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DEC / JAN 2017

Avant-garde Lodge Design Saruni Samburu Safari Lodge BIRTH OF A NOBLE VISION - Architect Bashir Ali Mohammed FLEXIBLE HOUSE PLANS JORDAN WEEK 2016

6 166000 086117 >

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www.buildesign.co.ke


Buildesign Magazine Ι Issue 022/2016


Buildesign Magazine Ι Issue 022/2016


PUBLISHER'S NOTE

T

he year 2016 has been a fulfilling year for the BUILDesign Magazine fraternity. As we release our last edition for the year, we look back with pride and joy at what we have been able to achieve since we launched the magazine back in 2012. The magazine has grown in leaps and bounds, both in its reach and content. We are looking forward to the future with greater plans, to improve our content as we usually do, and serve you better. Our highlight for the year was the release of the 20th edition of BUILDesign Magazine back in July 2016. This marked a major milestone in our existence and we hosted a cocktail to celebrate the same, which most of you graced. We thank you for your continued support and we look forward to celebrating the next milestone with you. 2017 will be an uncertain year for our country Kenya. With the upcoming general election in August, a lot is set to happen. Already, there are claims, whether real or imagined, of decreased spending in construction. Consultants in the built environment have talked of a ‘dry’ second half of 2016 which is expected to extend into the whole of 2017. This is however not supported by what is happening out there. Sites seem to be busy as they usually are with no signs of a slowdown. Besides the uncertainties, 2017 is a year to look forward to for professionals in the built environment. The Architectural Association of Kenya is also set to hold its Governing Council elections in March 2017. A new set of leaders will take over from the outgoing leadership to steer the association. In addition, the Association will also be celebrating its 50th anniversary. Since establishment in 1967, AAK has grown through the years to become the leading professional body in the built environment in Kenya. We expect the Association to keep its members busy throughout the year 2017 as they celebrate their golden Jubilee. The BUILDesign Magazine will be at hand to document all these events for record and future reference. This year, we also launched the BUILDesign TV Channel on You Tube. While still at its infancy, the channel is set to change how we review and document events and design related content in the industry. Visit YouTube and look at what we have done so far, subscribe, give us your positive input in the comment section and let us know where we can improve. I would like to wish you happy holidays ahead. Enjoy your Christmas and Happy Prosperous 2017. Martin Tairo

Publisher: BUILDesign Africa Ltd Howse & McGeorge Centre P.O.Box. 60540-00200, Nairobi info@architecturekenya.com Distributors: Jetsam Distribution Ltd Mai Mahiu Rd, Off Lang’ata Rd info@jetsamdistribution.com www.facebook.com/BUILDesignKE www.twitter/BUILDesignKE Copyright ©: Architecture Kenya Media Ltd

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Publisher:

Martin Tairo tairo@architecturekenya.com

Editor:

Wendy Kinya wendy@architecturekenya.com

Marketing Executive:

Felister Mugambi felister@architecturekenya.com

Technical Assistant:

Brian Munene brian@architecturekenya.com

Design & Layout:

Raphael Mokora dockrapho@gmail.com

Photos:

BUILDesign Team info@architecturekenya.com Riccardo Orizzio riccardo@saruni.com

Contributors:

Advertising:

Stephen Lutta Eric Loki Nyambura Nugi Irene Wanjiku Aliela Muyembe Samuel Kerongo Vetle Jorgensen Chandresh Raithatha (+254) 722 387 110 (+254) 720 650 898 (+254) 725 075 993

DISCLAIMER No part of this magazine may be reproduced in any form or stored on a retrieval system without the permission of the publisher. The publisher cannot accept responsibility for any errors that may appear or for any consequences of using the information contained herein.


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CONTENTS

CONTENTS 10

16 10

MAIN FEATURE Saruni Samburu safari lodge

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TECHNOLOGY Seven apps every architect should have

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FEATURED ARCHITECT Bashir Ali Mohammed

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EVENT Jordan week 2016

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ARCHITRAVEL Guangzhou city - China

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EDITORIAL

O

ver 67% of Kenyan wildlife is not protected in game reserves, it lives freely on private land. Northern Kenya, for instance, has been rated as one of Africa’s last true wilderness areas. Inhabited by pastoral tribes with rich traditional histories that are collectively striving both to protect its ecological integrity and their own livelihoods, it is one of the few places left that allows for the free movement of wildlife across a vast area in absence of fences. The question is, how do we make such land productive whilst ensuring that the animals are protected? It is the same question Mr. Riccardo Orizzio was trying to answer when he went searching for a perfect safari lodge location in Northern Samburu. The aim was to find a means of providing economic support to the communities through productive use of the wilderness land and hence the construction of the Saruni Samburu safari lodge. We have the complete story on how Kalama hills emerged as the ideal location for the facility and the design story that led to the actualization of the client’s dream; combining exotic safari experience with pure bush architecture. See the story on pg. 10 We continue to unravel the history of Kenyan architecture in this issue with another veteran architect, Mr. Bashir Ali Mohammed. The 87 year old, former deputy chief architect has shared with us his passion for the African professional unity and his experience in public service post-independence for 15 years. Bashir also sent us with a noble message to fellow

professionals in the building industry. Find the message on the third page of his profile. The need for extra space in every household is real. With innovative designs however, you get a variety of options for the everyday changing lifestyle. In our illustrative feature by Arch. Vetle Jorgensen, you’ll learn about the design of flexible house plans that works for you right now, but can be easily modifiable to accommodate different family dynamics in the future. With Christmas around the corner, we have the perfect holiday destination for the tourist architect. The Guangzhou City in China is famous for the most magical architecture including gleaming towers and leafy alleys. Flights from Nairobi only take 12 hours and Kenya airways and China Southern Airlines fly there direct. Retail prices for most items is 30% cheaper than our local market. Needless to say, this third largest city in China is a must visit. In our travel column, find out more about Guangzhou City and why it could be your ideal holiday destination this December. As always, we have a complete package for you. In the pages ahead, you’ll find incisive reviews from our team of experts on technology, environment, materials, interiors, landscaping, building trends and so much more. We are certain that you’ll enjoy this issue which is also our last for the year 2016. For inquiries, suggestions and comments, write to us on info@ architecturekenya.com Merry Christmas & a happy new year! Wendy Kinya

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS

Irene Wanjiku Director, REXE Roofing

Aliela Muyembe Graduate Architect

Nyambura Nugi Interior Designer, Zidaka

Eric Loki David, Architect Environmental Design

Samuel Kerongo Landscape Architect

Stephen Lutta, Architect & Travel Enhusiast

Vetle Jorgensen, Architect Sustainable Design

Chandresh Raithatha Director, Waterways Africa

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NEW AGE

RENOVATION Cara House Attic

You don’t need to lift a finger for extra quiet and habitable space in your old office building, unless when dialing the phone to call Classic Mouldings. The creative interior design and construction services firm, which is also the sole distributor of FAKRO roof products in East Africa, has fast built a portfolio for the transformation of attics into sustainable living spaces in Nairobi. Handling projects from the initial assessment of the living conditions of your attic space to design, installation of roof accessories and finishes, Classic Mouldings is a one stop shop with a team of experts from their FAKRO department, a wide range of decorative finishes and various attic accessories.

Create Sustainable Extra

Office Space in Your Building

Recently, the firm was commissioned to remodel the Cara House attic. The former property of Symbion Architects was a two storey house with a high pitched roof that exhibited potential of vast extra space during renovation. It was then that Classic Mouldings was contracted to assess the possibility of the attic transformation into more office space. The requirements for an attic conversion are a minimum roof pitch of 15 degrees and a height of 2.3m or more from ceiling to tip of the roof both of which the Cara House attic met. Given this, the key requirement for habitation were windows to bring light and fresh air into the space.


BEFORE Classic Mouldings did the underlay on the roof to avoid leakages using the Eurotop membrane before installation of the roof windows. On the walls, they used rockwool for insulation and gypsum for cladding.

DURING

External awning blinds were used to regulate the amount of heat and light from outside while internal roll up blinds were used to add colour and aesthetics to the spaces created. They also did glass partitions and the paintwork on the attic space. Initially, the project would require 34 windows but eventually, a total of 54 roof windows were installed. Three companies currently occupy the new floor space created in the Cara House attic. This means increased value for the property without extending an inch of the built area. With FAKRO roof windows, the attic space receives quality natural lighting and ventilation and is in turn zero carbon footprint to the environment.

AFTER

In line with Kenya Vision 2030 sustainable goals, Classic Mouldings ensures design of efficient living spaces with innovative, affordable and practical solutions using the latest roof technology. Visit Classic Mouldings at their Nairobi showroom, tell their team of professionals what you have in mind – and they’ll make it happen. Classic Mouldings, Kellico Complex, Mombasa Road, Nairobi – secure parking, great ideas, informed staff and professional backup. For further information: info@classic-mouldings.comTel; + 254 (0) 02 2585596/ 3519526 or 0721 123 123


MAIN FEATURE

Avant-garde lodge design Saruni Samburu

S

urrounded by pure wilderness, the Saruni Samburu Safari lodge is an ecological marvel sitting at the heart of Kalama Wildlife Conservancy, on the hot rock of the Kalama mountain top in Samburu County. Bordering the Samburu National Reserve, Ngutuk Ongiron to the west, Namunyak Community Conservation Trust to the north and Sera Community Wildlife Conservation to the north east, Saruni is the only safari lodge in Kenya that occupies over 200,000 acres of wilderness land. The lodge is accessible through the Kalama airstrip and the Oryx Samburu Airstrip. The location is particularly interesting and strategic in position, arresting 360 degrees captivating views of the dramatic red landscape dominated by acacia-grassland in Northern Kenya. The spot is also historically known for the white caves with cultural value to the Samburu people, which have been in existence for 100 to 150 years. The client wanted to combine safari experience with

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his passion for Africa’s wildlife & nature in this project. He sought to represent the African bush environment in the design of Saruni lodge through conservation of all the natural features on site, including the rock formation on which the foundation of the lodge is built. The magnificent project that complements the habitat of the Samburu people in the semi-arid region of Northern Kenya is built using the locally available materials. Use of concrete on the roof structure allows a seamless blend with the landscape and the Ferro cement used helps to cool the spaces by keeping the intense heat away. Design The primary goal was to add a spotlight to the landscape without interfering with its set up. “I wanted to give the area a new identity; a balance between traditional safari style and the modern user needs and I think we achieved that,” notes Mr. Riccardo Orizio, the Saruni Lodges MD. The postmodern design is not a typical lodge with Makuti. The thin and light roof shells are built using ferro


MAIN FEATURE

cement with integral gutters and the down pipes fed through the centre of the columns. They are supported at the back by the service spine and at the front by two hollow steel columns clad in leather. For a close blend with the surrounding as the main concept, the architect went for a risqué theme combining off-whites and bold undertones. The dense construction of the roofs make them excellent thermal dampers, which combined with the free flow of air below ensure that the rooms are very comfortable. The gaps in between the roofs, where we have decks and terraces are shaded in net and canvas blinds over, making for a wonderful collection of interlinked sunny and shaded areas, especially when all the rooms are open. For the living and bed areas, tent ‘walling’ has been routed to the corners and the back with cords for easy and fast pulling up. They can be folded up like a Roman blind or zipped up together. The ferro roof has a moulded cornice dropping down to hide the connections and the blinds when folded up. The masonry back wall and turrets are intended to function as a sort of ‘service’ spine allowing access to all the rooms when closed, hide solar panels, tanks etc. in addition, it also helps accelerate the natural ventilation on still days.

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MAIN FEATURE

Aesthetically, they also act as an architectural ‘anchor’ to the light floating structures. With the big open spaces and amazing views, it was also important to provide a frame for contrast, making the big views all the more stunning. Designed in appropriation to the various locations; each of the turrets vary between flat and steep-backed-into-hill room sites. At a distance, the naked eye cannot pick any built structure in the area. Elements of rock have been used to express the tough survival spirit of the Samburu people in the desert, a place that many people cannot survive. Inspired by a collection of Moroccan products that had been gathered over the years, cabinets, tables, doors and ramps have been made using metal plates. Strong Moroccan oriental feel has also been incorporated in other interior accessories including floor mats and bath tubs. The two swimming pools and six eco-chic open and spacious villas of Saruni lodge offers an intimate experience with a private beachfront for relaxation and spectacular views over Kalama Conservancy and Mount Kenya. Challenges Building materials had to be transported to site by hand for a distance of about 500M. Water scarcity was another challenge given the semi desert climate of Samburu land. Successful implementation of the facility in terms of conservation and commerce for the local people was not easy. The 220,000 acre land that the Saruni lodge occupies is

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owned by the Kalama people. The Saruni lodges management has entered an agreement with the Kalama community authorities to preserve wildlife and share revenues with Kalama people. With a population of only 2,000 people, the main livelihood in the area is livestock, mostly camels and goats. Centered on a core conservation area of 3,150 hectares, Kalama represents a crucial migratory corridor between northern and southern conservation areas of this spectacular region of Kenya. It is one of the destinations with high potential in Northern Kenya today. Saruni Samburu lodge took 10 months to build with a team of 100 workers, half the number consisting of local people. The entire project cost approximately 1.4 million dollars including the interior outfits. The lodge was officially opened in June 2008.

Project Team Client

Riccardo Orizzio

Concept Architect

Lengai Croze

Main Contructor

Mark Glen


MAIN FEATURE

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THE ROOF DIARY

The Roof Pitch

R

oofs are the best they are ever going to be at the time they are installed. Unfortunately, problems are inevitable as the roof ages and the key to minimize these problems is proper installation and routine maintenance. One key factor, which is determined during roof installation, and that greatly affects the maintenance of the roof is the roof pitch. From history, people noticed that tree branches leaned against larger horizontal branches made excellent shelter that could also easily shed away rain water. A flat shelter did not. This is probably the origin of the pitched roof as it is known today. The pitch of a roof is simply its slope or steepness. It is measured using geometric degrees and is the angle formed between the leaning roof and the horizontal surface of the base for the roof. It matters for a variety of reasons which include the type of roofing materials, whether the roof or the space under it would be put to function and most important, the aesthetics of a building which are greatly affected by

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Irene Wanjiku the proportions of the roof vis a vis those of the ‘body’ of a building. A roof considered steep will have a roof pitch of 30 degrees and above. Its main functional advantage has been its ability to easily drain water and dirt off the roof. In tropic countries that experience winter with heavy snow, it is useful in ensuring that roof structures are nor destroyed by the heavy weight of snow that may collect on the roof. Steeper roofs are recommended for roofing materials that maybe easily penetrable and therefore require good draining to shed off water. Traditional roofing materials like grass thatch and timber slates can easily absorb water if the slope does not allow quick drainage of water from the surface of the roof. On aesthetics, many residential roofs are designed with steeper pitches since they look more elegant and pleasing to the eye. They also leave plenty of ceiling space that maybe used as additional storeys or attic spaces. These spaces are also useful when there is need to store service elements like water tanks where they can be easily concealed. The roof also allows you to experiment with interesting sidings, trims and eaves styles which are essential in enhancing the looks of a house. The only downturn of the steep roof is its cost. A higher roof pitch increases the surface area of the roof. The effect is that more materials are used in the structure and finishing of the roof thus increasing its costs. A higher pitched roof is also not easy to work on. It may require high skilled labour and, in special cases, scaffolding, all of which add up to the costs. Low roof pitch of less than 10 degrees may be considered functionally flat. The roof top will have a flatter, box like look. The roof cannot be easily drained and would therefore need a waterproofing membrane to prevent the penetration of water into the structure. The roofs are not recommended for areas with high rainfall or snowfall. These roofs are mostly used on industrial and commercial buildings. However, they can also be installed in residential houses. Low pitched roofs are easier to construct compared to high pitched roofs and they require fewer building materials hence keeping costs lower. When deciding on the roof pitch for a project, the main considerations would therefore be the architectural style envisioned and the climatic conditions of the project location. Other factors like available materials and costs for the same can come into play and options sought so as to achieve the optimum result. In the upcoming edition of BUILDesign Magazine, we shall discuss roof and ceiling space ventilation strategies that will prevent turning your ceiling space into a sauna. The author is a roofing specialist popularly known as ‘The Roofing Queen’. She is also the Managing Director of Rexe Roofing Products Ltd. She can be reached via www.roofingqueen.com


ROOFING THE WORLD ONE PROJECT AT A TIME

ROOFING AND WATERPROOFING SPECIALISTS Projects done:

• The Hub Karen shopping Mall

• Mount Kenya Holiday Homes

Our Contacts: Menalik lane, Naivasha, off Kirichwa road 0786 195899 Tel: 254-20-2138191 Cell: 0704 646 664 / 0731 068 184

Eldoret, 0738 597660

Kitengela, 0733 965520

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PROFILE

Birth of a Noble Vision - Architect Bashir Ali Mohammed

N

ot many people strive for the greater common good, at least not as individuals. To care for all the people, to desire and pursue initiatives that improve performance and the terms of engagement for the collective profession in an industry where little if any attention is given to individual voices is a rare virtue. Once in a while though, you’ll meet one of the few noble people who have an undying passion for national spirit and professional integrity. But their achievements are often anonymous. That’s the case with Architect Bashir Ali Mohamed. The 87 year old architect was born in Mombasa County where he also attended his primary and secondary education at Serani Primary and Secondary schools respectively. Since childhood, Bashir was a very good artist. So he joined the Makerere School of Fine arts in Uganda upon completing his O’ levels to pursue fine arts. Some of his classmates at Makerere included the former Central Bank

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governor, Mr. Duncan Ndegwa, current president of Zimbambwe, H.E. Robert Mugabe, Hon. Robert Matano, a former politician who also served in various ministries during the regime of President Moi, Hon. Paul Ngei among other renowned personalities. At the time, Africans were not admitted into professional courses and hence Bashir had no knowledge of architecture. He however knew that he needed to advance his skills as he would not picture himself as an artist. “I could not making a living on art. I’m not Piccasso.” He jokes. While at Makerere, Bashir became friends with an Indian student of architecture who he’d visit at the studio and observe as they did the architectural drawings. Bashir would soon realize that architecture what was he wanted to do in life. He however had to complete the fine arts course at Makerere. Upon completion, the missionaries who funded his course wanted him to join the East African Literature Bureau to work but Bashir was keen to pursue architecture. While he could not get an entry to study architecture at the time, he went back to Mombasa and started his


PROFILE

architectural career as an apprenticed draughtsman immediately after his qualification as a Fine Artist. From 1951 to 1963, he worked with a number of architectural professional firms, studying in office libraries to improve his knowledge and widen his experience in architecture. Some of the firms include A. Hamid Architects from 1951 to 1960 where he was involved in the design of the MP Shah Hospital and Messrs, Cobb Archer & Scammel from 1961 to 1963 where he was involved in the design of the Kenyatta National Hospital. Civil Service Bashir had worked with Messrs, Cobb Archer & Scammel for one year when he received a British Council bursary to go study at Manchester University. The directors of the firm however tried to get in the way so Bashir decided to leave the firm and join the Ministry of Public Works in order to secure the opportunity. He joined Civil Service in 1963 when Kenya had just attained its independence. Some of the projects he undertook at the Ministry of Works at the time included Kenya Polytechnic Ladies hostels in Upperhill and Kisii Teachers Training College. In 1965, Bashir joined the University of Newcastle upon Tyne with the Kenyan government where he successfully graduated with a Class Honors BA in Architecture in 1967. He worked in the United Kingdom for two years after registration with RIBA

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PROFILE

in 1968. Bashir then returned to Kenya in 1970 to work with the Ministry of Public Works as a registered architect, working his way up to the position of Deputy Chief Architect. Working closely with the president and other senior political leaders including Hon. Robert Ouko, Bashir advised the Works PS to bring a Kenyan chief architect in the Ministry and hence the appointment of Arch. David Mutiso – the first African chief architect in Kenya. He hoped that the move would help advance growth and cooperation among local architects but little did he know, that would be the beginning of a tyranny. The following year, Bashir was seconded to the position of Assistant General Manager at the National Housing Corporation on the basis of public interest. At the corporation, Bashir expressed displeasure in how the system run and he sought to be transferred. For over a year, he stayed out of office before he could be offered a new post. He was later appointed the Director of Kenya Building Centre upon a reluctant directive from the president to the Ministry of Public Works in 1972 where he served until his retirement. Some of the works he undertook in the civil service at the time include advisory in the design of the Central Bank of Kenya Headquarters in Nairobi, advisory to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs on purchase of Embassies properties abroad and maintenance of Public Buildings and control of funds among others. Private Practice Architect Bashir retired from the Civil service in 1974 to start his own firm, Africa Planning & Design Consultancy (APDC) where he is practicing until today. Some of his early projects were Stima Club in Ruaraka and the Kenya Postal Services. One of the key purposes for establishing his consultancy was to pursue regional cooperation for the profession which he hopes will be realized someday. “I faced a lot of trouble in public service fighting for the professional rights. But as an individual, there is only so much I could do. Professionals must come together and fight for their rights and a better system. I hope for a day when local architects will be offered equal opportunity with foreign professionals, to be commissioned mega projects and take charge. Not to work under supervision. This will only happen if African professionals unite. It will take a concerted effort, a movement. Not an individual” Architect Bashir asserts.

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In an effort to see this dream come true, Bashir prepared a feasibility report on inter-regional cooperation between the Gulf Cooperation council (GCC) and the Common Market for Eastern & Southern African States (COMESA). Through his firm APDC, formed in 1974, Bashir hoped to establish an organization made up of African Professionals that would be of service to Kenya and later East Africa and eventually the whole Africa. The aim was to create a nucleus office of African consortium in collaboration with other freelance professional experts so as to give a comprehensive service covering the fields of planning, architecture, civil-structural-mechanical and electrical engineering among other related fields. Hoping GCC and COMESA countries would come together and enter into an agreement of cooperation, Bashir presented the report profiling the PTA Members and all the registered architects in Kenya to COMESA for review and approval but GCC would not approve a proposal for action coming from an individual. Like you guessed, the report is still intact but no action has been taken. Personal Life Architect Bashir is a widower, a father of three including her late daughter, Arch. Adila Bashir who until her passing served as a project architect in the Ministry of Public Works. Parting Shot Think ahead. Think about the future. Bring regional and African organizations together. Strengthen the national spirit and fight to unite professionals. If we don’t, who will?


Building East Africa‘s Future Supported by IMAG, subsidiary of Messe München The meeting place in East and Central Africa for Construction, Building, Infrastructure and Energy • International exhibition with participants from Europe, Asia, the Middle East and Africa. • Official pavilions from Germany and Turkey already confirmed • Potential clients from governments, institutions, organizations and private enterprises of all East African countries • 3 days conference program and organized matchmaking on-site

www.cibexeastafrica.com

15 – 17 February 2017 KICC, Nairobi, Kenya www.scalexeastafrica.com

East and Central Africa‘s International Trade Fair for Transport Systems, Infrastructure and Logistics Solutions Licensed by Messe Frankfurt Exhibition GmbH

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ADVERTORIAL

How to live a leakagefree lifestyle

W

ater leakage is the worst night mare for every home owner. Most homes in Kenya experience this problem which forces the interior contractors to repeat the job of waterproofing the same

structure again!

Terraces, bathrooms, kitchens leak and sometimes water finds its way into the most unexpected areas, such as the living room, due to seepage from the external walls during rainy season. Unfortunately, the typical contractor has resigned himself to this phenomenon of damp and dripping ceilings and walls. However, this does not have to be a universal phenomenon. Usually, it is the lack of knowledge and a leaning towards conventional methods of water proofing that lead to persistent leakage cases. Water seepage and leakage is easily preventable. The important thing is to know what products to use and get the right professional consultancy when dealing with this problem. Dr. Fixit, Asia’s leading waterproofing solution brand, has state-of the art systems which offer complete protection to structures & protect it from rains & other harsh elements. Dr. Fixit has a wide variety of innovative products & solutions that meet every waterproofing & repair need, from foundation to roofs. There are few basic target areas in structures that Dr. Fixit, the waterproofing expert recommends focus on:

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Dr. Sanjay Bahadur

Secondary waterproofing It is best to make your home stronger when you are building it. Adding additives to concrete & plaster, right at the time of construction can reduce dampness, improve water tightness and increase the strength & life of the structures considerably. This is called secondary waterproofing For effective secondary waterproofing, experts recommend Dr. Fixit’s exceptional cement additive for plaster / concrete. It is a unique cement additive, having a judicious combination of various selective polymers. It waterproofs by filling pores and cutting capillaries imparting qualities such as good workability, increased cohesive strength of the mix, delayed corrosion and prevents cracking in plaster. Small area water proofing and repair Basic science indicates that in a country like Kenya, where structures are exposed to extreme heat and rains, there is bound to be expansion of concrete which leads to cracks, which in turn become easy conduits for the rain water to enter homes. This results in damp patches, efflorecence, cracks, peeling of paint & many such problems. Small area water proofing and general repairs can best be done with Dr. Fixit’s multipurpose SBR latex based product which is versatile for repairs of spalled concrete such as – floors, columns, beams, chhajjas, slabs & waterproofing of toilets, bathrooms & terraces. Terrace Terraces are exposed to severe weather conditions throughout the year. If not waterproofed, it leads to damp patches on ceilings, resulting in water seepages, thus


ADVERTORIAL

impacting the durability of the structure. Until now, terrace waterproofing has been done with torchon membranes. Membranes fail at the joints and also at the termination due to improper details & workmanship. Most of the roofs have some slope already and therefore it is strongly recommended to use Acrylic/ Polyurethane coatings. Dr. Fixit’s Acrylic coating is a Heavy Duty Reinforced Acrylic Waterproof Coating, environment friendly, highly resilient & elastic, easy to apply, joint less and also UV resistant. Foundation It is very important for any structure to have a strong and well equipped foundation to deal with ground water and contaminants in the soil. Since concrete is permeable and has joints/cracks, underground water and contaminants attack it, thus leading to corrosion of steel and moisture related problems in the structure. Good secondary waterproofing can be done with Dr. Fixit’s crystalline waterproofing product. Dr. Fixit recommends it’s revolutionary waterproofing system, a special tear and puncture resistant self adhesive SBS based membrane, specially designed to protect the foundations. It offers great resistance to the damages from the ground level and below. It also keeps soil contaminations at bay giving the structure a much needed firm support. Podium Contemporary structures have multiple car park levels and a green space on top of it, commonly referred to as podiums. Podiums have multiple utilities like children play area, landscapes, car parks, jogging tracks, swimming pools etc and are subject to continuous high movement. Considerations like drainage, continuity at expansion joints, and landscaping have to be accounted for during waterproofing. Dr. Fixit’s SBS based membrane is an advanced solution. It is best used for waterproofing of landscaped podium – high resistance against root penetration, wear & chemical resistant, good puncture resistance and non-biodegradable. External walls Like the terrace and roof slabs, the exterior walls too are constantly exposed to the sun and rain reducing their durability. They are also prone to cracks causing leakages and water penetration. In addition to climatic conditions, frames and pipes fittings done on the external walls leaves a lot of scope for water penetration as well as widening the cracks further. Waterproofing of external walls is recommended to prevent dampness due to water seepage and also to maintain the structural durability of the wall. The best way to maintain the exteriors is by using high quality acrylic emulsion polymers. Dr. Fixit’s acrylic elastomeric coating is best for providing

waterproofing and protective coating to exterior walls of the buildings. It forms an impermeable layer around the building. This coating is also water and UV resistant, microbial resistant, easy to apply, low dirt pick up and eco-friendly. Wet Areas Water retaining structures such as swimming pools, water tanks and also other wet areas like kitchens and bathrooms are the biggest source of leakages in constructions. The use of substandard material when constructing a bathroom, kitchen or balcony could be one of the biggest source of leakages, causing internal wall dampness. This could lead to severe complications for residents and ruin the interiors of their homes. Waterproofing of bathroom and kitchen areas prevents water leakage through the tile joints, or through the area around the floor traps etc. It is important to ensure that good plumbing practices are followed and joints of pipes & sanitary fitting are sealed effectively. Waterproofing should also be extended in bathrooms to a reasonable height on the wall. Dr Fixit provides specialized waterproofing systems with a combination of elements that are required to achieve a waterproof barrier. These systems provide excellent resistance to hydrostatic pressure ensuring leak free structures. Dr. Fixit’s high performance acrylic cementitious elastomeric waterproofing coating creates an impermeable waterproof barrier & also bridges small cracks. For heavy duty waterproofing, we recommend Dr. Fixit’s high performance polymer modified cementitious coating. It is ideal for swimming pools, water tanks, water features, planters etc. If all these areas are taken care of right from the foundation of a building, there will be delayed deterioration. After all, prevention is always better than cure as curing a problem tends to be costlier and more tedious than the preventive measures that can be taken. Apart from the costs, a damp leaky structure is more susceptible to collapsing even without a flood-like situation, thus endangering many lives. The writer is the Global CEO, Construction Chemicals (Dr. Fixit), Pidilite Industries Ltd.

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LANDSCAPING

Re-thinking Myths about Landscape Architecture

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ccording to the American Society of Landscape Architects, landscape architecture is defined as: ‘the art of design, planning or management of the land, arrangement of natural and man-made elements thereon through applications of cultural and scientific knowledge, with concern for resource conservation and stewardship to the end that the result environment serves useful and enjoyable purpose.’ Landscape Architecture is a fairly new profession in Kenya and few people really understand what it is all about. Most people simply think that Landscape Architecture is landscaping or gardening. This article aims to bust myths regarding Landscape Architecture. Landscape Architecture is Landscaping: In the past, Landscape Architecture used to be considered as landscaping. This was for primarily embellishing developments or dealing with unwanted negative spaces between buildings. Landscaping is a small part of landscape architecture which focuses on the use of plant material to ornament outdoor spaces. Landscape Architecture is the design of outdoor public and private areas, landmarks, and structures to achieve environmental, social-behavioral, or aesthetic outcomes. It involves the systematic investigation of existing social, ecological, and soil conditions and processes in the landscape, and the design of interventions that will produce the desired outcome. The scope of the profession includes landscape design; site planning; stormwater management; environmental restoration; parks and recreation planning; visual resource management; green infrastructure planning and provision; and private estate

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and residence landscape master planning and design; all at varying scales of design, planning and management Use of only plant material: Whenever one hears about Landscape Architecture, the first thing that comes into his/ her mind is plant material. Landscape Architecture entails the manipulation of various design elements to create spaces that are functional and aesthetically appealing. These design elements are: Landform, site structures, site furniture, water, pavement, hardscapes, building clusters and plant material. These design elements should not be used individually but in an integrated way to achieve a rich outdoor space. Some spaces can be designed to be predominantly hardscapes e.g. squares plazas, circulation corridors, skate parks, parking etc. while other spaces are predominantly softscapes e.g. parks, greenways, gardens etc. Landscape Architecture is primarily for beautification: The main objective of Landscape Architecture is to create outdoor spaces that are functional and aesthetically appealing. This is by understanding the qualities of a space and moulding the space to achieve a certain experience while accommodating a myriad of activities. The Landscape Architect should strike a balance between function and aesthetic. Function or aesthetics can be primary depending on the Landscape Architect’s Design philosophy. You do not need a design/ drawings: Landscape Architects/Designers communicate ideas by use of drawings, sketches and ideas. This is with a view of explaining the design concepts to the client or other design team members. The importance of undertaking a design is to ensure that the client or design team understands the end product before construction is undertaken. This is with a view of


LANDSCAPING

getting a clear picture of the different spaces, their character and desired experience. Landscape design drawings also aid in determining the project cost so that the client can budget accordingly. A typical landscape architectural design includes the following drawings: Site plan, sections, elevations, three dimensional drawings, models, layout plans, grading plans, planting plans, lighting plans, irrigation plans and construction details. Anybody can practise Landscape Architecture: In many countries, Landscape Architecture is a regulated professional. This is with a view of protecting the standing of the profession and promoting its interests. The standard and strength of legal regulations governing landscape architecture practice varies from nation to nation, with some requiring licensure in order to practice; and some having little or no regulation. In North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand, landscape architecture is a regulated profession. For instance in South Africa, one can practise Landscape Architecture only after completion of an accredited under-graduate and/ or post-graduate qualification in landscape architecture and professional registration attained via a mandatory mentored candidacy period (minimum of two years) and sitting of the professional registration exam. In Kenya, efforts are underway to put up a body that will regulate the profession. There however exists Graduate Landscape Architects trained both locally and internationally. A Landscape Architect is an unaffordable luxury: Landscape Architect’s Professional fees are not necessarily high and are usually calculation on a time basis or as a percentage of the projects cost depending on the nature of the project. The division of services and fees is clearly stated in advance of project commencement. It is important to use a landscape architect owing to the following reasons: To save on the risk of spending money without sacrificing the quality of work, Enhance the value of your property with relatively low inputs, Rationalization of your outdoor space through sound design and planning principles and Conservation and improvement of the natural environment. Landscape Architectural works comes at the end of project: Most development construction considers landscape works at the end of the development construction. Landscape architectural works are locally known as landscaping which is considered as beautification. In real, sense it is the design and construction of outdoor spaces for various functions. Depending on the scale of the project, what is known as external works is basically landscape architectural works. The design and construction of the outdoor spaces should be taken into consideration from the onset of the project. This is to clearly determine the character and functions of the outdoor spaces and the cost of constructing the same. Landscape Architectural work comes in different scales and complexity. For instance, a housing project requires landscape architectural drawings to be undertaken together with the architectural drawings. This with a view of

constructing some landscape spaces concurrently with the building construction. Some of the landscape materials can also be bought in bulk together with the building materials. The cost of Landscape Architectural Works is high / low: Most Quantity Surveyors assume that Landscape Architectural work is cheap. They usually designate a provisional sum based on their experience. This usually considers the cost of implementing some greenery in the development i.e. landscaping. Clients tend to consider Landscape Architectural works as luxurious and expensive. This is necessarily not the case due to the fact that Landscape Architects can design the outdoor spaces to suit different budgets depending on the client’s vision for the outdoor space. The cost of Landscape Architectural works is informed by the size and complexity of the landscape design. The complexity of landscape architectural works depends on the level of detailing and the design elements utilized. Landscape Architecture does not matter: When building a new home or development, often the landscape is the last item to be considered. This is in terms of design and budget. In Kenya, Quantity Surveyors usually consider a provisional sum for this work without really considering the design and actual cost of the same. During construction the Client invites subcontractors to bid for landscape works without a clear design or Bills of Quantities. It is important to engage a Landscape Architect or designer to undertake the landscape design so that the Quantity Surveyor can prepare Bills of Quantities for the same. This is owing to the fact that the landscape is one of the first things the neighbourhood sees of your home or development. It is therefore important to plan a reasonable amount towards the landscape design and construction. The author is a Landscape Architect/Urban Designer at Landtek Studios (Nairobi/Mombasa) /EIA Expert M. Arch UON, B. Landscape Architecture JKUAT. he can be reached via landtekstudios@gmail.com.

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INTERIORS

Ultimate Guide to Interior Design Styles

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n the previous issue, we discussed the origins of Interior Design and roles played by the architect and the interior designer.Whereas architects focus more on a building and the way it fits in its context, interior designers deal with the way people will inhabit the spaces we live in, work in and play in - the needs of people spatially, emotionally and ergonomically. There has to be some form of flow and cohesion in how the outside of the building matches with the inside – both spaces must “talk” to each. Interior designers are also involved in landscape design. The role of an interior designer is also to bring human delight, intrigue and presence to a place, the way we think about a space and how we relate to a space. The look, feel and character of a space is called “styles” and there are different styles in the interior spaces. Design is not static. It evolves with age, new generation, new materials etc. However, the interior design principles are still definative. Sometimes, styles can overlap from one to the next as long as the space flow is observed. Interior Styles include :Contemporary / Modern Style

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Classical Style Country / Ethnic Electic Style Global Style Mediterranean Style Others include Cottage Style Funky Style Urban Style Neutical Style Beach House Mid-Century Style Farm House Style Contemporary or Modern Style Let’s talk about modern interior design/style. It is the Style being witnessed in most of the urban dwelling spaces especially hotels, rental spaces , private homes etc. Just like the name suggests, this style is futuristically designed with modern materials as the industries evolve. These include steel, iron, glass and brick among others.


INTERIORS

This Design/Style is refered to as Emergence of Mordenism that evolved at the first decade of 20th Century with the emergency of industrialization; using of steel and reinforced concrete. In art, architecture and design, it became increasingly evident that the traditions that had served the past ages were no longer relevant to this modern World. This is according to John Pile in the 2nd edition of his book, A History of Interior Design. The Style is bound to evolve faster with new age materials as we witness what is generally refered to as “first machine age” Modern styles dictates clean lines, minimalistic or non at all design on finishing materials accessoryfree space and neutrals with primary or off white colours, pastels. The essence of modern interior design includes basic shapes, functional lines and curves, materials like metal, chrome, and glass – and furnishings without decorative parts.  Modern interiors are sleek, spacious, simple, and focus on function and organization.  No clutter or chaos allowed.  Modern design uses basic geometry (simple edges, curves and angles) and clean lines in furniture, architecture and sculpture.  This style grew from the idea to build for function, to do without traditional decoration, and to embrace industrial materials like chrome, glass and concrete, which new technologies make available making it the most evolving Style. With a theme of “less is more”, this style is open space that does not allow clutter of unnecessary furniture and accessories...it is the openeness of modern interiors. Furniture Furniture in modern style is streamlined with polished, smooth and sleek surfaces.  Pieces are simple, uncluttered, built for economy of form and to serve a purpose.  Furniture pieces are kept to a bare minimum.  The driving design concept is honesty: keeping structure and building material in plain view.  Sustainability is gaining importance.   More designers are reclaiming materials for use in modern design, and building from renewable resources. Accessories in Modern Design Art, rather than accessories, has a firm place in modern interiors. No cute little trinkets or blankets tossed over the furniture. Rather, art pieces are carefully chosen for their unique appeal, and to serve as a focal point in a space.  Geometric-patterned or plain area rugs and wall art pieces provide accent colors and accentuate the bold look of modern interiors.

increases space and creates the illusion of a larger room. Young, busy professionals particularly love this decorating style since the space is easily kept clean without knick knacks or ornate decorative furniture to dust.  Spur of the moment entertaining is simple and quick. Families with young children may find this style more challenging to adopt.  Hard edges, breakable glass and clutter-intolerance may not work for the very young.  To note though is that this is a guideline. As mentioned earlier, styles are versatile and depending on how elements are put together, one style will easily overlap to next with a good interior designer on site. Also, globally, each culture or a people have what is distictively their very rich and unique style handed down historically through ages, giving design a different defination from one person to another. Over the next couple of our features, we will look and discuss different designs as defined and witnessed in our habitation today, keeping in mind that design has evolved historically over the ages but the design defination remains almost constant. In all aspects of Interior Style / Design, we look at all aspects of materials finishes ie flooring, walls, ceiling, fabrics furniture, details and accessories. We will however have an overview of each Style given that this is a wide topic.

Color The color schemes is whites and neutrals or what is generaly refered to as pastel colours, with colorful accents. From its beginnings, modern designers embraced pure color — black, white, and neutrals with vibrant primary colors. Modern Design Target Market Although this Style design is fabulous, it has its market of choice for apartment dwellers because it

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EVENT

Meet Jordan in Nairobi

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ordan Week (Meet Jordan Exhibition) will be held at the KICC, Nairobi from 13 - 16 December, with 20+ companies in Construction represented exploring new business ventures in East Africa. The event is sponsored by the Jordan Investment Commission and East Amman Industrial Association. The event has full support of Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Ministry of Industry, Trade & Co-

Jordanian Cypriot Construction Industries Co. Ltd. Ayoub I Steel Furniture Factory AL-BAHA company for caustic –chlorine Ind. Maani Ventures Blessed Tree for information technology CC Group (Consolidated Consultants) DAR AL OMRAN NATIONAL CHLORINE INDUSTRIES PETRA CALCIUM CARBONATE Jordan Minerals Est. Jordanian Austrian Chemicals MANASEER CARBONATE Jordan Carbonate Company Golden Chemical Industries Company Formoza for Plastics Industry

For more details on booking personalized B2B meetings, contact us on 0722 858 611 or write to us on meetjordan16@gmail.com.

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operatives in Kenya, and comes after the visit by His Highness King Abdullah of the Royal Kingdom of Jordan. Some of the represented construction companies include:


TECHNOLOGY

7 Apps every architect and designer must have on their phone

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e live in the electronic age. You probably read the newspaper on your phone today. You might actually be reading this article on a screen somewhere while on the move. We live in a world where our gadgets have taken over and simplified majority of the tasks in our lives. We have apps that do virtually everything, from monitoring our health to telling us which roads to avoid because of traffic to apps that control other apps in our homes. These applications have not only made our personal lives easier but they have made our professional lives much easier. The architectural field has its own share of life easing apps that have transformed and eased the design process immensely. The architectural workstation has evolved from the initial drawing table with the fixed T-square to the desktop pcs to laptops and 55’’ touchscreens to handheld portable devices. In acknowledgement of these advancements, I’ve done a review of 7 must have apps on your phone for any architect or designer out there: 1. PAPER. This is an app by an American company FIFTYTHREE. This application lets you do illustrations, sketches, drawings and layouts and share them easily with anyone. It has a vast bank of filters and themes. It basically gives you a blank canvas and five basic tools from which you can create almost anything. Its minimalist UI and real easy tools to use saw this app win the Apple design award and also win the apple app of the year a few years back. It’s one of the most downloaded design apps across the globe. The app comes with its own stylus that makes drawing and coloring much easier. The app runs on an iOS platform. FIFTYTHREE are currently on working on bringing it to the Android and Windows platform. The app is designed to run on all iOS devices regardless of the device’s specifications.

Brian Munene

PAPER

SKETCHBOOK

2. SKETCHBOOK. An app by world renowned Autodesk. It’s an app for anyone who loves to draw and is a must have tool for any digital artist. It is a blank canvas that gives you an array of brushes, pens and thousands of colors to bring your ideas and concepts to life. It lets you view your design in any of the hundreds of available artistic styles on offer. Makes your presentations comes to life. It can be used for buildings, structures, free hand drawings and even life forms. It can also be used to come up with abstract art ideas and concepts. It has the basic tools and hundreds of additional ones that you can use in editing your work or creating it. It runs on all available platforms iOS, Android, Windows and Amazon. Its UI is friendly and easy to use. Each tool has its own pop-up dialog box for the settings. 3. AUTOCAD 360. Another app from Autodesk. It is a free drawing and drafting app that allows users to view, edit and share 2D or 3D AutoCAD drawings on handheld devices while on the move. The cloud computing option allows for designs to be saved and accessed across multiple platforms. It has all the basic tools of any CAD software right on your handheld device. You can rotate, scale, add text and drag but to mention a few. It basically allows you the freedom of

AUTOCAD 360

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TECHNOLOGY

using AutoCAD but on your phone or tablet. It runs on the iOS and Android platforms.

GRAPHISOFT’S BIMx

MAGICPLAN

CONCEPT IDEA CALCULATOR

ROOMSCAN

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4. GRAPHISOFT’S BIMx. Frequent users of ArchiCAD will be pleased with this one. This is a BIM project viewer that features BIMx Hyper-Model which basically enables the full integration of 2D and 3D building plans for ArchiCAD users. It lets you explore design models in a 3D environment with real time navigation. ArchiCAD markers enable the linking of 2D layouts to the 3D model. Another plus with this app is the ease by which the workflow has been simplified. It also allows for cloud computing, the entire design team can work on a single file from various locations with this app. It runs on iOS and Android devices. 5. MAGICPLAN. Just as its name suggests, this app gives you plans through magic. A reality app developed by Sensopia, it provides accurate floor measurements and draws floor plans for you. All you need to do is take a picture of a space using your device and the app automatically creates a floor plan with measurements in a variety of options. Either PDF, JPEG or a format that can be imported into any CAD software. You can also add objects and annotations. This magic trick runs on iOS and Android devices.   6. CONCEPT IDEA CALCULATOR. Most apps are used to bring concepts or ideas to life and visualize them. This app however takes it a notch higher and actually takes your idea through structural tests and checks its structural integrity and strength. It conforms whether or not your structure would actually hold together if put up as it is in your idea or sketches. It is basically a calculator which uses typical span-to-depth ratios for common steel, concrete and wood members to give you a quick overview of what dimensions a certain structural idea will require. This app lets you view any weaknesses in your idea and change it while still being an idea. This pocket structural engineer works on iOS and Android platforms.   7. ROOMSCAN. Probably one of my favorite right after Paper. This is the tool that sent the tape measure to its grave. What it does is produce floor plans as you walk through a space. All you do is hold your phone to a wall, walk alongside the wall, get to a window, hold your phone next to the window, and move on along the wall. When you get to a corner simply make the corner and continue walking. As you walk and tap your phone on the wall at the various points with openings the app is meanwhile creating the floor plan based on your movement and tapping of the phone on the wall. This revolutionary tool is however only available on iOS devices.   There are a couple of merits that I have experienced from working with these apps: • You can work from anywhere while on the go. You do not have to be seated at your workstation to review a layout. • Ideas are visualized immediately they pop up. With these apps you can sketch anything anytime when you get an idea and in the process thousands of great ideas don’t get lost. • With working with cloud services work gets done faster. • You no longer have to walk around with a huge tool kit and sketchbook or notebook. You have apps that handle all that right on your phone or tablet. Try out any of them and send us feedback on your experience. The author is an architectural visualisation assistant at Architecture Kenya Media Ltd


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INNOVATION

The flexible house plan Vetle Jorgensen Architect

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t is a fact that most house owners’ wish that they had a room more, whether their house is a one–room house or a ten-room house. For that reason, the principle of flexible house plans should always be presented to all residential clients and should also be considered by developers making housing estates with houses for sale or rental to people who are not directly dealing with the architects. The house plans presented in the following can satisfy many different client types and requirements: The T-plan house, for instance, shows how a one room house can end up as a fine middle income house with or without an added on kiosk, chicken and goat rooms. The Cross Plan House on the other hand shows how an upper middle income house can be built in stages to follow the budget available. The Staggered-Box Principle shows how a house can be made smaller after work starts by omitting a guest room, or later be made bigger with a new study or music room added on without change of the general look of the building. The Birdwing Plans and the related Fingerplan

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Houses are both for all kinds of extensions and omissions with the outer walls instead of embracing rooms are embracing verandahs, patios and terraces. The Flexplan House shows how a house consisting of self-contained rooms actually ‘can be a good middle income house or even upper income house. THE T-PLAN HOUSE - A LOW-COST SELF HELP HOUSE FOR KENYAN CONDITIONS The proposed house type is designed for the people who with next to no money would like to start building a house which little by little would be a fine residence. First phase: The shown first phase actually consists of three sub phases: a. The hall only, for the owner to have a basic shelter, roof over the head b. The kitchen-bath area added on. c. The bedroom added on (This may be added on before the kitchen-bath area, with cooking done outside or in the hall, and with the toilet facilities outside.) Second phase: A reasonable minimum dwelling is established: a. The indicated ‘’extra room’’ added on, the


INNOVATION

house having two bedrooms and the hall acting as combined living room-dining room. b. A mirrored first phase with one bedroom can now be added on as a rental unit giving needed income for the original owner. (This rental unit can be added on before the so called ‘’extra room’’ for the owner is built, hereby giving the owner income to pay for the ‘’extra room’’) Third phase: The owner getting a bigger house for himself and his family: a. The owner may now be able to live without the tenant and he will now live in the whole building with connecting door between the two halls. (The lintel for the door will be made from the very beginning of the first phase) b. The owner can now renovate the kitchen and bathroom areas and get a fine kitchen with kitchen store and a fine bath-laundry room with separate toilet. Final phase: The small house is now being a relatively big house: a. The addition of a living room, the double size of the original ‘’extra room’’ in the opposite end of the house. This ‘’extra room’’ will now (if not before) be the official master bedroom. b. Beyond the living room can now be added a room the size of the master bedroom to be used as a room for grand-parents, guest room or as written on the plan a ‘’study’’, which may be needed if the owner is a teacher. c. The use of the two halls can now be as respectively dining hall and rear hall for children’s school work or for repair of clothes. d. The outside corner area between the master bedroom and the bathroom can, with the adding-on of one post or column, be a fine covered outdoor area for children’s play, drying of clothes or storage of bicycles. e. A similar added-on one or two columns

in the outside area between the living room and the kitchen will give a fine entrance porch or carport, the house being a residence for a middle income family. The modular width of the rooms with the living room being of double width can be anything between 3 m (10 ft) and 4 m (13 ft). The walls can be made of all basic masonry materials from adobe mud blocks and rammed earth to stone and the locally made red bricks or the more costly concrete blocks. Site planning shall be done carefully with the length direction of the final house east-west for sun orientation purposes avoiding low sun into living room and bedrooms. The first phase must be placed in such a way that there will be space enough for all the future phases. Space must be reserved for (future) septic tank and radial arms or soak pit. Variations over the T-plan house has been done such as the shown Judith-version, Judith being a former office staff of the architect, for whom the children’s bedrooms and the kitchen had to be bigger. Still to keep the modular concept of the original T-plan house, the enlarged rooms got the exact size of the original master bedroom. The UNDP house for Comores Islands may also be considered a variety of the T-plan house but to satisfy the different cultural backgrounds of the staff of the United Nations, the internal garden being a meeting place for the women and the entry either through a hallway area to keep privacy in the living room or directly through the living room. The UNDP house was designed together with Piet Gooverts from Belgium. THE CROSS PLAN HOUSE The Cross Plan House is designed to be built either in full from the beginning or in stages to fit the budget of the owner. The ‘’cross’’ separating the house in four parts has a width to give a useful hall with stairway and space for various secondary rooms. A first phase will consist of a large kitchen

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INNOVATION

and a fine dining room which will act as preliminary living room. On the upper floor will be the master suite with walkthrough wardrobe and a large bathroom. The second phase may be made up of a large living room and upstairs of a reasonably sized children’s bedroom. The third phase will have a guestroom on the ground floor and another children’s bedroom on the upper floor. The last phase will on the ground level have a double garage as an integral part of the main house with a third children’s room upstairs. The guestroom and the three children’s rooms will all have a bathroom ensuite. With the kitchen-dining-living room in east-west direction and all windows, except the bathroom windows toward west, facing north and south no rooms will be overheated by the low sun. The cross plan house may be a compact house but the important rooms are all of generous size and the by local standard the small children’s rooms and the guestroom are despite all, by western standard large. The plan can of course be adjusted for bigger rooms. THE STAGGERED HOUSE, THE FINGER PLAN HOUSE AND THE BIRDWING PLAN HOUSES can all have simple additions and deductions. The importance of wedge shapes in residential plans cannot be stressed enough. The wedge shape makes rooms seem bigger than they actually are. This fact may be used in low cost housing

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which so far have been built up of small or relatively small square or rectangular rooms. With low income families often having many family members everything should be done for avoiding claustrophobia feeling. THE FLEX-HOUSE. The flex-house is a fully built-up 4-bedroom house which from the beginning as a first phase have 6 self-contained rooms each with an ensuite shower toilet room and a kitchen counter or a kitchenette and can hereby be rented out as so-called bedsitters. The owner can little by little take over the whole house and do some conversions, such as; a. Converting the street facing room No.1 into a master bedroom, replacing the kitchen counter with a built-in wardrobe cabinet. b. Converting the also street facing room No.2 into a fine living room, removing the kitchen counter and changing the shower-toilet room into an entrance hall for the house. c. Keeping room No.3 as a future bedroom No.2 but with the kitchenette made into a walk-in wardrobe. d. Within room No.4 make a well designed kitchen with naval architecture style exact detailing of all shelves and drawers. The original shower-toilet room will now be a fine visitor’s toilet. e. Using room No.5 as either a guestroom or a staff quarter; as a guestroom with the kitchen counter converted into a wardrobe with a small built-in dressing table. f. Keep room no. 6 as bedroom No. 3 with the


INNOVATION

kitchen counter also here converted into a wardrobe with a small built-in dressing table. The front yard area from the street to the house if being 6 m deep can outside the master bedroom/ the original room No. 1 have parking space for two cars and in front of the living room/ the original room No.2 have a small attractive garden. The outdoor area in front of rooms No.4 and 6, and in front of rooms No. 3 and 5 can be attractive well landscaped yards or mini gardens for respectively main entry and guestroom / staff quarter entry. In the interior design all the toilet/ shower rooms have access from the rental rooms. Nothing about having shared toilet room from common access areas or hallways with all the problems of cleanliness and lack of fresh air. Also all the original six renting-out rooms have, of course, their own outside door for giving all the tenants proper privacy and a dignified living, where all can be proud of being; the place not being a future slum. To be able to afford a room more, it is important to find savings from the beginning which will not lower the quality of the house, neither structurally nor architecturally. As a foreign architect in Kenya through more than 40 years, I wonder if simplifications and savings can be found ? House footings for 1, 2, and 3 storey buildings with 20 cm foundation walls with no regard to load from above and the bearing capacity of the soil and if it is internal walls with load from two sides or external walls with load from one side only, always seem to have 60 cm broad footings. This in contrast to the general rules in USA requiring 40 cm broad footings (16’’ for 8’’ foundation walls) and in Denmark no projecting footings at all: whatever is the wall thickness is the footing width from shovel width increased to the exact thickness of either insulating, lightweight concrete blocks or to the thickness of masonry cavity walls (having insulation). Simple timber roof structures seem not simple with the whole combined system of trusses, purlins, rafters (and battens) compared with rafters or lightweight trusses only in USA and usually rafters or purlins only in Denmark. Door frames fixed in (expensively) chased holes in concrete floor slabs

seems not only wasteful but, even harmful when it has been seen that in ground slabs termites are coming up through cracks created through the chasing. They have been eating up whole door frames except in the sharp profile corners. And with floor washing water coming down when the frames are dry and going up in the frames through the capillary effect is giving fine well prepared dinners for the termites. Also the projecting top frames seem wrong, originally used centuries ago before the introduction of flat masonry arches and concrete lintels. Paint treatment of doors also seems wastefully done. The whole system of primer coat and two top coats can, as I have specified for decades, be replaced with maybe even better looking one coat of black blackboard paint on the door frames and one coat of clear, mat polyurethane (Woodseal) on the flush doors selected without bad looking knots or repairs. Other savings would include mirrors in bathrooms built-in flush with the wall tiles instead on the top of costly tiles which could be saved. Window sills can be omitted if the windows, whatever of wood, steel or aluminum are built-in flush with the outside wall have a projecting bottom frame. Louver windows can be built-in without outer wood frames, directly in the masonry, and side-by-side with the metal louver frames screwed together back to back as even seen in some government buildings. More exotic are as used in Egypt doors without hinges, actually pivot hinges of the door edge wood extended up into a hole in the lintel and down into a hole in the floor and very good ‘’cylinder locks’’ also made of wood and in India flush toilets made of masonry with standard 15 x 15 cm ceramic tiles on all inside and outside surfaces and finally in Indonesia very fine easy going sliding doors with the sliding gear made of bamboo !

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POOLWISE

Moto Moto Sana Sauna: Why Sauna bathing?

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raditionally, a sauna is regarded as a sacred place second only to church and whereby ladies even gave birth. Sauna bathing is a pure wonderful and relaxing experience cleansing the soul as well as the body. Sauna is a Finnish word for a form of sweat bathing followed by rapid cooling. The Finnish are responsible for the rising and continuing popularity of saunas and recognise the need to perspire, rather than wash, making muscles flexible and strong. The Finnish sauna society identifies five reasons why people of all cultures have taken to sweat baths. 1) Religious ceremonies 2) To heal 3) To cleanse the body 4) For pure relaxation 5) For the social life The popularity today is for the deep cleansing effect and as pure relaxation. Some of the benefits of sauna bathing are as follows: Sooths and relaxes the body: Finnish athletes won two running titles in the 1920s Olympics and attributed their success to daily sauna bathing. Saunas improve the range of motion and help loosen tight muscles after a hard workout. Relieves mental stress: The calm and soothing motion of a sauna relieves the daily routine and mental stress. In Finland a thrice weekly usage of an evening sauna is very popular.

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Increases Metabolism & Provides a Cardiovascular workout Finnish researchers have reported that regular sauna usage helps maintain the elasticity of blood vessels. The heart rates increase and create demand for more oxygen and which in turn burns calories and provides a mild workout for the heart. Provides healing and temporary relief for arthritis The heat therapy benefits joints and eases arthritic pain. Endorphins, the body’s natural pain killers are released to alleviate physical pain. Regular sauna bathing increases well being and reduces chances of getting colds and general sickness. Improves circulation & Helps promote healthy skin. Blood vessel dilation brings the blood to the surface of the skin and the blood vessels expand to accommodate increased blood flow and the general blood circulation increases. This increased circulation promotes cellular growth, opens up skin pores & enhances collagen production. This results in skin elasticity and a wrinkle free complexion. Drives out toxins and impunities from the body. A sauna bath is the deepest cleansing bath in the world. Perspiration opens up skin pores and naturally expels impurities and toxins from the body. The sauna detoxification rids the body of chemicals, nicotine and other toxins. The sweating induced by a sauna reduces the load on kidneys. In general, once you enjoy a sauna, the benefits both mental and physical follow!


POOLWISE

What is a Sauna Bath? A sauna bath is a room with a heating typically enjoyed at a temperature of 90 to 100oc and with humidity levels of between 10% to 20%. Preparation for a sauna involves ensuring that the room is hot typically for an hour. Usually, saunas are enjoyed before a meal or at least two hours after a meal. The basic routine involves a shower, sitting in a sauna for ten-fifteen minutes, another shower and repeating this two or three times. Thereafter, a cooling down period with plenty of liquid to replenish yourself. Sauna Safety Tips Most important is to learn when not to sauna • Pregnant ladies should avoid the sauna. • Immediately after eating. • Immediately after heavy exercise which has resulted in sweat loss. You need to hydrate before using a sauna. • When on medication especially if you have blood pressure or cardiac related issues. • Sauna without alcohol is highly recommended. • Children may or may not use a sauna because their sweat glands are not fully mature. Again they may not enjoy extreme temperatures and use a

lower bench or stool closer to the floor whereby there are much lower temperatures. Sauna users should employ their own sauna usage warning system- If symptoms of dizziness, nausea, headache or shortness of breath occur, users should leave the sauna and cool off. Sex not in the sauna is the norm- In Finland, families sauna bathe together without any thoughts of sex. Naked in a hot dark room should not equate to sex, but a soul purifying experience. The above information is gained from various trips to Scandinavian and trainings conducted at Tylo in Halmstad and Helo in Hanko. An important source of information is Nihkhi Rajala’s Some like it Hot book on The Sauna, Its Lore and Stories! We will continue with the sauna information in the next edition..... Chandresh Raithatha is the Operations Director of Waterwayss Africa and has Been in the Swimming pool and leisure Industry since 1991. Contacts are waterways@kenyaweb.com & office GSm + 254 -722511-438 or +252-733-511-438 0r +254-737-511-438 or 254-738- 511-438 Direct line line 0706-511438 (Sms only).

Buildesign Magazine Ι Issue 022/2016


ARCHITRAVEL

Cantonese architecture Guangzhou city, China

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ou reach Guangzhou or Canton as it is otherwise called, 12 hours after you leave Nairobi. It is one of the longest direct flights you make towards the main land of Asia. China itself, is a vast Country, with as many as 18 cities with more than 5 million people living there. Guangzhou is the capital and largest City of Guangdong Province, and is special, because it is the centre of a megalopolis that has 7 of those megacities in China around the mouth of one river; The Pearl River. Zhongshan, Foshan, Dongguan, Shenzen, Macau and Hongkong all surround it, making Guangzhou’s per capita GDP one of the highest in China, third only after Taipei (Taiwan) and Hongkong. Total population living in the Megalopolis that forms Canton is 45 million! History Guangzhou was a major terminus of the Maritime Silk road, and its Position in the South east of China favoured its early entry into the erstwhile empire. Its name originally referred to the Imperial Chi-

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Stephen Lutta

nese Guang Prefecture. The character廣 or 广—which also appears in the names Guangdong, Guangxi, and Liangguang—means “broad” or “expansive” and refers to the valley of the Pearl River in comparison with the hill country of Hunan and Fujian by which it was reached by the Chinese. Before the establishment of the prefecture, the town was known as Panyu, a name still used by one of Guangzhou’s districts in the hinterlands. The Chinese abbreviation for Guangzhou is 穗, after its nickname “Rice City”. As late as the early 20th century, most of the city continued to be made up of rice paddies. The city has long borne the nickname City of Rams or City of the Five Rams from the five stones at the old Temple of the Five Immortals said to have been the sheep or goats ridden by the Taoist culture heroes credited with introducing cultivation to the area around the time of the city’s foundation. The former name “City of the Immortals” came from the same story. The more recent City of Flowers is usually taken as a simple reference to the area›s greenery. The former name “Canton” derived from Portuguese Cantão or Ciudad de Cantão, a muddling of dialecti-


ARCHITRAVEL

cal pronunciations of «Guangdong” Culture of Guangdong Modern Day Canton is a beautiful, mildly hot and moist City, with expansive areas of greenery and a very visible attempt at modernizing the area and provision of services to the general public. People walk on the right hand side of the street and this social courtesy is strictly adhered to. Bicycles of every kind exist and locals use them extensively in the areas designated as biking and walking lanes. The Subway system is gradually becoming the centre of public life, with new routes constantly being opened and many more stations being planned for. The stations themselves are architectural marvels, up to 15 stories deep and integrated into buildings, such that most exits act as walk through into shopping malls and office buildings. Elevated highways with Electricity lines for Electric busses also add a green feeling to the city’s transport options and many others travel to and from Work with the established boat and ferry PSV channels on the Zhujiang River. The emergence of Chinese universities has seen an increase in the international community living in Guangzhou, and English is understood by a sizeable number of young people and those working in trade and at the port of Huangpu. Status in China. Work ethic is phenomenal in Guangzhou, with businesses and offices opening at 10am and closing at midnight 7 days a week. All major factories of the world have production branches in Canton, leading to it being tagged as the factory of the world. This has made the fortunes of the City increase tenfold in 30 years, and many more people flock to the area. A sizeable African population exists in Xiaobei and Baiyun districts, as China engages more and more with Africa. The GDP per capita of the province is higher than that of Beijing and Shanghai, and new constructions can be seen all over. Foshan City, just on the periphery is the mother of all industrial areas, dealing with building and Construction materials. Here many people from Australia to Chile, from India to Angola flock to procure building materials and furniture at a bargain. This Famous market is the source of many Chinese sourced goods we have in Nairobi’s industrial Area. Architecture of Guangzhou As it was previously mostly inhabited by the rice farmers and peasants in China, few traditional forms of Cantonese Architecture is there for display. The municipal government however has over the last 20 years invested heavily in modern skyscrapers and public amenity buildings with a whole new planned district right on the riverfront being the focus of the future. Known as Zhujiang Newtown, the area hosts the art pieces of some of the world’s most renowned starchitects, such as the Guangzhou Opera House by the late Zaha Hadid and the Canton Tower by Arup and Dutch architects Mark Hemel and Barbara Kuit.

Canton tower Other areas of Interest include Baiyun Mountain Parks, The Haizhu Square Memorials, The Mall of The world in Zhujiang, The Guangzhou public Library, The IFC tower in Zhujiang, as well at the Canton Fair District in Pazhou, where the bi-annual Canton Fair takes place every April and October. The Pazhou Pagoda , Chigang Pagoda and the Cultural Parks in Pazhou showcase the last remains of the old era with traditional Baiyun cultural Architecture and wood construction monument. Conclusion Everyone should visit Guangzhou. Amazing offers exist there, with retail prices for most items at 30% or less to what is available in East Africa. The Renminbi is 15 times the shilling, making it less expensive than other Dollar dominated countries. Kenya airways and China Southern Airlines fly there direct, but many more offers exist in the market. Several banks in Kenya now offer Union pay cards, the Chinese version of VISA, and the social media app, WeChat is akin to Safaricom’s MPESA. Xièxiè. The author is a graduate Architect and a travel enthusiast. He can be reached via info@africanatravel.co.ke

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ENVIRONMENT

Building environmental design in Kenya

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t can no longer be disputed that the resources of this earth are finite, that its capacity to absorb our wastes is limited, that if we (as a species) want to survive, we can’t continue our ruthless exploitation of the environment. Where our actions would affect the environment, we must act in a sustainable manner. (S. Szokolay 2004). According to UNEP, buildings are responsible for more than one third of global energy use and are the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions in most countries. The Nobel Prize-winning Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimates that emissions from buildings will rise to 11.1 billion tons by 2020. The manufacture of building materials contributes a further 4 billion tons of carbon dioxide emissions annually, a figure that is increasing with the continuing rise in construction. An environmentally responsive building is not just a shelter, or a barrier against unwanted influences (rain, wind, cold). The building envelope should be considered first, as a selective filter: to exclude the unwanted influences, but admit the desirable and useful ones, such as daylight, solar radiation in winter or natural ventilation; second as a resource responsible resource consumer that utilities energy, water and construction materials in a environmentally responsible manner, and third as a responsible waste generator and manager. Building’s indoor environment MUST be designed and controlled so that occupants’ comfort and health are assured. The environmental factors considered here include the thermal, visual and acoustic conditions, indoor air quality, electromagnetic fields and static electricity. The constitution of the World Health Organisation

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Eric Loki David

defines good health as ‘a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease and infirmity’. While for most people this may be an ideal rather than reality, it indicates that the indoor environment should be managed in such a way as to promote health, not merely to avoid illness. One of the tenets of Kenya’s Vision 2030 is: To become a rapidly industrialising middle-income country, with high quality life in a safe and secure environment. Recently in September 2016, Kenya launched ROADMAP for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals which include responsible consumption and production, climate action, conservation of water sources and protection of forests and proper utilisation of land resource. Kenya has, in particular, been at the forefront in enacting relevant legislation to company the negative impacts of climate change including National Climate Change Response Strategy (NCCRS, 2010), National Climate Change Action Plan (NCCAP, 2013-2017), National Adaptation Plan (NAP – reviewed every five years), the Climate Change Act (2016)– to support institutional reforms to enhance effective coordination, and the Climate Change Framework Policy. The country however still lacks a Building Design Environmental Policy, with the building industry relying on either outdated legislation (e.g the 1948 building code), or uncoordinated industry-generated guidelines. Eric Loki David, Architect & environmental Design Consultant, M.Phil (Environmental Design in Architecture) Cambridge, B.Arch (Nairobi), LEED Green Associate


ADVERTORIAL

Into The Future With Vaal Sanitaryware

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aal, a brand with a long history in Southern Africa, is one of the better known sanitaryware offerings on the African continent. It can be found in hotels, infrastructure facilities, public utilities and homes across Africa, and in many countries around the world. With a proud South African pedigree, and a heritage of co-operation with some of the world’s leading brands, Vaal is now reentering the East African zone with renewed vigour. Since 1946 when Vaal took to producing ceramic sanitaryware, the range has continually improved and changed to accommodate the needs of an increasingly sophisticated market. One thing that has remained constant, however, is Vaal’s commitment to quality and durability and the fact that every product is designed with comfort and aesthetics in mind. Today Vaal’s range of basins, bidets and toilets represents the successful culmination of years of research and development. When you purchase a Vaal product, you can be confident that you are getting the best in quality, durability, comfort and style every time. Vaal Sanitaryware (previously Vaal Potteries), now in its 66th year, was founded by Leonard Jacobs in 1943 who started manufacturing locally to overcome a shortage of crockery during World War II. He started the business by producing fireclay crockery items such as cosmetic jars, cups and saucers. In those early days all the manufacturing equipment was handmade using old motor car parts, scrap metal and a variety of reconditioned equipment. A far cry from today’s modern technology and mass

production methods. In 1946, just three years after founding the company, Mr Jacobs started manufacturing sanitaryware and entered into a know-how agreement with a French company, Porcher, who were experts in fine fireclay technology. Although production methods were rudimentary and coal firing was done in brick down-draft kilns, the company was still able to compete successfully against imports from the United Kingdom. Vaal Potteries was acquired by Everite in 1983 and this was followed by a major factory upgrading programme in conjunction with the largest product development and promotional effort the company had ever attempted, thus consolidating their position as a market leader in the industry, in Southern Africa. The constant drive to improve production saw the Keramag casting system installed at the factory in 1995. The sophisticated system was acquired by Vaal Potteries when Keramag in Germany closed a factory due to high operating costs. Two totally automated Garoll robotic glazing lines with the capacity to spray 1000 units each per day were installed in 2001, and high pressure casting equipment was commissioned in 2005. Vaal sanitaryware products today rank among the best in the world, and can be found in top notch hotels, airports, and other such facilities. Although always present in the East African market, it is no preparing to re-enter with a sense of vigour and purpose to present a wider range of options for the end-user, which is better for customers across the countries in the region.

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INDUSTRY

Universal design for developing countries

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s introduced in part one, Universal Design is not a new style or a new movement in design. It is simply a design approach, which addresses an increasingly felt human need for social inclusion within the built environment and other fields of design. In most developing countries, the built environment, tends to create social isolation and exclusion through design that promotes a focus on accessible design that is limited to wheelchair accessibility rather than acknowledging the increasing awareness of the physical and cognitive diversity of a society and the need for a design process that accommodates all people. In recent years, the sensitivity for human rights and diversity has increased globally. The concept of inclusion has become an important subject matter for discourse both in a wider social context and in particularity in different disciplines across the board. Inclusion is the central theme for Universal Design. It is a term used in a wide variety of field such as sociology, psychology, architecture etc. with regard to the issues of human rights, diversity, accessibility and participation in economic, social, cultural and political aspects that affect individuals’ lives. The understanding of disabilities has changed over time and with this change of understanding, attitudes changed too. The definition of disability changed from one of a medical model to one of a social model. In the medical model, disabilities were viewed as someone having a condition that set them apart from the rest of society and were treated as dependent, passive recipients of medical care, and were confined to specialized institutions or homes. The medial model causes discrimination, isolation, exclusion and stigmatization. It was perceived that people with disabilities had no way to make a positive contribution to the socioeconomic development of their community. In 2001, the World Health Organization (WHO) introduced the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a framework for measuring health and disability and to mainstream the notion of disability as a human experience which anyone can experience at any unexpected point in their life depending on an accident, illness or a hazard. The World Health Organization also made the distinction between an impairment and a disability. An impairment is the functional i.e. the physical and mental or behavioral limitation of the individual. The disability are ant barriers in their environment that cause limitations on the individual regarding his or her impairment. Universal Design is also referred often as “Design for all” or “Inclusive Design” and it is clearly different from “Design for the Disabled” or “Exclusive design or design for Special needs“. Universal Design is design where: 1. All persons using the spaces are at the heart of the

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Aliela Muyembe

design process Design which acknowledges human diversity and differences (not just wheelchair accessible design) 3. It is design of space which offers choice where a single design solution can accommodate all users at any given time 4. It should provide flexibility in use 5. It aims to provide a built environment that is convenient, equitable and enjoyable to use by everyone regardless of ability age and gender. Promoting human functioning is a fundamental issue to be considered in the design process through considering and emphasizing human strengths rather than confusing with human weaknesses. People are at the center of Universal Design, which can enhance every individual’s experience and capabilities. The Principles of Universal Design fall into three broad categories with a hierarchical structure. At the top of the hierarchy is the value based principle Equitability, which is all the design processes should strive for. The process related are located in the middle because Universal Design puts an emphasis on the design process and the aim is to achieve inclusion. The human Function Principles are located at the bottom which implies that individuals and the human rights are the determinants ant the foundation of all design activities. The process related principles (flexibility, Room for Error, Intuitive Use) are better understood at concept stage if the 2.


INDUSTRY

design process is done in collaboration with a multi professional team. The collaborative decision making process of a multi professional team is a necessary condition which should be considered during different stages of the design process and to varying degrees. It integrates the ideas of a multi professional team and which provides opportunity to its users for expressing their needs and views during the briefing stage of design, can fulfill the condition of tolerance for the error principle of Universal Design, thus minimizing hazards and the adverse consequences of accidental or unintended actions during the period of use. The variation on the principles of Universal Design highlights the importance of human function principles, which involves three broad factors of functional limitation which are ergonomics, perceptible design and cognitively sound solutions. The Human function principles describe a broad spectrum of users and reveal the conceptual difference in the use of the term accessibility in both Universal Design and Accessible Design. The practical applications of the Universal Design principles are dependent on the understanding of the user, usability and time of use (function) of the building. Equitable use, the overarching principle of Universal Design, should be considered during architectural design through providing the necessary spaces and access by considering all of its users. Users should access all spaces during particular activities at a particular time without limiting the means for enhancing their capabilities. Supportive spaces should equally be accessible to all users, not only to users with disabilities. Considering the broad range of users during architectural design who were not included before, will allow the maximum use of the built environments. In addition to these principles, considerations must be given to a whole series of other conditions in the process of planning and development. These may include social considerations, economy, aesthetic design, sustainable development, cultural qualities. The principles of universal design may be used to guide and influence the design process, to influence and acknowledge the signaling of more usable products and environments and to evaluate existing architecture. The main arguments for introducing Universal Design into the Architectural Process are that a building should be of equitable use and accessible for everybody. The physical design of the building/project should give all user groups equal possibilities to move about easily and safely and to use all parts of the building/project. Specialized solutions for particular user groups should be avoided, the normal solutions should be usable by all. Universal design is in fact an affordable and more sustainable solution for developing countries. Not only is it more cost friendly but the design solutions are more durable and sustainable. The major cost incurred in incorporating universal design is the cost to retrofit various features to accommodate specific needs. When managed appropriately, however, this retrofitting cost can be minimized. Good practices of cost effective universal design include the early incorporation of universal design and local stakeholder participation in it. Providing full access facilities

from the outset has additional costs of approximately one percent. However, the cost of making adaptations after a building is completed is far greater; it can rise up to five percent or more of total cost depending on the modification of the architectural features of the building. For example, universal design is often considered to require much more space to accommodate wheelchairs. However, research by World Bank has shown redesigning non-accessible buildings required no additional space, but just rearrangement of the existing plan. These findings imply that universal design would not require many additions if introduced before drawing the blue prints of a building. In addition to the early incorporation of universal design, local stakeholder participation in the designing process is a key to cost effective universal design. Appropriate universal design varies according to local conditions. Best practice in one region is not necessarily workable in another context. For example, in a country where wheelchairs are prevalent and Braille or hearing aids are available, it is straightforward to design the building with ramps specifically graded for the wheelchairs, Braille signage, or induction loops for hearing aids. In a country where these are not readily available, the building would be designed differently because end-users would be less independent without wheelchairs or Braille or hearing aids. The goal of universal design is to benefit the entire population, not just people with disabilities. In conclusion, while the cost of universal design could remain low with its incorporation from the outset, the cost of not incorporating universal design can be significant, taking into account human cost and opportunity cost incurred due to inaccessibility. When buildings are inaccessible, the human cost of having people to provide assistance would be greater. When someone does not have easy access, the time and effort of other helping individuals will have to make up the difference of the lack of universal design, although the whole scale of this cost cannot be easily calculated. Furthermore, cost of inaccessible infrastructure would be sharply increased by eliminating economic opportunity for a number of individuals. Physical barriers reduce the economic and social output of persons with disabilities and elders, and investments in the removal and prevention of architectural and design barriers are increasingly being justified on economic grounds. Failing to incorporate these people into economic, social, political and cultural activities will guarantee a cycle of poverty for persons with disabilities and their families, and prevent vigorous economic and social development in the long run. The author is a student architect.

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TOP 5 ATTRACTIVE POINTS OF IFLUX iFLUX is a brand from Tecno Lighting Limited, which is a professional LED lighting branch of Transsion Holdings. Different from most LED lighting products in the market, iFLUX products have some remarkable advantages.

1. Extra-long lifespan

iFLUX products have a lifespan up to 30 000 hours. It means that you do not need to change the lamps in 3-5 years. You do not have to pay for the maintenance fee either. If your lamp gets broken or spoilt in the warranty period(which rarely happens), iFLUX will give you a brand new one. For free! And you can use it for another 3-5 years!

2. Up to 80% energy-saving

iFLUX applies reliable light source from leading LED chip makers to help save energy. That means you will pay 80% less electricity fee compared to other incandescent lamps.

3. Full product range

iFLUX possesses a comprehensive product portfolio, including indoor lights, outdoor lights, solar-powered lights, portable lamps and rechargeable system, to provide you a one-stop full service shopping experience.

4. Professional consulting service

Do you have this kind of trouble? It’s difficult to choose a lamp among so many that look alike. Well, iFLUX provides professional consulting service to inform you what kind of lamps to choose and how to improve the performance of your lighting system.

5. Professional after-sales service with Carlcare

In cooperation with Carlcare, the largest after-sales service provider in Nigeria, iFLUX provides you professional, timely, reliable and satisfying after-sales service in more than 200 Carlcare Centres. Once your fixture does not work during the warranty period, just walk into the nearest Carlcare Centre to get a brand new one. With all these advantages, iFLUX will undoubtedly be a best choice for you.

Full range, high quality LED lighting products iFLUX offers a comprehensive range of high quality lighting products to brighten up your life. The products is provided with 2 years warranty.


LED Lighting Expert

Add: 5th Floor, Cardinal Otunga Plaza, Kaunda Street, Nairobi, Kenya Add: P.O. Box 595, 7th Floor, Tower C, M.Peace Plaza (Makuza Building), KN4 AVE-Nyarugenge, Kigali, Rwanda Add: P.O. Box 13017, 11th Floor, Mobile Plaza, Kariakoo Uhuru/Muheza Street, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Add: 6th Floor, Plot No C11 Kampala Road, Prism Building, Next to E-Tower Kampala, Uganda Email:hello@ifluxlighting.com Http://www.ifluxlighting.com ifluxlighting


GROHE EURODISC JOY

The New Eurodisc Joy faucet line from GROHE combines modern operating comfort with award-wining design Form and function at their best - a dynamically curved, slanted silhouette a filigree joystick with smooth action, a sleek edge running

bathroom. The most important design feature of this faucet is its minimalist, infinitely adjustable joystick. Its superior ergonomics, combined with the innovative GROHE SilkMove® cartridge technology allows precise fingertip control of the water mix. At the same time

along the spout - that’s all it takes to reinterpret a well-known classic faucet. If you are looking for ground breaking design, don’t look any

the integrated GROHE EcoJoy® water-saving technology promotes responsible and sustainable consumption of water and energy. The

further than the Eurodisc Joy faucet line from GROHE. Combining visual lightness with easy operation, the Eurodisc Joy is clearly a cut above the rest with clever details and architectural clarity. The new Eurodisc Joy brings great looks and pure pleasure to the

wall-mounted wash basin faucets additional feature the adjustable GROHE AquaGuide mousseur. Moreover, the SpeedClean technology ensures reliable functionality as well as a long life.

Buildesign Magazine Ι Issue 022/2016

Profile for BUILDesign Magazine

BUILDesign Magazine Issue 022  

Saruni Samburu Safari Lodge - Avant Garde Lodge Design Arch. Mohammed El Bashir - Birth of a noble vision Flexible House Plans - Arch. Vetle...

BUILDesign Magazine Issue 022  

Saruni Samburu Safari Lodge - Avant Garde Lodge Design Arch. Mohammed El Bashir - Birth of a noble vision Flexible House Plans - Arch. Vetle...

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