ﻟﻜﻦ اﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﻣﺼﺪر اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻣﺤﻞ ﺟﺪل ﻟﻠﻜﺜﻴﺮﻳﻦ، ﱠ ﺐ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻳﺠﻤﻊ اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﻴﻦ ﻳﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ أن ُﺣ ﱠ ﻓﻲ اﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎﺗﻬﻢ و ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺎﺗﻬﻢ. ﺗﻢ اﻛﺘﺸﺎف اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻗﺒﻞ ﺣﻮاﻟﻲ ٤٠٠ﻋﺎم و ﻣﻨﺬ ذﻟﻚ اﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺻﺎدﻓﺖ اﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺎت و اﻷﻋﻤﺎل اﻟﺘﺠﺎرﻳﺔ اﻟﻤﺮﺗﻜﺰة ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﻜﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺘﻐﻴﺮات .ﻳﺴﻌﺪﻧﺎ أن ﻧﻘﺪم ﻟﻜﻢ اﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺎت و ﱡ ﱢ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﺪد اﻷول ﻣﺨﺘﺎرات ﻣﻤﺘﻌﺔ ﻋﻦ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ً ﺛﻘﺎﻓﻴﺎ،و ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻻت ﻋﺎﻣﺔ وﻣﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ: ً ً ً وﻋﺎﻟﻤﻴﺎ. ﻣﺤﻠﻴﺎ اﻗﺘﺼﺎدﻳﺎ ،و ﻧﺘﻤﻨﻰ ﻟﻜﻢ أن ﺗﺴﺘﻤﺘﻌﻮا ﺑﻘﺮاءة اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻻت ﻛﻤﺎ اﺳﺘﻤﺘﻌﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ إﻋﺪادﻫﺎ ﻟﻜﻢ…
أﺣﻤﺪ ﺳﻴﻒ اﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻫﺎﺷﻢ ﻋﺸﻘﻲ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻋﻘﺪة
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اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻓﻲ ﻧﻀﻮب! اﻟﻤ َّﺮة! ﺗﻠﻚ اﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ُ ً ﺳﻠﺒﺎ ﺑﻌﻮاﻣﻞ ﺗﺠﺎرة اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﺗﺘﺄﺛﺮ اﻗﺘﺼﺎدﻳﺔ و ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﻌﺪدة ،ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ اﻟﻤﻨﺎخ اﻟﺬي ﻳﺆﺛﱢ ﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﱡ ﻗﻞ ﻫﻄﻮل ﱠ اﻟﻤﺰروﻋﺎت .ﻓﻜﻠﱠ ﻤﺎ اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺔ، اﻷﻣﻄﺎر ﻓﻲ اﻟﺪول ُ ﻧﻘﺺ ﻣﺤﺼﻮل اﻟﺒﻦ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ. وﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻌﺮوف ﻋﻦ اﻹﺣﺘﺒﺎس اﻟﺤﺮاري اﻟﺬي ﻻ ﻳﻘﺘﺼﺮ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮه اﻟﺴﻠﺒﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻹﻧﺴﺎن ﺑﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ً أﻳﻀﺎ .ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﺠﺐ أن ﺗُ ﺘﺨﺬ اﻟﻤﺰارع ﺧﻄﻮات ﺟﺎدة ﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﺣﺮارة اﻟﻤﻨﺎخ و اﻹﺳﺘﻔﺎدة ﻣﻨﻬﺎ و ذﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﻴﺎت ً ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ اﻟﺤﻴﺎة اﻟﻴﻮﻣﻴﺔ و ﻳﺨﺺ ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺲ اﻷﻋﻤﺎل. ﱡ
ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻳﺘﻘﺎﺿﻮﻧﻪ ﻹﻧﺘﺎج اﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮة ﻣﺠﻬﻮداﺗﻬﻢ اﻟﻤﺰارﻋﻴﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة. ﻳﻘﻮﻣﻮن ﺑﺰراﻋﺔ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة و ﻣﻘﺎﻳﻀﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ اﻟﺤﺼﻮل ﻋﻠﻰ اﻷﻛﻞ و اﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎت اﻟﺤﻴﺎة اﻟﻴﻮﻣﻴﺔ .ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺗﺸﻴﺮ إﻟﻰ أن ﺳﻌﺮ ﻃﻦ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ١٣٠ﺑﺎﻟﺪوﻻراﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺳﻌﺮ ﺑﻴﻌﻪ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻫﻲ أﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻤﺌﺎت اﻟﻤﺮات .ﻫﺬه اﻟﻤﻌﺎدﻟﺔ ﺗﺠﻌﻞ ً ﺷﻐﻔﺎ ،و ُﻣﺰارﻋﻲ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة أﻗﻞ ﻳﻌﺮف ﻫﺬا اﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺠﺎرة ﻏﻴﺮ اﻟﻌﺎدﻟﺔ اﻟﺬي ﻳﺮى اﻟﻤﻨﺼﻔﻮن ﺑﻀﺮورة ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮه.
اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدﻳﺔ، اﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺒﺬﻟﻮن اﻟﺬﻳﻦ اﻟﻤﺰارﻋﻮن ﻣﺠﻬﻮدات ﻛﺒﻴﺮة ﻓﻲ زراﻋﺔ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة واﻧﺘﻘﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﺛﻢ إﺟﺮاء ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻘﺸﻴﺮ و اﻟﺘﺠﻔﻴﻒ و ﻣﻦ ﺛﻢ ً ﺣﻈﺎ ﻟﺰﻫﺪ ﻣﺎ اﻟﺸﺤﻦ ﻫﻢ اﻷﻗﻞ
ﺑﻌﺾ اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺑﻤﺒﺎدرات ﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻫﺬا اﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻧﺸﺎط اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت ﻳﺘﺴﺎرع ﺑﺒﻂء. اﻟﻤﺨﺘﺼﻴﻦ و رؤﺳﺎء اﻟﺪول اﻟﻤﻌﻨﻴﺔ ﻳﻘﻮﻣﻮن ﺑﺤﻤﻼت ﺳﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﻐﻴﺮاﻟﻤﻨﺎخ .ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﻟﻠﺤﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻦ ﱡ ً ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺎ ﻹرﺗﻔﺎع اﻧﺘﺎج اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﺣﻼ
درﺟﺎت اﻟﺤﺮارة ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ اﺧﺘﺰال ﻏﺎز اﻟﻤﻴﺜﺎن ﻓﻲ اﻟﻬﻮاء واﻟﺬي ﻳﺆدي ﺑﺪوره إﻟﻰ اﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻓﻲ درﺟﺎت اﻟﺤﺮارة .ﻗﺮر ﺗﺠﺎر اﻟﻘﻬﻮة إﻟﻰ ً ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻴﺎ و ﺿﺒﻂ اﻗﺘﺼﺎد اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ذﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل اﻟﺘﻮزﻳﻊ اﻟﻤﺘﺴﺎوي ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﻛﺘﺤﻔﻴﺰ و ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﻟﻠﻤﺰارﻋﻴﻦ .ﻟﻜﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻇﻞ اﻟﻄﻠﺐ اﻟﻤﺘﺰاﻳﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ،ﻫﺬا اﻟﺸﺢ ﻓﻲ اﻹﻧﺘﺎج ﻳﺴﺒﺐ أزﻣﺔ إﻣﺪادات ً ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮا ﺷﺪﻳﺪة و إن ﻟﻢ ﻳﺤﺪث ً ﻣﺤﻮرﻳﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻄﺎع ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻊ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة،ﺳﺘﺘﺴﺒﺐ اﻷزﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ً ﺗﻤﺎﻣﺎ. إﻧﻬﺎء ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة
ﺣﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﻋﻦ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ٢ﺑﻠﻴﻮن ﻓﻨﺠﺎن ﻗﻬﻮة ً ﻳﻮﻣﻴﺎ ﺣﻮل ﺗﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ
أﻓﻀﻞ ٥ﻣﻨﺘﺠﻮن ﻟﻠﻘﻬﻮة ﺑﺮازﻳﻞ
ﺧﻼل ﺳﺎﻋﺎت اﻟﻔﻄﻮر
أﻓﻀﻞ ٥ﻣﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﻮن ﻟﻠﻘﻬﻮة
٢٥ﻣﻠﻴﻮن ﻣﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ ﻟﻠﻘﻬﻮة
ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ،وﻣﻌﻈﻤﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻐﺎر اﻟﻤﺰارﻋﻴﻦ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮة ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﺸﺘﻬﻢ،
اﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺎ إﻳﻄﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻳﺎﺑﺎن ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ
ﺛﺎﻧﻲ أﻛﺜﺮ اﻟﺴﻠﻊ اﻟﻤﺘﺪاوﻟﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ اﻟﻨﻔﻂ 4
ﻋﺮار اﻟﻔﺎروﻗﻲ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﺘﺤﺪث ﻋﻦ ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة، ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﻮاﺟﻪ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺎت ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻳﺠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ اﻹﺳﺘﻴﻀﺎح ﻗﺒﻞ اﻟﺒﺖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ. ﻓﻤﺜﻼ أﻳﻦ ﺗﻢ اﻛﺘﺸﺎف اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ً أوﻻ و ﻛﻴﻒ اﻧﺘﺸﺮت اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ً ﻛﻤﺸﺮوب؟ ﻛﻞ اﻟﻤﻬﺘﻤﻴﻦ ﺑﺘﺎرﻳﺦ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻷﺳﻄﻮرة ﻋﻦ ﺳﻤﻌﻮا اﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﺮاﻋﻲ اﻟﻐﻨﻢ اﻟﺬي ُﻳﺪﻋﻰ ”ﻛﺎﻟﺪي“ و ﻛﻴﻒ أﻧﻪ ﻻﺣﻆ أن ﻗﻄﻴﻌﻪ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ أﻛﺜﺮ ﻧﺸﺎط و ﺣﻴﻮﻳﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ أن ﻳﺮﻋﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻋﺸﺒﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ و ﻫﻲ ﺷﺠﻴﺮات ً أﻳﻀﺎ أن اﻟﺒﻦ .ﺗﺬﻛﺮ اﻷﺳﻄﻮرة اﻟﺨﺮاف ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺮﻗﺺ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺮط ﻧﺸﺎﻃﻬﺎ و ﺣﻴﻮﻳﺘﻬﺎ وأن اﻟﺮاﻋﻲ ﺧﺎﻟﺠﻪ ﻧﻔﺲ اﻹﺣﺴﺎس ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺬوق ﻣﻦ ﺷﺠﻴﺮات اﻟﺒﻦ.
اﺧﺘﻠﻒ اﻟﻜﺜﻴﺮﻳﻦ ﺣﻮل اﻟﻤﻜﺎن اﻟﺬي وﻗﻌﺖ ﻓﻴﻪ اﻟﺤﺎدﺛﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ اﻟﻴﻤﻦ أو أﺛﻴﻮﺑﻴﺎ .و ﻟﻜﻦ اﻟﻤﺆﻛﺪ ﻟﻨﺎ أن اﻧﺘﺸﺎر اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻛﻤﺸﺮوب ﺣﺼﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ اﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮة اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ .و ُﻳﺜﺒﺖ ذﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﻮاﻗﻌﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺣﺪﺛﺖ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎم ١٩٧٤ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ اﻛﺘﺸﻒ وأﺟﺮوا اﻟﻤﻮﻣﻴﺎء اﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎء َ ﻓﺤﻮﺻﺎت ﻛﺮﺑﻮن ١٤اﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﺸﻌﺮﻫﺎ و ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ اﻟﻌﺜﻮرﻋﻠﻰ أي أﺛﺮ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻓﻴﻴﻦ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﻢ اﻟﻌﺜﻮر ﻋﻠﻰ آﺛﺎر ﻧﻴﻜﻮﺗﻴﻦ و ﻣﻮاد أﺧﺮى. أﺛﺒﺘﺖ ﻫﺬه اﻟﺤﺎدﺛﺔ و ﺣﻮادث أﺧﺮى ﻇﻬﺮت ﻓﻲ اﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮة اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ً ﻣﺆﺧﺮا أن اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻟﻢ ﺗﻨﺘﺸﺮ ﻛﻤﺸﺮوب ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل ﺷﻤﺎل أﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ و ﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ اﻧﺘﺸﺮت ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل اﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮة اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ.
ﺗﺪور اﻟﻜﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺘﺴﺎؤﻻت اﻟﻐﺎﻣﻀﺔ ﺣﻮل ﻫﺬا اﻟﻤﺸﺮوب اﻟﺮاﺋﻊ و اﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎء اﻛﺘﺸﺎﻓﻬﺎ وﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﻛﻠﻪ أن ﻳﻌﺮﻓﻬﺎ .أﺻﺒﺢ ﻣﺸﺮوب اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ً ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻴﺎ، أﻫﻢ ﺳﻠﻌﺔ ﻣﺘﺪاوﻟﺔ ً ً اﻗﺘﺼﺎدﻳﺎ. ﺛﻘﺎﻓﻴﺎ و
ً ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻴﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ اﻟﺒﺘﺮول ﺿﻤﻦ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ اﻹﺗﺠﺎر ﺑﻬﺎ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺛﺎﻧﻲ أﻛﺜﺮﺳﻠﻌﺔ ّ ً ً ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﺒﺎدل دورا ﻓﺘﺮة ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﺘﻌﺪد اﻷﻃﺮاف اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻠﻌﺐ اﻟﺘﺠﺎري ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ إﻟﻰ ﻗﻨﻮات اﻟﺘﻮزﻳﻊ و اﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ اﻟﻤﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎت اﻟﻘﻬﻮة.. آﻣﺎﻟﻨﺎ ﻛﺒﻴﺮة ﻓﻲ أن ﻳﺰداد ﻋﺪد اﻟﺸﻐﻮﻓﻴﻦ و اﻟﺮاﻏﺒﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ اﻛﺘﺸﺎف اﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬا اﻟﻤﺸﺮوب اﻟﺴﺎﺣﺮ اﻟﻤﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻬﻮة.
اﻟﻔﻨﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻛﺎرن إﻻﻧﺪ ﻛﺎرن ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺒﺘﻜﺮة ﻣﻨﺬ ﺻﻐﺮﻫﺎ ،ﻟﻜﻦ ﺣﺼﺔ رﺳﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻦ اﻟﺮاﺑﻌﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺟﺬﺑﺘﻬﺎ إﻟﻰ اﻟﻔﻦ اﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ. ً ﻳﻮﻣﻴﺎ ﺣﺒﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻘﻬﻮة ﻗﺪ ُوﻟﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﻬﻰ اﻟﺮاﺣﻞ ”ﻛﺎﻟﺪي“ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻧﻴﻮ أورﻟﻴﺎﻧﺰ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺬﻫﺐ ﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﻧﻈﺮاﺋﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻲ ﻓﺮﻧﺶ ﻛﻮارﺗﺮ أﺛﻨﺎء اﺣﺘﺴﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﻟﻜﻮب ﻣﻦ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﻤﻐﻄﻰ ﺑﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻮزة اﻟﻄﻴﺐ. ﺑﻌﺪ اﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻬﺎ إﻟﻰ ﻣﻮﻃﻨﻬﺎ اﻷم ﺗﻮﻟﺴﺎ ،أوﻛﻼﻫﻮﻣﺎ ﺗﻌﺮﻓﺖ اﻟﻔﻨﺎﻧﺔ ﻛﺎرن ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺘﻌﺔ اﻹﺳﺒﺮﺳﻮ ً أﺧﻴﺮا ﺗﻢ ارﺗﺒﺎط اﻟﻔﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺑﺪأت ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﻪ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻲ اﻟﺠﻮدة ﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﻬﻰ ﻧﻮرداﺟﻴﻮ .و ﻓﻲ اﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎم .١٩٩٨ ﻃﻮﻳﻼ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﻌﺮﻓﺖ ﻛﺎرن ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻦ اﻹﺳﺒﺮﺳﻮ ذاﺗﻪ ﺣﻴﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﺖ ﺑﻤﻬﻨﺔ ﺑﺎرﻳﺴﺘﺎ )ﻧﺎدﻟﺔ و ﻟﻢ ﺗﻠﺒﺚ ً ً أﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ و ﻫﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺤﺎﻣﺺ ﺑﺎﻛﺒﺮوﺗﺶ ﻟﻠﻘﻬﻮة ﻓﻲ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺑﻨﺪ، ﻣﻘﻬﻰ( و اﻟﺘﻰ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ رؤﻳﺘﻬﺎ ً ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ .اﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻜﺎرن ُﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﻧﺸﺎط ﻣﻨﻌﺶ و ﻓﺘﺮة راﺣﺔ ﻣﻦ أورﻳﺠﻮن ﻣﺤﻞ إﻗﺎﻣﺘﻬﺎ ﻃﺮق اﻟﺮﺳﻢ اﻟﻤﻌﺘﺎدة ﻛﺎﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻮان اﻟﻤﺎﺋﻴﺔ و اﻟﺰﻳﺘﻴﺔ واﻟﺨﺸﺒﻴﺔ.
ﻗﻬﻮة اﻟﺘﺨﻤﻴﺮ اﻟﺒﺎرد ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﻀﻴﺮ ﻓﺮﻳﺪة ﺗﻤﺘﺪ ﻣﺎﺑﻴﻦ ٨إﻟﻰ ١٢ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﻣﺎء ﺗﻨﺘﺞ ﻧﻘﻲ، ﻣﺠﻤﺪ ﻗﻄﺮات اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﺒﺎردة ﻧﻜﻬﺔ ﻣﻤﻴﺰة ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ أن ﺗﺠﺪﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﻤﺤﻤﺼﺔ اﻟﻌﺎدﻳﺔ. ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ أﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﺒﺪو ﻛﺠﻬﺎز ﻣﺨﺘﺒﺮي ﻣﻌﻘﺪ إﻻ أن ﻣﺤﻤﺼﺔ ”ﻳﺎﻣﺎ“ اﻟﺒﺎردة ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮﺳﻬﻠﺔ اﻹﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎل. ﻓﻘﻂ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﺰم ﻓﻌﻠﻪ ﻫﻮ وﺿﻊ اﻟﺜﻠﺞ واﻟﻤﺎد اﻟﺒﺎرد ﻓﻲ اﻟﻮﻋﺎء اﻟﻌﻠﻮي و ﺿﺒﻂ اﻟﺼﻤﺎم ﻟﻴﻘﻄﺮ وﻣﻦ ﺛﻢ وﺿﻊ ﺣﺒﺎت اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻓﻲ اﻟﻮﻋﺎء اﻷوﺳﻂ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺤﻤﺼﺔ و ﺗﻜﻮن ﻗﺪ اﻧﺘﻬﻴﺖ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ اﻹﻋﺪاد .ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﺨﻤﻴﺮ ﺑﺄﻛﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﺗﺴﺘﻐﺮق ٨ﺳﺎﻋﺎت و ﺗﻨﺘﺞ ﻣﺎﻳﻌﺎدل ٣٢أوز ﻣﻦ ﻗﻬﻮة ﻏﻨﻴﺔ و ﻧﺎﻋﻤﺔ و ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ اﻟﺤﻤﻮﺿﺔ أن ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻚ واﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﻔﻈﻬﺎ ﻟﻤﺪة ٧أﻳﺎم ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎوﻳﺔ ﻣﺤﻜﻤﺔ اﻹﻏﻼق ﻓﻲ ﺛﻼﺟﺘﻚ.
ﺣﻤﻴﺪ ﺟﻤﺎﻟﻲ 11
ﻗﺼﺘﻲ ﻣﻊ ﻗﻬﻮة اﻟﺘﺨﻤﻴﺮ اﻟﺒﺎرد
ً ﺟﺪاُ .أﻓﻀﻞ اﻟﻤﺸﺮوﺑﺎت ﻟﻢ أﻛﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺤﺒﻲ ﻟﻠﻘﻬﻮة ﻷن ﺗﺠﺎرﺑﻲ ﻣﻊ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺳﻴﺌﺔ ً اﻟﺨﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺴﻜﺮ و ﻟﺬﻟﻚ اﺳﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﻤﺬاق اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ و اﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺔ آﻳﻀﺎ .ﻗﺒﻞ ﻋﺪة أﻋﻮام، أﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﺗﻲ ﻹﻋﻼن ﺗﺨﻤﻴﺮ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﺒﺎرد واﻟﺬي ﺟﻌﻠﻨﻲ أﺑﺤﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ اﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬا اﻟﻨﻮع ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮق ُﺻﻨﻊ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة وﻋﻦ أﻓﻀﻞ ﻃﺮق ﺗﺤﻀﻴﺮﻫﺎ .ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﺘﻲ راﺋﻌﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ اﺣﺘﺴﻴﺖ أول ﻛﻮب ﻗﻬﻮة ُأﻋﺪه ﺑﺘﻠﻚ اﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ و ﻣﻨﺬ ذﻟﻚ اﻟﺤﻴﻦ ،أﺻﺒﺢ ﺷﺮب اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻲ ﻋﺎدة ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻤﺔ.
ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺣﺎرث 12
اﻟﺼﺤﺔ و اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﻘﻬﻮة أﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺠﺮد ﻣﺸﺮوب ،اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ و ﻓﻦ .اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻗﺘﺼﺎد و ﺷﻐﻒ. ﻳﺴﻤﻰ اﻟﺒﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺒﺔ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﺤﻤﻞ ﺷﻜﻞ اﻟﺤﺒﺔ ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺑﺬرة ﻓﺎﻛﻬﺔ ﺗﻌﺮف ﺑﻜﺮز ً ﻳﺪوﻳﺎ ﺛﻢ ﺗﻔﺼﻞ اﻟﺒﺬرة ﻋﻦ اﻟﻔﺎﻛﻬﺔ .ﻫﻨﺎك ﻋﺪة اﻟﺒﻦ .ﻓﺎﻛﻬﺔ ﻛﺮز اﻟﺒﻦ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺟﻤﻌﻬﺎ أوﻻ ﺛﻢ ﺟﻤﻊ أﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﻹﺟﺮاء ﻫﺬه اﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ و ﺗﻜﻮن إﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻤﺎح ﻟﻠﻔﺎﻛﻬﺔ أن ﺗﺠﻒ ً اﻟﺒﺬرة ،أو ﺑﺈزاﻟﺔ اﻟﺒﺬرة ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ ﻣﺒﻜﺮة .ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻧﻜﻬﺔ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ اﻷﺧﻴﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﺐ اﻟﻤﺪة اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺮﻛﺖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ اﻟﻔﺎﻛﻬﺔ ﻟﺘﺠﻒ .ﺑﻌﺪ ﺟﻔﺎف ﺣﺒﺎت اﻟﺒﻦ ،اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ اﻟﻐﻴﺮﻣﺤﻤﺺ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ“ اﻟﺒﻦ اﻷﺧﻀﺮ“
ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺣﺎرث
اﻟﻔﻮاﺋﺪ اﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻬﻮة ﻣﻜﻮن أﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة .ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻪ أن ﻳﺒﻘﻴﻨﺎ ﻣﺘﻴﻘﻈﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺷﺪﻳﺪ. اﻟﻜﻔﺎﻳﻴﻦ ﱢ اﻟﻤﺦ ﺣﻴﺚ أﻧﻪ ﻳﺮﻓﻊ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺰاﺟﻴﺔ اﻹﻳﺠﺎﺑﻴﺔ و ﻳﺤﺴﻦ ﻫﻨﺎك آﺛﺎر ﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻓﻴﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ُ اﻟﺬاﻛﺮة و ﺑﻌﺾ اﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ اﻟﺬﻫﻨﻴﺔ اﻷﺧﺮى .ﻛﻤﺎ أﻧﻪ أﺛﺒﺖ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺘﻪ ﻓﻲ رﻓﻊ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎت اﻷداء اﻟﺤﺮﻛﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل زﻳﺎدة ﻣﻌﺪﻻت اﻟﺤﺮق؛ و ذﻟﻚ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺗﺤﻔﻴﺰ اﻷﻋﺼﺎب اﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ اﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻋﻦ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ إﻟﻰ أﻧﻪ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ أﻛﺴﺪة اﻷﺣﻤﺎض اﻷﻣﻴﻨﻴﺔ. ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ أﺧﺮى ،ﺷﺮب اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻳﺤﻤﻲ اﻟﻤﺦ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﻠﻮﻏﻪ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻌﻤﺮ و ﻳﻘﻠﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻄﺮ ﻣﺮض اﻟﺰﻫﺎﻳﻤﺮ ،و ﻣﺮض اﻟﺴﻜﺮي ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮع .٢ ً ﻳﻮﻣﻴﺎ ﻗﻄﻌﺖ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺎت ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﻟﺘﺼﻞ إﻟﻰ اﻟﻜﻮب اﻟﺬي اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺴﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﻬﺎ إﺑﺘﺪاء ﻣﻦ زراﻋﺘﻬﺎ ،و اﻧﺘﻘﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺷﺮاﺋﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺰارﻋﻴﻦ ،ﺗﻤﺮ ﺣﺒﻮب اﻟﺒﻦ ﺗﺸﺮب ﻣﻨﻪ. ً ﺑﻤﺮاﺣﻞ ﻣﺘﻌﺪدة ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺼﻞ إﻟﻰ أﻓﻀﻞ ﺣﺎﻻﺗﻬﺎ .اﻟﺘﺨﻤﻴﺮ و اﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎت اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﺒﻌﻬﺎ ﺗﺆﺛﺮﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺒﺔ اﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻬﻮة ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ إﻟﻰ اﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ اﻟﻐﺬاﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻛﻮب ﻣﻦ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﺴﻮداء. إن إﺿﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﺤﻠﻴﺐ ،اﻟﻜﺮﻳﻤﺔ ،اﻟﺴﻜﺮ و اﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺎت اﻷﺧﺮى ﻟﻠﻤﺬاق ﺗﺆﺛﺮﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﱠ اﻟﻐﺬاﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﻮب.
اﻟﻤﻬﻨﺪس .ﻋﻼء ﺧﻮﺟﻰ
ﺤﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﺼ َّ اﻟﺠﺮﻋﺔ ِّ ﺑﻨﺎء ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺗﺠﺎوب اﻷﺷﺨﺎص ﻣﻊ ﱠ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻨﺎوﻟﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻳﻮﻣﻲ ً ﻋﺪة ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ اﻟﻌﻤﺮ و اﻟﺘﺎرﻳﺦ اﻟﻤﺮﺿﻲ و ﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ. اﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ ُﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺘﻨﺎول اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﺿﻤﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎت ﻣﺤﺪدة ﻟﺘﺠﻨﱡ ﺐ اﻷﺿﺮار ﱠ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻨﺠﻢ ﻣﻦ اﻹﻛﺜﺎر ﻣﻦ اﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﻴﻦ. ﻛﻞ ﺷﺨﺺ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻪ ،ﻟﻜﻦ اﻷﺑﺤﺎث ﻣﻦ اﻟﺼﻌﺐ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ اﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﻴﻦ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺘُ ﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﱠ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻓﺌﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻷﺷﺨﺎص ،و ﻗﺎﻣﺖ اﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﱢ ﺳﺎﻋﺪت ﻓﻲ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ اﻗﺘﺮاﺣﺎت ﺣﻮل ﱢ ﺑﺒﻨﺎء اﻗﺘﺮاﺣﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻮزن .ﻓﻤﻦ اﻟﻤﻘﺒﻮل أن ﻳﺘﻨﺎول اﻟﺸﺨﺺ اﻟﺒﺎﻟﻎ اﻟﺬي ﻻ ﻳﺤﻤﻞ ً ً ً ﻳﻮﻣﻴﺎ. ﻛﻤ ﱠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺪود ٤٠٠- ٣٠٠ﻣﻞ ﺟﺮام ﻣﻦ اﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﻴﻦ ﺗﺎرﻳﺨﺎ ﻣﺮﺿﻴﺎ ﱢ
ً ﻧﻈﺮا ﻷن ﻋﻘﻮﻟﻬﻢ ﻛﻤ ﱠﻴﺎت ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﻴﻦ أﻣﺎ اﻷﻃﻔﺎل ،ﻓﻤﻦ اﻟﻤﻮﺻﻰ أن ﻳﺘﻨﺎوﻟﻮا ﱢ ﱠ اﻟﺸﺄن ،أوﺿﺤﺖ دراﺳﺔ أﺧﻴﺮة إﻟﻰ أﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺣﺼﻮل و أﺟﺴﺎدﻫﻢ ﻃﻮر اﻟﻨﱡ ﻤﻮ .و ﻓﻲ ذات ﱠ اﻷﻃﻔﺎل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻨﻮم ﻷن زﻳﺎدة ﻛﻤﻴﺔ اﻟﻜﺎﻓﺎﻳﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺠﺴﻢ ﻟﻬﺎ أن ﺗﺘﻌﺎرض ﻣﻊ ﻧﻮﻣﻬﻢ و ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻤﻮﻋﻘﻮﻟﻬﻢ. ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻴ ًﺎ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻧﻈﺎﻣﻬﻢ اﻟﻐﺬاﺋﻲ. ﻟﻸﻃﻔﺎل دون ١٢ﺳﻨﺔ ،اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﻬﺎ ﱠ اﻟﺼﻮدا اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺘﻮي ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﻴﻦ و اﻟﺸﻮﻛﻮﻻﺗﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻨﺎوﻟﻬﺎ اﻷﻃﻔﺎل ﻓﻲ ﺳﻦ اﻟﺮاﺑﻌﺔ و دوﻧﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺑﺄس ﺑﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ داﻣﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺪود ٤٥ﻣﻞ ﺟﺮام ﻓﻲ اﻟﻴﻮم ،ﻟﻜﻦ ﻻ ُﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺘﻨﺎوﻟﻬﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻳﻮﻣﻲ.
ﻟﻸﻃﻔﺎل ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ١٣ - ٨ﺳﻨﺔ ،ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﺤﺪودة ﻣﻦ اﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﻴﻦ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻧﻈﺎﻣﻬﻢ ً ﻧﻈﺮا ﻟﻠﻀﻐﻮﻃﺎت اﻟﻐﺬاﺋﻲ ﻣﻮﺻﻰ ﺑﻬﺎ اﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻌﺮﺿﻮن ﻟﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺪراﺳﺔ واﻹﺧﺘﺒﺎرات و اﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﺔ .اﺳﺘﻬﻼك ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺎرب ١٠٠ﻣﻞ ﺟﺮام ﻳﻮﻣﻴﺎ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ،و ذﻟﻚ ﻛﻲ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻌﺎرض ﻣﻊ أﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬه ﻌﺪ ذو ﱢ ﻧﻮﻣﻬﻢ اﻟﺬي ُﻳ ﱡ اﻟﻔﺘﺮة اﻟﻌﻤﺮﻳﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻨﻀﺠﻮن ﺧﻼﻟﻬﺎ و ﻃﺒ ﱠﻴﺔ أﺧﺮى ﺗﻨﻤﻮ ﻋﻘﻮﻟﻬﻢ ،و ﻷﺳﺒﺎب ﱢ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﱢ ﻘﺔ ﺑﻔﺘﺮة اﻟﻤﺮاﻫﻘﺔ .و ﻣﻦ اﻟﺸﺎﺋﻊ ﻛﻤ ﱠﻴﺔ ﻛﺒﻴﺮة ﻣﻦ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪة ﻫﺬه اﻟﻔﺌﺔ ﱢ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة. ً أي اﻷﺷﺨﺎص اﻟﱠ ﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺤﻤﻠﻮن أﻣﺮاﺿﺎ ﻣﻦ ﱢ ﻳﺘﻌﺮﺿﻮن ﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮات ﻓﺌﺔ ﻋﻤﺮﻳﺔ ﻛﺎﻧﻮا ﻗﺪ ﱠ ﺑﻜﻤ ﱠﻴﺔ ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻮ ﺗﻨﺎوﻟﻮا اﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﻴﻦ وﻟﻮ ﱢ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ. ﺑﻤﺎ أن اﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﻴﻦ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻮاد اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺴﺒﺐ ارﺗﻔﺎع ﻓﻲ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻧﺒﻀﺎت اﻟﻘﻠﺐ و ﺿﻐﻂ اﻟﺪم ،ﻳﻮﺻﻰ اﻷﺷﺨﺎص اﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻌﺎﻧﻮن ﻣﻦ ارﺗﻔﺎع ﺿﻐﻂ اﻟﺪم أو أﻣﺮاض اﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺑﺘﻨﺎول ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﺤﺪودة ﻣﻦ اﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﻴﻦ. ﻣﻦ اﻟﺠﺪﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻛﺮ أن ﻫﺬه اﻟﺤﺎﻻت اﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻧﺎﺟﻤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻨﺎول ﱢ ﻳﺤﺪ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﻴﻦ ،ﻟﻜﻦ وﺟﻮدﻫﺎ ﻳﺠﺐ أن ﱠ ﺗﻨﺎول اﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﻴﻦ إﻟﻰ ﻣﺎ دون ٢٠٠ﻣﻞ ﺟﺮام ﻓﻲ اﻟﻴﻮم ،و ﻣﻦ اﻷﻓﻀﻞ اﺳﺘﺸﺎرة اﻷﻃﺒﺎء ﻗﺒﻞ ﺗﻨﺎول اﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﻴﻦ.
أﻇﻬﺮت اﻷﺑﺤﺎث أن ﺗﻨﺎول اﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﻴﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺒﺐ اﻟﻨﱠ ﻮع اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮض اﻟﺴﻜﺮي ،و ﻟﻜﻦ اﻷﺷﺨﺎص اﻟﻤﺼﺎﺑﻴﻦ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺗﺨﻔﻴﻒ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ اﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﻴﻦ ً ﻳﻮﻣﻴﺎ و ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻮﺻﻲ ﺑﻪ اﻟﻄﺒﻴﺐ اﻟﻤﺘﻨﺎوﻟﺔ إﻟﻰ ٢٠٠ﻣﻞ ﺟﺮام ﻷن اﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﻴﻦ ﻟﻪ أن ﻳﻌﺮﻗﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻣﺘﺼﺎص اﻟﺠﻠﻮﻛﻮز. اﻟﻤﺮﺿﻌﺎت ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻛﻤ ﱠﻴﺔ اﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﻴﻦ ﻟﻠﺴﻴﺪات اﻟﺤﻮاﻣﻞ و ُ ﱢ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﱢ اﻟﺮﺿﻴﻊ إﻟﻰ ﻣﺨﺎﻃﺮ اﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﻴﻦ. أو اﻟﺠﻨﻴﻦ ﺗﻌﺮض ﱠ ﱡ ً ﺻﺒﺎﺣﺎ ﻟﻜﻦ اﻷﺷﺨﺎص اﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺸﻌﺮون ﺑﻨﺸﺎط ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻨﺎول اﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﻴﻦ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﻦ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻓﻴﻴﻦ ،و ﻳﻮاﺟﻬﻮن ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻨﻮم ﻣﺴﺎء ﻫﺆﻻء أﺷﺨﺎص ﱠ اﻟﻤﺘﻨﺎوﻟﺔ إﻟﻰ ٥٠ﻣﻞ ﺟﺮام ﻓﻲ اﻟﻴﻮم و ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺄن ُﻳﻘﻠﱢ ﻠﻮااﻟﻜﻤ ﱠﻴﺔ ُ ﱢ ً آﺛﺎرا ﻳﻨﻈﻤﻮﻧﻬﺎ إﻟﻰ أن ﻳﺠﺪوا اﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺒﻬﻢ دون أن ﺗﺴﺒﺐ ﻟﻬﻢ ﱢ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻴﺔ.
ﻛﻴﻒ اﻧﺘﺸﺎرت اﻟﻘﻬﻮة
اﻟﺘﻌﺮف ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺠﻴﺮات اﻟﻘﻬﻮة و ﺗﻨﺎوﻟﻬﺎ أﻗﺮب دﻟﻴﻞ ﻣﻮﺛﻮق ﺣﻮل ﱡ ﻛﻤﺸﺮوب ﻇﻬﺮ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻘﺮن اﻟﺨﺎﻣﺲ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻓﻲ أﻧﺤﺎء اﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ اﻟﺴﺎﺣﻠﻴﺔ ” اﻟﻤﺨﺎه“ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻴﻤﻦ .ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺨﻤﻴﺮ ﺑﺬور اﻟﺒﻦ ﻷول ﻣﺮة ﻓﻲ اﻟﺠﺰﻳﺮة اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ. ُﺻ ﱢﺪرت ﺑﺬور اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻷول ﻣﺮة إﻟﻰ اﻟﻴﻤﻦ ﻣﻦ أﺛﻴﻮﺑﻴﺎ ﺣﻴﺚ أﺧﺬ اﻟﺘﺠﺎر ﺑﺬور اﻟﻘﻬﻮة وﺑﺪأوا ﺑﺰراﻋﺘﻬﺎ ،و اﻧﺘﺸﺮت ﺑﺬور اﻟﺒﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺎ وأﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل زراﻋﺔ اﻟﺒﻦ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺸﺮق اﻷوﺳﻂ ﺧﻼل اﻟﻘﺮن اﻟﺴﺎدس ﻋﺸﺮ .وﻛﺎن أول ﻣﺤﺼﻮل ﻗﻬﻮة ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻬﺮﻳﺒﻪ إﻟﻰ اﻟﻬﻨﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ اﻟﺸﺮق اﻷوﺳﻂ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﺎم ١٦٧٠ﻣﻦ ِﻗﺒﻞ رﺟﻞ ﺻﻮﻓﻲ ﻳﺪﻋﻰ ﺑﺎﺑﺎ ﺑﻮدان ﻣﻦ اﻟﻴﻤﻦ.
اﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺸﺮق اﻷوﺳﻂ ،اﻧﺘﺸﺮت اﻟﻘﻬﻮة إﻟﻰ إﻳﻄﺎﻟﻴﺎ وإﻧﺪوﻧﻴﺴﻴﺎ ً وﻣﻦ ﺛﻢ إﻟﻰ أﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ .و ﻣﻊ ازدﻫﺎر اﻟﺘﺠﺎرة ﺑﻴﻦ اﻟﺒﻨﺪﻗﻴﺔ وﻣﺼﺮ وﺷﻤﺎل ً ﻗﺎدرا ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻠﺐ اﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺴﻠﻊ إﻟﻰ أﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ ،أﺻﺒﺢ اﻟﺸﺮق اﻷوﺳﻂ ﻣﻴﻨﺎء اﻟﺒﻨﺪﻗﻴﺔ .وﻣﻦ ﻫﺬا اﻟﻤﻴﻨﺎء ،ﺗﻢ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة إﻟﻰ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ أوروﺑﺎ ﺣﻴﺚ أول ﻣﻘﻬﻰ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎم ١٦٤٥ﻓﻲ روﻣﺎ. اﻓﺘُ ﺘِ ﺢ ﱠ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﺎم ١٦٥٤م ،أﺻﺒﺤﺖ اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻫﻲ ﻣﺸﻬﻮرة ﻓﻲ إﻧﺠﻠﺘﺮا ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﺠﻬﻮد ﺷﺮﻛﺔ اﻟﻬﻨﺪ اﻟﺸﺮﻗﻴﺔ اﻟﺒﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ ،ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻣﻘﻬﻰ اﻟﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺑﺄﻛﺴﻔﻮرد َ ﻻﺣﻘﺎ ،ﺗﻢ اﻓﺘﺘﺎح اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻫﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﻫﻨﺎك و ﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺟﻮد ﺣﺘﱠ ﻰ اﻟﻴﻮم. ﻓﻲ ١٦٥٧م ﺗﻠﻴﻬﺎ اﻟﻨﻤﺴﺎ وﺑﻮﻟﻨﺪا .ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ اﻟﻬﻨﺪ اﻟﺸﺮﻗﻴﺔ اﻟﻬﻮﻟﻨﺪﻳﺔ أول ﻣﻦ اﺳﺘﻮرد اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﺑﻜﻤﻴﺎت ﻛﺒﻴﺮة ،ﺛﻢ ﺑﺪأوا ﺑﺰراﻋﺔ ﻣﺤﺼﻮل اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻓﻲ ﺟﺎﭬﺎ وﺳﻴﻼن.
ﺧﻼل ﻓﺘﺮة اﻟﺜﻮرة اﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ،زاد اﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻓﻲ اﻟﺒﻼد ﺣﺘﻰ أن اﻟﺘﺠﺎر اﻛﺘﻨﺰوا ﺳﻠﻊ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻓﻲ ﻣﺨﺎزﻧﻬﻢ و رﻓﻌﻮا اﻷﺳﻌﺎر وذﻟﻚ ﻟﻘﻠﺔ اﻟﺘﺠﺎر اﻟﺒﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﻴﻦ. ﻣﻤﺎ أﺗﺎح ﻓﻲ اﻟﻘﺮن اﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ ﻋﺸﺮ ،اﻧﺨﻔﺾ اﺳﺘﻬﻼك اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺎ َّ ً ﻧﻈﺮا ﻷﻧَّ ﻪ أﺳﻬﻞ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺘﺤﻀﻴﺮ. ﻟﻠﺸﺎي أن ﻳﺸﺘﻬﺮ
ﺗﻌﺮف اﻟﻨَّ ﺎس ﻓﻲ اﻟﺒﺮازﻳﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ اﺳﺘﻐﺮق أﻣﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﺎم ١٧٢٧مَّ ، َّ ً ﺗﻢ اﻟﺰراﻋﺔ، اﺑﺘﺪأت إن ﻣﺎ ﻟﻜﻦ اﻟﺒﻼد. أﻧﺤﺎء ﻟﻜﻞ ﻳﺼﻞ ﻰ ﺣﺘَّ وﻗﺘﺎ زراﻋﺘﻬﺎ اﻧﺘﺸﺎر َّ ﺛﻢ أﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺑﻌﺪ ذﻟﻚ أﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻨﺘﺞ ﻟﻠﻘﻬﻮة ﺣﻮل إﻋﺪاد ﻣﺰارع ﻛﺒﻴﺮة ﻹﻧﺘﺎج اﻟﻘﻬﻮةَّ . ﺻﺪرت اﻟﺒﺮازﻳﻞ ﻣﺎ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺑﺤﻠﻮل ﻋﺎم ١٨٥٢م ،و ﺑﻴﻦ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻴﻦ ١٩١٠و َّ ١٩٢٠ ﺻﺪرت ﻛﻮﻟﻮﻣﺒﻴﺎ ﻳﺼﻞ ﻣﻘﺪاره إﻟﻰ ٪٧٠ﻣﻦ ﻣﺤﺼﻮل اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ،ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ َّ و ﻏﻮاﺗﻴﻤﺎﻻ و ﭬﻨﻴﺰوﻳﻼ ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻌﻴﻦ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺼﻞ ﻣﻘﺪاره إﻟﻰ ٪٣٠ﻣﻦ ﻣﺤﺼﻮل اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ. أﺻﺒﺤﺖ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﻤﺼﺪر اﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻟﻠﺪﺧﻞ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺪول اﻟﻨَّ ﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻛﺄوﻏﻨﺪا و رواﻧﺪا و ﺑﺮوﻧﺪي و إﺛﻴﻮﺑﻴﺎ و ﺑﻌﺾ ﺑﻠﺪان أﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ اﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ.
ﻋﺎم ﻟﻘﻬﻮة أﻓﻀﻞ
ﺣﺪﺛﺖ اﻟﻜﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺴﺠﺎﻻت ﺑﻴﻦ اﻹﻗﺘﺼﺎدﻳﻴﻦ و اﻟﻤﺨﺘﺼﻴﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺒﺐ اﻧﺨﻔﺎض أﺳﻌﺎر اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎم ٢٠١٦م و ﺧﺎﺻﺔ اﻟﺒﻦ أراﺑﻴﻜﺎ اﻟﺘﻲ ﻌﺪ اﻟﻤﺼﺪر اﻷﻛﺒﺮ ﻟﻠﻘﻬﻮة ﺗﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻓﻲ اﻹﻧﺨﻔﺎض .اﻟﺒﺮازﻳﻞ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗُ َّ ً ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻴﺎ ﺑﺼﺪد ﻫﻄﻮل ﻛﻤﻴﺔ أﻣﻄﺎر ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻫﺬا اﻟﻌﺎم ﻟﺮي ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻟﻬﺎ .اﻟﺠﻮ اﻟﻤﺰارع ،واﻧﺨﻔﺎض ﻋﻤﻼت اﻟﺪول اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺔ اﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ اﻟﻤﻤﻄﺮ َ ﻗﻮﻳﺔ. ﻳﺠﻌﻞ اﻟﻤﺰارﻋﻴﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻣﻮن ﺑﺘﺼﺪﻳﺮ اﻟﻤﺤﺼﻮل ﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻋﻤﻼت َّ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ روﺑﺎﻧﻚ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ،اﻟﻤﺤﺼﻮل اﻟﺒﺮازﻳﻠﻲ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﺪ ﻹﻣﺪاد َّ ﺑﻨﺎء ﻋﻠﻰ إن اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﻴﻦ اﻟﺒﺮازﻟﻴﻴﻦ اﻟﻘﺎدم. اﻟﻤﻮﺳﻢ أﻛﺒﺮ ﺔ ﻴ ﺑﻜﻤ اﻟﺴﻮق َّ ِّ َّ ﺳﻴﻔﻌﻠﻮن ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻮﺳﻌﻬﻢ ﻟﺒﻴﻊ اﻟﻤﺤﺼﻮل اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻲ .و ﺧﻔﺾ ً ﺗﻐﻴﺮ أﺳﻌﺎر اﻟﻨﻔﻂ و ﺗﻔﻀﻴﻼ. اﻷﺳﻌﺎر ﻫﻮ اﻟﺨﻴﺎر اﻷﻛﺜﺮ ً ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﻣﻊ ُّ اﻟﻤ َﺼ ِّﺪرﻳﻦ ﻫﻲ و اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﻴﻦ ﺗﻮاﺟﻪ اﻟﺘﻲ اﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺎت اﻟﺘﻐﻴﺮ اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺧﻲ ﻓﺈن ُ ُّ ﻣﺤﻞ اﻫﺘﻤﺎم ودراﺳﺔ. ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮة ،ﻓﺈن أﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﺗﻐﻴﺮات َّ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻮﻗﺖ اﻟﺬي ﻳﺸﻬﺪ ﻣﻨﺎخ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ُّ اﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺘﻮﻗﻊ أن ﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ إﻧﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻘﻬﻮة ﻫﺬا اﻟﻌﺎم .ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ أﺧﺮى ،اﻧﺨﻔﺎض أﺳﻌﺎر اﻟﻨﻔﻂ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻔﺘﺮض أن ﻳﺆدي إﻟﻰ أﺳﻌﺎر أﻓﻀﻞ ﻟﻠﻘﻬﻮة. ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ أﺳﻌﺎر ﻗﻄﺎع اﻟﺘﺠﺰﺋﺔ ﻓﻲ أﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻫﺒﻂ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ٪٤٫٣إﻟﻰ إن َّ َّ ٪٤٫٤١٢ﻟﻠﺮﻃﻞ اﻟﻮاﺣﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻮﭬﻤﺒﺮ اﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ ،و ﻫﻲ اﻷﻗﻞ ﻣﻨﺬ ﻋﺎم اﻟﺘﺠﺎرﻳﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﺎﻗﺶ ﺧﻔﺾ .٢٠١١ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔً ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ،ﺑﺪأت اﻟﻌﻼﻣﺎت َّ ً اﻟﻤﺘﻮﻗﻊ ارﺗﻔﺎع إﻧﺘﺎج اﻟﺒﺮازﻳﻞ ﻟﻠﻘﻬﻮة َّ أﻳﻀﺎ .ﻣﻦ أﺳﻌﺎر اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻟﻠﺰﺑﺎﺋﻦ ﻣﻦ ٤٨ﻣﻠﻴﻮن إﻟﻰ ٥٨ﻣﻠﻴﻮن ﻛﻴﺲ ﻫﺬا اﻟﻌﺎم ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺰن اﻟﻜﻴﺲ اﻟﻮاﺣﺪ ً أﻳﻀﺎ أن ﺗﺮﻓﻊ ﻛﻮﻟﻮﻣﺒﻴﺎ اﻧﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺘﻮﻗﻊ َّ ﻣﻘﺪار ٦٠ﻛﻴﻠﻮ ﺟﺮام .و ﻣﻦ ١٢٫١ﻣﻠﻴﻮن إﻟﻰ ١٤ﻣﻠﻴﻮن ﻓﻲ ٢٠١٥و ﻳﻤﻜﻦ أن ﻳﺰﻳﺪ إﻟﻰ ١٦ﻣﻠﻴﻮن ﺑﺤﻠﻮل ﻋﺎم .٢٠١٨ ﻓﻌﻼ. إﻧَّ ﻪ ﻋﺎم أﻓﻀﻞ ﻟﻠﻘﻬﻮة … ً
ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة َّ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺎت اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ١٧-١٥
: • ﻳﻨﺎﻳﺮ ﻛﻮﻟﻜﺎﺗﺎ ،اﻟﻬﻨﺪ .ﻣﻌﺮض اﻟﺸﺎﻫﻲ و اﻟﻘﻬﻮي اﻟﻬﻨﺪي.
٢٣ - ١٩
ﻣﻴﺪان ،إﻧﺪوﻧﻴﺴﻴﺎ ،ﻣﻬﺮﺟﺎن اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﺑﻴﻤﺪان.
• ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ ١٢ - ٩
: • ﻳﻨﺎﻳﺮ ﻣﻮﻣﺒﺎي ،اﻟﻬﻨﺪ .ﻣﻬﺮﺟﺎن اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ اﻟﻬﻨﺪي.
• ﻣﺎرس : ﻣﻮﺳﻜﻮ ،روﺳﻴﺎ .أﻳﺎم اﻟﺒﺎرﻳﺴﺘﺎ اﻟﺮوﺳﻴﺔ
: • ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮ ﻫﻴﺮﻳﺪﻳﺎ ،ﻛﻮﺳﺘﺎ رﻳﻜﺎ .ﻣﻌﺮض ﻛﻮﺳﺘﺎ رﻳﻜﺎ ﻟﻠﻘﻬﻮة.
: • ﻣﺎرس ﻣﻮﺳﻜﻮ ،روﺳﻴﺎ .ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻗﻄﺎع اﻟﺸﺎي و اﻟﻘﻬﻮﻳﺔ اﻟﺮوﺳﻴﺔ.
• ﺳﺒﺘﻤﺒﺮ : ﻧﺪن ،اﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ اﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪة .اﻟﺠﻠﺴﺔ رﻗﻢ ١١٧ﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎت اﻷﻋﻀﺎء ﱠ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ و ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ.
٣-١ ٣ -١
١١ - ٩
• ﻣﺎرس : اﻟﺠﻠﺴﺔ رﻗﻢ ١١٦ﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ و اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎت اﻷﻋﻀﺎء ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ.
: • ﻣﺎرس ﻣﺆﺗﻤﺮ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ
• ﻣﺎرس ١١ -٦
أدﻳﺲ أﺑﺒﺎ ،إﺛﻴﻮﺑﻴﺎ.
١٩ - ١٧
: • ﻣﺎرس ﺳﺎﻧﺪﻳﻴﻐﻮ ،اﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎت اﻟﻤﺘﱠ ﺤﺪة. اﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎع اﻟﺴﻨﻮي ﻟﺮاﺑﻄﺔ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ.
• ﻣﺎﻳﻮ ١٥ - ١٣
١٠ - ٨
٢٣ - ١٩
١٩ - ١٣
: • ﻧﻮﭬﻤﺒﺮ ﻛﻮﻧﻤﻴﻨﻖ ،اﻟﺼﻴﻦ .ﻣﺆﺗﻤﺮ ﻋﻠﻮم اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﻓﻲ دورﺗﻪ ال .٢٦
أدوات ﺗﺤﻀﻴﺮ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة
ﺻﺎﻧﻌﺔ اﻟﺮﻏﻮة ) ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻄﺎرﻳﺔ ( ﺟﻬﺎز ﻟﺘﺤﻀﻴﺮ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة دﻳﺠﻴﺘﺎل
ﺟﻬﺎز ﻟﺘﺤﻀﻴﺮ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ذﻛﻲ
ﻣﺤﻀﺮ ﻗﻬﻮة زﺟﺎﺟﻲ
أرﻳﺞ ” أروﻣﺎ“ أﻣﺎ اﻟﻤﺮادف ﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ أروﻣﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻠﻐﺔ ِ اﻟﻤﺤﻤﺼﺔ ﺗُ ﺪﻋﻰ ”أرﻳﺞ“ - راﺋﺤﺔ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ -ﱠ ﱠ ﱠ ﻳﺤﺪث ﻟﻠﺸﺨﺺ راﺋﺤﺘﻬﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ اﻟﺘﺨﻤﻴﺮ ﻓﺘﺪﻋﻰ ”ﺷﺬى“ .ﻓﻜﱢ ﺮ ﻓﻲ راﺋﺤﺔ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻛﺄﺟﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ُ ً ﻌﻴﻦ ،ﻣﺘﻰ ﻣﺎ اﺳﺘﻤﺘﻌﺖ ﺑﻨﻔﺤﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ اﻹﺳﺘﻴﻘﺎظ .أرﻳﺞ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻟﻴﺲ ُﻣ ﺮﺗﺒﻄﺎ ﺑﻨﻮع ﻗﻬﻮة ُﻣ ﱠ ﺧﻼل ﺗﺤﻀﻴﺮ ﻗﻬﻮﺗﻚ ﻓﺄﻧﺖ ﺗﺴﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﺎﻷروﻣﺎ!
ﺒﻬﺮة ُﻣ َّ ﺤﺪد .ﻋﻨﺪ اﺧﺘﺒﺎر ﻧﻜﻬﺔ ”ﻣ َﺒ ﱠﻬﺮة“ ﻓﺄﻧﺖ ﺗُ ﺸﻴﺮ إﻟﻰ ُﺑﻬﺎر ُﻣ ﱠ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺬَ ﱡوق اﻟﻘﻬﻮة و وﺻﻔﻬﺎ ﺑﺄﻧﱠ ﻬﺎ ُ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ،اﻟﺒﻬﺎر ﻳﻜﻮن ﺷﺒﻴﻪ ﺑﻤﺎ ﺗﺠﺪه ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺄﻛﻮﻻت و اﻟﻤﺸﺮوﺑﺎت اﻷﺧﺮى .ﻧﻜﻬﺎت اﻟﺒﻬﺎر ً ﺗﻤﺎﻣﺎُ ،ﺑﻬﺎرات ﻣﺜﻞ اﻟﻘﺮﻓﺔ و اﻟﭭﺎﻧﻴﻠﻴﺎ و اﻟﺤﺎر ﻓﻲ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻫﻲ ﻣﺜﻞ اﻟﺘﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺄﻛﻮﻻت اﻟﻼذع ،وﻧﻜﻬﺎت أﺧﺮى ﻟﻬﺎ أن ﺗُ ﺨﺘﺒﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻬﻮات ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ. ﱠ
ﺟﺮاب /ﻛﻴﺲ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻫﻲ ﻋﺒﺎرة ﻋﻦ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﻋﺎم ُﻳﺸﻴﺮ إﻟﻰ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻓﻲ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﺻﻐﻴﺮة و ﻟﻤﺮة-واﺣﺪة و ﻟﻠﻤﺮة اﻟﻮاﺣﺪة .ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﭘﻮدات اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻓﻲ أﺟﻬﺰة ﻣﺜﻞ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ أﺟﻬﺰة اﻟﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﱠ اﻟﻤﺴﺒﻘﺔ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﺳﻴﻨﺴﻴﻮ).(Senseo و وﺗﺎﺳﺴﻴﻤﻮ)(TASSIMO ﻛﻴﻮرق )(Keurig ُ ﻬﻤﺔ ﺗﺤﻀﻴﺮ ﻛﻮب ﻗﻬﻮة ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺔ و ﺑﺴﻴﻄﺔ .ﺗﺄﺗﻲ اﻷﻛﻴﺎس ﺑﻨﻜﻬﺎت و أﻧﻮاع اﻟﻘﻴﺎس ﺗﺠﻌﻞ ُﻣ ﱠ ً اﻟﻜﺎﭘﺘﺸﻴﻨﻮ. ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ أﻳﻀﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺸﺮوﺑﺎت ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻛﺎﻟﻼﺗﻴﻪ و ﱠ ُﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ،و ﱠ
ﺣِ َّﺪة ﺣﺪة ﻣﻈﻬﺮ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة و ﻟﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﻳﻌﺮف ﺑﺎﻟﺤِ ﱠﺪة .ﻣﻦ اﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﺪى ﱠ ﺗﺬوق اﻟﻤﺘﱠ ﺒﻊ ﻓﻲ ﱠ ﺻﺒﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻮب زُ ﺟﺎﺣﻲ ﱡ ﺷﻔﺎف ،و ﻫﻮ ذات اﻷﺳﻠﻮب ُ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻫﻮ ﱠ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة.
اﺳﺘﻄﻌﺎم ﺧﺒﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻨﺒﻴﺬ ”اﻟﺘﺬوق“ ﻣﺄﻟﻮﻓﺔ ﻓﻲ إﻃﺎر اﻟﻨﱠ ﺒﻴﺬ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﻮم اﻟﺸﺎرﺑﻮن أو ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮن ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ٌ ﱡ اﻟﻨﺒﻴﺬ.أﻣﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ اﺧﺘﺒﺎر اﻟﻨﻜﻬﺎت اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ،اﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ،اﻟﺤﻤﻮﺿﺔ ،و اﻟﺠﻮاﻧﺐ اﻷﺧﺮى ﺑﻤﺮاﻗﺒﺔ ﺟﻮدة ﱠ اﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ .ﻫﻲ ﻟﻠﻘﻬﻮة ﻳﺪﻋﻰ ﻫﺬا ب“ اﻻﺳﺘﻄﻌﺎم“ أو اﻟﻜﻮﭘﻴﻨﻖ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺸﺎر إﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﱠ ً ﺑﻌﻀﺎ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻟﻴﺘﻌﻠﱠ ﻤﻬﺎ و ﻳﺘﻤﻜﱠ ﻦ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ أي ﺷﺨﺺ ،و ﻫﻲ ﻓﻲ اﺳﺘﻄﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻬﺎرة ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ أي أﺣﺪ ﻣﺎدام ﻳﺴﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻬﻮة و ﻳﻤﺎرس ”اﻻﺳﺘﻄﻌﺎم“.
ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﻌﺼﺮﻳﺔ ﺗﺘﺴﻮق؟ ﻛﻢ ﻣﺮة رأﻳﺖ ﺷﺎﺑﺔ ﺗﺘﺒﺨﺘﺮ ﺑﻜﻮب اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻓﻲ ﻳﺪﻫﺎ و ﻫﻲ ﺗﺘﺤﺪث؟ أو ﺗﻤﺸﻲ؟ أو ﱠ ﻨﻈﻒ؟ أو ﺗﻠﺒﺲ؟ أو ﺧﻼل اﺟﺘﻤﺎع؟ أو ﱠرﺑﻤﺎ وﻫﻲ ﻧﺎﺋﻤﺔ -اﻷﺧﻴﺮة ُدﻋﺎﺑﺔ .- أو ﺗﺄﻛﻞ؟ أو ﺗُ ﱢ ً ً ﻓﺎﺧﺮا ﻟﻠﻘﻬﻮة ﻫﻨﺎ و ﻫﻨﺎك ﻣﻦ اﻷﻧﻤﺎط اﻟﻌﺼﺮﻳﺔ اﻟﺸﺎﺋﻌﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﺒﻌﻬﺎ ﻛﻮﺑﺎ أﺻﺒﺢ ﺣﻤﻞ اﻟﺴﻴﺪات ﻃﻮال اﻟﻴﻮم .ﻻ أﺣﺪ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ أﻳﻦ ﺟﺎءت ﻫﺬه اﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮة ﻟﻜﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﺣﺮﺻﺖ ﱢ ﺟﻴ ً ﺪا ﻟﺰﻳﺎدة ﻣﺒﻴﻌﺎﺗﻬﻢ! ﱠ ﻣﺤﻼت اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻋﻠﻰ اﺳﺘﻐﻼﻟﻬﺎ ﱢ
ﻫﺰَّ اﻟﻔﻨﺠﺎن ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ﻛﻮب اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻳﺪﻋﻰ ﻓﻨﺠﺎن أو ﻓﻨﺠﺎل ،و ﻫﺰﱠ ه ﻳﺤﻤﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻲ ﻛﺜﻴﺮة .ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ اﻟﻌﺎدات ،ﻳﻌﻨﻲ أن اﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﻗﺪ اﻛﺘﻔﻰ ،ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﻨﻲ ”أرﻳﺪ اﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ“ ﻓﻲ أﻋﺮاف أﺧﺮى. اﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﺸﺎرك ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻌﺘﻘﺪات و اﻟﺘﻘﺎﻟﻴﺪ ،ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻲ و ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﻣﺜﺎل ﻫﺰ ﻓﻨﺠﺎن اﻟﻘﻬﻮة .اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﱢ دﻻﻻت ﻧﻔﺲ اﻟﺘﺼﺮﻓﺎت ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻘﺪ ُم ﻟﻚ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﺴﺎﺧﻨﺔ ﱡ اﻟﻀﻴﺎﻓﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺑﺄﻛﻤﻠﻬﺎ ،و ﻫﻲ ﻋﻨﻮان ﱢ ﻳﻈﻞ اﻟﻤﻀﻴﻒ ُﻳ ﱢ ً ﻣﺸﻴﺮا إﻟﻰ أﻧﱠ ﻚ اﻛﺘﻔﻴﺖ أو إﻟﻰ أن ﺗﻘﻮم ﺑﺘﻐﻄﻴﺘﻪ ﺑﺄﺻﺎﺑﻌﻚ اﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﻬﺰ ﻓﻨﺠﺎﻧﻚ ً أﻳﻀﺎ. اﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ ﻓﻲ إﺷﺎرة ﻋﻠﻰ اﻛﺘﻔﺎﺋﻚ
ﺳﻮﺳﺒﻴﺴﻮ ﻣﺸﺎرﻛﺔ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة - ّ ﻗﻬﻮة ﺳﻮﺳﺒﻴﺴﺴﻮ ﻫﻲ ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪﻳﺔ ﺑﺪأت ﻓﻲ ﻧﺎﭘﻠﺲ ﻓﻲ إﻳﻄﺎﻟﻴﺎ .و ﺗﺪﻋﻰ أﻳﻀﺎ ﻗﻬﻮة ُﻣﻌﻠﱠ ﻘﺔ .ﺳﻮﺳﺒﻴﺴﺴﻮ ﻫﻮ ﺣﺐ ﻟﻤﺸﺎرﻛﺔ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻣﻊ اﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺄﺗﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ اﻷﺷﺨﺎص إﻟﻰ اﻟﻤﻘﻬﻰ و ﻳﻄﻠﺒﻮن ﻗﻬﻮﺗﻴﻦ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﺸﺮﺑﻮن واﺣﺪة ﻓﻘﻂ .ﺛﻢ إذا ﺟﺎء ً ﻣﺠﺎﻧﺎ .ﻳﺰﻋﻢ أن اﻟﺴﻮﺳﺒﻴﺴﺴﻮ ﻣﺤﺘﺎج و ﺳﺄل ﻋﻦ وﺟﻮد ﺳﻮﺳﺒﻴﺴﺴﻮ ،ﻳﺘﻢ ﺧﺪﻣﺘﻪ ﺗﻌﻮد إﻟﻰ أﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ١٠٠ﻋﺎم ،ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺑﻌﺾ اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺮوع ﻓﻲ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ اﻟﺴﻮﺳﺒﻴﺴﺴﻮ ﻟﺰﻳﺎدة اﻟﻤﺒﻴﻌﺎت و ﻧﺸﺮ اﻷﻓﻌﺎل اﻟﺤﺴﻨﺔ.
اﻟﺨﻄﻮﺑﺔ واﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﻤﺎﻟﺤﺔ اﻟﺘﻘﺪم ﻟﺨﻄﺒﺔ ﻓﺘﺎةُ ،ﻳﻌﻄﻰ اﻟﺠﻮاب ﻓﻲ ﻛﻮب ﻗﻬﻮة .اﻟﻌﺮب ﻋﺎﻃﻔﻴﻮن و ﻻ ﻋﻨﺪ ﱡ ً ﻔﻌﻞ .ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ،إذا ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻳ ﻗﺪ ﻣﺎ أﺷﻨﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬا ﻷن ﺑﻴﻮﺗﻬﻢ ﻓﻲ أﺑﺪا ﻟﻚ ﻳﺴﻴﺌﻮن ُ َ ﺻﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﺰﺧﺮﻓﺔ أو ﻓﻲ ﻘﺪم ﻟﻚ ﻛﻮب ﻗﻬﻮة ﱠ ﺳﻴ ﱠ اﻟﻌﺮوﺳﺔ و أﻫﻠﻬﺎ راﺿﻴﻦ ﻋﻨﻚُ ، أﻣﺎ إذا ﺣﺼﻠﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻮب ﻗﻬﻮة ﻣﺎﻟﺢ ﻓﻬﺬا ﻣﻌﻨﺎه أن ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺎوﻟﺔ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺟﻤﻴﻠﺔ ،ﱠ ﺧﻄﺒﺘﻚ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﺿﺔ.
رﻓﺾ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻣﺴﻲء ﻟﻼﺣﺘﺮام ﻋﻨﺪ زﻳﺎرة ﺑﻴﺖ ﺻﺪﻳﻖ أو ﻓﻲ ﻟﻘﺎء ﻋﻤﻞ ،ﻳﻌﻤﺪ اﻟﻨﺎس إﻟﻰ ُﻣﻀﺎﻳﻔﺘﻚ ﺑﻜﻮب ﻗﻬﻮة. رﻏﻢ أﻧﱠ ﻪ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ أن ﺗﻘﻮل ”ﻻ أرﻳﺪ ﻗﻬﻮة و ﺳﺄﻛﺘﻔﻲ ﺑﺸﺮب اﻟﻤﺎء“ ،إﻻ أﻧﱠ ﻪ ً ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻻ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ ،رﻓﺾ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﺗﺆﺧﺬ ﻛﺮﻓﺾ ﻟﻠﻀﻴﺎﻓﺔ، ﻟﻴﺲ ً ً ﻣﺴﻴﺌﺎ ﻟﻼﺣﺘﺮام ،ﺑﺎﻟﺬات إذا ﻛﺎﻧﺖ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻋﺮﺑﻴﺔ. ﻌﺪ ﻫﺬا ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺪن اﻟﺼﻐﻴﺮة ُﻳ ﱡ ُ
ﻳﻤﻴﻨﻚ ﻳﺴﺎر و ﻳﺴﺎرك ﻳﻤﻴﻦ ﺤﺒﻮن اﻟﺘﻴﺎﻣﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻔﻌﻠﻮن :ﻓﻲ اﻟﺸﺮب و اﻷﻛﻞ و ﻋﻨﺪ اﻟﻤﺸﻲ .و اﻟﻌﺮب ُﻳ ﱡ ﻘﺪم اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﺗﺄﻛﺪ أﻧﻚ ﺗُ ﻤﺴﻚ اﻟﻔﻨﺠﺎن اﻷﺳﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﻦ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ .ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ،ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗُ ﱢ ﺑﻴﺪك اﻟﻴﻤﻨﻰ و اﻟﺪﻟﺔ ﺑﻴﺪك اﻟﻴﺴﺮى.
اﻟﻤﻌﺠﺰة اﻟﺘﻲ ُﻳﻘﺎل ﻋﻨﻬﺎ " ﻗﻬﻮة ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺔ اﻟﺘﺤﻀﻴﺮ"
اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﻤﺸﻬﻮرة ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﻤﺤﻠﻮﻟﺔ أو ﺑﻮدرة اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ،ﻫﻲ ﻗﻬﻮة اﺻﻄﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﻀﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﺘﺠﻔﻴﻒ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﻤﺤﻤﺼﺔ إﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺠﻤﻴﺪ أو ﺑﺎﻟﺮش .ﻫﺎﺗﺎن اﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺘﺎن ﺗﻤﻜِّ ﻨﺎﻧِ ﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺤﺼﻮل ﻛﻤﻴﺔ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻛﻤﻴﺔ أﺻﻐﺮ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ ِّ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻬﻮة ذات ﺗﺤﻀﻴﺮ أﺳﺮع ،ﺣﻤﻮﻟﺔ ﺷﺤﻦ أﻗﻞ ،و ِّ ﺻﻼﺣﻴﺘﻬﺎ و زﻳﺎدة اﻟﻤﻄﺤﻮﻧﺔ اﻟﻼزﻣﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻀﻴﺮ ﻛﻮب واﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة .ﻫﺬا إﻟﻰ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ إﻃﺎﻟﺔ ﻓﺘﺮة َّ ﺟﺎﻓﺔ. إﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ أرﻓﻒ اﻟﻤﺘﺎﺟﺮ ﻣﺎ داﻣﺖ َّ َّ ﻋﻨﺪ اﺗِّ ﺒﺎع اﻟﺘﺠﻔﻴﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺠﻤﻴﺪ ،ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺠﻔﻴﻒ ﻣﺸﺘﻘﺎت اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻓﻲ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻔﺮاغ اﻟﺨﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ً ﻣﺤﻜﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺟﻮدة اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﺴﺮﻳﻌﺔ أﻓﻀﻞ .أﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺠﻔﻴﻒ اﻟﻬﻮاء .ﻛُ ﻠَّ ﻤﺎ ﻛﺎن اﻟﻔﺮاغ ً اﻗﺘﺼﺎدﻳﺎ ،إﻻ أﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺗﺒﺨﻴﺮ ﺟﺰﻳﺌﺎت اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﺑﻌﺪ اﻟﺘﺠﻔﻴﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﺮش ،ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ أﻧﻪ أوﻓﺮ اﻟﻤﺤﻀﺮة ﻷن ﻧﻜﻬﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ إﻋﺎدة اﻟﺘﺴﺨﻴﻦ َّ ﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻠﻬﺎ إﻟﻰ ﺟﺰﻳﺌﺎت أﻛﺒﺮ ،وﻫﺬا ﻳﻘﻠِّ ﻞ ﺟﻮدة اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺳﻴﺌﺔ. أﻗﺪم ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﺴﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺗﻌﻮد إﻟﻰ ﺳﻨﺔ ١٧٧١م ﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺎ .اﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ اﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ اﻷوﻟﻰ ﺗﻢ ﺻﻨﻌﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎم ١٨٥٣م ،ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻢ اﺧﺘﺒﺎر ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﺗﺠﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﻛﻴﻚ( أﺛﻨﺎء اﻟﺤﺮب اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ .ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎم ١٨٩٠م ،اﺧﺘﺮع دﻳﻔﻴﺪ ﺳﺘﺮاﻧﻖ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ إﻧﻔﺮﻛﺎرﺟﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻴﻮزﻳﻠﻨﺪة اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﺴﺮﻳﻌﺔ اﻟﺘﺤﻀﻴﺮ و ﺳﺠﻠﻬﺎ ﻛﺒﺮاءة اﺧﺘﺮاع و اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﺠﻔﻴﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﻬﻮاء اﻟﺤﺎر .ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎم ١٩٠١م ،ﺗﻢ اﺧﺘﺮاع ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎت ﻧﺎﺟﺤﺔ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻊ ﺑﻮدرة اﻟﻘﻬﻮة و ذﻟﻚ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔً ﻛﺎن ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ اﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ اﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ذي اﻷﺻﻞ اﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻲ ﺳﺎرﺗﻮري ﻛﺎﺗﻮ ،و اﻟﺬي اﺳﺘﺨﺪم َّ ﻃﻮرﻫﺎ ﻟﺼﻨﻊ اﻟﺸﺎي اﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ و ﺗﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻠﻬﺎ ﻛﺒﺮاءة اﺧﺘﺮاع ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎم ١٩٠٣م .وﻗﺪ ﻗﺎم ﺟﻮرج ﻗﺪ َّ ﻛﻮﻧﺴﺘﺎﻧﺘﻠﻮﻳﺲ واﺷﻨﻄﻦ ،اﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﻣﻦ أﺻﻞ ﺑﻠﺠﻴﻜﻲ ،ﺑﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻧﺴﺨﺘﻪ اﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة أن ﻫﺬا اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜُ ﻦ ذو اﻟﺴﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻛﺎﺗﻮ أول ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺗﺠﺎرﻳﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎم ١٩١٠م ،إﻻ َّ وأﻋﺪ َّ َّ ﻃﻌﻢ ُﻣﺴﺘﺴﺎغ. ٍ
ً ً ﻛﺒﻴﺮا ﻣﻦ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ،ﻓﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻌﻬﺪ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﺒﺮازﻳﻠﻲ ﻓﺎﺋﻀﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎم ١٩٣٠م ﻛﺎن ﻟﺪى اﻟﺒﺮازﻳﻞ ﻣﻦ رﺋﻴﺲ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ إدارة ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﻧﺴﺘﻠﻪ أن ﻳﻘﻮﻣﻮا ﺑﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ ﻣﻨﺘﺞ ﻗﻬﻮة ﻟﻪ ﻧﻜﻬﺔ و ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻺذاﺑﺔ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻜﻮن ً ﺣﻸ ﻷزﻣﺔ اﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ و ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺒﻴﻌﺎت اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎم .و ﺑﻌﺪ ﺳﻨﻮات ﻣﻦ اﻷﺑﺤﺎث و اﻟﺘﺠﺎرب ،ﻗﺎم ﻋﺎﻟﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺴﺘﻠﻪ ُﻳﺪﻋﻰ ﻣﺎﻛﺲ ﻣﻮرﺟﻨﺜﺎﻳﻠﺮ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﺮاع ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪة ﻟﻌﻤﻞ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﺴﺮﻳﻌﺔ .اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ اﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﻧﺴﻜﺎﻓﻴﻪ.ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎم ١٩٣٨م ُﻋﺮض اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻓﻲ ً ﺗﻀﻤﻨﺖ ﺗﺠﻔﻴﻒ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﺘﺴﺎوﻳﺔ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ وﻧﻈﺮا ﻷن اﺑﺘﺪاء ﻣﻦ ﻋﺎم ١٩٣٨م، اﻷﺳﻮاق َّ َّ ً اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻟﻠﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﺴﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺸﺘﻘﺎت اﻟﻘﻬﻮة و اﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻫﻴﺪرات اﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺬوﺑﺎن ،ﺣﻈﻰ ﻫﺬا ُ ً ﻣﺸﻬﻮرا .ﺣﺎﻓﻆ اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻌﺒﻴﺘﻪ ﺑﻴﻦ اﻟﺠﻨﻮد أﺛﻨﺎء ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﻌﻢ أﻓﻀﻞ و ُﺳﺮﻋﺎن ﻣﺎ أﺻﺒﺢ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺗﻜﻔﻲ ﻹﻣﺪاد ﺟﻨﻮده اﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ اﻟﺠﻴﺶ اﺷﺘﺮى اﻟﺤﺮب اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ،و ﻗﺪ ِّ ﺳﺘﻴﻨﻴﺎت اﻟﻘﺮن اﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ و ﻟﻤﺪة ﻋﺎم ﻛﺎﻣﻞ .ﺗﻢ اﻛﺘﺸﺎف اﻟﺘﺠﻔﻴﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺠﻤﻴﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻬﻮة َّ َّ أﺻﺒﺤﺖ اﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ اﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺟﻴﺪة و ﺟﻮدة ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ. ﺷﻌﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺤﻀﻴﺮ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻷﻧﻬﺎ ﺗُ ﻌﻄﻲ اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻧﻜﻬﺔ ِّ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮة ،ﻓﺈن أﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ اﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺘﻮﻗﻊ أن ﺗﻐﻴﺮات َّ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻮﻗﺖ اﻟﺬي ﻳﺸﻬﺪ ﻣﻨﺎخ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ُّ ﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ إﻧﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻘﻬﻮة ﻫﺬا اﻟﻌﺎم .ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ أﺧﺮى ،اﻧﺨﻔﺎض أﺳﻌﺎر اﻟﻨﻔﻂ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻔﺘﺮض أن ﻳﺆدي إﻟﻰ أﺳﻌﺎر أﻓﻀﻞ ﻟﻠﻘﻬﻮة. ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ أﺳﻌﺎر ﻗﻄﺎع اﻟﺘﺠﺰﺋﺔ ﻓﻲ أﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻫﺒﻂ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ٪٤٫٣إﻟﻰ ٪٤٫٤١٢ﻟﻠﺮﻃﻞ اﻟﻮاﺣﺪ ﻓﻲ إن َّ َّ اﻟﺘﺠﺎرﻳﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﻧﻮﭬﻤﺒﺮ اﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ ،و ﻫﻲ اﻷﻗﻞ ﻣﻨﺬ ﻋﺎم .٢٠١١ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔً ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ،ﺑﺪأت اﻟﻌﻼﻣﺎت َّ ً اﻟﻤﺘﻮﻗﻊ ارﺗﻔﺎع إﻧﺘﺎج اﻟﺒﺮازﻳﻞ ﻟﻠﻘﻬﻮة ﻣﻦ ٤٨ َّ أﻳﻀﺎ .ﻣﻦ ﺗﻨﺎﻗﺶ ﺧﻔﺾ أﺳﻌﺎر اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻟﻠﺰﺑﺎﺋﻦ ﻣﻠﻴﻮن إﻟﻰ ٥٨ﻣﻠﻴﻮن ﻛﻴﺲ ﻫﺬا اﻟﻌﺎم ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺰن اﻟﻜﻴﺲ اﻟﻮاﺣﺪ ﻣﻘﺪار ٦٠ﻛﻴﻠﻮ ﺟﺮام .و ﻣﻦ ً أﻳﻀﺎ أن ﺗﺮﻓﻊ ﻛﻮﻟﻮﻣﺒﻴﺎ اﻧﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ١٢٫١ﻣﻠﻴﻮن إﻟﻰ ١٤ﻣﻠﻴﻮن ﻓﻲ ٢٠١٥و ﻳﻤﻜﻦ أن اﻟﻤﺘﻮﻗﻊ َّ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ إﻟﻰ ١٦ﻣﻠﻴﻮن ﺑﺤﻠﻮل ﻋﺎم .٢٠١٨ ﻓﻌﻼ. إﻧَّ ﻪ ﻋﺎم أﻓﻀﻞ ﻟﻠﻘﻬﻮة … ً
اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ُﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة َّ َّ اﻟﺪول و اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ ﻌﺪ ﻨﻈﻤﺔ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ُﻣ َّ اﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺮﺑﻂ ﺑﻴﻦ َّ َّ َّ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﻌﺮوﻓﺔ ﺗُ ُّ َّ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮردة ﻟﻠﻘﻬﻮة ﻟﻤﻮاﺟﻬﺔ و رة اﻟﻤﺼﺪ ول اﻟﺪ ﺗﺠﻤﻊ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة، ﻳﺨﺺ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ اﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺎت ُ ِّ ُّ ُّ اﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺎت اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻮاﺟﻪ ﻗﻄﺎع اﻧﺘﺎج اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﺣﻮل اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل ﺗﻌﺎون ُدوﻟﻲُ .ﻳﻤﺜﻞ اﻟﺪول ِّ اﻷﻋﻀﺎء ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ٪٩٥ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﺘﺠﻲ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﺣﻮل اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ و ٪٨٣ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﻴﻬﺎ .ﻫﺪف اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺗﻘﻮﻳﺔ ﻗﻄﺎع اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﺣﻮل اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ و اﻟﺴﻌﻲ إﻟﻰ ﺗﻮﺳﻊ ﻣﺴﺘﺪام ﻓﻲ ﺑﻴﺌﺔ َّ ﺳﻮﻗﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﺴﺘﻔﻴﺪ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ اﻟﻤﺸﺎرﻛﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻄﺎع اﻟﻘﻬﻮة.
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ﻣﻌﻬﺪ ﺟﻮدة اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﻣﻌﻬﺪ ﺟﻮدة اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ رﺑﺤﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺟﻮدة اﻟﻘﻬﻮة و ﺗﺤﺴﻴﻦ ﺣﻴﺎة ً دوﻟﻴﺎ .وﻗﺪ ﻋﻤﻠﺖ اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺮاﻣﺞ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻓﻲ وﺳﻂ و ﺟﻨﻮب اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﻴﻦ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺷﺮق أﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ،أﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ ،إﻧﺪوﻧﻴﺴﻴﺎ و آﺳﻴﺎ .ﻛﻤﺎ ﻧﻔﺬت ٥٠٠ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﺗﺪرﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل ﺑﻨﺎء ﻟﻐﺔ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺠﻮدة ُاﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ ﺧﻼل ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ اﻹﻧﺘﺎج .ﻳﻜﻮن اﻟﻤﻌﻬﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﺗﺪرﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﺠﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ اﻧﺘﺎج اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﺑﺄﻗﻞ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ و أﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻔﺎءة واﺧﻀﺎﻋﻬﻢ ﻟﺪورة ﺟﻮدة ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل أﺣﺪ ﻣﺪرﺑﻲ اﻟﺠﻮدة اﻟﻤﺤﺘﺮﻓﻴﻦ أو ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻊ اﺗﺤﺎد اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ ﻟﺘﺄﺳﻴﺲ ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﺘﻔﻜﻴﺮاﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻲ .أﺛﺮ ﺗﻠﻚ اﻟﻤﺠﻬﻮدات ﻛﺒﻴﺮ وﻳﻈﻞ ﻟﻔﺘﺮات ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ .ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺴﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﻜﻮب ﻣﻦ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﺠﻴﺪة ،ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺮﺟﺢ أن ﻳﻜﻮن ﻣﻌﻬﺪ اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﻓﻲ إﺣﺪى ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ ً ﺗﺎرﻛﺎ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ أﻋﻠﻰ ،ﻣﺴﺘﻮى ُﻣﺸﺘﺮك و ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ أﻋﻤﻖ ﻟﻠﺴﻠﻌﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻘﺪرﻫﺎ و ﻳﺤﺒﻬﺎ اﻹﻧﺘﺎج اﻟﻜﺜﻴﺮ.
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ﺷﻴﻮع اﻓﺘﺘﺎح اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻫﻰ وﻣﺠﺎل إدارﺗﻬﺎ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﺳﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ إﺳﻌﺎد اﻟﻤﻼﻳﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺒﺸﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ اﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺎت واﻷﻋﺮاف .ﻗﺪ ﻳﺬﻫﻠﻚ أن ﺗﻌﺮف أن اﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﻳﺒﺪؤون ﻳﻮﻣﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﺣﺘﺴﺎء ﻛﻮب ﻣﻦ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻛﺮوﺗﻴﻦ ﻳﻮﻣﻲ. ﻳﺰدﻫﺮ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﺼﺮ اﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ اﻹﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎر ﻓﻲ ﻗﻄﺎع اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻫﻲ و إدارﺗﻬﺎ و إن ﻛﻨﺖ ﻣﻤﻦ ﻓﻜﺮوا ﻓﻲ اﻓﺘﺘﺎح ﻣﻘﻬﻰ ﺧﺎص ﺑﻚ ﻓﺈن ﻫﺬه اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﻫﻲ دﻟﻴﻠﻚ اﻟﻤﺒﺪﺋﻲ. ﻳﻠﺰﻣﻚ اﻟﻜﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ اﻷﺑﺤﺎث اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺪرس ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ اﻟﻨﻮاﺣﻲ ﻣﺜﻞ اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻫﻲ اﻟﻤﺘﻮاﺟﺪة ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ و دراﺳﺔ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺠﺪات اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺪث ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎل ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ ً أﻳﻀﺎ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ إﻟﻰ اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﻦ اﻟﻤﺘﻮاﺟﺪﻳﻦ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺠﺎل .ﻳﻠﺰﻣﻚ أﻧﻮاع اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ أﻛﺜﺮ ﺑﻴﻦ اﻟﺰﺑﺎﺋﻦ ،إﻳﺠﺎد اﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ اﻷﻓﻀﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﻬﻰ و ﺷﺮاء اﻟﻤﻌﺪات اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺜﺔ اﻟﻼزﻣﺔ ﻹﻋﺪاد اﻟﻤﺸﺮوﺑﺎت ،ﻧﺎﻫﻴﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ اﻟﻤﻮﻇﻔﻴﻦ و ﺗﺪرﻳﺒﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻫﻲ. ﺗﻘﺪم اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻫﻲ اﻟﻤﺸﺮوﺑﺎت اﻟﺴﺎﺧﻨﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ اﻟﻜﺎﺑﺘﺸﻴﻨﻮ ،اﻹﺳﺒﺮﺳﻮ ،اﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﻪ ﻻﺗﻴﻪ،اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺔ ،اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ و اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻹﺛﻴﻮﺑﻴﺔ ،ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺪم اﻟﻤﺸﺮوﺑﺎت اﻟﺒﺎردة ﻣﺜﻞ اﻟﻔﺮاﺑﺘﺸﻴﻨﻮ ،اﻟﻼﺗﻴﻪ اﻟﻤﺠﻤﺪ،اﻟﻤﻮﻛﺎ اﻟﻤﺠﻤﺪة ،اﻟﻜﺎﺑﺘﺸﻴﻨﻮ اﻟﻤﺠﻤﺪة واﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﺒﺎردة. ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ أن ﺗﻘﺪم اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻫﻲ اﻟﻤﻌﺠﻨﺎت ،اﻟﻜﺮﻳﺐ ،اﻟﺤﻠﻮﻳﺎت ،اﻟﻮﺟﺒﺎت و ﺑﻌﺾ اﻟﻤﺄﻛﻮﻻت اﻟﺨﻔﻴﻔﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ إﻟﻰ ﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ اﻟﻮاﻓﺎي اﻟﻤﺠﺎﻧﻲ ﻟﻠﺰﺑﺎﺋﻦ.
ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﺘﺤﺪث ﻋﻦ اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻫﻲ ،ﻓﻬﻨﺎك أﻧﻮاع ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺑﻴﻮت اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ،أﻛﺸﺎك اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ،ﻣﻘﺎﻫﻲ اﻟﺒﻴﺴﺘﺮو ،ﻣﻘﺎﻫﻲ اﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴﺺ .ﻗﺮارك ﻻﻓﺘﺘﺎح أي ﻧﻮع ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻫﻲ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻄﺘﻚ و ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻔﺮص اﻟﻨﺠﺎح اﻟﺘﺠﺎرﻳﺔ اﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻟﻚ. ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻬﻢ اﺳﺘﻜﺸﺎف ﻫﺬه اﻷﻧﻮاع ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻫﻲ اﻟﻤﺘﻮاﺟﺪة ﻓﻲ اﻟﺴﻮق ﻟﺘﺤﻀﻴﺮ ﺧﻄﺔ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺤﻜﻤﺔ: ﺑﻴﺖ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة :ﺗﻌﺮف أﻳﻀﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻘﺎﻫﻲ وﻫﻲ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎت ﺗﻘﻮم ﺑﺘﻘﺪﻳﻢ • ﻣﺸﺮوﺑﺎت ﺑﺎردة و ﺳﺎﺧﻨﺔ. أﻛﺸﺎك اﻟﻘﻬﻮة :ﻣﺒﻨﻰ ﺻﻐﻴﺮ أو ﻣﺤﻞ ﺻﻐﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ وﺳﻂ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺗﺴﻮق أو • ﻣﻘﺪﻣﻲ ﻃﻠﺒﺎت اﻟﺴﻴﺎرات. ﻣﻘﺎﻫﻲ اﻟﺒﻴﺴﺘﺮو :ﻣﻘﺎﻫﻲ ﺻﻐﻴﺮة ذات ﻃﺎﺑﻊ أوروﺑﻲ داﺧﻞ اﻟﻔﻨﺎدق. • ﻣﻘﺎﻫﻲ اﻟﺘﺤﻤﻴﺺ :ﻫﻲ اﻷﻓﻀﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮ ��رﺟﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة و • ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ اﻷرﺑﻴﻜﺎ .ﺳﻤﻴﺖ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺤﻤﺼﺔ ﻷﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم اﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ اﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ اﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ و اﻟﻔﻴﺰﻳﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﺤﺒﺎت اﻟﺒﻦ اﻟﺨﻀﺮاء إﻟﻰ ﻣﻨﺘﺞ ﻗﻬﻮة ﻣﺤﻤﺺ .وﻓﻲ ﻫﺬه اﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ اﻟﻄﻌﻢ اﻟﺬي ﻧﺘﺬوﻗﻪ .ﻛﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ اﻷﺣﻴﺎن ﺗﻘﻮم اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻫﻲ ﺑﺘﺨﻤﻴﺮ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻬﺎ و ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻤﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺰﺑﺎﺋﻦ أو إﻣﺪادﻫﺎ ﻟﻮﻛﻼﺋﻬﺎ أو ﺑﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﻫﻲ و ﺑﻴﻮت اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻷﺧﺮى.
اﻟﻤﺜﻠَّ ﺞ ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺔ اﻟﻜﺎﺑﻮﺗﺸﻴﻨﻮ ُ ِّ ً ﺑﻜﺎﺑﺘﺸﻴﻨﻮ ﻓﺮﻳﺪو ،ﻫﻮ اﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ اﻟﺒﺎردة ﻣﻦ أﻳﻀﺎ اﻟﻤﺜﻠَّ ﺞ و اﻟﻤﻌﺮوف َّ اﻟﻜﺎﺑﺘﺸﻴﻨﻮ ُ َّ اﻟﻜﺎﺑﺘﻴﺸﻨﻮ اﻟﺴﺎﺧﻦ .و ﻳﺤﺘﻮي ﻋﺎدة ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻤﻴﺎت ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ رﻏﻮة اﻟﺤﻠﻴﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ َّ ً ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺎ ﻓﻲ أﻏﻠﺐ اﻷوﻗﺎت و ﻟﻴﺲ ﺳﻄﺢ اﻟﻤﺸﺮوب .ﻳﻜﻮن ﻫﺬا اﻟﻤﺸﺮوب ُﻣ َﻌﺪ ﻛﻐﻴﺮه ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺸﺮوﺑﺎت اﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ اﻋﺪادﻫﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻃﻠﺒﻬﺎ. ﻣﻦ اﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻫﻲ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺒﻴﻊ اﻟﻜﺎﺑﺘﺸﻴﻨﻮ اﻟﻤﺜﻠﺞ :ﺳﺘﺎر ﺑﻮﻛﺲ و ﺗﻴﻢ ﻫﺎرﺗﺮ اﻟﻤﺸﻬﻮر“ ﺑﺂﻳﺲ ﻛﺎب“ .ﺧﻠﻴﻂ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة ﻟﺪﻳﻬﻢ ﻳﺘﻜﻮن ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮاب أﺳﻮد ﻛﺜﻴﻒ ﻳﺤﺘﻮي ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎء ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺛﻼث أرﺑﺎع و اﻟﺮﺑﻊ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺸﺮاب اﻷﺳﻮد .ﻳﻮﺿﻊ اﻟﺨﻠﻴﻂ ﻓﻲ آﻟﺔ اﻟﺴﻠﻮرﺑﻴﻲ ﺛﻢ ﺗﺨﻠﻂ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﻤﺜﻠﺠﺔ ﺑﻜﺮﻳﻤﺔ أو أي ﺣﻠﻴﺐ ُﻣﻨﻜَّ ﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ اﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﻢ .اﻟﻜﺎﺑﺘﺸﻴﻨﻮ اﻟﻤﺜﻠﺞ ﺷﺮاب ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻲ ﻷوﻗﺎت اﻟﺼﻴﻒ اﻟﺤﺎرة. ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﻀﻴﺮ ﻫﺬا اﻟﺸﺮاب ﺑﻨﻜﻬﺎت أﺧﺮى ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ اﻟﻜﺮﻳﻤﺔ اﻟﻤﺨﻔﻮﻗﺔ و إﺿﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﺸﻮﻛﻮﻻﺗﺔ أواﻟﻜﺮاﻣﻴﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺒﺸﻮر اﻟﺸﻜﻮﻻﺗﺔ اﻟﻤﻨﺜﻮرة ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻜﺮﻳﻤﺔ اﻟﻤﺨﻔﻮﻗﺔ .ﺗُ ﻌﺮف رﻏﻮة اﻟﺤﻠﻴﺐ اﻟﺒﺎرد اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﺢ اﻟﻤﺸﺮوب ”ﺑﺎﻷﻓﺮوﻗﺎﻻ“ و ﻳﺘﻢ ﺻﻨﻌﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام آﻟﺔ ﻛﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ و ﺣﻠﻴﺐ ﺑﺎرد ،ﺛﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺻﺐ اﻟﺮﻏﻮة ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺸﺮوب اﻹﺳﺒﺮﻳﺴﻮ.
َ ﺳﻨﻮﻳﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ اﻟﺴﻌﻮدﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﺮوﻳﺞ ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ، ُﻳﻌﻘﺪ أﺳﺒﻮع اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ُﻳﺴﻌﺪﻧﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻠﺔ أرﺑﻴﻜﺎ دﻋﻮﺗﻜﻢ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎرﻛﺔ ﻓﻲ أﺳﺒﻮع اﻟﻘﻬﻮة اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ اﻟﻤﻘﺒﻞ ﻓﻲ أﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ .٢٠١٦ ﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت ،ﻧﺮﺟﻮ اﻟﺘﻮاﺻﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ firstname.lastname@example.org و اﻟﺘﻮاﺻﻞ ﻣﻌﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻨﻮات اﻟﺘﻮاﺻﻞ اﻹﺣﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ WEEKOFCOFFEE: