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PREVIEW By Steve Kirchner, Editor & Publisher

ach year for the past three States. When the Bethlehem Steel plant closed in decades Byways magazine has November of 1995, more than 30,000 employees lost surveyed leading tour operators their jobs, the local economy collapsed, housing prices in North America to determine the lead- plunged, unemployment skyrocketed, and the region ing travel destinations of the new year. overnight became the most economically distressed In this issue of Byways we announce region in North America. Yet just 15 years later the Lehigh Valley has become the Top 50 Group Tour Destinations for the fastest growing region in the Northeast. 2013, along with the Top 30 States, and the Top Natural In What’s Happening, we visit Las Cruces, New and Man-Made Attractions. The survey also includes the Mexico to learn about the Trinity Site, where the United Top 10 Group Friendly Hotel chains, and the Top 5 States ushered in the atomic age with the detonation of Group Friendly Restaurants. the first atomic bomb on July 16, 1945 at what is now Each year we emphasize that the survey is in no way a White Sands Missile Range in Southern New Mexico. random, scientifically The site is only calculated survey on open twice each the level of the nationyear, in April and al polls. October. Busses No, we simply send take visitors to and out our survey to tour from the McDonald operators each year farm house where J. and tabulate those that R o b e r t are returned. In other Oppenheimer and words, our survey has a his crew assembled margin of error of anythe bomb. where from 0 to 100. In Racine, Still, for the past 30 Wisconsin, the SC years, it’s been one of Johnson Company the few guides availinvites visitors to able predicting where experience the icongroup travelers will be ic designs of legheading in the new endary architect year, and we present it Frank Lloyd Wright. to you “as is.” Free tours are Steel Stacks and Arts Pavillion draw hundreds It’s no secret that offered at the comof thousand of visitors to Bethlehem each year. Washington, DC is one pany’s Wright of the favorite destinadesigned campus. tions of group travelers The SC Johnson Administration Building is celebrated each year, and one of the primary reasons is the large as one of the top 25 buildings of the 20th century. number of memorials and monuments, and that many of Designed by Wright in 1936, this building is renowned them are open to the public at no charge. for its unique dendriform columns, open concept halfBut have you ever wondered how many there are, and where they are? In this issue we present the full-list of acre of workspace, circular “bird cage” elevators and 43 memorials and monuments in and around the nation’s miles of glass tubing. Three free tours are available, ranging up to 3.5 hours capital. You will be surprised! in duration. We also have a very uplifting story in this issue, about Reservations are required for groups, so be sure and a region of the Northeast that has seen a rebirth through call ahead. travel and tourism and the arts, after years of decline due We hope you enjoy the latest issue of Byways. to the failure of its primary industry, steel. It’s the story of the Lehigh Valley of Pennsylvania, once the backbone of the industrial might of the United 4 • Byways


Watch or order our video. Email Dawn or call 845-463-5444. Click on sites below for group tour info.

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Byways Magazine yways is published bi-monthly by Byways, Inc. and distributed electronically throughout North America. Byways is emailed to more than 4000 tour operators and 13,000 travel agencies through the internet. Subscriptions are complimentary for internet viewing. An iPad App version is available for consumers in iTunes and Newsstand in the App Store. Follow this link for details on how to download the free App:

ŠCopyright 2012 by Byways, Inc. All rights reserved. No portion of this publication may be duplicated in any form without express written permission of the publisher. For advertising rates, editorial deadlines, or to place advertising insertions, contact:

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Byways Magazine 42 Cabin Hill Lane Mount Jackson, VA 22842 Telephone 540-477-3202 Fax 540-477-3858 800-469-0062 http://bywaysmagazine.com


Volume 29, Issue No. 6, 2012-13

On the cover. The Washington Monument and the Reflecting Pool in Washington, DC. The Nation’s Capital remains the most popular group tour destination in North America, and its Monuments again top the list of America’s most popular man-made attractions. For more on the top group tour destinations, turn to page 24. For coverage of Washington’s Monuments and Memorials, turn to page 32.

Features

The Rebirth of the Lehigh Valley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Musikfest Brings One Million Visitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 The Top 50 Group Tour Destinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Washington, DC’s Monuments and Memorials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

Departments

Byways Instant Connect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Byways Preview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Advertisers Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Free Byways Subscription . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

What’s Happening

The Trinity Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 SC Johnson Offers Look at Treasured American Architech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

Coming in future issues of Byways…Great American Railroads, The Southern Touch, Beautiful Gardens, and Western States.

New Tygart Flyer This ride on the Durbin & Greenbrier RR in West Virginia features two separate mountain grades, an “S” curve tunnel, passage into a 1,500 feet deep canyon with steep, densely forested slopes, and a high bridge over the rushing Shavers Fork of the Cheat River.

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The giant -- and abandoned -- Bethlehem Steel plant is a symbol of the past history -- and rebirth of the Lehigh Valley.

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The Rebirth of Pennsylvania’s Lehigh Valley

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he Lehigh Valley of Pennsylvania encompasses the cities of Allentown, Bethlehem and Easton, and sits just 90 minutes west of New York City and 60 minutes north of Philadelphia. It became famous as the industrial powerhouse of the United States, known for its manufacturing and industrial operations. But when the last cast was made at Bethlehem Steel on November 18, 1995, and the areaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s largest employer closed its doors, and skyrocketing unemployment combined with falling home values and dwindling tax base, the future the Lehigh Valley was dark indeed. The Lehigh Valley was known historically for its production of steel, Portland cement and apparel. It had served as a major U.S. center of industrial manufacturing since the 1800s but this role has diminished significantly in the 21st century. Bethlehem Steel and a subsidiary company, Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation, were two of the most powerful symbols of American industrial manufacturing leadership. Their demise is often cited as one of the most prominent examples of the U.S. economy's shift away from industrial manufacturing, its inability to compete with cheap foreign labor, and managementâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s penchant for short-term profits. 12 â&#x20AC;˘ Byways

Monocacy Creek in Bethlehem

Less than 20 years later the Lehigh Valley has been reborn. It is today the fastest growing and third most populous region in the state of Pennsylvania with a population of 821,623 residents as of the 2010 U.S. Census. It is eclipsed in total population only by the metropolitan areas of Philadelphia and Pittsburgh. Today, the Lehigh Valley has a much lower cost of living, more affordable real estate, lower taxes and a more affordable labor pool than most other Northeastern regions of the United States. Along the Lehigh River you can take the Rise and Fall of Bethlehem Steel Tour, conducted at 12:45pm each day at Steelstacks. You'll walk the grounds of Bethlehem Steel as you learn about this industrial giant that helped make the Lehigh Valley a central player in America's industrial might. After the tour, cross the river to discover more than three centuries of history in downtown Bethlehem. Stroll the Colonial Industrial Quarter to visit the first waterworks in America, and the Moravian Book Shop, the oldest continuously run book store in the world. Treat yourself to dinner at 1741 on the Terrace inside the Historic Hotel Bethlehem. Learn about its history as the center of activity for the Bethlehem Steel empire.


Of course you will want to try your luck at the Sands Casino Resort Bethlehem, one of the most unusual locations for a casino anywhere in the world. Set against the backdrop of the huge Bethlehem Steel complex, the casino, with its flashing neon lights and inviting splendor, sits in stark contrast to the old steel stacks standing dark and rusting nearby. The view at night, with the steelstacks illuminated in a subtle blue hue, is breathtaking. Made in the Lehigh Downtown Bethlehem Valley Today the Valley is still See how one of the most renowned names in acoustic home to some of America's leading companies, and guitars makes its world famous instruments at the E.F. you're invited to visit. Martin Guitar Company in Nazareth. On the factory

The Lehigh River flows along the old Bethlehem Steel plant.

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The Crayola Experience in Easton.

tour, you’ll experience every precise step of the guitar-making process, with a personal guide knowledgeable about not only the company’s history, but wonderful vignettes of famous musicians who play these delicate instruments today. There’s also a gift shop, a room to play Martin guitars, and an incredible museum offering a who’s who of entertainers who continue to use the company's products. Although Just Born, Inc., does not offer tours, you can learn about its famous products, including Marshmallow PEEPS, at the Just Born exhibit inside the Signal Museum in Easton. 14 • Byways

The Mack Truck Service Center in Allentown.


Coca Cola Park, home of the Iron Pigs.

Another must see in Easton is the Crayola Experience coloring devices are made. You’ll be able to take photos in Centre Square, where you’ll learn how these popular with Big Blue, the world’s largest crayon, and take part in dozens of hands-on activities that are sure to keep you and the kids busy. Don’t have kids, no problem. This is an experience that will be enjoyed by the kids in all of us, regardless of age! You will want to visit the Mack Truck Museum at its customer center in Allentown. The museum is open to visitors Monday, Wednesday and Friday from 10:00 am until 4:00pm. Learn about the founding and importance of Mack Trucks since its The tour at C.F. Martin. arrival in Allentown in Byways • 15


Located adjacent to the Bethlehem Steel plant is the new Sands Casino/Hotel/Resort complex. It is one of the most unusual settings for a casino anywhere in the world. 16 â&#x20AC;˘ Byways


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America’s first bus -- a Mack -- was built in 1905 and is on display in the museum.

1905, and enjoy a number of exhibits including a 1905 come mat is open! http://www.discoverlehighvalley.com bus, old fire engines, and even see the Megatron from the movie, Transformers 3. The new Coca-Cola Park, which is located in Allentown, is home to the Lehigh Valley Iron Pigs. Coca-Cola Park, which opened for the start of the Iron Pigs’ first season in 2008, seats up to 8,100. The team plays in the International League, baseball’s highest level of minor league play. The stadium, and the team, are the pride and joy of the region, and reflects the new spirit of can-do accomplishment in the Lehigh Valley. Through tourism and the arts, an expanding services industry, and a continued manufacturing base, the Lehigh Valley has been transformed from one of the most depressed regions in America to one of the most attractive. It’s a success story that you will want Megatron, used in the movie Transformers, in Allentown. to experience first hand, and the wel18 • Byways


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ach August, Bethlehem’s historic downtown comes alive in a kaleidoscope of sensational sounds as Musikfest® welcomes more than 300 performers to the Lehigh Valley for 10 days of nonstop music. The nation’s largest free, non-gated music festival, Musikfest showcases more than 450 performances on 14 stages, 11 of which require no admission charge. Visitors 20 • Byways

can wander down cobblestone walkways, past gorgeous 18th century buildings and through lush, green city parks to discover sultry salsa dancers, impromptu jam sessions and singer-songwriters accompanied only by their guitar and the words in their heart. From Afrobeat to Zydeco, and national headliners to the best in local talent, there’s something for everyone’s musical tastes! While music is the main focus, it’s hardly the only


Annual Musikfest brings one million visitors to Bethlehem

thing guests will find at this world-class event. Forty-five different vendors serve up a wealth of mouthwatering foods and decadent desserts, while 50 of the nation’s finest artisans are on hand showcasing gorgeous jewelry, handmade crafts and unique home décor items. Family fun abounds around every corner, with dozens of delightful children’s performers, arts & craft activities and timely appearances by entertaining street performers

who present logic-defying escape tricks, funky skateboard feats and marvelous magic acts, all in an effort to elicit shrieks, oohs and aahs from the crowds. This summer, experience the magic of Musikfest, and discover why more than a million people visit downtown Bethlehem each August for 10 days of great music, food and fun! Byways • 21


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North America’s Top 50 Group Tour Destinations for 2013

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The U.S. Capitol Building in Washington, DC, North America’s Top Group Tour Destination for 2013.


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North America’s Top 50

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The Top 30 State Tour Destinations The Top 10 Tour Friendly Hotels The Top 10 Group Friendly Restaurants The Top 5 Natural Attractions The Top 15 Man-Made Attractions

ach year Byways magazine surveys the leading group tour operators in the United States and Canada to determine where their customers will be traveling in the new year. We send a survey out, and tally what comes back. Remember, this is NOT a random survey, but rather a compilation of information received from tour operators throughout North America who responded to the annual Byways survey. In 2013, Washington, DC once again takes the top spot in a close race also highlighting a very competitive New York City. These two cities traditionally battle it out for the top honor in the survey year after year. And is it any wonder? Not with Washington’s monuments, the Smithsonian Institution, and the White House continually showing up as the top attractions in the country. And you certainly can’t beat the entrance fee (free) to most of Washington’s major attractions. New York City again follows in a close challenge. With the Statue of Liberty, Broadway and Radio City Music Hall in the list of favored attractions, it’s no surprise at all to see The Big Apple at the top of the charts. Chicago moved into third place, its highest ranking in our survey. The Virginia Beach Boardwalk

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Rounding out the top 10 were Niagara Falls, Williamsburg, San Francisco, Nashville, Las Vegas, Branson and Pigeon Forge. The complete list of the Top 50 Destinations is listed on page 28.

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The Top 30 States

ew York state returned to the top of our most popular group tour states for 2013, followed by Virginia, Pennsylvania, Tennessee and Missouri. Also in the top 10 were Massachusetts, Florida, Georgia, Maryland and Illinois.

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Top 10 Group Tour Friendly Hotels

or a number of years Hampton Inns had this category to themselves. However, in the past two years Holiday Inns/Holiday Inns Express have pushed hard to earn the favor of tour operators. The result this year is a tie between these two overacheivers. Comfort Inns moved into third position, with Drury Inns moving up to 4th, with Fairfield Inns and Doubletree tieing for the 5th slot.


Group Tour Destinations

Chicago River Bridge opens over the Chicago River. Photo courtesy © Cesar Russ Photography

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Top 5 Natural Attractions

iagara Falls in the U.S. and Canada retains its top position in the natural attractions competition. The Grand Canyon came in second, followed by Cape Cod and the Black Hills of South Dakota.

The Las Vegas Strip

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Top 15 Man-Made Attractions

gain this year Washington, DC’s Monuments topped the list of Man-Made Attractions. Not only are they among the most impressive attractions in the country, the free admission is an attraction in itself. New York City’s Statue of Liberty and Broadway, and the Pennsylvania Dutch Country tied for second. They were followed by Nashville’s Grand Ole Opry and Pennsylvania’s Sight and Sound. Byways • 27


The Top 50 Group Tour Destinations

1. Washington, DC 2. New York City, NY 3. Chicago, IL 4. Niagara Falls, NY/ON 5. Williamsburg, VA 6. San Francisco, CA 7. Nashville, TN 8. Las Vegas, NV 9. Branson, MO 10. Pigeon Forge, TN 11. Gettysburg, PA 12. Mackinaw Island, MI 13. Lancaster, PA 14. Cape Cod , MA 15. Hershey, PA 16. Boston, MA 17. Charleston, SC 18, Atlantic City, NJ 19. Virginia Beach, VA 20. Baltimore, MD 21. Philadelphia, PA 22. Orlando, FL 23. San Antonio, TX 24. Richmond, VA 25. Los Angeles, CA 26. Memphis, TN 27. Mississippi Beach, MS 28. Myrtle Beach, SC 29. Atlanta, GA 30. New Orleans, LA

Boston Common from the Skywalk observation deck of the Prudential Center. 28 â&#x20AC;˘ Byways

31. St. Louis, MO 32. San Diego, CA 33. Asheville, NC 34. Salt Lake City, UT 35. Dallas-Ft. Worth, TX 36. Phoenix, AZ 37. Cleveland, OH 38. Albuquerque, NM 39. Pittsburgh, PA 40. Colorado Springs, CO 41. Louisville, KY 42. Seattle, WA 43. Denver, CO 44. Montreal, QB 45. Toronto, ON 46. Quebec City, QB 47. Annapolis, MD 48. Valley Forge, PA 49. Reno, NV 50. Las Cruces, NM

Honorable Mention

Alexandria, VA Anchorage, AK Austin, TX Boise, ID Detroit, MI Indianapolis, IN Kansas City, MO Lexington, KY Little Rock, AR Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN Mobile, AL Monterey, CA Ocean City, MD Oklahoma City, OK Portland, OR Sacramento, CA Savannah, GA Tampa, FL Tucson, AZ Wheeling, WV


Top 30 States

1. New York 2. Virginia 3. Pennsylvania 4. Tennessee 5. Missouri 6. Massachusetts 7. Florida 8. Georgia 9. Maryland 10. Illinois 11. North Carolina 12. South Carolina 13. California 14. Michigan 15. Vermont 16. Ohio 17. West Virginia 18. New Jersey 19. Texas 20. Arizona 21. South Dakota 22. Nevada 23. Kentucky 24. Mississippi 25. New Hampshire

26. Colorado 27. Wyoming 28. Connecticut 29. Utah 30. Nebraska

Top 10 Tour Group Friendly Hotels

1. Tie: Hampton Inns Holiday Inn/Holiday Inns Express 3. Comfort Inns 4. Drury Inns 5. Tie: Fairfield Inns Doubletree 7. La Quinta 8. Best Western 9. Embassy Suites 10. Marriott

The Governorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Palace at Colonial Williamsburg. Photo courtesy Larry Pieniazek.

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Top 5 Group Friendly Restaurants 1. Tie: Cracker Barrel Golden Corral

Golden Corral in Durham, North Carolina.

3. Tie: Bubba Gump Ryans 4. Applebeeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 5. Tie: Bob Evans Hard Rock Cafe Phillips Restaurants

Ancestral Puebloan granaries high above the Colorado River at Nankoweap Creek, Grand Canyon.

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Top 5 Natural Attractions

1. Niagara Falls, NY & ON 2. Grand Canyon, AZ 3. Cape Cod, MA 4. Black Hills, SD 5. Tie: Yosemite National Park, CA Yellowstone National Park

Top 15 Man-Made Attractions

1. Washington, DC Monuments 2. Tie: Statue of Liberty New York's Broadway Pennsylvania Dutch

Country 5. Grand Ole Opry 6. Sight and Sound, PA 7. Disney World 8. Mount Vernon 9. Universal Studios 10. Radio City Music Hall 11. Mount Rushmore 12. Disneyland 13. Silver Dollar City 14. Elvis Presley's Graceland 15. Tie: Dollywood Busch Gardens Henry Ford Museum San Diego Zoo Sea World Parks Six Flags

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WASHINGTON, DC’S MONUMENTS AND MEMORIALS

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The World War II Memorial

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The Lincoln Memorial and the Reflecting Pool on the National Mall. Photo courtesy Destination DC.

t’s no wonder that Washington, DC is the most popular group tour destination in North America. Just as its monuments and memorials are the most popular man-made attractions in North America. The two go together like a hand and a glove, and when you consider that so many of the monuments and memorials are free of charge, you understand why they are so popular with group tours, from students, to adults, to seniors, to international visitors to the nation’s capital. Washington, DC’s unforgettable skyline is marked by some of the world’s most celebrated monuments. The fantastic temples, structures and statues that grace the green expanses of the National Mall tell fascinating stories through their history and design. Here is some background information on the city’s most famous sights. Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial is located on the northeast corner of the Tidal Basin on the National Mall. The structure commemorates the life and work of Dr. King, honoring his contributions to international world 34 • Byways

peace through non-violent social change. The design features include a crescent-shaped-stone wall inscribed with excerpts of Dr. King’s sermons and public addresses, as well as a 30-foot likeness of Dr. King as the centerpiece. The National Mall. Officially, the National Mall is a swath of green space that begins at 3rd Street and stretches to 14th Street. Visitors and locals, however, widely use the term to refer to the entire expanse of monuments and museums, from the grounds of the Capitol to the Lincoln Memorial. The area often plays host to concerts, rallies, festivals, as well as Frisbee matches, family outings, and picnics. Arlington National Cemetery. More than 4 million visitors each year come to visit our nation’s most treasured burial ground, home to more than 300,000 honored soldiers and distinguished citizens. The official designation was granted on June 15, 1864 by Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton. The Memorial Amphitheater was dedicated on May 15, 1920. While numerous wreathlaying and other memorial ceremonies are conducted


throughout the country, many consider the services at Arlington's Memorial Amphitheater to be the nation’s official ceremonies to honor servicemen and women. The Tomb of the Unknowns (also known as the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier) stands atop a hill overlooking DC. On Memorial Day, 1921, four unknown soldiers were exhumed from four American World War I cemeteries in France. Sgt. Edward F. Younger, a World War I combat veteran and recipient of the Distinguished Service Medal, selected one of the caskets to represent the unknown soldiers who had fallen in battle. The chosen unknown was then transported to the US aboard the USS Olympia and interred at Arlington Cemetery. Washington Monument. Towering 555 1/8 feet above the National Mall, the Washington Monument was built as a powerful tribute to George Washington. The site—where the western axis of the Capitol intersects the southern axis of the White House– was selected by Pierre L’Enfant. Exactly 50 flagpoles, representing each state, encircle the perimeter of the monument. Dedicated: 1888 Lincoln Memorial. One of DC’s most familiar landmarks honors its 16th president, Abraham Lincoln. Architect Henry Bacon designed the Greek temple and the Lincoln statue was sculpted by Daniel Chester French, the chairman of the Commission of Fine Arts. Above the temple’s 38 columns are the names of the 36 states that were in the Union at the time of Lincoln’s death in 1865. Murals sculpted by Jules Guerin adorn the temple’s inner walls. Emancipation is on the south wall and hangs above the inscription of the Gettysburg Address. Unification is on the north wall, above Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address. Dedicated: 1922 Thomas Jefferson Memorial.With a memorable

The Dr. Martin Luther King Memorial

form reminiscent of the Pantheon, the memorial to the third president took only nine years to complete. Architect John Russell Pope incorporated one of Jefferson’s favorite design elements, the rotunda, into the memorial design. While derided by critics who felt the memorial should be more American in style, the classical influence reflects Jefferson’s admiration of Roman politics and architecture. Dedicated: 1943 U.S. Marine Corps War Memorial. (Iwo Jima) Located across the Potomac River in Arlington, Virginia, the U.S. Marine Corps War Memorial is home to one of the most celebrated patriotic sculptures in which five soldiers and one Navy corpsman raise the flag at Iwo Jima. The statue is modeled after a Pulitzer Prize-winning photograph taken by Joe Rosenthal. The three survivors of the battle posed for the sculptor, who recreated the expressions of the deceased soldiers from photographs. Dedicated: 1954 Theodore Roosevelt Memorial and Island. Theodore Roosevelt’s deep love of nature and strong commitment to conservation are reflected throughout the 88-acre island, where 2.5 miles of hiking trails pass through dense forests and marshy swamps. Originally called Analostan Island, it was used during the Civil War to sequester African-American soldiers. The centerpiece of the island, a memorial to the President, was dedicated in 1967. The memorial features a 23- foot statue of Roosevelt, situated in an oval terrace with two roaring fountains. The terrace is surrounded by four granite tablets inscribed with the President’s philosophy on nature, manhood, youth and the state. Vietnam Veterans Memorial.Often referred to as the Wall, the Vietnam Veterans Memorial honors the American soldiers who were killed during the war, were

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The Marine (Iwo Jima) Memorial in Arlington, Virginia. Photo courtesy Destination DC.

prisoners of war, and who remain missing in action, whose names are listed on the black granite V-shaped memorial. Visitors are encouraged to make rubbings of names, using graphite pencils and commemorative paper supplied by park rangers. The names are listed in chronological order from 1959 to 1975, and are listed alphabetically on each day of action. Beside each name, a symbol denotes the status of the soldier: diamonds mark those who were killed in action, crosses denote those who are missing or classified as prisoners of war. Dedicated: 1982 U.S. Navy Memorial and Naval Heritage Center. DC’s city designer, Pierre L’Enfant, included a Navy Memorial in his original plans for the city, but no actions were taken on L’Enfant’s intent until 1977, when the Navy Memorial Foundation was established. The memorial is an amphitheater-like construction featuring a 100-foot, 108-ton granite map—the largest in the world. The map is framed by two sculpture walls with 22 bronze reliefs that honor aspects of naval service. A seven-foot tall bronze statue entitled Lone Soldier stands at the entrance to the U.S. Navy Memorial, representing all past, present and future Navy servicemen and women. Dedicated: 1987 Vietnam Women’s Memorial. When the Vietnam Veterans Memorial opened in 1982, the women who 36 • Byways

served in the conflict felt slighted by their virtual exclusion from the design. In 1984, the Vietnam Women’s Memorial was founded so that a tribute to the servicewomen and field hospital nurses could complement the new memorial. Paralleling the Three Servicemen statue at the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, the memorial depicts three field-hospital nurses caring for wounded soldiers. Eight yellowwood trees surround the statue in tribute to the eight women who were killed in action during the war. Dedicated: 1993 Korean War Veterans Memorial. Dedicated on the 42nd anniversary of the armistice that ended the war, the Korean War Veterans Memorial features a polished wall engraved with the faces of soldiers, nurses, chaplains, and even a dog, honoring those who served. A bronze sculpture group of platoon soldiers inching through a field forms the focal point of the memorial. Sculptor Frank Gaylord created the 19 statues of the soldiers, whose moving, weary expressions reflect the harsh circumstances of the war. The polished granite wall reflects the images of the soldiers and doubles the platoon’s size to 38— a metaphor for the 38th parallel, the border between North and South Korea. Dedicated: 1995 Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial. The rambling FDR Memorial consists of four rooms arranged chronologically to represent the 32nd president’s unprecedent-


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ed four terms in office. Spanning 7 1⁄2 acres, the memorial defies FDR’s request for a modest tribute; he asked that the memorial not be any larger than his desk. Acknowledging FDR’s own physical difficulties, his memorial was the first creation of its kind designed with easy access for people with disabilities. The memorial, however, did not originally feature any renderings of the president in his wheelchair. FDR did not wish to be portrayed in his wheelchair, and designers honored this request. In 2001, in response to petitions from people with and without disabilities, a statue of FDR in his wheelchair was placed at the entrance of the memorial. The memorial also includes a statue of Eleanor Roosevelt—the only monumental tribute to a first lady—standing in front of the United Nations emblem, recognizing her role in the creation of that organization. Dedicated: 1997 African-American Civil War Memorial. One of DC’s most historic African-American neighborhoods is home to one of the nation’s few tributes to the AfricanAmerican veterans of the Civil War. The memorial includes a granite-paved plaza encircled by walls that bear the names of the 209,145 men who served in the

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The FDR Memorial

United States Troops of Color during the war. At the center of the plaza, a 10-foot statue bears the likenesses of uniformed black soldiers and a sailor ready to leave home. Women, children, and senior citizens huddle on the inner surface. Dedicated: 1998 National World War II Memorial. The National World War II Memorial pays tribute to the 16 million Americans who served in uniform, the more than

Arlington National Cemetary


The Jefferson Memorial at night. Photo courtesy Destination DC.

400,000 who lost their lives, and the millions more who Force: Integrity first, service before self, and excellence sacrificed on the home front. Dedicated: 2004 in all that is done. Dedicated: 2006 United States Air Force Memorial. The memorial, Pentagon Memorial. The Pentagon Memorial is scaled for visibility over street infrastructure, stands 270 designed as a reminder to the nation of the events of feet tall and reaches toward the sky in an ode to those in Sept. 11, 2001. To honor the 184 victims who died in the the Air Force. The three stainless steel spires evoke Pentagon that day, as well as on American Airlines Flight images of the Bomb Burst maneuver performed by the 77, 184 illuminated benches are arranged according to United States Air Force Thunderbird Demonstration the victims’ ages. The memorial is free and open to the Team, and represent the three core values of the Air public seven days a week. Dedicated: 2008 The Vietnam Memorial Photo courtesy Destination DC.

ADDITIONAL MONUMENTS AND MEMORIALS

Beyond its most famous patriotic symbols, the nation’s capital pays tribute to many other world leaders and historic events in memorials placed throughout the city. As you explore the city, look for these treasures: 101st Army Airborne Division Memorial (Arlington National Cemetery) Benjamin Banneker Park (Maine Ave., SW, South of L’Enfant Plaza Promenade) Mary McLeod Bethune Monument (Lincoln Park, E. Capitol St. between 11th and 12th Sts., NW) Black Revolutionary War Patriots Memorial Constitution Gardens, Constitution Ave., 17th St., NW) Byways • 39


Boy Scout Memorial (15th St. and Constitution Ave. on the White House Ellipse) Admiral Richard Evelyn Byrd, Jr. Memorial (Arlington National Cemetery) Challenger Memorial (Arlington National Cemetery) Confederate Monument (Arlington National Cemetery) Constitution Gardens. Features a memorial honoring the signers of the Declaration of Independence. (Constitution Ave. and 17th St., NW) DC War Memorial (East of the Reflecting Pool, north of Independence Ave.) Albert Einstein Memorial (2101 Constitution Ave., NW) Emancipation Monument (Lincoln Park, E. Capitol St. between 11th and 12th Sts., NW) John Ericsson Monument (Independence Ave. and Ohio Dr.) First Infantry Division Monument (17th St. and State Pl., NW) Ulysses S. Grant Memorial (Maryland Ave. and 1st St., NW) Iran Rescue Memorial (Arlington National Cemetery) Lyndon Baines Johnson Memorial Grove (Boundary Channel Drive, near Pentagon North Parking Lot) Commodore John Paul Jones Memorial (17th St., South of Independence Ave., NW) Journalists Memorial (The Newseum) Francis Scott Key Park (M St., NW, at the Key Bridge) Robert E. Lee Memorial (Arlington House) (Arlington National Cemetery) George Mason National Memorial (Tidal Basin, between Jefferson and FDR Memorials)

Andrew W. Mellon Memorial Fountain (Pennsylvania and Constitution Aves. at 6th St., NW) Memorial to Pan Am Flight 103 (Arlington National Cemetery) National Guard Memorial (1 Massachusetts Ave., NW) National Japanese American Memorial (New Jersey and Lousiana Avenues at D St., NW) National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial (F St. between 4th and 5th Sts., NW) Nurses Memorial (Arlington National Cemetery) Peace Monument (1st St. and Pennsylvania Ave., NW) John Joseph Pershing Park (Pennsylvania Ave., between 14th and 15th Streets) John Aaron Rawlins Park (18th and E Sts., NW) Second Division Memorial (Constitution Ave. at the White House Ellipse) Settlers of the District of Columbia Memorial (Constitution Ave. at the White House Ellipse) William Tecumseh Sherman Park (North Ellipse at Hamilton Pl. and E St., NW) Robert A. Taft Memorial (1st St. and Constitution Ave., NW) USS Maine Memorial (Arlington National Cemetery) George Washington Masonic National Memorial (Alexandria, VA, near King Street Metro Station) Women in Military Service for America Memorial (Arlington National Cemetery) Women’s Titanic Memorial (Water St., SW, near Washington Channel Park) For more information on Washington, DC’s monuments and memorials, visit www.nps.gov.

View of Memorials from the Washington Monument. Photo courtesy Carol M. Highsmith.

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g n i n e p p a H s ’ t Wha

The Trinity Site

O

n July 16, 1945 the United States ushered in the atomic age with the detonation of the first atomic bomb at what is now White Sands Missile Range in Southern New Mexico. Located on the northern end of White Sands Missile Range, the site of the first atomic bomb is only open to the public the first weekends of April and October. The “gadget,” a 13 pound plutonium bomb, was detonated at 5:29am with an explosion so big, windows were shattered 120 miles away, and the ground shook as far as 250 miles away. The sand in the area was turned to green glass called trinitite. Less than a month later, the U.S. 41 • Byways

dropped two more bombs on Japan, bringing an end to World War II. Inside the monument, you’``/ll find an obelisk marking the center of the


blast, and what is left of the tower from which the bomb was detonated. Buses take tourists to and from the McDonald farm house where J. Robert Oppenheimer and his crew assembled the bomb. Also found at the site are photos, interpretive signage, replicas and helpful missile range personnel. The site was chosen because of its proximity to Los Alamos, where much of the nuclear weapons research was taking place at the time. The site was also chosen because of its remoteness, and to this day the only times the access roads http://www.takemytrip.com/06newmex/06_15a.htm. are open to the public are during the tours. For more information, call 575-479-6124. Shuttles are If you are interested in going on the Trinity Site tour, the following websites have information and directions: also available. To make a reservation, call 575-835-1501. http://www.atomictourist.com/trinity.htm

SC Johnson Offers Visitors a Unique Look at Treasured American Architect

The SC Johnson Administration Building is celebrated as one of the top 25 buildings of the 20th century. From its 43 miles of Pyrex glass tubing to the dendriform columns soaring in the Great Workroom, it is truly a unique work of art that reflects that innovation and adventure that are still the spirit of SC he SC Johnson company invites visitors to experiJohnson today. ence the iconic designs created by legendary Among the building’s special feaarchitect Frank Lloyd Wright. tures are the Great Workrooms more Free tours are offered at the company’s historic than one-half acre of open workWright-designed campus, including the latest addition to campus, The SC Johnson Gallery: At Home with Frank space and the “bird cage” circular Lloyd Wright. A variety of unique and informative pro- elevators that run from the basement grams provide a great activity for families and visiting to the Penthouse level, giving a panoramic view of the building. The guests. “Our free tour programs provide visitors with an excit- glass tubing “windows” of the ing and educational experience, giving everyone the building were designed by Wright opportunity to experience Frank Lloyd Wright’s to refract light and cut glare. If laid renowned masterpieces and to learn about the unique end to end, the original Pyrex tubes history between the architect and SC Johnson,” said would have extended more than 43 Kelly M. Semrau, Senior Vice President – Global miles. Perhaps the most recognized feaCorporate Affairs, Communication and Sustainability ture of the Great Workroom is its for SC Johnson.

T

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columns. Wright called them “denPhoto courtesy © by Jeff Dean driform,” meaning tree-shaped, but many also refer to them as lily pads because of the unique shape of their top supporting pads. The column tops are 18 1/2 feet in diameter and the bases are only 9 inches in diameter. Wright designed more than 40 different pieces of furniture for the Administration Building, each created to reflect aspects of the building’s overall design. The primary color used throughout the building is an earthy maroon-orange tint, which Wright called “Cherokee Red.” The Gallery currently features its debut exhibit on Wright’s iconic Prairie-Style which showcases rarely-seen designs and artifacts that explore Wright’s influence on families and the home. Housed in the Foster + Partners-designed Fortaleza Hall on SC Johnson’s campus, Fortaleza Hall is also home to the Visiting SC Johnson Frank Lloyd Wright Research Library which features an SC Johnson offers three tour programs which run from eclectic collection of more than 800 items about Wright’s 1 to 3.5 hours. Tours operate every Friday until April 30, influence in Southeastern Wisconsin. At the conclusion 2013 and are all free of charge. Tours include: of all tours, visitors stop at The Lily Pad, a unique gift The Legacies Tour – This in-depth, 3.5-hour tour, shop featuring exclusive SC Johnson memorabilia and explores the Wright-designed SC Johnson Wright-inspired items. Administration Building as well as the award-winning Foster + Partners-designed Fortaleza Hall with the Spirit of Carnaúba airplane soaring at its heart. The tour also includes viewing two films at the Golden Rondelle: To SC Johnson Headquarters. Photo courtesy Jack E. Boucher Be Alive, the Academy Award-winning documentary designed to celebrate the common ground between different cultures; and Carnauba: A Son’s Memoir that features an enduring family message. The Landmarks Tour – Designed in 1936, the Administration Building was the first project that Wright designed for SC Johnson. Renowned for its unique dendriform columns, open concept half-acre of workspace, circular “bird cage” elevators and 43 miles of glass tubing, this landmark is celebrated as one of the top 25 buildings of the 20th century. The Gallery Tour – The 1-hour Gallery Tour is designed for those who want to focus on The Gallery and its debut exhibit. The Gallery is co-curated by Bruce Brooks Pfeiffer, Archives Director at Taliesin West, Ariz. and Brady Roberts, Chief Curator of the Milwaukee Art Museum. Reservations are required for all tours. For more information please call 262-260-2154, email Tours@scj.com, use the online scheduling tool at www.scjohnson.com/visit or visit on Twitter @VisitSCJ Byways • 43


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Byways is published bi-monthly by Byways, Inc. and distributed electronically throughout North America. Byways is emailed to more than 4000 tour operators and 13,000 travel agencies through the internet. Subscriptions are complimentary. An iPad version is available for consumers in iTunes and Newsstand in the App Store. Byways’ distribution includes motorcoach companies, tour operators, travel agents, bank travel managers, school band and athletic planners, and meeting planners. For advertising rates, editorial deadlines, or to place advertising insertions, contact: Byways Magazine, 42 Cabin Hill Lane, Mount Jackson, VA 22842. Telephone 540-477-3202. Fax 540-477-3858. Toll-free 800-469-0062. ©Copyright 2013 by Byways, Inc. All rights reserved. No portion of this publication may be duplicated in any form without express written permission of the publisher. Editor and Publisher Stephen M. Kirchner

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Advertisers Index

American Mountain Theater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Byways Magazine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bedford Tourism & Welcome Center. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Best Western Colorado River Inn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Colorado Springs Convention & Vistors Bureau . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Durbin & Greenbrier Railroad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dutchess County Tourism, New York . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Franklin Hotel, South Dakota . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Harrisonburg Convention & Visitors Bureau, Virginia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . motorcoach.com - National Reservation Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nebraska Tourism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PA Dutch Hotels, Clarion Inn, Strasburg, Pennsylvania. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PA Dutch Hotels, Pennsylvania. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Richmond Convention & Visitors Bureau, Virginia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ross - Chillicothe Tourism, Ohio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shipshewana Flea Market, Indiana. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Silverado Casino, South Dakota . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Valley Forge Convention & Visitors Bureau, Pennsylvania . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Virginia Tourism Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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