Upgrade Your Production Practices
Floridaâ€™s I-75 Makes Paving, Planning History Save Money:
VFD Update, Advice Brannan S&G Encourages WMA Revolution Haul Truck Staging Depends on Production New Zealand Sets Plant Standards Interim Tier 4 Has Arrived January 2011
The decision to install WMA equipment doesn’t have to be difficult. See related article on page 16. Photo courtesy of Stansteel, Louisville, Ky.
One way to combat blue smoke is to minimize moisture. See related article on page 28. Photo courtesy of Murphy Pavement Technology, Chicago.
January 2011 Departments
Letter From the Editor 5 Let’s Sue Someone in 2011 6 Around the Globe
16 Dive into WMA OEMs discuss warm-mix asphalt tendencies, staying power by Sandy Lender
People You Should Know 8 Spotlight on: NAPA 2011 Chairman Kim Snyder
28 Capture Lurking Blue Smoke in Your Operation by AsphaltPro Staff
Safety Spotlight 10 Loadout Safely with Efficiency by AsphaltPro Staff
32 RNZ Brings Plants up to Scheme by AsphaltPro Staff
Equipment Maintenance 12 Control Hot Oil Heater Stack Temperature by Ron Henry Producer Profile 20 Lose WMA Trepidation with Brannan Sand & Gravel by Sandy Lender Project Management 25 Time Your Trucks Production success relies on staging delivery of perishable product by John Ball
34 iROX Expands Funding, Paving Options by Sandy Lender
34 Ajax Paving Inc., Nokomis, Fla., successfully completed the enormous, trendsetting iROX project early and with impressive ride numbers. See related article on page 34. Photo courtesy of API.
42 Vary Drive Speed for Cost Savings OEMs give an update on VFDs to enhance electrical efficiency by AsphaltPro Staff 44 Enter Interim Tier4 Time in Three, Two, One… by AsphaltPro Staff
Equipment Gallery 46 Forta Corp. Offers Mix Strength Here’s How It Works 50 Terex’s In-Line Warm Mix Asphalt System Last Cut 52 Crude Oil Prices Settle into Higher Range from U.S. Energy Information Administration Resource Directory 54
25 Good project management requires timely material delivery and truck staging. See related article on page 25. Photo courtesy of E.D. Etnyre Co., Oregon, Ill. ASPHALT PRO 3
January 2011 • Vol. 4 No. 4
Let’s Sue Someone in 2011 editor’s note
2001 Corporate Place Columbia, MO 65202 573-499-1830 • 573-499-1831 www.theasphaltpro.com
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AsphaltPro is published nine times per year: January, February, March, April/May, June/July, August/ September, October, November and December by The Business Times Company, 2001 Corporate Place, Columbia, MO 65202 Subscription Policy: Individual subscriptions are available without charge in the United Sates, Canada and Mexico to qualified individuals. One year subscription to non-qualifying Individuals: United States $90, Canada and Mexico $125.00 and $175.00 all other countries (payable in U.S. funds, drawn on U.S. bank). Single copies available $17 each.
A new year always rings in with people asking what your New Year’s Resolution will be. I find that irritating 99 percent of the time. As a magazine editor, I have goals and deadlines every day of my life. As a member of the asphalt industry, I have additional goals that involve legislation and letters to city planners. Why would I add more? One of the goals I’d like to specify this January is to talk less about this obnoxious funding issue we’ve been facing the past few years. Aren’t you sick of it? Aren’t you ready for a big ol’ lawsuit to put it to rest? Think about it. Roads need to be fixed. The entities that own the roads must be responsible for fixing them or the motorists getting injured are going to sue the pants off those entities. (Pardon my glibness; it’s a function of my frustration with the subject.) I have to believe that once the first multi-million dollar lawsuit hits the courts for a federally-funded highway that didn’t get federally fixed because Congress couldn’t get its collective act together on funding, we’ll see faster action. What’s the saying? It takes money to make money. For our purposes, I think it takes a discussion of loss of money to make money. Perhaps that’s cynical, but it’s better than sending zombies from the concrete industry’s ill-planned pollutant-reactions to frighten our representatives into passing meaningful legislation. (See last month’s editorial column.) I mean, the House did vote in a landslide 212 to 206 victory to approve H.R. 3082 back on Dec. 8, which would have continued appropriations for all of FY11. That means all federal government operations, including federal surface transportation and aviation programs, would get extended authorization through Sept. 30. Status quo, people. Status quo. That should be good enough for government work. Then the Senate stepped in and said, “wait, we’d like to add these 7,000 special items right here.” Enter government progress, right? So we ended up with more hashing and re-hashing of the same old argument about spending and money and funding and earmarks. In the end, the continuing resolution will only carry our working government through March 4. Name one state DOT that can plan with that. James Oberstar, ousted rep from Minnesota, got up Dec. 8 to say he’d rather we were voting to approve an adequate transportation bill that funds a real highway plan. Amen, Brother! As stated on the http:// transportation.house.gov website, Oberstar stated that H.R. 3082: • rescinds all remaining highway earmarks designated in the Surface Transportation and Uniform Relocation Assistance Act of 1987 (STURAA) (P.L. 100-17); • rescinds all remaining highway earmarks designated in the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) (P.L. 102-240); • rescinds all highway projects designated in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA 21) (P.L. 105-178) that have not obligated at least 10 percent of the funds authorized for the project; and • rescinds all High Priority Project program funds authorized by the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU) (P.L. 109-59) that were not designated for use on a specific project. What’s left? Apparently, we have $42.3 billion for federal-aid highway programs and $10.5 billion for federal transit programs. I think we’re all aware that that’s not enough to maintain the current system, let alone allow DOTs to plan ahead for serious maintenance projects or congestion-relief projects down the line. It looks like 2011 is going to be another spot-check kind of year for industry. I encourage you to call on your Congressmen about funding, but I’m sick and tired of harping on it. I don’t want to spend the next nine months of FY11 haranguing readers to do what should have been done two years ago. This industry needed a long-term authorization plan, and a reliable system to pay for it, long before H.R. 3082 rescinded items and offered meager droppings from Congress’s table. If you’ve not already made the decision to participate in this May’s legislative fly-in to discuss this with your representatives, I can’t imagine a few sarcastic comments in my frustrated editorial column will convince you that you need to add it to your calendar. Maybe you need to fall back to Plan B: Find someone who’s already had an accident or lost a loved one on a deteriorated federal roadway. Convince them to sue the pants off one of those Congressmen.
Let’s get to work. Stay Safe,
Sandy Lender ASPHALT PRO 5
AROUND THE GLOBE Industry News and Happenings from Around the World
As of Dec. 10, Petrosil announced bitumen prices in Italy have fallen 7 percent since January 2010.
According to Much Asphalt CEO Philip Hechter, a bitumen shortage from four aging refineries is delaying the 185-kilometer Gauteng Freeway Improvement Project, owned by South African National Roads Agency Limited (Sanral). Hechter told Creamer Media “…there have recently been major disruptions in the availability of suitable bitumen for the upgrade and maintenance of our national roads. Other vital road contracts around the country, which include provincial and municipal maintenance and upgrading, are also being delayed due to the acute shortage of bitumen.” Source: Sabita.co.za
Petrosil announced bitumen prices in Spain have fallen 8 percent for the year 2010.
Petrosil announced Taiwan FOB bitumen prices were down 7 percent since January 2010.
Cummins, Inc., Columbus, Ind., announced in early December that workers will break ground in early 2011 on a multiphased manufacturing site at the Aegean Free Trade Zone in Izmir, Turkey. Officials plan to first build a filtration manufacturing plant and follow with a facility to produce alternators for its power generation business.
Petrosil announced bitumen prices in the United Kingdom were down 6 percent for 2010.
• John Mica (R-Fla) who now serves as the Chairman of the House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee, has stated that “doing more with less” will be the mandate of the T&I committee, as it is the standard operating procedure for all Americans. Passing a multi-year surface transportation bill and an aviation bill are top committee priorities for 2011, but funding them with a gas tax increase is a no-go as far as Mica is concerned. He’d prefer to get the private sector more involved with funding transportation projects and hopes the private sector can pay for the difference. Mica wants the next long-term reauthorization to 6 January 2011
include a host of financing alternatives to help stabilize the Highway Trust Fund. Source: NAPA • For updates, opinion and links concerning funding legislation, be sure to check the blog at www.TheAsphaltForum. blogspot.com. and the website at www.theasphaltpro.com.
The Colorado Asphalt Pavement Association (CAPA) ended 2010 with 34 new members and 56 nominations for the “Best in Colorado” awards program. Nine of the projects in that group have been nominated for the Sustainable Pavement Award. Join CAPA Feb. 23 during the 38th annual Rocky Mountain Asphalt Conference and Equipment Show (RMACES) for the CAPA Awards Dinner at the Crowne Plaza Denver International Airport Hotel, Denver. Call (970) 222-4459 or visit www.rmaces.org.
The American Association of Port Authorities and U.S. Maritime Administration will feature a discussion on the planned Panama Canal expansion, including how increased cargo will affect trade patterns and infrastructure needs, at its Shifting International Trade Routes conference Feb. 1-2 at the Grand Hyatt Tampa Bay. Get information at www.aapa-ports.org/ Programs or call (813) 874-1234.
Foremen and haul truck drivers might want to factor new stops into their delivery routes. According to desototimes.com, the Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) enforcement division has two Smart Roadside Inspection System Mobile Vans with which inspectors can run license plate tags through databases to check for “good safety records,” use thermal cameras to check the trucks’ brake and exhaust systems, and scan for leaking fluids. While this is an excellent safety feature, it means Big Brother is checking up and pulling you over if your pre-shift inspection wasn’t tip-top.
• The Missouri Asphalt Pavement Association (MAPA) members participate in Transportation Day and Breakfast with the Missouri Highway Commission and state legislators Feb. 2 from 7:30 to 9:30 a.m. at the State Capitol in Jefferson City. • The Association of Modified Asphalt Producers will hold its 12th annual workshop and conference Feb. 15 through 17 in Kansas City, Mo., at the Westin Crown Center. Visit www.modifiedasphalt.com for more information.
Nevada This year’s C&D World Exhibition & Conference will be colocated with CONEXPO-CON/AGG in Las Vegas. The 2011 annual meeting of the Construction Materials Recycling Association (CMRA) will be held at the Paris Resort & Spa Wednesday, March 23. Visit www.cdrecycling.org for more information.
South Carolina Charleston was home to a national infrastructure forum Dec. 15 where Transportation Secretary Ray LaHood took up the Rebel Yell for a front-loaded, six-year surface transportation reauthorization bill to restore America’s infrastructure and create jobs. He also announced the launch of U.S. Department of Transportation’s new “Buy America” webpage, which promotes compliance with federal law that requires states and localities receiving certain federal grants to purchase American-made products whenever possible. View the site at bit.ly/BuyAm121610. Building America’s Future Educational Fund hosted the forum. Source: AASHTO
South Dakota KPI-JCI and Astec Mobile Screens, Yankton, S.D., honored Goodfellow Corp., Boulder City, Nev.; Amaco Equipment Co., Mississauga, Ontario; and GW Van Keppel Co., Kansas City; at the companies’ annual dealer meeting with the Presidents’ Awards. These awards are based on all areas of excellence in service, sales, parts, marketing and stewardship.
Washington, D.C. The House narrowly approved a $1.2 trillion continuing resolution (CR) Dec. 8 that included $41.1 billion with no earmarks for highway funding. By Dec. 16, Senate Republicans had succeeded in squashing Democrats’ hopes for including about 7,000 line items for individual lawmakers’ projects. Minority leader Mitch McConnell (R-Ky.) had high hopes for a toned-down version of the bill, which the Senate passed Dec. 21 by a 79 to 16 vote. Both the House and President then approved the Senate’s amendments for a shorter bill with other provisions. The CR keeps federal agencies and programs funded only through March 4, 2011. It extends transportation and aviation funding, freezes discretionary spending and eliminates earmarks. One thing it does not include is the $50 billion investment in infrastructure that the president requested.
people you should know Spotlight on:
NAPA 2011 Chairman Kim Snyder Name: Kim W. Snyder Title and organization: President, Eastern Industries, Inc.; 2011 Chairman of the National Asphalt Pavement Association
Age: Old enough to know better, young enough to do better. Years in the asphalt industry: 25 Area of expertise: includes construction, construction materials, mining, industrial minerals, land development, and transportation and logistics Job description: Snyder describes his position as “cheer leader, main supporter, mediator and strategic planner.” Education: Snyder achieved a BS in civil/environmental engineering in 1974 from the University of Rhode Island, graduating Cum Laude and with Distinction; a masters of business administration in 1982 from the University of Pittsburgh with a major in finance and a minor in operations management; and performed post graduate work at the University of Pittsburg in civil and mining engineering. Community involvement: Snyder is the chairman of the board of directors for Team Capital Bank, board member for McCarthy Bush Corporation, incoming chairman of NAPA, vice chairman of Kutztown University Board of Trustees, trustee of Rock PAC, executive board member of Boy Scouts of America Minsi Trails Council, board member of Lehigh Valley Partnership, member of The Pennsylvania Society, a registered professional engineer, an eagle scout, past vice chairman of The State Theater, past chairman of the Greater Lehigh Valley Chamber of Commerce, past chairman of the Pennsylvania Asphalt Producers Association, past chairman of the National Stone, Sand and Gravel Association, and past chairman of the Greater Lehigh Valley CC Foundation. 8 January 2011
Professional background: Snyder is currently the president of Eastern Industries, Inc., and Stabler Development Co., subsidiaries of New Enterprise Stone and Lime Co. He has also worked at Genstar Stone Products as vice president of aggregates, General Crushed Stone as vice president, general manager, and at Dravo Corp. as project manager. Over the past 30 years, he has been involved in construction, engineering, operations management, sales management, or general management in construction, construction materials, mining, industrial minerals, land development, and transportation and logistics. He has had either direct or overall responsibility for land-based sand and gravel plants, quarries, bituminous concrete plants, redi-mix concrete plants, masonry concrete block plants, bulk material transfer terminals, construction units, industrial mineral plants, land development projects, and trucking and barging operations. Published articles include “A Positive Approach to Community Relations” in the December 1993 issue of Quarry Management Magazine, “Community Based Quarry Advisory Councils, Their Time Has Come” in the June 1993 issue of Stone Review Magazine and “The Stabler Grassroots Political Action Team” in the October 1997 issue of Stone Review Magazine. A businessperson I admire: “is anyone who remains ethical and maintains their integrity no matter how tough times get.” If I weren’t doing this for a living, I would: “be unemployed, probably traveling in a motor home pulling a trailer with a Harley in it. My wife and I would spend on average two months in every state and providence of Canada, ride every scenic highway, visit every National Park, and see everything listed in the 1000 Places to See Before You Die, U.S. and Canada Version. Or maybe not. I’ll let you know when it happens.” Biggest career or personal obstacle I’ve overcome: “Getting out of my own way. I’m still working on it.” A favorite recent project: “They are all very important to me or I wouldn’t be doing them.” What’s currently on my iPod: “Just a couple of months ago, received an iPad. First Apple product and I like it. Apps: Star Walk, Live Strong,
Heart Wise, Flight Track, Free Wi Fi, My Congress, USA Today, Weather Channel, Urban Spoon, Pen Ultimate, a couple of games.” Favorite movie: “Movies are one of the places where I ‘escape.’ I like movies and watch them often both at home and in the theaters. I can’t pick just one as my favorite.” Most well-worn book in my library: “I go through periods where I’ll read a lot, then none at all. When I am reading, it’s always something new. I’ve never re-read a book or refer back to those that I have read. And since last Christmas, I only buy e-books (first on my Kindle and now on my iPad).” Family: Wife Linda; Daughters Lauren, Paige, Deven; Sister Trudy; and Mother Lorraine Pets: “Many cats, Paige’s lizard (I’m pretty sure Caesar belongs to us now)” What I do for fun: “My hobbies include, but are not limited to spending time with my wife and kids, golf, amusement parks, fishing, traveling, riding Harleys, and learning about how others do things.” Favorite place in my hometown: “It’s been many decades since I left home and I’ve lived in a number of places since then. The only place I go when I go back to my hometown (Binghamton, N.Y.) is my Mom’s house.” Accomplishment I’m most proud of: “I don’t know if I would classify them as an accomplishment, but I’m most proud of our daughters. Well grounded, independent thinkers, who have a good sense of self and are genuinely kind hearted. All three are, like their Mom, passionate animal lovers and are vegans (vegetarians on steroids). Paige works for PETA and runs their youth development program. And the five of us cherish and are protective of each other as a family. So I guess my family is my “hometown” no matter where I might be living.” Most people don’t know that I: “This is a tough one. Probably lots of things. I’m a very open person, so I’ll answer any question asked, but I don’t talk a lot about myself. I’m more interested in other people’s stories. What people know about me depends on what they are interested in and ask.”
SAFETY SPOTLIGHT Loadout Safely with Efficiency by AsphaltPro Staff
afety at the asphalt plant should be on everyoneâ€™s mind at all times, and one area to concentrate on is the silos. There are ways to minimize danger, reduce the chance for error and maximize best practices at loadout. Make sure the control house is stationed so the plant operator has an unobstructed view of the loadout and scale area. Make sure only essential personnel spend time around the silo area. Use automation and silo controls to fill silos and load trucks. Finally, mark stopping points for truck drivers who may or may not be veteran asphalt personnel. One of the reasons a haul truck driver might stop his truck too soon or pull forward too far beneath the silo gate is mere human error. He may misjudge the distance. This is easier to imagine if the driver is new to his job than it would be for a veteran in the field, but think about those night paving jobs where even experienced drivers are drowsy from multiple trips to and from the work zone. Blurry eyes can misjudge distance at 3 a.m. whether the driver is a 10-year veteran at the job or a newbie just brought in from the rental fleet for the nightâ€™s project. Setting up a system that shows drivers exactly where to stop and exactly where their wheels need to be is a good move for the careful plant owner. Consider that HMA should be loaded in three (3) drops anyway, and moving the truck along a system of coded marks is a wise option. Paint the marks and designate them as Stop A, Stop C and Stop B as indicated in the figure shown here. For the high-tech operation, a stoplight can be installed. When the driver has the truck in position for the first drop to fall into the front third of his truck bed, the light turns red at Stop A. The load drops. The gate closes and the light turns green, signaling that the truck can pull forward to Stop B for the second drop in the back third of his truck. The light turns red again when heâ€™s in position B. The gate opens and the load drops. The gate closes and the light turns green, signaling that the truck can back slowly into position for Stop C and for the third and final drop into the middle third of his truck. The light turns red again when the truck is in position. The gate opens and the load drops. The gate closes and the light turns green, signaling that loading is complete and the driver can pull forward to collect his loadout ticket. By installing a stoplight or stop sign system, the plant owner/operator offers drivers one more chance to be safe and efficient at the loadout area. 10 January 2011
Safety and efficiency can go hand in hand at the loadout area for LaFarge. Photo courtesy of Gencor Industries, Inc., Orlando.
EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE Control Hot Oil Heater Stack Temperature by Ron Henry
ou should periodically check the stack temperature on your hot oil heater. Stack temperature is one of its important vital signs. An abnormally high temperature indicates too much heat is being wasted into the atmosphere instead of heating the heat transfer oil (also known as thermal fluid). This, in turn, indicates something is wrong with your heater. Moreover, wasted heat is wasted money and wasted resources. Stack temperature is also a good indication of the heater’s thermal efficiency. The chart shown here gives a range of stack temperatures and what thermal efficiencies they indicate. The thermal efficiency of a hot oil heater relates the amount of heat in British Thermal Units (BTU) that the burner produces to the amount of heat actually transferred to the fluid flowing through its coil. Thus, a heater that is 85 percent efficient uses 85 percent of the heat produced to heat the fluid and wastes the other 15 percent. If your heater is one made by Heatec its thermal efficiency should be at least 85 percent and its stack temperature should be 600 degrees F or less. Consequently, temperatures higher than that may indicate a problem. High stack temperatures may be caused by one or more of the following conditions. • Abnormally low flow of heat transfer oil • Build-up of soot on the outer surfaces of the heater’s heating coil • Accumulation of residues inside the heater’s heating coil • Poor thermal efficiency as a result of poor heater design There are a couple of ways to check the stack temperature of your heater. One way is to use a temperature gun (a portable noncontact thermometer). Another is to install a dial thermometer in the stack. Most temperature guns use a laser beam for aiming the gun at the spot where you want to read the temperature. Some guns also have controls for setting emissivity according to the emissivity of the spot where the temperature is read. The accuracy of all readings depends on matching the gun’s setting with the correct emissivity for that 12 January 2011
If you find that the stack temperature of your heater is 700 degrees F or more, find out why. spot. Unfortunately, the emissivity of some stacks can be very difficult to determine correctly and inaccurate readings are likely to result. For that reason, the engineers at Heatec don’t recommend use of a temperature gun for reading stack temperatures. Instead, we highly recommend installation of a dial thermometer in the stack as shown in the accompanying photo. These thermometers are inexpensive, are typically easy to install and generally provide accurate readings. They can be left in the stack for frequent, effortless observation. Choose a thermometer with a 6-inch stem, a range
from 200 to 1,000 degrees F, and a male pipe connection of ½-inch NPT. On Heatec heaters you can install it in the existing port that is normally used for installation of an exhaust gas analyzer. If you find that the stack temperature of your heater is 700 degrees F or more, find out why. Check for adequate flow as indicated by its differential pressure switch. If flow is okay, you should remove the back head and check for soot on the heating coil. If the coil is free of soot, you need to check for residues inside the helical coil. This requires disconnecting the piping at the outlet of the helical coil and
An abnormally high temperature indicates too much heat is being wasted into the atmosphere instead of heating the heat transfer oil.
This thermometer is installed in the exhaust stack of a hot oil heater. By measuring the stack temperature, the maintenance person can determine thermal efficiency.
probing the inner surfaces of the piping near the connection to see if you can detect a lot of residue. If those checks do not indicate the problem, the heater may simply have poor thermal efficiency. It may be time to look into replacing it with a new one that is up to todayâ€™s standards. For future reference you need to make a record of the stack temperatures before and after you fix a problem. Also note what you did to correct the problem. This can help you detect when a future problem is developing and what may be needed to fix it. Some operators tend to ignore the amount of fuel burned by their hot oil heater because it burns far less fuel per hour than their aggregate dryer. Remember that the hot oil heater stays on longer, so its wasted fuel adds up over a period of time. Donâ€™t let it waste your money and our natural resources. Ron Henry is a service manager for Heatec, Chattanooga. For more information, contact him at (800) 235-5200 or visit www.heatec.com.
Dive into WMA
OEMs discuss warm-mix asphalt tendencies, staying power by Sandy Lender
This is the Rotary Recycle Mixer® by Stansteel with the AccuShear® Warm Mix System installed. Photo courtesy of Stansteel, Louisville, Ky.
“When water enters a foaming chamber, it vaporizes almost s discussed in this month’s Producer Profile, leaping into the instantly,” Musil began. “This transforms the water from a liquid to warm-mix asphalt (WMA) arena doesn’t have to be a move rife a gaseous state in the presence of the asphalt bitumen. When the with trepidation. The team at Brannan Sand & Gravel Co., Denver, water transforms from a liquid shares their success story with to a gaseous state, its volume ideas for making the transition smooth for other producers (page “The liquid AC traps the bubble inside until increases dramatically and 20). Here, WMA system original the compactive effort takes the bubble out results in an increase in pressure in the foaming chamber…. equipment manufacturers (OEMs) of the equation.” The result is that the asphalt is offer tips and advice not just on —Dennis Hunt foamed, meaning that its volume the state of WMA processes but is increased because there are also on the industry’s view of its suddenly millions of bubbles or microscopic little voids within it that staying power. are filled with steam. First, Joe Musil, a senior engineering fellow at Terex Roadbuilding, “As the foamed asphalt leaves the foaming chamber or spray bar— Oklahoma City, gives an overview of the WMA process and why it’s depending on the foaming system design—the pressure decreases and proved successful for an entire industry. The basic concept is to introthe foamed volume increases even more,” he continued. “An analogy duce water to heated liquid asphalt cement (AC) to create a foamed product. The foamed product is then introduced to the aggregate for perhaps is shaking a can of pop and then opening it.” coating. It all happens with lower temperatures than traditional mix Musil explained that the surface area of the foamed asphalt is much production and increased benefits. greater than that of non-foamed asphalt. That makes the foamed 16 January 2011
Prep for WMA
It’s as easy as 1, 2, 3… 1. Make sure the plant’s in good condition. 2. Start with a good mix design. 3. Use good paving practices. From Gencor’s Dennis Hunt.
Meeker Equipment, Lansdale, Pa., manufactures and installs this foaming system for WMA production. Photo courtesy of Meeker.
asphalt able to coat the heated aggregate better at lower temperatures than nonfoamed asphalt at those same temperatures. “Hence the bitumen can more readily and more quickly coat the aggregate,” Musil said. “Or you could say the bitumen to aggregate bond is better than what you might get with non-foamed HMA.” Greg Renegar of Astec Industries, Inc., Chattanooga, echoed this description. “Water is mechanically injected into the liquid asphalt cement. Microscopic steam bubbles are formed in the AC. These bubbles stay until the temperature drops below the boiling point of water. As long as the steam remains in the mix, the AC is considered to be foamed.” Despite the availability of white papers and articles that verify Musil and Renegar’s science, producers researching the WMA arena still question its veracity. Renegar said producers want to know how the process 18 January 2011
works, how to know that the material is foaming, if they have to use city water and what are the maintenance/operations requirements. He assured producers that they can use any water source, as long as it doesn’t contain particles larger than 1/32 inch or any additives. To know that your mix is foaming, he recommends keeping an eye on surrounding systems. “The mix looks like it may be a little rich,” Renegar stated, “but you can tell without a doubt that it is foaming if your drag and drum amps do not rise while running mix at warm mix temperatures. If the system stops foaming, you will see an increase in drag and drum amps.” Renegar stated that “the main operation requirement is to keep the water from freezing in cold temperatures.” Dennis Hunt, vice president of Gencor Industries, Inc., Orlando, said one of the first questions a producer brings to the OEM is “Does it really work?” They also want to know who else is doing it. “It’s still new enough that people are nervous,” Hunt said. Hunt explained that in Indiana, some department of transportation (DOT) specifiers were concerned that the mixer (drum) would break the bubbles. “In Illinois—same thing,” he said. “They have a spec in Illinois that the mix has to be able to be stored in the silo overnight without losing quality or going off spec. So they were concerned that the bubbles would collapse overnight.” In both states, Hunt was able to observe WMA projects where fears were put to rest
because the WMA mix behaved no differently than the HMA mix all parties were accustomed to. “Nothing of the sort happened,” he said. “The liquid AC traps the bubble inside until the compactive effort takes the bubble out of the equation.” It is with such demonstrations, sound facts and stats, and a few anecdotes thrown in, that OEMs and industry peers can put producers at ease. Hunt related this experience. “I went up to New Jersey to give a warm-mix demonstration, and before I went, I called a customer in Texas to get some ideas to share. He said, ‘It ain’t no big deal; we do it every day.’ That’s the Texas experience. The Texas Department of Transportation (DOT) recently reported that of the 9 million tons of asphalt produced in 2010, 810,000 tons was WMA.” Other states have opened up to the WMA phenomenon as well. “I had a fellow from the Alabama DOT call for information about warm mix and he just needed a 30-minute conversation to convince him to try it,” Hunt explained. “Now they run warm mix in Alabama. A fellow from Mississippi called and said the folks in Alabama had recommended it so they wanted to do it too. Now Mississippi runs warm mix.” What producers in these states find is more than a product with better aggregate coating. They have fewer negative emissions and smell. Musil discussed this. “Particulate emissions that are sources from aggregate dust are for most plants a function of the production level, condition of the baghouse, etcetera, and are unlikely to change much whether the plant is producing HMA or WMA,” he said. “Non-water gaseous emissions when expressed on a per-ton-of-mixproduced basis are reduced when producing WMA. This is because the burner is firing at a lower rate per-ton-produced when producing WMA. This is also because the amount of emissions from asphalt, like other things like cooking, is a function of the temperature at which the production is done. “This increase in emissions with temperature is non-linear,” he continued. “For instance, most asphalt WMA mixes heated to 250 degrees F have almost no smell or emission;
Producers can see a cost savings when reducing production temperatures for warm-mix asphalt (WMA) use. Here is a comparison of British Thermal Units (BTUs) required to heat and dry aggregate for HMA and WMA mixes with like materials and an ambient temperature for aggregates of 70 degrees F. however, that same mix as HMA at 310 degrees F would normally have a greater smell or emission that is greater than just the linear increase in temperature.” With negative-emission reductions, production quality improvements, and cost and resources savings wrapped up in WMA mix production, producers are on target when they research their jump into this technology. The good news is they don’t have to go it alone. As Hunt pointed out, “It’s not an experiment anymore. The question has become, ‘You’re not doing warm mix yet?’ It just works and people need to be doing it.” For specifiers and DOT personnel still sitting on the fence, he recommended calling colleagues in Texas, Alabama or Mississippi. “It ain’t no big deal,” he reiterated. “We do it every day.”
Hot Mix Asphalt at 320oF 1 lb. H2O at 70oF heat rise to 211oF = 141 BTU (141oF x 1 BTU x 1 lb.) 1 lb. H2O at 212o phase of vaporization = 970 BTU (970 BTU x 1 lb.) 1 lb. H2O at 212oF heat rise to 320oF = 54 BTU (108oF x 0.5 BTU x 1 lb.) 1 lb. agg at 70oF heat rise to 320oF = 55 BTU (250oF x 0.22 BTU x 1 lb.)
Warm-Mix Asphalt at 250oF 1 lb. H2O at 70oF heat rise to 211oF = 141 BTU (141oF x 1 BTU x 1 lb.) 1 lb. H2O at 212o phase of vaporization = 970 BTU (970 BTU x 1 lb.) 1 lb. H2O at 212oF heat rise to 250oF = 19 BTU (38oF x 0.5 BTU x 1 lb.) 1 lb. agg at 70oF heat rise to 250oF = 39.6 BTU (180oF x 0.22 BTU x 1 lb.)
To dry 1 ton of agg w/5% moisture 2,000 lbs. H2O at 70oF heat rise to 211oF = 14,100 BTU (sh) (2000 lbs. x 5% moist. x 141 BTU) 2,000 lbs. H2O at 212o phase of vaporization = 97,000 BTU (lh) (2000 lbs. x 5% moist. x 970 BTU) 2,000 lbs. H2O at 212oF heat rise to 320oF = 5,400 BTU (sh) (2000 lbs. x 5% moist. x 54 BTU)
To dry 1 ton of agg w/5% moisture 2,000 lbs. H2O at 70oF heat rise to 211oF = 14,100 BTU (sh) (2000 lbs. x 5% moist. X 141 BTU) 2,000 lbs. H2O at 212o phase of vaporization = 97,000 BTU (lh) (2000 lbs. x 5% moist. x 970 BTU) 2,000 lbs. H2O at 212oF heat rise to 250oF = 1,900 BTU (sh) (2000 lbs. x 5% moist. x 19 BTU)
To heat aggregate 2,000 lbs. agg at 70oF heat rise to 320oF = 104,500 BTU (sh) (2000 lbs. x 0.95 x 0.22 BTU x 250o)
To heat aggregate 2,000 lbs. agg at 70oF heat rise to 250oF = 75,240 BTU (sh) (2000 lbs. x 0.95 x 0.22 BTU x 180o)
Total BTUs 116,500 BTUs to dry aggregate 104,500 BTUs to heat aggregate 221,000 BTUs total at 100% efficiency
Total BTUs 113,000 BTUs to dry aggregate 75,240 BTUs to heat aggregate 188,240 BTUs total at 100% efficiency
14.8% total BTUs saved by using WMA vs. conventional hot mix (sh) = sensible heat (lh) = latent heat
Source: Terex Roadbuilding, Oklahoma City, Okla. For original pdfs and more information, contact Joe Musil at (405) 491-2095.
producer profile Lose WMA Trepidation With Brannan Sand & Gravel by Sandy Lender
ith 100 years of asphalt paving under their belts, the management at Brannan Sand & Gravel Co., Denver, brings a wealth of construction industry knowledge to the warm-mix asphalt (WMA) discussion. Back in 1906, the company was called J.W. Brannan Sand & Gravel Co., and it did just what its name implied: it supplied sand and gravel. That changed in 1943 when management introduced asphalt to support the anticipated post-war building boom.
Since then, Brannan crews have garnered 13 National Asphalt Pavement Association (NAPA) Quality in Construction awards, 11 Colorado Asphalt Paving Association (CAPA) awards, 5 Excellence in Construction landmark projects, and 10 industry achievements and recognitions. In 2009, the company brought a demonstration of WMA production and laydown to attendees of the 36th Rocky Mountain Asphalt Conference and Equipment Show (RMACES) when they selected the Ultrafoam GX2â„˘ System from Gencor
Industries, Inc., Orlando. They installed it at their Commerce City, Colo., hot mix plant. With only one day of practice behind them, the Brannan Sand & Gravel crew fired up a successful demo and has been a leading proponent for WMA use ever since. Brannan has three asphalt plants that each have NAPA diamond achievement commendations for environmental excellence from 2003 through 2009. These plants serve a wide area for year-round production and placement (see sidebar). The company
Brannan Sand & Gravel worked with Gencor personnel to fire up the WMA operation for an outdoor demo at the 36th RMACES. Photo courtesy of Gencor. 20 January 2011
At the Rocky Mountain Asphalt Conference and Equipment Show February 2009, freezing ambient temperatures didn’t keep the crowds from attending the Brannan Sand & Gravel outdoor demonstration of warm-mix asphalt (WMA). Here you can see the temperature gun reads a warm 221.6 degrees F for the mix behind the paver. Photos courtesy of Gencor Industries, Inc., Orlando.
boasts a state-of-the-art testing facility at each plant to ensure all materials—whether Brannan produces them or their vendors supply them—meet industry standards. The company website states: “Possessing the ability to develop, test and manufacture our products allows us to remain in the forefront of our industry and ensures our customers are receiving the very best asphalt paving in the industry.” When it came time to add the new WMA technology, Brannan management chalked that up to part of their environmental excellence. The company already used recycled material in its mixes when possible. The website states: “Our commitment to utilize the latest technology and products to best serve our clients include, state of the art testing and quality control facilities, GPS vehicle and fleet tracking systems, LEED certified products such as porous asphalt…recycled materials and extensive environmental sustainability processes.” Quality Control Manager Jarrett Welch took the search for a WMA system seriously. He recognized that there were myriad technologies from which to choose.
“I looked at several processes including Advera, Evotherm, Sasobit and foaming systems,” Welch said. “The foaming system appealed to me most due to the ease of installation, the cost of the system, and ease of operation. In the evaluation process, the cost of the additives to make WMA seemed to me to be too high in the given economy, increasing the cost of mix by $2 per ton. The Gencor system was a capital investment of approximately $42,300, which could be depreciated over time. It uses water to foam the asphalt, so there are no other costs to produce WMA once the equipment was purchased.” Gencor’s vice president, Dennis Hunt, reiterated Welch’s economic concerns, detailing how producers typically view a return on WMA equipment investment. “Chemicals do get looked at first,” Hunt said. “You have to consider that water is free. With chemicals, the cost over time doesn’t diminish.… With water and foaming equipment, the cost over time diminishes dramatically.” As Welch shared, timing played a role in the decisions the Brannan team made when selecting foaming equipment. “My initial involvement with WMA was with Sasobit,” Welch said. “I spoke with Carlos Usuda
of Hi-Tech Asphalt Solutions who at the time was developing a machine to blow the Sasobit into the plant. At the time he did not have the particular machine capable of introducing
Brannan Stays Busy
The crews at Brannan Sand and Gravel Co., Denver, operate three asphalt plants, one of which is now equipped to produce warm-mix asphalt (WMA). They also perform a host of services, which include: • general contracting • site construction • paving installation • patching installation • subdivisions • industrial developments • airports & runways • municipal projects • highways • CDOT projects • reconstruction projects • removal & replacement • parking lots, driveways • sub-grade prep • grading, fine grading • excavation ASPHALT PRO 21
LEFT: The Brannan Sand & Gravel crew took WMA straight from the plant to the demo area to show its workability. Photo courtesy of Brannan Sand & Gravel. ABOVE: The Ultrafoam GX2 is designed to use only the energy of the pump to supply asphalt cement (AC) and water and to achieve consistent foaming without the use of a powered mixing device. When making foamed asphalt, a small percentage (about 1.25 to 2 percent by weight of total AC) of water is injected into the center of the AC flow. The Ultrafoam GX2 design has a centrally located spring-loaded water valve that will open with the pressure of the water is impressed behind the valve. External to the centrally located nozzle is a diaphragm plate, which provides a means to introduce and direct the flow of AC to the process. Photo courtesy of Brannan Sand & Gravel.
The warm-mix foaming system from Gencor Industries, Inc., Orlando, is the Ultrafoam GX2™ System, also called The Green Machine. A variable speed drive (VFD) and positive displacement water pump are mounted on a unitized skid, which includes an inlet strainer, gauge, pressure switch, pressure relief valve, water flow meter and 30 feet of ½-inch hose. Operator controls consist of a start/stop button and auto/manual switch housed in a separate mountable enclosure. Photo courtesy of Brannan Sand & Gravel.
Workers check The Green Machine’s foaming generator near the drum on the day of the RMACES demo. The foaming generator is bolted to a 3- or 4-inch existing asphalt injection line going to the drum mixer and is hot oil jacketed for proper heat retention. It includes two hot oil jumpers. Photo courtesy of Gencor. 22 January 2011
the Sasobit. We then decided to try his fiber machine with some modifications to see if it would work. We were able to introduce it; however, controlling the flow of material was difficult, which resulted in fluctuating baghouse temperatures. The experience was not a total failure; it just reinforced the need for a specific machine capable of introducing and tracking the material. Factors that later contributed to the decision not to go with Sasobit were the cost of the material, and costs associated with either renting or purchasing a machine to introduce it.” Readers can see that one method is not necessarily advised over another; but producers will find that timing and equipment availability weigh in on WMA production. For Brannan Sand & Gravel, they timed equipment installation for a demonstration at the 36th RMACES with Gencor’s assistance on-site. “The retrofitting was not all that difficult,” Welch explained. “We essentially cut through our AC line going into the drum allowing room for the portion of equipment that foams the liquid AC [the foaming generator]. Adjustments to the height of the incoming line were made, but once the line was cut and the height adjusted, we welded a flange to the cut ends of the pipe so the equipment can be bolted on.” To control the system, they tied it into existing electronics. “The operator controls is a panel we put into the control house,” Welch said. “It ties directly into our AC corealis meter and our
drum for the TPH, and is connected to the Variable Speed Drive (VFD)* and water pump. The panel allows the operator to set parameters for how much water is introduced using calculations based on the tons per hour and the targeted temperature.” The excitement builds for producers when their new WMA systems are up and ready to go. For Brannan Sand & Gravel, the excitement had the added element of being on display. “The first opportunity we had running the new system was the day prior to the demo we put on for the RMACES in February 2009,” Welch said. “I was very nervous that we didn’t have more time to ‘dial’ it in, but was confident we would be able to produce the WMA and have a good demo. Several Gencor people were on hand guiding our people through the processes and did a fantastic job preparing all of us for the demo. The demo was a huge success, having well over 100 people in attendance. We reduced the temperature of the WMA to approximately 260 degrees in production and were achieving density on the mat as low as 145 degrees.” With all the research producers put into finding the system that’s perfect for them, Welch advises, “there aren’t any special maintenance tools. Once the system was installed it was ready to go. At the location we produced and placed the WMA, we run on a well for water and have a storage tank that we filled to use for the system. For a foaming system, water needs to be readily available.”
Gencor’s Hunt reiterated Welch’s advice on the water source, and mentioned a couple other facets of Brannan’s experience. “We cut into the AC line and tied the electronics into the computer.” One of the items a member of the Brannan team was concerned with, and that other producers checking into WMA systems might worry about, is the amp draw of a new system. Hunt explained how that worked out during the Brannan Sand & Gravel demo. “The amp meter on the drag slat isn’t really affected by a warm-mix system. We had a gentleman who anticipated it would raise the amps so we started with a temperature of 310 degrees for HMA and switched to foam— the amps didn’t change. We lowered the temperature 10 degrees and the amps didn’t change. We lowered another 10 degrees; the amps didn’t change. We got down to 260 degrees and the amps actually lessened.” Hunt explained some science behind that phenomenon. “The foamed asphalt is more lubricating than not, so the tug on the amps is less. If you start with a good mix and a good plant, you won’t even know you’ve switched to a warm mix.” For Brannan, they know they’ve switched because the cost of doing business has improved. “We have seen a cost reduction in energy using WMA by about 15 cents per ton,” Welch reported. Given the environmental and cost benefits of WMA, Brannan Sand & Gravel Co. members can recommend the process, but Welch recognizes— and reminds others—that different systems work for different producers.
“Selection of technologies in which to produce WMA should be carefully considered,” he said. “Each technology has its own processes and plant modifications that enable the successful production of the mix. Actual temperature reductions also depend on the type of technology chosen. The type of plant, cost of modifications and materials, and logistics of the technologies should be evaluated independently for each contractor before the selection is made.” * For a discussion on variable frequency drives, their installation and value, read “Vary Drive Speed for Cost Savings” on page 42. Jarrett Welch of Brannan Sand & Gravel explained they team produced the WMA mix at about 260 degrees and were achieving density on the mat with mix temperatures as low as 145 degrees. Photo courtesy of Gencor.
Time Your Trucks Production success relies on staging delivery of perishable product
Even delivering aggregate for a chipspreading operation requires proper staging and timing due to the oilâ€™s breaking rate and production goals. Photos courtesy of E.D. Etnyre.
by John Ball
hether the drivers are your employees or subcontractors with their own trucks, the men and women you sign on to bring hot mix asphalt (HMA) or warm-mix asphalt (WMA) to your work zone deliver the lifeblood of the project. Staging the haul trucks is the most expensive part of project management because the drivers carry a perishable product, dependent upon time and temperature. Here are some best practices concerning decision-making, calculating, communicating and planning to get the product delivered in a timely, safe fashion. The project manager/foreman needs to start with a decision so he can do his calculations. He needs to decide what kind of truck he wants. Nowadays weâ€™re getting away from the square bodies in the different sizes that carry the different tonnages and going more for the ASPHALT PRO 25
live-bottoms that feed the material along a conveyor to the paver hopper. We have less material segregation loading with a v-shaped body and no material segregation when we load from the conveyor. You have your tandems, your tri-axles, your u-shaped beds and so on. The type of truck the project manager selects determines how many tons get delivered per load. He needs to know the tons-per-hour for the calculations that help him figure staging. I encourage my clients to use the Caterpillar Interactive Production Calculator to 26 January 2011
The Etnyre Falcon LB-236 live bottom trailer delivers hot mix asphalt (HMA) to a Vogele paver. The 36-foot trailer has a 30 cubic yard capacity with Thurmax insulation side panels standard. The trailer comes standard with a manual crank tarp, but this one has the electric-driven option. Photo courtesy of E.D. Etnyre & Co., Oregon, Ill.
make sure they correctly figure production based on materials at hand. The software runs through the web browser on the computer and helps the foreman plan and coordinate trucking, paving speed and roller speed. Itâ€™s available on CD for a nominal fee and Cat builds it into their pavers, too, so paver operators can access it from the Advisor Display.
The company describes it as a â€œproject-planning tool that helps make your entire paving operation, from paving to compaction, more cost-effective and efficient. It was designed to establish a balance between plant output and trucking/effective paver speed, and effective paver speed and breakdown compactor speed. It also helps to calculate yield per truck and
The paving foreman only learns that the plant’s broke down when the trucks stop coming. He can avoid that kind of surprise with good communication. total daily yield, and includes both grade and windrow dimensions calculators. The calculator can use both standard and metric measurements.” The foreman wants to plan the day’s production, and that will depend on time. He wants to figure how long a truck will take to complete the circuit from loadout to loadout to help with that. On a perfect day, it takes 3 minutes for the truck to get loaded at the plant, another 3 minutes to pick up the loadout ticket and get the tarp in place. Let’s say the work zone is 15 miles from the plant and it takes the truck 20 minutes to get from point A to point B. It should take another 20 minutes for the truck to back into position, charge the hopper in an even manner and move to the designated area for a quick clean-out. It’s 20 minutes back to the plant and 4 minutes in line to loadout. The process starts again, but the 1 hour and 10 minutes for the circuit is what the foreman will want to have in mind as he preps his calculations for the day’s production. Let’s say he needs to lay 600 tons during the shift and has 10 trucks to work with. Assuming the plant can handle the production this goal requires, he next wants to consider his communication with the plant operator carefully. I tell my clients to have the foreman in communication with the asphalt plant every half hour. The day shouldn’t start with the foreman telling the plant operator, “I want 600 tons today.” If the operator runs out 600 tons and sends a bunch of trucks to the work site, he’ll swamp the foreman and shut down the plant. That’s not only a recipe for a staging disaster; it leaves no room for error in tonnage calculations. Instead, the foreman needs to phrase his requests carefully to ensure the plant operator feeds him material in a consistent manner. He should tell the plant operator that he’s “looking for 600 tons overall. Call me when you get to 300.” He shouldn’t forget to mention what type of mix he’s going to use and consider there are other customers ordering mix that day. We’re not the only customer loading out that day.
This sets up a sort of trigger at the midway point in the shift. Even though the foreman now expects an important call from the plant, he needs to stay in constant communication for many reasons. When there’s a problem at the plant, the last person the operator or maintenance crew members think to call is the paving foreman out on the job. They have other things on their minds. The paving foreman only learns that the plant’s broke down when the trucks stop coming. He can avoid that kind of surprise with good communication. When the project manager calls the plant, there are two questions he wants to ask. #1. How many tons do you have out to me? #2. How many trucks are at the plant? The answer to the first question, coupled with knowledge the foreman already has, tells him where his trucks are. Imagine the answer from the plant operator is 250 tons. There are 100 tons on the ground under the rollers. There’s a truck with 25 tons feeding the hopper and a truck with 25 tons staged in front of the paving train. That means 100 tons is on its way to the paving site. That’s four trucks en route. The experienced project manager wants to make sure the trucks stay in sequence to keep the mat temperature consistent. Truck 4 should not bypass Trucks 2 and 3 on the way to the paving site because this sets up the crew for mix temperature and compaction issues behind the paver. If a truck driver thinks he or she needs to stop for fuel, which would take the truck out of sequence, the foreman needs to tell him that fueling is a house-keeping item to address when the bed is empty. A truck that takes too long getting to the site and is too far out of sequence suddenly has a load of expensive RAP to haul back to the plant. The answer to the second question, coupled with his new tonnage knowledge, tells the foreman the rest of the story. If the plant operator answers that there are two trucks at the plant, the foreman can do simple math to figure out there are two trucks on their way from his site to the plant. He knows, at that moment, where every truck for his job is.
Global positioning systems (GPS) have added a quick and easy way for foremen to check on truck staging and timing as well. Companies like Minds, Inc., Boisbriand, Quebec, offer systems that track trucks through a variety of functions and features. The GPS works wonders for us in the field because manufacturers like Minds, Inc., have created systems that alert the foreman to anything out of the ordinary. They’ve also created alerts and sounds that notify managers of the regular, proper workings of our trucking. When a haul truck reaches the plant, the foreman can receive a ring on his phone. He gets another ring when the truck departs. When the truck stops, the GPS lets the system know. Truck drivers get paid by the hour, so GPS tracking can help cut wasted time and money in some situations, and definitely help track the cycle of our perishable product and its best window of opportunity for perfect laydown and compaction. No matter what system the foreman uses to track his trucks, providing a reliable route is an important part of staging. He doesn’t want 25-ton trucks roaming all over nearby neighborhoods; he wants them on his job. Before the subcontractor puts the safety cones in place, someone should do a dry run of the route from the plant to the paving site at different times of the shift. She sets the selected route for minimal disturbance of neighbors and tax-paying constituents who show up at town meetings, for maximum safety, and for quickest delivery of mix. That route is the route every driver will take without error and without stopping for sightseeing. There are no side-trips to Dunkin Donuts. The route is important. With all these elements in mind, the project manager puts together a complex jigsaw puzzle when it comes to staging the trucks for product delivery. Getting HMA or WMA to the paving site takes more than a call to the plant. It takes decisions, calculations, communication and planning. What it comes down to is good haul truck timing. ASPHALT PRO 27
Capture Lurking Blue Smoke In Your Operation
by AsphaltPro Staff
Covering stockpiles helps keep moisture to a minimum, which reduces drying times and temps, thus reducing the risk of blue smoke generation. Photos courtesy of Murphy Pavement Technology, Chicago.
aghouses, dust return systems, excellent production practices, well-maintained ductwork and other effective measures have changed the former sooty pictures of many decades ago into the clean, smokefree hot mix asphalt (HMA) plants the asphalt industry can boast today. We’re a clean industry. Despite our good work and care for the air, every once in a while, a bit of steam rises and a public relations nightmare can ensue. Your industry peers discuss that steam here and offer ways to capture any negative smoke that might lurk around your operation. Not all emissions are bad. Water vapor might worry the neighbors, thus should be addressed, but it doesn’t contain harmful compounds. Blue smoke is another issue. “Blue smoke consists mostly of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are present in conventional and RAP mixes,” Owen McCormick said. He is the president of Joseph McCormick Construction Co., Inc., Erie, Pa. He explained that more and more companies funnel the blue smoke vapor back to the burner. For that kind of solution, he recommends “welldesigned duct systems with fan(s) and dampers to direct blue smoke back to burner for incineration.” In addition to the Butler-Justice blue smoke capture system on the market today, 28 January 2011
McCormick listed a variety of systems that can do the job he’s suggested. • Astec Fiber Bed System • Scavenger System • Media-Type Filtration System • Vapor Recovery System • Counterflow Dryer/Mixers A producer in the northeast suggested that condenser systems the company has experienced on batch pants have proved “messy and expensive.” Instead, “we would look at a hood/ fan to discharge back to the burner/combustion area.” The ideas so far focus on the capture of blue smoke, but there are also ideas for reducing stray emissions. Most of the industry experts we contacted saw warm-mix asphalt (WMA) production as a positive fix for emission reduction. “At N.B. West Contracting, we have seen that using Evotherm 3G warm mix additive allows us to turn down the temperature because the chemical additive ‘ties up’ the residual moisture in the mix,” Steve Jackson said. He’s the manager at N.B. West Contractors, Sullivan, Mo., which has a feature article detailing their WMA process and projects in the August/September issue of AsphaltPro. “Even with polymer modified asphalt we are able to drop our temperature 50 degrees Fahrenheit when making warm-mix asphalt.”
As the experts at Terex show on page 16, temperature reductions also mean cost savings. One way to reduce emissions that comes with cautionary warnings from industry experts is “turn the temperature down.” This maneuver can have production and quality ramifications, thus should be considered carefully. For instance, Jay Winford Jr., the president of Prairie Contractors, Inc., Opelousas, La., warns producers that emissions may be a sign of flighting or burner problems at the plant. Turning down the temperature may solve the issue of smoke, but masks the other issues. Chris Lange, the production manager at Brisbane City Works, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, agreed that turning down the production temperature is an option, but suggested caution for the following reasons: • Binder viscosity and ability to coat aggregate • Compaction complications in the field • Project specifications Tim Murphy, the proprietor of Murphy Pavement Technology, Chicago, recommends against turning production temperatures down. “You lose wetting action of the virgin AC. Therefore you have a decreased ability to properly coat the aggregates uniformly.” As contractors know, lower mix temperatures result in a shorter work zone. “For conventional and RAP mixes, lower temperatures can cause poor workability, which could lead to
Here a high CFM fan pulls errant smoke off the slat conveyor for return to the burner and incineration. Photo courtesy of Murphy Pavement Technology, Chicago.
“At N.B. West Contracting, we have seen that using Evotherm 3G warm mix additive allows us to turn down the temperature because the chemical additive ‘ties up’ the residual moisture in the mix.” —Steve Jackson
compaction problems or difficulty,” McCormick reminded readers. “The quality of the job would be greatly reduced.” Jackson concurred. “Turning the temperature down does not work when you are using Reclaimed Asphalt Shingles (RAS) and RAP in your mixes. Mixes that incorporate recycled products tend to be stiffer and more difficult to compact so higher temperatures are needed
to achieve density. My other concern is that lowering the temperature will lead to tender mix behavior since the aggregate, shingles and RAP may not be effectively dried. The residual moisture could lead to the mix moving under the rollers during compaction.” One producer in the northeast reminded producers that job specs may not allow changes. That source suggested that the plant
must adhere to the temperature range requirement for the job mix formula (JMF). Another method for reducing blue smoke that comes with less contention is changing where material enters the drum. “Introduce RAP/AC into the mix away from burner and hot exhaust gases,” McCormick advised. There are other best practices producers can put in place to reduce blue smoke emissions. As Jackson hinted above, controlling moisture is important for controlling blue smoke. Murphy continued that thought. “Manage moisture content by not crushing in the rain, by covering conveyor belts and by housing the RAP.” Winford suggested some simple maintenance. “I would adjust flighting, change RAP percentage and check that the burner is tuned up and operating properly with full combustion.” Additives are another area of concern for McCormick. “Whenever possible, avoid use of anti-strips. They cause increased blue smoke. It will alter the chemical composition of asphalt cement. Avoid excessive mix temperatures when running RAP and enclose areas where material is transferred into trucks or silos.” Overall, the asphalt industry has turned itself into an environmentally friendly community that works to produce a clean, safe, efficient product. When the occasional vapor escapes, water can be to blame. Or, in some cases, something volatile and organic can be involved. If you experience blue smoke, the tips your peers offer here can help solve that problem. ASPHALT PRO 29
Brings Plants up to Scheme
n the United States, calling a plan a scheme gives it a negative connotation. This is far from the case in New Zealand where the Asphalt Plant Accreditation Scheme (APAS) developed by the Asphalt Committee of Roading New Zealand (RNZ), formerly the New Zealand Pavement and Bitumen Contractors’ Association, has only positive benefits for industry on the horizon.
According to the RNZ working group, client “perceptions” of inadequate asphalt quality led to an industry self-governance initiative. From that initiative, the concept of certified asphalt was born. Working group members based the APAS on process control to provide a standardized method of analyzing 30 consecutive test results for a single product to certify asphalt bitumen content and grading and to calculate a compliance score for the producer. Accreditation is awarded to a producer who achieves 85 percent compliance or better. “APAS is designed to provide an internal process control system for asphalt producers that sets rules around assessing the quality of asphalt manufactured in New Zealand,” states the RNZ website. “The scheme requires asphalt producers to formally register their plants with RNZ in order to apply for accreditation under the scheme….For customers, purchasing from an APAS certified plant signifies consistency of mix manufacture and thus an assurance of conforming to mix requirements and standards.” RNZ provides a spreadsheet that plots process control charts and a spreadsheet that allows producers to calculate and monitor their
compliance scores. An acceptance envelope is constructed by applying the M/10 allowable variations to the job mix formula (JMF) binder content and grading. The asphalt mix design testing involves the blend of aggregate components and lab trials that establish and optimize the aggregate/bitumen blend and the grading and bitumen content. Subsequent testing compares the manufactured asphalt to the design grading and bitumen content. RNZ’s Alan Stevens told AsphaltPro that the M/10 spec is an existing spec that is “owned” by the New Zealand Transport Agency (NZTA). “They, their consultants and the industry is used to working with (it). NZTA are the road controlling authority for all state highways and co-fund all other road controlling authority roading projects. We could have used other parameters but M/10 was the starting point. As the system matures review procedures may see changes included.” Acceptance envelopes are formed by applying allowable limits to mix design gradings and bitumen contents. The test results are assessed against these acceptance envelopes and APAS
TNZ M/10 Spec Mix Control Envelope Tolerances Criteria
Permissible Variation from JMF (% by mass of total mix)
Individual Results Aggregate coarser than 0.600 mm
Aggregate passing 0.600 and 0.300 mm sieves
Aggregate passing 0.150 mm and finer
Total bitumen: mix 10, mix 15, mix 20, TS 10
Bitumen: mix 25, mix 40
Roading New Zealand’s The Asphalt Plant Accreditation Scheme presentation 32 January 2011
Avg of 3 Tests/lot 5.0 4.0 2.0 0.3 0.4
Who is RNZ?
“Roading New Zealand is the industry representative body for a wide range of contracting companies whose core business involves building and maintaining the vast majority of New Zealand’s roading and land transport infrastructure. We work collaboratively and professionally with all stakeholders and provide expert commentary on proposed legislation, regulation, policy and technical issues that affect the sector. We have around 20 committees involved in developing best practice.” —RNZ website officials calculate a compliance score based on the grading and bitumen content results. Registration to AS/NZS 9001 is a pre-requisite of participation in APAS. According to Stevens, “All producers registered on the APAS Programme do hold the 9001 quality accreditation standard.” The AS/NZS 9001 auditors will audit the producer’s systems to demonstrate that the APAS requirements are being followed. A copy of the relevant audit report’s relevant findings must be sent to the APAS working group. Keep in mind that APAS is an industry initiative intended to make business easier and to help the industry demonstrate that it can supply compliant mixes without adding cost or unnecessary complication. Members of the working group remind industry members in New Zealand that there’s nothing new in APAS. “There’s nothing in APAS that hasn’t been in asphalt contracts since 1975.” Members of the working group intend to have the APAS status of participating plants on the RNZ website soon.
by Sandy Lender
The joint venture of ACCI/API completed the 30-mile expansion of I-75 ahead of schedule. Photo by Keith Philpot, courtesy of Ajax Paving Inc. 34 January 2011
nternational funding ideas, smart planning and best practices combined for a successful early completion of a hurricane route in sunny Florida. The expansion of Interstate 75 to six lanes from the new Golden Gate Parkway interchange in Collier County to Colonial Boulevard (SR 884) in Lee County included reconstructing the interchange at I-75 and Immokalee Road (CR 846) in Collier County. This was a 30-mile stretch for the bid-winning joint venture to take on. Anderson Columbia Company Inc. (ACCI), Old Town, Fla., Ajax Paving Industries (API), Nokomis, Fla., and the highway design firm, HDR Engineering, Omaha, Neb., won the $430.5 million bid in March 2007 with more than 200 national and international companies expressing interest. To pay for the I-75 Interstate Roadway Expansion (iROX) project, representatives looked at successful finance plans around the globe. Design/build/finance (DBF) is popular in Europe and South America, and offered Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) District One a way to start the congestion-relief project much sooner than anticipated. According to the iROX official website: “Using the design/build/finance (DBF) approach, road builders completed the expansion of I-75 in just over three years, bringing congestion relief to Southwest Florida as soon as possible. Construction was under way on parts of I-75 while other segments were still under design. The team also has agreed to finance part of the work by accepting FDOT payments over five years. This approach allowed the work to start as many as five years sooner than originally planned. This project is extraordinary. Getting from planning to pavement could have taken 15 years or more. iROX nearly cut that time in half. DBF…arrived in America in 2005 when FDOT District One Secretary Stan Cann decided to break from tradition and use DBF to shorten the time needed to add two new lanes to I-75.”
A project of this magnitude required contractors with the resources to take it on. The API company reported, “This is the largest project ever awarded to a paving company. … The project consists of over 400,000 tons of hot mix, just under 2,000,000 square yards of milling, over 2,000,000 cubic yards of embankment and excavation, over 1,000,000 tons of limerock, widening of 22 bridge decks & the complete reconstruction of the Immokalee interchange. Contract time is 1,150 days with an incentive of $100,000 per-day bonus, up to a maximum of $15 million dollars. This is truly the premier construction project in SW Florida.” According to the iROX website, the pool of 200 international interested parties drained to two after a March 2006 meeting in which FDOT laid out those details of the project, which had started with a 35-mile scope.
ASPHALT PRO 35
I-75: A High-Traffic Thoroughfare Completion of I-75 [in 1993] marked a major leap forward for Southwest Florida. Not since construction of the Tamiami Trail (US 41) more than half a century earlier had a highway project been so welcome. I-75 quickly became the most heavily traveled north/south corridor in the area. As Lee and Collier Counties experienced population growth of more than 20 percent annually since 2000, drivers using the interstate soared to almost 100,000 a day. Explosive growth and the region’s increasing popularity as a tourist destination clearly emphasized the need for additional I-75 lanes. iROX upgraded travel in Southwest Florida and set a new standard for roadway construction across the country. The innovative design/build/finance concept may revitalize road construction projects nationwide in a way not seen, in fact, since President Eisenhower conceived the vast interstate highway system. Source: iROX website
“The biggest challenge for the construction companies was the size of the job,” the website states. “FDOT wanted the 35-mile stretch built in three years. The companies interested in winning the contract had to be able to demonstrate they had the resources to build the project within the time stipulated and the financial capacity to obtain a contract bond equal to the contract amount, $500 million. … FDOT received two proposals at the end of February 2007. … ACCI/API offered three options (in their winning bid). The complete 35-mile project carried a price of $547.9 million. Due to funding constraints, FDOT accepted the third option reducing the project to 30 miles and eliminating the Daniels Parkway interchange, for a budget of $430.5 million.” The joint venture began with ACCI and API at the helm, but more than 100 subcontractors and 500 workers on the project on any given day make something of this magnitude come to fruition. Near the top of the ladder is HDR Engineering, the design firm for iROX. Mike Horan, API’s project manager for the joint venture, listed some others with their responsibilities. • Anderson Columbia Company Inc.: responsible for earthwork and shared the project management responsibilities • Turtle Southeast: milling • Leware Construction Company: bridge work • Guymann Construction Company: drainage • Highway Safety Devices: cable rail, guardrail, signalization and signs • Lee Mar Construction: roadway and pond construction • API and ACCI handled safety and work zone set-up together, each company supplying two MOT/support crews Horan also commented on the importance of the subcontractors to the iROX project’s success. “I would be remiss if I did not mention that we used the best subcontractors available,” he said. “Those that we had worked with before on other projects and that had a proven track record of performance. Leware Contracting, Guymann Construction, Highway Safety Devices, were all key to our success.” No matter how successful the work, funding a congestion-mitigation project of this size is no picnic and takes a cooperative effort (see sidebar on page 38). U.S. Congressmen Connie Mack and Mario Diaz-Balart secured $81 million in federal funding, according to the iROX official website, and other entities made their contributions as well. The joint venture is accepting payments over a five-year period to make the price36 January 2011
tag easier for FDOT to manage. That kind of cooperation is a benchmark for industry to consider.
Cooperation extends to the work on a project. For API and ACCI crews, organizing material production and delivery took teamwork. Ajax’s Plant 4 on Alico Road in Lee County provided the 433,234 tons of asphalt. That called for coordination. The information API supplied shows 26 mix designs, including four open-graded, for the 63,392 tons of FC-5 and FC-12.5 Superpave surface courses; 9,252 tons of 12.5 TL-C Superpave base courses; and 360,590 tons of 12.5 TL-C and E additional Superpave courses. Of that total tonnage, 86,478 used the warm-mix asphalt (WMA) process with 20 percent recycled asphalt pavement (RAP). The hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixes also used up to 20 percent RAP. To get a taste of what quality control techs went through, compare these two mixes: • For the Superpave 12.5 recycle mix to be used as a structural course on the E traffic level, Vulcan Materials Co., Birmingham, Ala., provided S-1-A stone, S-1-B stone and screenings. API provided its own crushed RAP. The binder was a PG76-22. Cal-Tech Testing, Inc., Lake City, Fla., verified the job mix formula (JMF) to include a 0.5 percent anti-strip in October 2009. The mix was produced with temperature of 325oF using 15 percent crushed RAP, and compacted at 325oF • For the Fine Superpave 12.5 recycle mix to be used a structural course on the C traffic level, Florida Rock Industries, Jacksonville, provided S-1-A stone, S-1-B stone, screenings and local sand. API again provided its own crushed RAP. The binder in this instance was a PG 67-22. Cal-Tech again verified the JMF to include a 0.5 percent anti-strip in April 2009. The mix was produced with a temperature of 265oF using 20 percent crushed RAP and the warm-mix system from Meeker Equipment, Lansdale, Pa. It was compacted at 265oF. Other aggregate suppliers included Chemical Lime, Coral Rock Industries, Inc., Martin Marietta Aggregates, and White Rock Quarries.
Removing nearly 2,000,000 square yards of millings and laying nearly 450,000 tons of asphalt on a roadway that experiences 100,000 vehicles a day makes the concept of “material movement” complex. For the joint venture team, they planned for success with early—and smooth—completion in mind from the get-go. Felipe Jaramillo, API project controls engineer and iROX project coordinator, said the owners were committed to early completion right off the bat, and that helped keep things moving. “Early acquisition of permits and early completion of plans,” he said. “The joint venture’s availability to a limitless amount of resources. Joint venture staff had all the tools and placed them in an environment to succeed.” “Ajax Paving Industries was responsible for the asphalt paving on the entire project,” Horan said. “Asphalt was installed by our Ft. Myers, Florida Division, which is headed up by Vic O’Hara, the division manager, and Project Manager Andy DeCraene. Ajax crews did an outstanding job and received a ride number of 4.5, which is very high. Open-graded friction course (FC-5) was used on the surface using granite materials delivered from the Port of Tampa. Paving crews worked mostly during nighttime hours which made it easier for trucking, and cooler in the summer months for the crews.” The company reported that repairing what was already in place made it easier for trucking and traffic as well: “The project’s lane closure restriction required maintaining two lanes of traffic in each direction at the posted speed limit from 6 a.m. until 8 p.m. Traffic had to be shifted
ABOVE: Turtle Southeast, Inc., Largo, Fla., is one of the oldest and most experienced asphalt milling companies in the United States. The company was founded in Canton, Mass., in 1974. You can find videos of their work on YouTube on the “turtlese’s” channel. Here they work on some of the 2,000,000 square yards of milling removal for the iROX project. Photo courtesy of Ajax Paving Inc.
AsphaltPro Staff sends our sympathies to the family, friends and co-workers of Leware Construction Company worker Ruben Garcia-Serrano, 36, of Orlando. Garcia-Serrano was killed when he stepped into the path of an oncoming truck April 3, 2009, at 3 a.m., near mile marker 135 while working to improve Florida’s interstate.
6 feet to the right shoulder. The outside shoulder had to be strengthened and the The team used slope corrected to accommodate interstate PaveSmart technology traffic for potentially three years. In addition, this temporary pavement would become from PaveSmart, Stone the outside 6 feet of the outside travel Mountain, Ga., to gather lane. (We) chose to construct the shoulder strengthening prior to milling and paving existing pavement profile of the existing mainline. The advantages of and cross-slope data, and paving the shoulder first were it eliminated then to design the milling conflicting pavement markings and sped up the construction schedule by weeks. The depths to correct the slope paving operation set the pace for the rest of the construction team.” and get the longitudinal The team used PaveSmart technology from smoothness they were PaveSmart, Stone Mountain, Ga., to gather existing pavement profile and cross-slope looking for. data, and then to design the milling depths to correct the slope and get the longitudinal smoothness they were looking for. Couple that with Topcon’s Grade Control System on the paver, and Ajax crews were set up for success. They received an “A” rating for Ride Acceptability. That doesn’t mean laying the groundwork was easy. Jaramillo explained. “The unique geology of South Florida proved to be a challenge in terms of permitting and stormwater drainage construction. The joint venture project management team, HDR, Guymann Construction and Lee Mar
ABOVE: Ajax Paving Inc. crews paved alongside two open lanes of traffic. Photo courtesy of Ajax Paving Inc. BELOW: Ajax crews’ finished product received a ride number of 4.5 and an “A” rating for Ride Acceptability. Photo courtesy of Ajax Paving Inc. ASPHALT PRO 37
Paying for iROX
Entity Florida’s growth management funds Transportation Regional Incentive Program Federal funding Collier County FDOT’s five-year work program Source: iROX website
Contribution $106 million $4 million $81 million $16 million the remainder
Construction had to draw on all their experiences to plan and construct stormwater ponds, install thick limerock areas and lay 80,000 linear feet of pipe culvert in wet deep conditions. “The shear size and tight construction duration provided logistical challenges. The joint venture project management team worked with one another and our subcontractors to successfully plan their material deliveries and construction activities.”
“By virtue of having the decision process for changes, updates and expediting environmental permits on site, the team was able to save valuable time with FDOT approvals and with local permitting agencies.” —Mike Horan
End of the Day
When all was said and done, the joint venture had a smooth finished product for FDOT and the drivers of South Florida to enjoy. Less congestion on a high-traffic thoroughfare means safer drives for all. Horan had a multitude of team members to praise for the concerted effort. “I was honored to have worked with all the folks involved in iROX. Between Anderson Columbia and Ajax Paving Industries, we had about 15 people that were instrumental in the success of this project. Our Project Director Rick Dun (Anderson Columbia) was outstanding, as was our Construction Manager Joe Cothran (Ajax Paving Industries). They formed a team of young engineers staffed from both companies that worked really well together. “Felipe Jaramillo, project controls engineer, was the point man on scheduling, design, cost control and invoicing. He did an outstanding job and came away a more rounded construction engineer. Mario Puente, Dave Morgan, Garret Fons and Michele Reinhardt (all Ajax Paving Industries) were all very instrumental in working with our design engineers (HDR), our subcontractors and FDOT construction inspection consultants Metric Engineering in processing changes, monitoring construction and keeping the project moving forward. “A key to the early completion was the onsite team of designers and engineers that HDR provided before and during inspection,” Horan continued. “HDR provided a structural engineer, roadway engineer, environmental engineer and a drainage engineer all housed on site in the same offices as our joint venture team. By virtue of having the decision process for changes, updates and expediting environmental permits on site, the team was able to save valuable time with FDOT approvals and with local permitting agencies. Partnering with Metric Engineering CEI inspection, FDOT, and all the subcontractors and governmental agencies was another large factor contributing to the smooth continued construction.” As mentioned above, the iROX joint venture employed more than 100 subcontractors and would have more than 500 workers active on a specific day. Coupled with the shear volume of material to move and work to perform, the team had an enormous project to complete. The successful early completion of I-75’s expansion in Collier and Lee Counties is a testament to the industry’s good product, good planning, good relationships and good practices.
38 January 2011
Vary Drive Speed for
Cost Savings OEMs give an update on VFDs to enhance electrical efficiency by AsphaltPro Staff
Mike Hawkins of Maxam Equipment, Kansas City, explained the VFD’s hen a component is not in use, or is being used at a percentrole in terms of the peak demand concept. “The main advantage of a VFD age of its capacity, running its motor at full tilt costs the same from the power company’s standpoint is what’s called ‘peak demand’ in resources and utility expenses as if you had the component savings. Most power company rate charges are based on what the peak in full operation. For this reason, OEMs and parts suppliers can retrofit a usage is throughout a billing cycle. Peak demand on an asphalt plant variable frequency drive (VFD)—also called a variable speed drive—onto occurs during the plant start-up sequence when all the large motors a component to alter how much energy it’s draining from your bottom such as the fan, burner and drum are all started close to—or at—the line. Not every component at the asphalt plant has had this option as a same time. A VFD can, with its reduced voltage starting characteristics, viable one in the past. VFDs were expensive and cumbersome. Not everyreduce the peak demand by as much as 70 percent. In turn, it lowers the one saw the benefits as outweighing the cost. The return-on-investment peak demand and the overall rate used by the has improved in recent years and producers tell power company. During online plant producus how. “During online plant tion, you could see a 15 to 20 percent reduction Steve Elam of Hotmix Parts and Accessories, in overall demand. Overall demand reduction Louisville, Ky., spoke about the ROI on available production, you could is the primary approach to take with the power VFDs. “The prices have moderated on a number see a 15 to 20 percent company to reduce their taxed generating sysof VFDs in recent years, particularly on the larger tems during high load times.” motors and horsepower motors. This promotes reduction in overall Gregg Gilpin of Stansteel, Lousville, Ky., the integration of them; however, in most cases, demand.” applies the savings to a specific example. the payback on a VFD can literally be in a matter —Mike Hawkins “Equally important are the daily savings that of months as opposed to years. Because in most result from using a VFD on a baghouse exhaust cases the VFD helps the contractor and producer fan motor. Normally, the exhaust fan ammeter pegs over 400 amps every avoid the high peak demand charge that is common with large horsepower motors starting and operating on a hot mix asphalt plant. In the time the motor is started. When using a VFD, a 200-horsepower motor can pull less than 100 amps when started.” worst case scenario, a customer may have to run his plant only sporadiThe example Gilpin offers is just one of the components asphalt procally for a few of the colder months of the year and this can trip or raise ducers will find in a long list that OEMs and parts suppliers can recomhis cost of electricity because of the demand charge for the large horsepower start-up. In some cases, this could be several thousand dollars just mend for VFD retrofitting today. The story wasn’t the same 20 or so years ago. for operating the plant one or two times within a given time period. With “A VFD for a 200-horsepower exhaust fan 20 years ago would have the VFD, this will reduce the large peak demand load and help reduce cost well over $100,000, making it too costly to incorporate into a plant’s the overall cost of operations.” design,” Hawkins explained. “Today that same VFD would be in the 42 January 2011
$25,000 range. At this price, it’s now the only way to go. The price of a When deciding on a VFD investment, producers may want to check VFD for a given job has come down dramatically over the last 20 years. with the utility company to see what kind of savings are in store. If you’ve The technology used in VFDs today is much more sophisticated and relialready decided that a VFD will make a good investment, you might have able than what was seen in the past. The physical size of the units has different questions for the power plant. OEMs have some advice there, too. dropped to a quarter of what they once were, which shows how much “Running a fan without a damper but with a frequency drive and at the technology has changed. Today, plant manufacturers are supplying less than full operational capacity will save money every hour,” Heap reitVFDs on any components that require speed erated. To find out just how much money, he variation. Feeders, pumps, fans and burners are suggested the following link to a calculator at “There are a number of all generally outfitted with VFDs.” Alliant Energy. http://tinyurl.com/AlliantAsphaltPro utilities around the country Ron Heap of Tarmac International, Inc., KanGilpin offered this good news: “There are a sas City, cited some quality reasons for installnumber of utilities around the country that will that will actually pay part of ing VFDs as well. “Rotary mixers have frequency actually pay part of the capital cost of the VFD. the capital cost of the VFD.” That, of course, is the foremost item request to drives to allow for longer or shorter mix times; —Gregg Gilpin make to the utility. In other cases, the producer this improves mix quality. Cold feed bins and RAP bin feeder belts have frequency drives as would ask for a list of incentives from the utility a method to vary the belt speed and these are cost effective. For big cost and at what motor horsepower do they get into peak demand charges. savings, the baghouse fan is where we find largest savings. The first savAnother question to ask is if they have any other green incentives or ings is the ability to remove the fan damper—around $3,000. The second cost incentives for changing out a series of motor starters depending on savings is lower electrical costs if, and only if, the fan will be run at less horsepower.” than total capacity. When the baghouse fan damper is run at less than With lower prices and smaller sizes than in the past, VFDs of today total fan capacity it becomes less efficient with the relationship of electri- offer producers a more attractive way to control utility costs than they cal use to air movement.” have before. OEMs and parts suppliers stand ready to install these “On many of the special and custom engineered items that Stansteel devices as aftermarket energy enhancements or as standard features on and Hotmix Parts provide, there are variable frequency drives installed new equipment. Add in some incentives from the utility companies and on a number of the items when there is a need for changing the rate of producers have a fine way to trim a bit of overhead with VFDs. flow on the device,” Gilpin said. “Items such as this would include variable speed drives on cold feed bin additions, on rotary airlocks or even screw conveyors that need to change the rate of flow of additives or other material feeds. In addition, we highly recommend the VFD on the main exhaust fan whether it is for a new Stansteel baghouse and air control module changeout or even if the customer just wants to update their existing technology, such as a new, more efficient fan with an improved drive. These are very common on many of the devices these days, but also need to be custom-sized based on the load that the unit sees both on start-up and over a course or range of operation, as well as service factor requirements.” Elam gave producers a check-list to go over when considering components for VFD installation. “Here are a few examples of what Stansteel/ Hotmix Parts would recommend a contractor/producer look at or evaluate on a plant: • Emission control fans that evacuate blue smoke and efficiently incinerate it in the main burner combustion process. • Service requirements of the motors and if they need to be changed with the use of an inverter. • The benefits of reduced wear and tear on mechanical parts such as bearings by running at lower RPM. • Fugitive fans for batch towers or for general blue smoke recovery/ reduction systems. • Noise pollution reduction both from a standpoint of safety and being good neighbors.” Gilpin reminded producers that it’s “important to determine if the motor in question is an inverter rated duty motor. In some cases, particularly on older motors, they may not be suitable to a VFD, but this can be researched on an individual motor or horsepower basis.” ASPHALT PRO 43
Enter Interim Tier 4 Time in
Three, Two, One… by AsphaltPro Staff
he stages of engine pollution control near an end. Now that the calendar tells us it’s January 2011, we’ve entered Interim Tier 4 territory in the United States and Stage IIIB territory in the European Union for off-highway engine compliance measures. The regulations require a reduction of particulate matter (PM) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions from engines, especially those operating in the 175 to 751-horsepower range. Those are the engines from which regulators wish to see 90 percent PM reductions—a limit of 0.025 g/kW. Regulators want to see those engines come up with 45 percent NOx reductions, which the farming industry in the United Kingdom has reported on with a sense of astonishment, stating that the NOx limit is half the Tier 3 levels. EPA wants to see a maximum of 15 parts-per-million (ppm) sulfur content in diesel fuel for the engines’ off-highway applications. They already mandated the use of ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel for off-highway engines since 2007. For OEMs who have modified engines during the earlier stages of Tier 4 machines will no doubt be strongly promoted by the dealer, so compliance, this is just the next step, and equipment with the necesshould be obvious. Many will carry some sort of new identification or sary controls is out there. How is an owner going to find it? Luckily, it’s designation to identify. Visually, the key technology difference will be the cleverly marked. Check the engine dataplate for Tier 3 or Tier 4 (or other) use of exhaust aftertreatment replacing the muffler.” designations. Also, your friendly environmental protection agency (EPA) While some engine manufacturers have elected to use selective catainspector will make sure dealers in your area sell only the most updated lytic reduction (SCR) systems, others have gone with exhaust gas recircuequipment for your operating efficiency. lation (EGR) systems. Either way, Brown reminded contractors that there Let’s say you’re looking over the yard and see any number of older will be lamp indicators for aftertreatment operation in the cab, such as vehicles in the fleet. Which of the mining trucks, water trucks, wheel a fill level warning for SCR, or a lamp to show the diesel particulate filter loaders, excavators, mobile lifts, etcetera will coax a fine from EPA in (DPF) is regenerating. February? After checking the engine dataplates, you find that you’ve “Out on site, the machine should be significantly cleaner in operation,” been too strapped for cash to purchase new machines or to retrofit old Brown continued. “On Cummins field tests, it has proved more responmachines with engine parts upgrades in the past few months. Never fear. sive and quieter than Tier 3 equivalent equipment. Operators will likely There’s still time to get everything up to snuff. All those machines “under” recognize the difference.” the 174-horsepower range must comply with Tier 3 regulations during 2011, but you can look at Tier 4 as a transition. The end goal is 2017. “In terms of equipment, the Jan. 1, 2011, effect date will not be a 'cliff' event at the dealer, but rather a slow ramp of available Tier 4 powered equipment, varying by OEM,” Cummins’ Kevan Brown said. “Some OEMs will have certain Tier 4 equipment available to order from that point onwards, others will retain Tier 3 powered equipment for some time using flexibility provisions in the legislation or pushing existing stock through the channel. Overall, the population change over to Tier 4 in terms of new equipment sales will take some considerable time. The switch will be far less marked than we have seen on-highway.” Are you still worried about an inspector at your door? “In terms of EPA supervision, this is focused on the engine manufacturer and OEM compliance,” Brown said. “No retrofit to Tier 4 will be required by the EPA. The operator must use ULSD to ensure the Tier 4 machine remains emissions compliant.” (NOx + HC)/CO/PM (Oxides of Nitrogen + Hydrocarbons)/Carbon Monoxide/Particulate Matter (g/kW-hr) NOx/HC/CO/PM Oxides of Nitrogen/Hydrocarbons/Carbon Monoxide/Particulate Matter (g/kW-hr) As for finding Tier 4 compliant equipment, Brown assured contractors that it will be easy to spot. “The 'new' * Combines regulatory powerbands with same emission levels * Table courtesy of Cummins’ www.Tier4.info
44 January 2011
Equipment gallery Forta Corp. Offers Mix Strength
hether your asphalt plant is set up for warm-mix asphalt (WMA) or still running hot mixes, the research and development team at Forta® Corp., Grove City, Pa., has formulated a family of three synthetic fiber blends to reinforce the end product. • FORTA-FI™ HMA Blend is designed for working temperatures of 250 to 375oF and is available in ¾-inch and 1 ½-inch fiber lengths for smaller/larger typical aggregate sizes. • FORTA-FI WMA Blend is designed for working temperatures of 212oF and higher, and is available in ¾-inch and 1 ½-inch fiber lengths. It’s formulated for all foaming methods. • FORTA-FI PAT Blend is designed for hot/cold patch at any working temperature, and is available in ¾-inch fiber lengths. These products are designed to control thermal, reflective and fatigue cracking, as well as rutting, while reducing asphalt thickness or extending asphalt life, or both. According to the manufacturer, the proprietary blends contain aramid and polyolefin fibers and other materials known for their strength, durability and binding properties. The fibers have a tensile strength of 70,000 pounds per square inch. They come packaged in 1-pound bags, 40-bag cartons or 16-carton pallets. The FORTA-FI is added to the mix, while still in the bag, at any point in the mixing process after the fines collection and before the addition of liquid asphalt. While the fibers are intended to disperse uniformly and completely in seconds, the manufacturer recommends leaving as much mixing time as is practical within your typical mixing process.
delivers the key requirements of the 50- to 60-horsepower wheel loader class for use with a wide range of attachments for many different applications. An easy-fill, high-capacity 15.8-gallon fuel tank allows long work cycles. An optional hand control inch valve lets operators adapt travel speed to fit the application. The frame concept features an articulating/oscillating joint in the center of the machine between the front and rear frame. The operator can select to use the differential locks on the front and rear axles; this feature is standard. Parallel linkage on both models offers excellent visibility to the attachment. The naturally aspirated air/oil cooled Volvo diesel engine complies with EPA Tier 3 standards, according to the manufacturer. Separate working hydraulic pumps improve cycle times because steering actions do not affect the speed of the lifting arm. A centrally located dashboard keeps all important functions within easy view of the operator. An ergonomic, multi-function joystick lever controls lift, lower, float, forward/ backward tilting, forward, neutral, reverse and differential locks. These compact wheel loaders have a standard, third hydraulic circuit for the attachment bracket along with two additional hydraulic quick connectors. A choice of two attachment brackets maximizes use of attachments from other machines, including skid steer loaders and other compact wheel loader models. For more information, visit www.volvoce.com/na. Volvo L20F
For more information or to access research studies performed by Arizona State University, contact Forta Corp. at (800) 245-0306 or visit www.forta-fi.com.
Volvo’s L20F, L25F Compact Wheel Loaders
The latest generation Volvo L20F and L25F compact wheel loaders from Volvo are designed to offer greater operator comfort and an improved compact design. The new machines have been developed using extensive feedback from operators around the world. The result is a range that Compact Loader Specs
0.85 to 1.25 cu yd (0.65 to 0.95 m3)
1.0 to 1.6 cu yd (0.85 to 1.2 m3)
9,945 lbs (4,510 kg)
10,650 lbs (4,830 kg)
net engine power
54 hp (40.2 kW)
60 hp (44.7 kW)
8 ft 3 in (2,510 mm)
8 ft 2 in (2,490 mm)
6,970 lbf (31 kN)
8,320 lbf (37 kN)
6,175 lbf (27 kN)
7,495 lbf (33 kN)
46 January 2011
The DV-III™ Ultra Rheometer from Brookfield, Middleboro, Mass., now features USB connectivity. Brookfield applications software, Rheocalc and Rheoloader, have been upgraded to recognize this new communications capability. Customers who already have a DV-III Ultra or DV-III+ Rheometer can arrange to have their instrument retrofitted with this new capability by contacting their local Brookfield dealer.
Brookfield’s DV-III™ Makes New Connections
oxidizing by allowing only cool thermal fluid to come in contact with the outside air. This is done by using three separate components incorporated into one combined tank. The unique combination of the operation of these three vessels in one results in numerous advantages including: pipe work simplification, protection of thermal fluid from oxidation, ease of installation, and continuous deaeration of fluid, avoiding pump cavitation.
For information on the new DV-III Ultra Rheometer, call (508) 946-6200 or visit www.brookfieldengineering.com/products/.
For more information, contact Volcanic Heater at (281) 8600063 or visit www.volcanic-heater.com.
LAB-CON’s Rotary Dryer Seal
Air leakage steals small amounts of your production and fuel every minute of every day that you’re operating. By robbing your production of heat, every cubic foot of leaked air requires extra fuel and extra power from your system. The engineers at Innovative Engineering & Technology, Inc., Carrollton, Ohio, developed the LAB-CON rotary dryer seal to solve the problem of air leakage. It is designed to: • stop wasting burner fuel, • stop leaking aggregate and RAP material under drum seals, • stop overloading exhaust system with leakage air, and • stop costly rubber seal replacement from heat damage. The rotary dryer seal is an all-metal seal that the manufacturer states is unaffected by heat and automatically grows and contracts with longitudinal and radial expansion to stay tight to the drum. It includes a drum contact bar and incorporates an easily replaceable wear shoe. The company includes a free CD video to show the seal on a rotating drum to illustrate how easily the seal is applied and how smoothly it operates. The folks at Reliable Asphalt Products, Inc., Shelbyville, Ky., distribute the product. For more information, contact Reliable Asphalt Products at (866) 647-1782 or visit www.reliableasphalt.com.
Volcanic’s Alliance Heaters
The Alliance double-wound helical coil heaters from Volcanic Heater, Inc., Houston, can be unitized for retrofit applications in tank farms and other manufacturing processes. The heaters feature a three-pass, high-efficiency design with single or dual fuel capabilities and a combination expansion deaeration/thermal buffering system. The Alliance deaerator cold seal expansion tank is designed to work as an open system. The deaerator expels steam and any other non-condensibles out to a safe catchment and prevents hot thermal fluid from
FO C R AL A LU Q S U O TE • Minimum fuel savings 15% • Ease of Installation • Small footprint • Retrofits to any make of drum plant • Eliminates blue smoke • Compatible with most blend control systems • UL listed
We now have an AquaFoam System for Batch Plants!
Foaming asphalt is simple. Your equipment should be too.
AquaFoam, LLC | Cincinnati OH www.aquafoamllc.com
here's how it works
Terex’s In-Line Warm Mix System
he research and development team at Terex Roadbuilding, Oklahoma City, offers a new and improved in-line warm mix system to give hot mix asphalt (HMA) producers a more compact option for converting to a warm mix asphalt (WMA) production facility. The Terex® foamed asphalt warm mix system can now be installed on parallel flow plants as well as any brand of unitized counterflow drum mixer, according to the manufacturer, to lower mixing temperatures on a variety of designs including those that incorporate recycled asphalt pavement (RAP). First, the system’s programmable logic control (PLC) unit arrives in a PLC/water skid package. The plant personnel install the system and tie it into the plant controls. They
50 January 2011
can install the expansion chamber in either horizontal or vertical configurations in-line with the existing asphalt line. When the plant operator is ready to make mix, a belt-driven, variable-frequency, 5-horsepower (3.73 kW) electric motor drives a skid-mounted water pump and allows the producer to match the output of water with the required production rate. The PLC unit meters a predetermined percentage of water with liquid AC. The PLC unit sends the water into the hotoil jacketed expansion chamber at a variable rate up to 4 percent of the overall volume of oil. In the single-mixing-point expansion chamber, hot liquid AC and water react based on the proven foamed-asphalt technology
pioneered by Terex in 1998, according to the manufacturer. From there, the foamed asphalt is immediately injected into the drum through the plant’s existing AC pipe, where it evenly and thoroughly coats the heated aggregate. According to the manufacturer, the system is capable of producing up to 600 tons per hour (544 mtph) of asphalt at a 4 percent injection rate. By eliminating the liquid AC line check valve included on earlier models, plant operators can reverse the system to clean oil from the pipes. A check valve on the water side of the expansion chamber ensures no liquid AC contaminates the water line. For more information, contact Dustin Hamburg at (405) 491-2049 or email@example.com.
the last cut Crude Oil Prices Settle into Higher Range from U.S. Energy Information Administration
ince the start of October 2009, the daily closing spot price for West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil has landed between $70 and $85 dollars per barrel 92 percent of the time. When the WTI spot price did not close within this range since the beginning of October 2009, closing prices above $85 per barrel were a bit more common than those below $70 per barrel. During [the first two weeks of November] the closing WTI spot price pushed past $85 Nov. 4 and closed above $87 per barrel Nov. 8 through 10. Oil prices have not been this high since October 2008, at which time they were falling rapidly from historic highs seen earlier that year. With recent spot prices near or above the $85 level for the longest consecutive stretch since early October 2008, market participants are naturally interested in whether or not the $70 to $85 per barrel price range will remain relevant over the coming months. Comparisons between recent movements in the spot prices for WTI and other crude oil streams provide some insight into whether the recent WTI increase is a local phenomenon or reflects global pressures. Other closely-watched crude oils [Brent, Tapis, Louisiana Light Sweet] have largely kept pace with WTI. The spot price for Brent, the benchmark crude oil for Europe, increased from around $77 per barrel Sept. 22 to about $88 per barrel Nov. 10, an increase of $11 per barrel, similar in scope to the $15 increase seen in WTI. The spot price for Dubai crude oil, a benchmark for Asia, Liquid Asphalt Cement Prices "average per ton" Company, State
NuStar Energy, Ga.
NuStar Energy, N.C.
NuStar Energy, S.C.
NuStar Energy, Va.
Assoc’d Asphalt Inman, N.C.
Assoc’d Asphalt Inman, S.C.
Assoc’d Asphalt Inman, Va.
Marathon Petroleum, Tenn.
Marathon Petroleum, N.C.
Valero Petroleum, Va.
Data for Southeast region, Source: ncdot.org; Data for Massachusetts, Source: mass.gov; Data for California, Source: dot.ca.gov; Data for Missouri, Source: modot.mo.gov 52 January 2011
increased from about $75 per barrel to more than $85 per barrel during the same time period. Meanwhile, the spot price for Malaysia Tapis (another Asian benchmark crude oil) increased from around $81 per barrel to $95 per barrel, nearly the same increase seen in WTI. Strong growth in recent global oil consumption, and the expectation
Strong growth in recent global oil consumption, and the expectation that it may continue, is one factor that has contributed to recent crude oil price increases. that it may continue, is one factor that has contributed to recent crude oil price increases. EIA projected growth in world real Gross Domestic Product (weighted by oil consumption) at 3.9 percent for 2010. Economic growth this year, particularly in China, is one of the reasons EIA now expects global petroleum consumption to grow 2.0 million barrels per day (the second highest annual growth rate in at least the last decade). While world oil supplies have risen significantly [in 2010], stronger than expected demand growth has generated downward pressure on inventories, especially in regions outside the United States. As an added symptom of a tighter market, numerous reports indicate that floating oil storage is significantly lower than year-ago levels, diminishing a secondary source of supply to the market that was available on short notice. Ultimately, the future direction of oil prices will depend on how robust the factors driving recent price increases turn out to be. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration “This Week in Petroleum” report, Nov. 17, 2010.
Diesel Fuel Retail Price (dollars per gallon) Nov 1
Dec 13 3.231 Source: Energy Information Administration
Crude Oil Activity crude oil futures spot data
millions of barrels U.S. crude oil stocks
$87.79/bbl 346.0 Source: Energy Information Administration
resource directory ACE Group................. 40,53 Contact: Carl McKenzie Tel: 888-878-0898
CEI......................................4 Contact: Andy Guth Tel: 800-545-4034 firstname.lastname@example.org www.ceienterprises.com
www.asphaltace.com AquaFoam LLC................49 Contact: Paul Schwan Tel: 513-874-0201 www.aquafoamllc.com Asphalt Drum Mixers ..............................14,15,38 Contact: Steve Shawd or Jeff Dunne Tel: 260-637-5729 email@example.com www.admasphaltplants.com Asphalt Plant Products..........................54 Contact: Tom Holley Tel: 866-595-3268 Cell: 706-466-3678 www.asphaltplantproducts.com
B & S Light................. 30,31 Contact: Mike Young Tel: 918-342-1160
ConExpo..........................48 Tel: (800) 867-6060
Heatec, Inc. ......................... ..............Inside Front Cover Contact: Sharlene Burney Tel: 800-235-5200 firstname.lastname@example.org www.heatec.com
Process Heating..............47 Contact: Ron Jay or Rick Jay Tel: 866-682-1582 Ron@processheating.com Rick@processheating.com www.processheating.com
Homestead Valve............23 Tel: 610-770-1100 Sales@homesteadvalves.com www.homesteadvalves.com
Reliable Asphalt Products ..........................Back Cover Contact: Charles Grote Tel: 502-647-1782 email@example.com www.reliableasphalt.com
Eagle Crusher..................33 Tel: 800-25-EAGLE Sales@eaglecrusher.com www.eaglecrusher.com
Libra Systems..................13 Contact: Ken Cardy Tel: 215-256-1700 Sales@librasystems.com www.librasystems.com
E.T. Clancy.......................43 Tel: 800-348-8553 Or 219-879-8231 Etclancy@adsnet.com www.etclancy.com
Maxam Equipment.........24 Contact: Lonnie Greene Tel: 800-292-6070 firstname.lastname@example.org www.maxamequipment.com
EZ Street............................9 Tel: 800-734-1476 Info@ezstreet-miami.com www.ezstreetasphalt.com
Meadwestvaco................41 Tel: 800-458-4034 www.evotherm.com www.mwv.com
Roadtec..............................7 Contact: Sales Tel: 429-265-0600 Sales@roadtec.com www.roadtec.com Rotochopper, Inc ...............Inside Back Cover Tel: 320-548-3586 Info@rotochopper.com www.rotochopper.com Stansteel Asphalt Plant Products................51 Contact: Tom McCune
Tel: 800-826-0223 email@example.com www.stansteel.com Stansteel..........................11 Contact: Dawn Kochert Tel: 800-826-0223 firstname.lastname@example.org www.hotmixparts.com Systems Equipment........19 Contact: Dave Enyart Sr. Tel: 563-568-6387 Dlenyart@systemsequipment.com www.systemsequipment.com Tarmac International, Inc...... 39,45 Contact: Ron Heap Tel 816-220-0700 email@example.com www.tarmacinc.com Wirtgen America.............17 Tel: 615-501-0600 Info@wirtgenamerica.com www.wirtgenamerica.com
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