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A recognition merited by young scientists

Government's borrowing policies criticised

By Dick Grogan

Irish Times Reporter MR. NOEL HARRIS, national secretary of ¦the Association of Scientific, Technical and Man agerial Staffs, said in Killarney on Saturday night that the Government must call for a rescheduling of our foreign loans and must freeze internal debt payments to the wealthy of our community. These steps should be part of a programme to tackle the economic crisis at minimum rnst ro the mass of the Irish people. Mr. Harris , a member of the executive council of the Iri sh Congr ess of Trade Unions , was addre ssing th e annual dinner of the Union of Students i/i Ire land. A hairshiit policy, he s»id , was being planned for the irish people by the conser vative s of Fine Gael , shamefully supported Ijy some of the Labour Ministers , at th e behest of the E.E.C. a nd the foreign centra ] bankers. A colossal Ar ab loan , mediated throu gh the Common Market, would be a nno unced at the end of the month , after the Bu dget—on condition that the Bud get was savagely severe and made deep inroads , into ordinar y people 's living standards. Mr. Harris contended that the trade union movement , and particularly the public service unions , must not allow th emselves to be the scapegoats for policies of incompetence and expediency pursued by successive Irish Gove rnments , ¦which led to th e present problems. Thes e policoies had been epitomised by the reckless e xpansion of Government debt , which was now propor tionately higher in Irel and than in any country in the developed part nf ' the world. COLOSSAL BORROWIN G " Last year one-fi fth of the countaxatio n was used in paying the interest and principal on the Government debt ," he said. " This vea r £1 in every four which is raised in taxes is likely to be expend ed for this purpose. At the present colossal borrowi ng levels these proportio ns are likely to get high er and higher over rhe next few year s." Mr. Harris pro posed a scheme Which would increase the Government 's financial flexibilit y and reduce the press ures to further increase taxatio n and cut Government expenditure. Under this the wealthy and the powerful in our community—the banks , financial institu tio ns , and the rich—who had been the principal contri b uto rs to national loans over the years , as well as the principal beneficiaries of the feckless way the economy had been run for so Ions , sho u ld trv 's

make a contribution to resolving the crisis. He would like the Irish public , and the trade union movement , to consider the scheme serious ly and to urge it on the Government in the period ahead. The Gove rnment , he declared , should require the Irish banks to purchase small-scale holdings of the national debt at the prevailing market rate , so that small-scale subscribers to past loans should not be injured. The holding s of internal debt purchased in this way,togethe r with all large-scale holdings of debt held by the better-off , • should then be frozen in blocked accou nts for the duratio n of the crisis . This would then release several hundred million pounds of taxation revenue for othe r pur p oses. FREEZE SUGGE STED

Mr. Harri s emphasised that he was not calling for a repudiatio n of such debts; but rather the large scale holders of national debts , who were generally the people and institutions best abl e to do so, shoul d hel p to meet the bur den of th e crisis. These holdings should remain frozen only for the duration of the present emergency . Alternatively, they might be froz en until the achievement of E.E.C. economic and monetar y union , which the Govern ment had been so enthusiastic in supporting when our E.E.C. " part ners " could be expected to share amo ng themselves , in an appropriate why , the burdens of the deficit cont racted by national Governments. "A scheme for reducing the pressure of internal Government debt servicin g needs to be accompanied by a reduction in the pressure of our foreign debt payments , which are now threatenin g to run completely out of control ," he said. "Last year the Irish Government borrowed £430 m illio n a br oa d, £190 million internally — as against £20 million in 1974. The sum borrowed last year amount ed to nearly one-fifth of Gross Na tional Product , while the Taois each has announced th at this year 's borrowi ng could be of £1,000 million , or one-quarter this year 's G.N.P. Man y of these

foreign loans , which have received ver y little publicit y or critical exami nation in Ireland are cont racted at very high rates of interest and are scheduled for repayment in a very short period . . ." RECKLESSNESS Mr. Harris said that he had got information that in fina ncial and th roughout investment circles Eur ope the Irish Government was now becoming noted for the recklessness and desperation of its borro wing — all designed to stave off the day when the authorit ies in Dublin must ta ckle , in a fundamenta l way, the proble ms of the Irish economy. The greatest dan ger now was that these foreign loans had been contra cted so rapidly and they constituted such a lar ge propor tion of our G.N.P. . which had to be paid off by a tra nsfer of real resources out of the country, that there would be a "b unchin g together " of huge capital and interest pay ment s in the next few years at enormous rea l cost to the Irish taxpayer. In such a situation the country would be in pawn to foreign ba nkers quite as much as any ba nana republic of Central America . To preven t the forei gn borrowin g getting out of hand , he said, tjhe Government must abandon its present "rake 's progress ' and negoti ate a rescheduling of capital and interest payment s with our foreign creditors while it was still possible to get relatively favour able terms. It should then get down to those measures of radical economic planning and restruct uring - which the union movement had long ur ged as necessary for a country in Ireland' s economic position. Mr. Harris believed tha t one of the most disquieting aspects of the presen t situation was that there had been such little debate abou t the alarming implications of the Govern ment' s borrowing policies. He held that it was an intellectual scandal th at , with one or two exceptions , Irish economists and policy-makers had blithel y wat ched successive Governments contract the largest public debt in the western world without a single word of warning, or critical examination of its implicatio ns.

Among those who attended the Union of Students in Ireland annual conference in K.ular ney were (fro m left) : Dermot O'Doherty, of Q.U.B.; Colm Kirwin, of U.C.G., and Padhrai z Mannion. of U.C.G.—( Photograph: Dermot O'Shea )

Moderate Left wins the leadership in U.S.I, congress elections From Christina Murphy, in Killarney INCREASED financing of education as a whole and opposition to the Government's proposals on higher education were affirmed as the fundamental policy of the Union of Students in Ireland at its annual congress in Killarney over the weekend.

The u nion overwhelmin gly passed a motion . condemning sectarian violence in " Northern Ireland , and Alasta ir Stewart , a delegate from the National Union of Students in Bri tain , called for the re moval of British troops to barracks and thei r retu rn to "the country fro m whence they ca me" as soon as posible . He desc ribed the introduction of the S.A.S. into Northern Ireland as prov ocative and unnecessary. "They are the sick men of Britain representing the same morbid , inhuman mix as embodied in the sectarian murderers themselves , " h e said. The N.U.S. supporte d the ending of internment , the publicat ion of a bill of civil rights , the repeal of oppr essive legislation and the with dra wal of troops. They welcomed the agreeme nt between U.S.I, and N.U. S. to jointly represent students in Northern Ireland and said their aim was tr> he non-sectarian. An emergency motion roundly conde mned sectarianism and recent sectarian murde rs in the North , and the introduction of the S.A.S. A more detailed morion condemned the Criminal J ustice Bill and the Nort hern Ireland Emergency Provisions Act. Fianna Fail was accu sed of "failing to take into acco unt the views of the population in the North and for blatantly trying to make political capital at the expe nse of ihe Northern ¦popula tion " •: ¦ ¦ : REPRISALS FEARED

There was widespread condemnation of the Provisio nal I.R.A. and othe r para-military organisations in the course of the debate . The Provisionals were described as "selfstyled gangsters and gunmen. " But a "section in the motion , specifically cond emning the Provisiona l , was not put to the vote because of fear of reprisals against some Northern Irela nd delegates. Several speakers expressed suppo rt for Official Sinn Fein. One-third of U.S.I. 's members are fro m Northern Ireland. Ea mon Gilmore, a 20-year -old TJ.C. G. student was elected president of the union; J ohn Curran , also of U.C.G., as educati on officer , and Pete r McE voy, of Qu een 's, as vice -president. These are full-time offices. This was regar d ed as a victo ry for the more moderate Left , and all three beat , by substantial majorities , candidates who were variousl y described at congress at ultra-Left , or Trotskyist. Mr. Gilmore , in his add ress , said that the unio n's pri ority in the next year would be to mount a campaign on the financing of education and the Government 's higher educatio n prop osals. In the next few weeks , he said , a renewed campaign in favour of the National Co uncil for Educatio nal Awards would be mou nted. "DESPISING MANNER" T2ie union had too of ten been treated "in a despising manner " by the Minister for Education , he conti nued . "We are tired of being treat ed on man y occasion s with not even commo n courtesy. The day when we are going to tolerate such treat ment is now fading into twilight ", U.S.I. 's members were qualified "onl v to end up on the dole queu e", he said. .Th e youth of this countr y were facin g a severe unempl oyment problem and he wanted the Government to take actio n. In particular , the natural resources of the countr y should be devel oped by the State in the interest of all citizens. A motion on this topic was also passed by

congress regretting the Jack of

provision of a smelter and ' tne granting of contr ol of State-owned , mines to foreign commercial concerns. Mr. Gilmcre and the other newly-elected officers do not take up office until the end of this acade mic year. U.S.I. : wants a comprehensive system of higher education , with proper grants , greater access for working-class students and' an end to discrimination against the nonuniversity sector. Many colleges were experiencing a disastrous financial situation , congress noted. One delegate described the present situation as "pro stitution ' for those who can afford it". A delegate from the National Institute of Higher Education in Limerick said that the Nation al Council for Educatio n Awards had "been brutallv • raued in its youth" . FASCISM CONDEMNED A motion similar to¦ last year 's condemning controversial one fascism was again passed. It ur ges indi vidual unions to ta ke steps to prevent the promotion of openly fascist ideas on campus. An amendfreedom - of reco gnising ment speech for all and noting that the definition of fascism was arbitrar y, was defea ted. One speaker for the amendment said that th is motion had created more controversy and lack of supp ort for U.S.I, than any other. He referred to the views of liberals ". A " woolly-minded motion supporting the abolition of seeking more compulsory Irish and realistic support for the language was also passed. A detailed motion on women 's rights was passed calling, among othe r things , for the immediate implementation of equal pay. A pro per structure for the representation of students on governing bodies was called for and support was pledged to the students of the College of Music in Dublin , whose advi sory board " was also condem ned. Con gress expressed concern over musical education in Ireland • and the exclusion of music from the higher education pr oposals. On international affairs , an overwhelmin g majority supported the M.P .L.A. in the Angolan stru ggle. South Africa , the U.S., China and Zaire were condemne d for their involvement and the Irish Govern ment was ur ged to recognise the M.P.L.A. as the Government of Angola. Spanish fascism , Chilean repression and racism in South Africa wer e also condemne d. A motion critical of the International Un ion of Students , of which U.S.I , is a member , was defeated. Professor Alan Bliss of U.C.D., candidate for the N.U .I, chancellorship, was allowed to address congres s. Congress agreed to urge member -unions to campaign for Professor Bliss, who supported • its educati onal policies. The congress was attended Jjy fraternal delegates from Britain . Portu gal , R umania , U.S.S.R., and Union of the ' Internatio nal Students.

Language policy endorsed

The Mi nister for the taeltacht , Mr. O'Donnell , speaki ng at the Fine Gael South Kerr y constituency di nner on Saturd ay , said that the new report on the Irish language had shown that the maj or decisions taken by the Government had been dramatically app roved of. The Government 's decisions since assuming office 2i years ago regarding Irish , such as doin g away with compulsory Irish , establishi ng a new -State board and substantially increasing the annual subvention to the Ga eltacht , had been approved by the new national lan gua ge report. He sai d that they would- contin ue to develop the Gaeltacht because withou t it there would be no language.

PRES IDENT O DALAIGH and the Mi nister for Educatio n , Mr . Burke , were amon g the many thousands who went to the R.D.S . premises m Ballsbr idge, Dublin , durin g the weekend , to examine the projects and speak to the exhibitors in the Young Scientists ' Exhib ition , which closed last night. The President spent almost two hours touring the exhibition yesterday and met the major prizewinners, includin g Ma ry Kelly, Young Scientist of the Year . He showed particular interest in a number of projects in Irish. Aer Lingus said last night that almost 24,000 pe ople had passed th rough the turnstile s durin g the last th ree days. In spite of the weather , the exhibiti on was once again a signal event in the Irish school calendar , wi th ma ny school groups travell ing fr om far and wide to visit it. With so much public interest , and so many merito rious experiments and projects on display, the re must be a strong case for extendin g th e duration of the exhibition in future years — or perhaps even arra nging for a selection of the best projects to be exhibited in other major centres such as Cork , Lime rick. Gal way and Belfast. A problem of the event is tnat it is difficult for anyone on a visit even lastin g several hours to absorb more than a fraction of what is on displ ay. To locate the more ingenious and talented effor ts among some 400 projects , and then to to devote enough concentration them to grasp the ideas and inventiveness involved , takes time and determination. There was a development of quite major significance in regard ,to the exhibition this year: the number of group projects soared to such an extent that this cate gory, to an extent, threat ened to overwhe lm the original concept of the exhibition , th e individual project. Two out of every three among the 900 par ticip ating students were involved in group projects. The spon sor of the • exhibition , Aer Lingus , has welcomed the expansion of this category — and it certainl y boosts the overall number of participants — but it must be questioned whether the develop ment will affect standards . The natural expectation would be that if five students tackle a proje ct the result shou ld be much more polished and detailed than one student alone could achieve. H owever , one judge told me that in regard to two particular projects in t he same field — one entered by a group of three students , the other by a single exhibitor — the indi vidual project far surpassed the group effort in terms of the amount of work done , as well as the degree of ingenuit y. This is not to decry the special value of group efforts , which can tea ch team-work and enable tasks to be attempted which a single student could not hope to achieve . But the development requires assessment and control. Among the prizewinners not already re viewed in The Irish Times coverage of the exhibition , one of the most fascin ating was the project by 14-year-old Maire C. Ni Chi osara. Her project , which earned her first prize in "J unior Sociology", involved a study of the way English words or structures interfered with the Irish spoken by her thr ee young bilingual sisters—and viceversa , how Irish idioms crept into thei r English speech. Maire , a student at Colaiste Iosagain , Dublin, made notes on more than a hundred anomali es- in her sisters ' speech. The girls , aged 1 1, nine and eight , did not know of her observations unti l the project was finish ed. She found that their Irish was interfered with more than their En glish, and the half of the interference was the use of English words in Irish sentences . Some exampl es of the kind of thin g she found were sentences like : V'Tagann , tears i mo eyes ", Ni ga eiri all worked up faoi" , and "Cea rd a standann IBM i gc6ir " . The family ar e native Irish speakers , and the children attend all-I rish schools , so they lear ned English outside the home and their main use of it is In tha t area. The phen omenon of "interference" by English language forms

on the native Iris h speech is familiar to most people who have visited the Gaeltacht areas — especially pans of Connemara . But appa rently nobod y has pre viously tho ught of investigating this methodic ally. . \ Mair e would like to extend her study and include in it the crossover of sounds and accents. She f eels that if the study could be put 6n a wider base , it could yield material which . would be . useful to languag e teachers and parents as a guide. Pat rick Mclvor and Donal McFee ly, both atte nding St. Colu mb' s College , Derry, took first and second place respe ctively, in "Senior Sociology. " Patrick examined the location of suburban shopping facilities in Derry and attempted to explain why they had developed as they did. He also looked at the probabl e effects of a new road network pro posed for Derry Dy 1985. Donal, whose home is in Dungiven , studi ed settlemen t patterns around Derr y . Two fourth year intermedia te students of Maryfield College , Drumco ndra , Dublin, were curious last yea r as to why everyone in thei r science class at school got a diffe rent answer when the class ^ e of a dr op was finding the volum of water by means of a burette. Marcelle McKiernan and Deirdre Fox decided to investigate what affected the size of a wate r drop They fou nd that the size of the drop was proportional to the diameter of the tubing, and that the prese nce of amounts of detergent reduced the surface tens ion of the wat er and mad e the dr ops smaller. Their pro j ect won joint second priz e in the Intermedi ate Grou p Projects category. Donald P . McDonnell , of St. P resident O Daldigh chatting with the " Young Scientist of Patrick' s Comprehensive School , th e Year ".Miss Mary Kelly, of Cas tleblayney, Co. MonagShannon , came first in "J uni or han, when he visited the exhibition at the R.D.S. Chemistr y " with his investigation of pollution on a stre tch of the —(Photograph: Pat Langan) Sha nnon estuar y near the airp ort and indust rial zone. land was wasted due to unnecessary Wexford which have different types J oseph Lynch , aged 14, of St. hedges. of soil. Peter ' s College , Wexford , was He measured the width of hedges J oseph concluded that on average interested in findin g out how much in 23 fields in three areas of Co. 4.5% of dr y land and 10.3% of


Work highly commended

THE FOLLOWIN G are the entrants who were highly commended by the judges in the Aer Lin gus Young Scientists ' Exhibition in Dublin at the weeke nd: Sociology (J unior ) — Kieran P. McAllister , St. Peter 's C.B.S. , Cregga n, Derr y. Sociology (senior) —Arthur Duffy, St. Pete r 's C.B.S., Creg gan, Derry; Teren ce Magui re , St. Col umb' s College, Buncrana Road , Derry. Physics/Engineering (J unior) — No award . Physics/ Engineering (Senior) — Raymond J . Grace , St. Finian 's College, Mullingar , Co. Westmeath; J ackie Miley, St. Louis High School, Rathmines , Dublin; Arthur C. Stone , St. M unohin's College, Cor bally, Limerick. . Chemistr y (J unior) — Brian Cur ran , , St. Comgall' s Secondary School, Lisnaskea , Co. Fer managh; Patricia E. Maher , Loreto Convent , Killarne y, Co. Kerry ; Richard Mor rissey, Water park College, Water ford; J oseph P. Yeo, Drimnag h Castle C.B.S., Dublin. Chemi stry (Senior ) — No award. Biology (junior) — Micha el J. Daly, C.B.S., W ellington Road , Cork; J oseph G. Dowling, St. Mary 's College, Moun tmellick , Co. Laois; J arvis A. Good, Midle ton C ollege, Midleton , Co. Cork; Ray mond M. Hicks , St. Comgall 's Secondary School, Lisnaskea, Co. Fermanagh; Martin McGinn , Templeogue College , Templeogue , Dublin; Anne O'Flynn , St. J oseph' s Secondary School, Castleis land , Co. Kerr y, and Sean C. O Se, Colaiste Mhuire , Ath Cliath. Biology (senior) — Elizabeth Booth , Regonal Technical College , Carlow; Michael J . Carton , Vocational School , Wicklow; Eoin P. Fi r^patrick , Fra nciscan College, Gormanston , Co. Meat h; J ohn P. Kenn y, Regional College , Carlow : William G. O'Reilly, Vocation al

Sc h ool, Bandon , Co. Co rk; Lucien E. Phillips , Midleto n College , Co. Cork ; Michael P. Power , Oatla nds Colleg e, Mou nt Merrion , Dublin ; J ohn A. Walsh , Waterpark College, Waterofrd. Biochemist ry and Physiology (j unior) —Geraldine M. Coyle, Our Lady 's Secondary School , Ca stleblaney, Co. Mona ghan; Louis M. O w ens, Marian College , Ballsbri dge, Dublin; Mairead O'Fl ynn , St. J oseph's Secondary School , Ca stleislan d, Co. Kerry ; Noreen G. Tracey, Lore to Convent Grammar School , Oma gh , Co. Tyrone. Biochemistry and Physiology ( senior) —Ma rgaret Baker , Regi onal Technical College, Carlo w; Philo mena B. Fag an , Loreto Convent , Mulli ngar , Co. West meath . Mathe matics (junior) —No award. Mathematics (senior)—No award. Geogr aphy and Geology (junio r) —Geoff rey A. Donnelly , Waterpark College , Waterfo rd ; Gary P. McManus , Waterpark College, Waterford . Geography and Geology (senior )—No award. Group s (junior) —Rita O'Dowd , Loreto Convent , Lettrekenny, Co. Done gal; Moira Green, Holy Child Compreh ensive School , Sallynoggi n, Co. Dublin; Aoife Cr aobhach, Colai ste Iosagain , Baile Atha Cliath; Nuala Clancy, Manor House School , Raheny, Dublin; Kieran O'Connor , De La Salle College , Newtown , Waterford ; Teresa Barry, Presentation Convent , Thurles , Co. Tippera ry; Siobhan O'Higgins , Our Lad y' s Grove School, Goatst own , Dublin; Stephen Buckley, North Monaster y C.B.S., Cork; Ann Carroll , St. Ma ry 's Convent , Cast ledermot , Athy, Co. Kildare; Philip Keegan , C.B.S. Monkstown , Dun Laoghair e, Co. Dublin; Elaine Marti n, Convent of Mercy, Dun dalk, C o. Louth; Miriam Quiiin , Loreto Convent. Foxrock . Co.






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Weather forecast

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wet land is under hedges, and tnae 35% of this cover can and should be re moved. • It would take about four years ' use of the land thus made available ' to recoup the cost of removal , he estimated , and he suggested that grants for hedge removal should be increased and research should be carried . out into the value of hedges as shelter. The project ' earned him third ' prize and the prize for best presentatio n in "J u nior Geography ." Enda Dalton , St. Mary 's Convent , Ballsbridge , Dublin , joint second prize-winner in "Senior Biology," took up a suggestion she found in a research paper and investigated factors affecting the transport cf • food withi n aquatic plants . She hopes to do biochemica l reseat Ci. in college . Sean O'Brien , the other J oint second prize-winner in this section , extracted natural products from certain common plants , and found that chamomile , nutmeg oil and plantain oil all have antibiotic properties. He also developed an effective shampoo from the soapwort plant , and he may try to develop this further. Sean is aged 15 and atte nds St. Colman 's Vocational Scho ol. Midleton , Co. Cork. The first prize winn ers in the : J unio r Groups section were five girls of Marillac Secondary School , Stillorgan , Co. Dublin , who carried out experiments to test memory and perception in different age gr oups. The gir ls, Denise Ward , Maura McCabe , Sharo n Scott , Mar y J oyce and Mary O'Mahony, devised suitable tests themselves and applied them to volunteers from amon g th eir schoolmates. They also tested some of the nuns at their school , to vary the age groups. They concluded that sight , smell and taste were the most efficient sen ses , while heari ng and touch were less efficient. This was the first time their school had an entry in the Youn g Scientists ' Exhibition , and they want to go on now to test memory and perception differ ences between boys and sirls. The re were many others worthy of note — the joint first prize winners in "Senio r Ph ysics, " for example. One of these, Robert Cullen , of St. Peter 's College, We x for d, had a tank for generating waves at his stand , and his study concerned the availa bility of energy from sea - waves. oth er , Dublin; Fiona Murphy, Santa En da Dodd, of SummerThe College , Sabin a School , Sutton , Co. Du blin ; ;Sligo, had construc ted hill a prot otype Niamh Mu lkee n , Ou r Lady 's Gr ove automatic washing machine of a Scho o l, Goatsto wn , Dublin; J acqu- ;new design. However , the crowds line Fen nell , Lore to Convent, Bray, consta ntly flocking ar ound these Co. Wi cklow; Paschal Proctor , St. two interesting exhibits hind ere d Mary 's Seconda ry School , Lima- further inquiries about them. . vady, Co. Ant rim. Groups (Intermediate) — Frank Barry , Mount Sion C.B.S., Waterford; Cathy McCart ney, Ou r Lad y's D tch schol a shi Grove School , Goatstown , D ublin ; offer to Irish tude ts Kathy Flanaga n, St. Dominic 's The Gover nment Information SerHigh School , Falls Road, Belfast; Oonagh Mageean. St. Dominic's vices has announced that the High School , Falls Road , Belfast; Royal Netherlands Government has Fiona McNichola s, Loreto Convent , offered a scholarship, tenable for Bray, Co. Wicklow; Michael Dur- nine months and valu ed at 8S0 kin, St. Patrick' s College , Swinford , guilders (about £137) a month , to Co. Ma yo; Maj ella Galla gher, St. enable an advanced or recently Pat r i ck' s Sec ondar y School, Dun- graduated Irish student , not older given, Co. Derry; J ane Clinch , St. tha n 35 years , to follow a univerLo uis High School , Rathmines , sity course in Art or Music in the Dubli n; Dermot O'Conne ll , St. Netherlands during the academic Anne 's Convent of Mercy, Killaloe , year 1976/'77. Applicatio n forms are available Co. Clare; Julie Slvestri , St. Domi n ic's High School , Falls Road, from the Department of Education , Section (2), Ma rlBelfa st; Paul Heenan , Waterpark Headquarters A n t h o n y borough Street , Dubli n. They must College , Waterford; Stain es , Belvede re College , Du blin; be returned to the Department by J oan Walsh , "Og ras " Youth Club, J anuar y 28th , 1976. Calla n, Co. Kilkenn y; Patricia Bannigan , Our Lady 's Secondary School, Castlebl aney, Co. Monagha n;. Catriona McGeelian , Loreto fi ed £50 Convent , Lettre kenny, Co. Donegal; A Fleetwood trawl er skipper , Olwen Coogan , Colaiste Bhride , Calla n, Co. Kilkenny; Nuala Dun- Captain J ack Kelly, was fined £50 woody, St. Dominic's High School , on Saturday at a special court in Letterkenny, Co. Donegal , for Falls Road , Belf ast. entering the Republic territorial Groups (senior)—Hugho Reddy, waters . Vocational School , Nava n, Co. Captai n Kelly s vessel, London Meath ; Siobhan Ward , Lo reto Con- Town , was arrested by an Irish vent Grammar School , Omagh , Co. naval corvette off the Donegal Tyro ne; Sean O hEalai , Mount St. coast on Thursda y evening. At Mary ' s College, Bra y, Co. W icklow ; Saturda y's court hearing the cour t Claire O'B rien , Holy Faith Conven t, directed that the London Town Glasnevi n, Dubli n; Anthony Shar - should be released , but no order key, St. -Pat rick' s Academ y (Boys), was made about its catch or fishin g Dun gannon , Co. Tyrone. sear.

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Arrows show wind directi on; figures at the . end of the arrows give wind speed (m.p.h.). The other figures show temperatures Celsius. The letter s describe weather : b., bright; p.c , part cloudy; c, cloudy; d., drizzle; f., fog; h., hail ; m., mist; s., sho wer; r., rain; s., snow; t.l., thunder and lightning; £., haze.


Mornin g


A mild westerly airflo w covers Ireland at rain belts to the north and west are slow-moving. FORECAST f or the period fr om 6 a.m. to midnight: Dry most of the time but a f ew outbreaks of ligh t rain or drizzle will occur now and then especially in Connau ght and Ulster. Mainly cloudy , but the eas t and sou th will get a f ew sunny spells. Winds will' be westerly in direction and mainly fresh , especially in the northern half of the country, wher e some gale gu sts can be exp ected. Temperature s near or above average. OUTLOOK: Rain spreading f rom the north-west . ¦ Fresh westerly winds.



Evenln n

1 ao ' ¦ a U£ no S '•' " ' Tidal differences on Uublin: Aiklow , —2.56: Caiiin gford , —0.13: Droaheda , + 0.01: Dunda lk. t—0.20: . Howth , —0.14: Kenma re —4.45: Skerries . —0.16: Wexford. —5.20: Wicklow . ~~ 0-44* CO9H Evenin g Morning ' 1.19 0.43 - Tidal dUtonncw on Cobn: Bantr y. —0.55: Cahirc iveen . —0.58 : Castletownbere. —0.58 : Dingle. —0.56: Dungarvan . —0.37: Wate rfor d. l-ralec. +0.13: + 0.08: Kins alB. —0.12: Schull. —0 .46! Vni.nhai. + O.05.

"To ? Tidal ditfe rences

11 l^l" ' " on Galw ay: KllJybens, +0.44 : Limsrick . +1.20: Rathmullen . +1.10! SHbo. + 0.49: Westpo rt. +0.22. BELFAST Morning Eveni ng Tid a/difference s on Belfast: 'Ann alonB. 4-0.25: Kilkee l. +0.25: Lame. +0.04. DERRY Mornin g Evenin g 4.42 4.57 Tidal differe nces on Derr y:ti Ballyca stle, Portrush ' ~^ M °vl »»-g^ ' «,»a«. 8UN _ ,« Klse 8.36 8.35 Sets 4.30 4.32 Lighti ng-u p time ... 5.00 5.02




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Bel nrade ... F 5 41 Bnrl in C 7 45 Biarri rz C 11 52 Birmi ngham ... C 12 54 Blackpool ... C 9 48 Bord eaux . ... C 11 5a Brist ol n 10 50 Brussels C 12 54 Budanrst ... R S 41 Ca rdiff ' C 10 SO Colonne ... C l 11 52 Cooenh aon n S S 41 Dublin A' port C It 52 Edi nburgh ... C 12 54 C. cloudyi '

Florence . Frankfurt Geneva Gibraltar Glasgow

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C F I 4S Moscow ... 10 50 Munich ... 7 . 4 5 Napl es ... 15 59 Newcastle ' 11 52 Nice


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Chooie tha binoculars to suit you JO x 50 General Excellent Excellent Holidays Excellent Excelled ' Nature Study .Excellent Go"od Distant View Excellent Excellent Good Excellent V. ^^ /Star Gazing Good V. Good Race Track Excellent V. Good Yachting V. Good Excellent Night Use Excellent Excellent Shooting V. Good Excellent Brightness — The figures 40 & 59 represent the size of the front lenses in millimetres. Generally, the higher the number, the brighter the image. . 8 x4 0


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36 11 52 6 43 13 55 11 5! 9 4£ 1 34 10 "SCI 17 62 1 * 34 °* 9 43 4 39 6 43

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In ls 4 14 1 . R 6 Snowing above 2,000 m. Isola 2000 56 48 G Fn " 3 Good snow on hard base. Klostera 14 24 JP Sn 0 Wet snow , bad visibilit y. Murren 8 20 F C 3 _ Linli t new fall of wet snow. St. Anton 2 40 F R 4 Fa>r skiin n conditions. Tignes 8 28 F C 2 Worn lower slopes. Vi>rhif>r A ni r» « *r B More snow needed. C,' cloudy; F, fair : Fn, flue: G, goodI, icy; R, rain: Sn, snow.

Yesterday 's midday temperatures

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Depth editions ( ins.) of 1. U Piste Andermatt 10 30 F Di sappointing fresh snowfall. Arosa 28 36F New snow on Ice base. Avoriaz 4 56 F Linht snowfall on hard base. Davos 14 20 G Bars patches on lower slopes. „ ,F trir.1 e . Flam 8 36 F Good .Wing on upper slopes. Films 6 ' 20 . F Good snowfall, bod visibilit y.



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