Process Book: Data Visualization

Page 1

process book Project 3: Visualization Data

Miles “Bread” Lee Word and Image 2 November 2019


contents research

04

discovery

18

refinement

24

criticism

36


3 objective Investigate and analyze the provided data excerpt from the national 2016 Pew Research Center survey, "2016 Racial Attitudes in America III," and utilize a second data set (or sets) from "For the Sake of All" that explores related issues on the local level in St. Louis. What interpretations can be mined from the data, and what correlations can be drawn between national and local findings?

size Large scale, unlimited

content Pew Research Center survey, "2016 Racial Attitudes in America III," US Census Bureau’s 2012 "Social Explorer: American Community Survey"


research I first looked at the Data Visualization exhibit at Olin Library and then researched different kinds of data vis from design firms, designers, and companies I admire.

Florence Nightingale

Joseph Minard

The Olin Exhibit made me start to think about how to frame my data vis and different charts I could use.


5

mgmt


Giorgia Lupi


7

NY Times

FiveThirtyEight

Uknown

Elizabeth Warren

Pew Research Center


The original graphic

I eventually moved on to look at more politics-oriented data vis and found a data vis graphic I had seen in 2016 after the presidential election entitled “How the Electoral Map would look if only _______ voted.” I remember feeling frustrated and hopeless after finding out the results of the election, and in a way, this graphic added to that. I kept this in the back of my mind for a while.

“[I posted it] and felt pleased with what I considered an obvious visual point in the context of the conversation: White men aren’t the only ones to blame for the rise of Trumpism. Here’s that image, modified in a way that everyone in that conversation has agreed to:”


9 While researching for this project, I came across the same graphic pretty much by chance. It was in a Medium article the original creator, Ste Kinney-Fields, wrote in October 2016. She wrote something that really put data vis into perspective for me: “Data is beautiful but visualizations aren’t value neutral. If your data is about race and gender in America, then it is important to take the opportunity to frame the data in explicitly anti-sexist and anti-racist terms. My visualization was used by white supremacists in part because I didn’t do that. I don’t know that there’s anything that would stop them from using this kind of data for their racist gain but it does suck to have my work used that way. I wish I had made the post explicitly anti-racist to begin with. I didn’t and I will continue to deal with that.” Ste Kinney-Fields

This showed me how important it is to intentionally frame and provide context to your data vis to make sure the audience knows exactly what point you’re trying to make.


A very helpful graphic from Financial Times that I referenced many times throughout the process


11


the data At this point, I began reading the data provided: the Pew Research Center survey, “2016 Racial Attitudes in America III” (abbreviated to Pew) and the US Census Bureau’s 2012 “Social Explorer: American Community Survey” (abbreviated to ACS). I started with Pew first and annotated as I read. I took note of large differences in responses between groups, particularly white and black respondents. Pew is “a national survey by Pew Research Center conducted Feb. 29–May 8, 2016, among 3,769 adults (including 1,799 whites, 1,004 blacks and 654 Hispanics). The survey—and the analysis of the survey findings—is centered primarily around the divide between blacks and whites and on the treatment of black people in the U.S. today.” Pew Research Center, “On Views of Race and Inequality, Blacks and Whites Are Worlds Apart.” June 2016


13 Q.19F1: Thinking about your community‌ Overall, would you say that: (blacks are treated less fairly than whites), (whites are treated less fairly than blacks), or both are treated about equally in each of the following situations?

Q.42: When it comes to discrimination against black people in our country today, which do you think is the bigger problem?

PARTY: In politics TODAY, do you consider yourself a Republican, Democrat, or independent?


I can’t say I was surprised by most of this data. Overall, the respondents, specifically those who were white and black, had very different views regarding racism and race relations in America. While the Pew data is not perfectly representative of the views of the entirety of the American population, it revealed to me a stark difference between how white and black Americans think about these topics. Ultimately, I noted that white respondents didn’t seem to understand how prominent and harmful racial discrimination is for black Americans. Next, I looked at ACS. On ACS: “every 10 years since 1790, Congress has authorized the government to conduct a national census of the US population, as required by the US Constitution. In the twentieth century, the questions were divided between a short and long form. The short form was conducted on a 100% sample of the US population, while the long form was done on a 1-in-6 sample of the population and consisted of a much wider selection of questions. After the 2000 Census, this long form became the ACS. Sent to approximately 3.5 million addresses per year, it is the largest household survey that the Census Bureau administers. Unlike census which is conducted once every ten years, ACS is conducted throughout the entire year.” Social Explorer, American Community Survey basics.


15

Household Income In The Past 12 Months (In 2012 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars) (Black Or African American Alone Householder) Unemployment Rate For the Population 16 Years and Over

I noted in ACS that there were substantial differences between the results from St. Louis County and St. Louis City. This is due to St. Louis’ long and complicated racial history involving zoning and housing laws, leading to it being noticeably segregated (USA Today ranked it as the 16th most segregated city in America in 2019) and receiving the epithet “The Divided City.” There were also stark differences in the unemployment rate between white and black Americans. I could sort of see how these two data sets could relate to each other, but wasn’t exactly sure because the data didn’t cover the exact same things.


narrative After reading through the data, my main takeaway became the obliviousness of white respondents to the effects of racial discrimination. I crafted three narratives surrounding themes such as privilege, perceived treatment, and race relations for black and white respondents. Notes I took on “The Art of Data Vis,� a video by PBS Digital Studios. My takeaways: What does the data suggest? What narrative do you want to build? What do you want your audience to pay attention to?


17

Narrative options


discovery When I started to create graphs, the first graph type I chose was—you guessed it—a pie chart. Unfortunately, I only later discovered that pie charts are generally frowned upon because they don’t reliably represent the relationships between each piece. By later, I mean later. I made an entire poster of pie charts. But don’t worry. Keep reading. St Louis City

Less Than $10,000

$10,000 To $14,999

$15,000 To $24,999

$25,000 To $34,999

$35,000 To $49,999

$50,000 To $74,999

$75,000 To $99,999

$100,000 To $149,999

$150,000 To $199,999

$200,000 Or More

I made pie charts in Excel (where the data was originally), copy-pasted them into Illustrator, and cleaned them up.

St. Louis City Less than $10,000 $10,000 to $14,999 $15,000 to $24,999

poverty line*

$25,000 to $34,999 $35,000 to $49,999 $50,000 to $74,999 $75,000 to $99,999

middle class*

$100,000 to $149,999 $150,000 to $199,999 $200,000 or more *For a family of four (two adults, two children) the poverty thresh old in 2012 was $23,283. *2011: [middle class] income range is $39,418 to $118,255 in 2011 dollars. Incomes are adjusted for household size and then scaled to reflect a three-person household.


19

At this point, I was also wondering what colors to use. At first, I tried using the same color scheme for black and white respondents, but felt that it needed to be easier to distinguish between the two groups. I ended up creating two color schemes. They both go from purple/blue to red/ pink, but in different hues. I wanted them to look different but also related so I could use them in the same data set.

To choose color schemes, I used Lyft Design’s ColorBox and Learn UI Design’s Data Color Picker.

color scheme for white respondents

color scheme for black respondents


The first poster iteration

Whites

Whites

Blacks

Blacks

Support for the Black Lives Matter Movement

Biggest Source of Discrimination against Black People

Whites

According to Whites

Blacks

According to Blacks


21 Treatment of Blacks and Whites: In the Workplace According to Whites

According to Blacks

Dealing with the Police According to Whites

Amount of Attention Focused on Race & Racial Issues According to Blacks

According to Whites

In the Courts According to Whites

According to Blacks

According to Blacks


After realizing that I shouldn’t use pie charts, I looked again at the Financial Times’ Visual Vocabulary poster under the “part to whole” section and decided to try out gridplots. These seemed ideal for representing percentages and populations. I let 100 squares represent 100 respondents. Socioeconomic Class Distribution Whites

Gridplot with circles

Blacks

Socioeconomic Class Distribution Whites

Blacks

Gridplot with squares. I decided squares made it easier to see the distribution of colors and percentages than the circles did.


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refinement I decided that while gridplots looked nice, they were somewhat hard to distinguish between the parts to whole. Especially since I pulled data that used a lot of opinion responses (ie: “Are black people treated less fairly...�), I decided to try creating diverging stack bars with spines. Each bar represents 100% of the responses.


25

According to Whites

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Vertical poster, 20x35 inches. My professor noted that there is no focal point or visual interest since the graphs are all visually the same.

HEAR NO EVIL, SEE NO EVIL

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White America Turns a Blind Eye to Racial Discrimination Racial Discrimination as a Hinderance to Black People

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CASE STUDY: St. Louis, MO š › ÂŒ ­ ÂŽ “ Âœ ž’ Â&#x; —Â? ­Â™ Â’ ‡ ˆ

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27 I used these spine graphs for these poster iterations and decided to stick with this kind of chart. I struggled with figuring out the directionality of the poster, especially since the spine graphs utilize a line between opinions. I also decided to use St. Louis household income data from ACS and compare that to the national household income data from Pew. At this point, I narrowed down my data to questions about racial discrimination as a hindrance, major sources of discrimination, amount attention focused on race and racial issues, fair treatment, attitudes on Black Lives Matter, and the local/national comparison. Horizontal poster. 34x22 inches. I split the 1 line up into 3 lines, hoping this would create a clearer narrative.

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Attitudes towards Black Lives Matter

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I am feel uncomfortable when we are not about me?

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America’s Divide in Understanding Racial Discrimination

A tweet by @ProBirdRights that captures the spirit of my poster

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Horizontal poster with black background, 36x21 inches. I felt that the black background helped the data stand out more and lent a more sophisticated look overall.

Is racial discrimination institutionalized?

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USA, 2016. Pew Research Center

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Are black people treate fairly in the workplace USA, 2016. Pew Research Center

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CASE STUDY: ST. LOUIS, MO Household Income, St. Louis St. Louis City & County, 2012. For the Sake of All

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Middle class*

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Are black people treate fairly when dealing wit

Black Households

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USA, 2016. Pew Research Center

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HEAR NO EVIL, SEE NO EVIL White America Turns a Blind Eye to Racial Discrimination

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Does racial discrimination make it harder for black people? USA, 2016. Pew Research Center

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Do we pay too much attention to race & racial issues?

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ed less th Police?

Do you support the Black Lives Matter movement? USA, 2016. Pew Research Center ‘ ‡

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24x40 inches. For this poster, I pulled from the popular activist saying “if you are not angry, you are not paying attention.� I put a lot of thought into the copy, but my peers reccommended I cut it down.

IF YOU ARE NOT ANGRY, YOU ARE NOT PAYING ATTENTION.

USA, 2016. Pew Research Center

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Is racial discrimination institutionalized?

Are black people treated less fairly when dealing with Police?

USA, 2016. Pew Research Center

USA, 2016. Pew Research Center

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White America is Turning a Blind Eye towards Racial Discrimination

CASE STUDY: ST. LOUIS, MO

Are black people treated less fairly in the workplace?

Does racial discrimination make success harder for black people?

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Do you support the Black Lives Matter movement?

St. Louis City & County, 2012. For the Sake of All

USA, 2016. Pew Research Center

USA, 2016. Pew Research Center

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A different layout. 21x36 inches

WILLFULL IGNORANCE Do we pay too much attention to race & racial issues?

Is racial discrimination institutionalized?

Are black people treated less fairly in the workplace?

USA, 2016. Pew Research Center

USA, 2016. Pew Research Center

USA, 2016. Pew Research Center

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Do you support the Black Lives Matter movement?

USA, 2016. Pew Research Center

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CASE STUDY: ST. LOUIS, MO

Household Income, St. Louis

Household Income, USA

St. Louis City & County, 2012. For the Sake of All

USA, 2016. Pew Research Center

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31

A different layout with some bigger charts. 21x36 inches DO WE PAY TOO MUCH ATTENTION

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Are black people treated less fairly in the workplace?

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USA, 2016. Pew Research Center

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Racial Discrimination is Alive and Well, yet White America is Turning a Blind Eye

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CASE STUDY: ST. LOUIS, MO

Is racial discrimination institutionalized? USA, 2016. Pew Research Center

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Do you support the Black Lives Matter movement?

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I also tried vertical spine graphs, but they were difficult to fit onto a poster.

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“AS LONG AS I DON’T SEE IT, IT DOESN’T EXIST.� Racial discrimination is alive and well, yet white America still turns a blind eye

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Does racial discrimination make success harder for black people?

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Are black people treated less fairly by Police?

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Is racial discrimination institutionalized?

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CASE STUDY: ST. LOUIS, MO

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“As long as we can keep them over there in that colony, north of Delmar, north of 70, we will be all right. As long as [black people] stay invisible, there is no problem. As long as I don’t see it, it doesn’t exist.â€? Â&#x;ÂŁ ¤ Âœ

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Household Income, St. Louis

St. Louis City & County, 2012. American Community Survey

Black Households

žš‡ ‘‚‰ ž‚‚‰ ­Â›Â› ­Â€Â‚‚ šˆ Â? Â? Â?

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Final poster. 20x33 inches

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33 My final poster uses the following quote I found about St. Louis’ segregation as the title. I felt that it accurately fit what I was trying to suggest with my data.


Poster after critique


35 criticism The biggest thing I struggled with for this project was creating a focal point for the user. I ended up making some graphs, those I saw as supplementary information, thinner than others. During critique, some of my peers were confused about this scale shift, so I’m not sure it worked the way I wanted it to. One peer commented that they wish the color scheme of black and white respondents were the same, while another appreciated that they were different. Other comments involved the layout of the case study, which I later edited. If I were to continue working on this project, I would explore better ways to create a focal point as well as tie local and national data together.


Miles “Bread” Lee Project 1: Monogram Typography 2, Fall 2019 Sam Fox School of Design and Visual Arts