AIR ABPL30048 ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO:
SEMESTER 1, 2013
BRYAN FAN 394017
CONTENT 4 5 6 10 14 18 22 26 28 30 34 46 52 62 66 70 82 86 114 118 122
Preface About Me Past Projects
Part A - EOI 1: Cases of Innovations A.1. Architecture as a discourse: Structure As Skin A.2. Computational Architecture A.3. Parametric Modelling A.4. Learning Outcomes
Part B - EOI 2: Design Approach B.1. Design Focus B.2. Case Study 1.0 - Green Void B.3. Case Study 2.0 - Hexigloo B.4. Technique: Development B.5. Technique: Prototype B.6. Technique Proposal B.7. Algorithmic Sketch B.8. Learning Objectives and Outcomes
Part C - Project Proposal C.1. Gateway Project: Design Concept C.2. Gateway Project: Tectonic Elements C.3. Gateway Project: Final Model C.4. Algorithmic Sketch C.5. Learning Objectives and Outcomes References
PREFACE I would like to thank my group members Lisa and Vincent for their enthusiasm and effort in this project. This design wonâ€™t be achieved without their constant input in ideas and algorithmic solutions. I feel deeply honoured and lucky to be part of this team. I would also like to thank our tutor David and Michael for all the technical help and advice. Thank you for giving me the best studio experience so far in B.Envs.
ABOUT ME My name is Bryan Fan. I am a 3rd year student studying Bachelor of Environments, major in Architecture. I was born and raised in Hong Kong, where I developed my interest in studying architecture in the environment of modernist skyscrapers. My experience in digital design theories and tools began with 1st year subject Virtual Environments, which I gained experience in using Rhino 3D and digitization techniques. Ever since Body Space project, I incorporate digital design techniques in my ADS subjects.
LEFT: Brickactites was inspired by the organic form of Stalactites and further developed by Rhino 3D using parametric techniques. The result is an object clad with non-continuous panels interlocking each other, sitting on the left shoulder of a person. RIGHT: Aboriginal Culture and Exhibition Centre, Herring Island. Parametric design techniques were used extensively in the project. From the building of 3D model, to form generation and the assembly of scaled model.
PART A: EOI I - Cases of Innovation
ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE:
STRUCTURE AS SKIN
Prada Aoyama Tokyo, Japan Herzog & de Meuron (2003)
tructural skins intend to offer an unequivocal relation between form and structure. There is no possible separation between the interior space and external volume, where both of them are defined by the same geometry and one unique skin. Exterior of a building is not dependent on its structural support, thus skin and skeleton is dissociated.
& de Meuron as well.1 Irregular shapes or extensive ornaments rejected in the modernist movement due to its focus on using industrialized materials and minimal ornamental values. The combination of structure and skin with the aid of computational technologies allows a form of architecture which is aesthetically pleasing and cost effective at the same time.
In traditional warehouse construction, internal span of space is often restricted by the structural columns and the limited span of masonry structure. Since the modernist movement, architects and engineers such as Gustav Effel has started using steel frame structure to achieve a large span than masonry structures, the Galeries de Machine in 1889 was the beginning of such a movement. The structural development of skyscrapers in the 20th century has driven by the Modernist movement has demonstrated great efficiency of structural framed systems, which allows the external part of the building to contain a structural system of high rigidity against horizontal loads, like the Prada building in Tokyo by Herzog & de Meuron. Moreover, the density and integrity of this structural system more flexibility to faรงade designs, as computerization of design process liberates 21st century architecture from Euclidean shapes, allowing irregular design and openings with great flexibility, such as the Ciudad del Flamenco by Herzog
Perhaps one of the greatest advantage of structural skins is the flexibility it provides in terms of architecture programming and use of the building, due to the maximization of interior space from a column-less space. In addition, the integration of form, structure and aesthetics of structural skins has solved the problem of formal relation between building structure and its faรงade.2
Design process of graffiti inspired external structure Ciudad del Flomenco, Herzog & de Meuron
he development of structure as skin might bring us to the age of â€œResponsive Architectureâ€? and light/ heat sensitive construction techniques, where the structure skin adjusts its forms in response to the internal and external conditions. The Cartesian Wax by Neri Oxman explores the organization of materials influenced by structural and environmental performance. The project consist of a tilling system with a differentiated surface, which accommodates physical conditions include light transmission, heat flux, stored energy modulation
and structural support. The surface will thicken locally if any area of the service requires additional structural support, and adjust its transparency in response the light condition of the environment. 3
The Cartesian Wax, Neri Oxman (2007)
“For Framtpon, a building skin ought not to conceal a structure, but to integrate it, yet his concerns are no less aesthetic, for he is interested primarily in the look of the building and how it is achieved.” - Richard Williams 1. 2. 3.
Eikongraphia, Graffiti, by Herzog & de Meuron (2007) <http://www.eikongraphia.com/?p=1050> [accessed 5 April 2013] A . Bernabeu Larena, J . Bernabeu Larena, Structures & Architecture: Chapter 235. Structural skins in contemporary architecture, ed. by Paulo J . S . Cruz (London: CRC Press, 2010), p. 529–530. Neri Oxman, Cartesian Wax (2007) <http://web.media.mit.edu/~neri/site/projects/cartesianwax/cartesianwax.html> [accessed 5 April 2013]. 13
A.II. computational architecture
Serpentine Pavilion, London Toyo Ito & Arup (2002)
omputational design process integrates conception and production at the early stages a project. The digital design platform generates different formal propositions for designer. In that notion, architecture design shifts to “finding of a form” instead if “making of form”. This suggests the rejection of fixed solution and opens up infinity variable potentialities of design exploration that response to complex contextual or functional parameters. The use of BIM technologies in recent years enable architects to coordinate information among various building professions and suppliers, and digital design allows the deign information to become the construction information. These gives architects more control over the building process, which eventually regain architect’s status as the master builder. The use of digital modelling software has opened new frontiers of architectural form exploration. It departs design away from Euclidean forms and platonic solids. It rejects conventional styles and aesthetics. As Greg Lynn suggests the new approach to develop “more fluid logic of connectivity” instead of “logic of conflict and contradiction” suggested by deconstructivism, where forms of architecture is generated by different parameters mentioned above in an unconventional form and aesthetics. 4
TOP TO BOTTOM: 1. Process of finding the most suitable location for skylight opening 2. Network of lines generated by geometric algorithm 3. Zoning of structure for faster and smoother assembly 4. Structure design derived by algorithms
he serpentine pavilion 2002 demonstrated the potentials of computational architecture and parametric design. Architect Toyo Ito and Arup team developed a design based on a geometric algorithm. The algorithm generate a network of lines by rotated rectangles based a defined angle and ration between different sides of the plane. The lines is then bent across a box to from the facade of the structure. The use of computational technology helped the team to explore the best structural solution for the project by analyzing the structural properties of different design potential.8
Moreover, computational design software assisted the construction and fabrication stage of design. A sequence of construction was set up to make the assembly of the structure faster and smoother. These might not be possible if computational technology is not involved in the design of the project.
“While physical form can be defined in terms of static coordinates, the virtual force of the environment in which it is designed contributes to its shape” 4 - Greg Lynn
Blob Wall Pavilion. Greg Lynn (2008)
4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Branko Kolarevic, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003), p. 3-28. Cecil Balmond, A+U Special Issue: Cecil Balmond (Tokyo: A and U, 2006). Toyo Ito, El Croquis #123: Toyo Ito 2001-2005 - Beyond Modernism (Madrid: El Croquis, 2004). Cecil Balmond, Geometry, Algorithm, Pattern, The Serpentine Pavilion 2002 – Toyo Ito and ARUP. Leach, N. Digital tectonics (London: Wiley-Academy, 2004). Ton Deuling, Serpentine Pavilion // Case Study (2011) <http://www.collectivearchitects.eu/blog/77/serpentine-pavilion-case-study> [accessed 5 April 2013]. 17
A.III. parametric modelling
arametric modelling introduces a fundamental change to traditional design methods, where design parameters are interrelated and change parts of a design in a coordinate way. Designers can add, erase and repair parameters instead of simply adding and erasing. This integrated delivery design approach allows architects to test different design outcomes at the conceptual stage of design. The result is a more streamlined and efficient design and realization process, where the design process has less impact to the cost of a project compare to traditional design delivery methods. Thus, the cost of each projects will be reduced. The British Museum glass canopy project by Fosters+Partners demonstrates how parametric design influences design. Given the curvy shape of the canopy structure, there were no single piece of curved glass or steel frame in the structure. The dome is constructed by 3,312 pieces of glass, which no two of which are the same. Such precision of dimensions cannot be archived without parametric modelling. It allows designers to have a better control about the installation and assembly of the structure since the conceptual phase of the design.9
As mentioned in previous chapter, parametric modelling minimized the cost of production nonEuclidean forms. It rejects the rigid forms and simplicity of modernism, while encourages differentialities and interdependence of all systems, where “more fluid logic of connectivity” between functions and form is emphasized. Parametric design or “Parametricism”, will probably be “the great new style after modernism”, mentioned by Patrik Schumacher.
British Museum, London Fosters+Partners (2001)
alzburg Music Pavilion by SOMA is a showcase of Parametricism. The form of the pavilion was generated by a script where 2 meters long aluminium sticks are layers along a guided surface by creating random angles with no repetition. The script was optimized and variates continuously by a genetic algorithm. Through combination, selection and mutation of different generations of designs, a solution that integrates architectural design and structural performance is achieved. The use of parametric modelling tools in this project demonstrates how these tools allow designs to tests their design at the early stage of design. And how these tools helps the design to achieve an solution with a balance in architectural design and structural properties. This is essential to architects in 21st century as architects are changing their role with more control over the building process of a project with the help of parametric modelling.11
design intent. In addition, the control of parametric design tools is and issue in parametric modelling. The difference between an amateur and professionals in parametric modelling brings out the discourse between computation and computerization.12 The level of efficiency and flexibility given to a design by parametric design tools can only be justified by the level of skills of the user themselves. An expert is the one who format the tools while amateurs are simply using the program as a tools. Its possible that amateurs are constrained by their lack of knowledge about parametric modelling which result in designs that are constrained by the technology.
Although parametric modelling allows the possibility of new geometries that was not achievable before, geometries are too complicated that might not be feasible or too adventurous to achieve, as any design alterations might result in drastic modification of parameters due to the interdependent nature of parametric modelling. Moreover, as Parametric Technology Corporation suggested, other designers can’t modify other designer’s design easily because they didn’t posses the knowledge about how the model was created and the original
9. 10. 11. 12. 20
The British Museum, British Museum - Great Court <http://www.britishmuseum.org/about_us/the_museums_story/great_court.aspx> [accessed 1 April 2013]. Patrik Schumacher, Patrik Schumacher on parametricism - ‘Let the style wars begin’ (2010) <http://www.architectsjournal.co.uk/the-critics/patrik-schumacher-on-parametri cism-let-the-style-wars-begin/5217211.article> [accessed 1 April 2013]. Ridhika db, Soma: Music Pavilion - Salzburg Biennale 2011 (2010) <http://www.designboom.com/architecture/soma-music-pavilion-salzburg-biennale-2011/> [accessed 1 April 2013]. Robert Woodbury, Elements of Parametric Design (London: Routledge, 2010), p. 7-48.
Music Pavilion, Salzburg Biennale 2011; SOMA
A.IV. learning OUTCOMES
By defining the discourse of architecture in relation to computational design, i have a new understand of computational design which deviates from the understanding from Virtual Environments. This discourse made me realized the intimate relationship between computational techniques and contemporary architecture. It has foster a new way of design process which is optioneering based design method. Computational tool provides more possibilities in terms of feasible design outcomes. This technique could have be applied in my previous projects in Earth and Water studio, where parameters such as programme areas, local values, environmental factors be applied in the earlier stage of design to provide a wider choices of design outcomes. My discourse of structure as skin can also applied to my previous designs to optimize functional space and modify my form better.
PART B: EOI ii - DESIGN approach
B.I. DESIGN FOCUS O
ur aim is to design a gateway of Wyndham with place making qualities, as we believe this is the future of architecture discourse. According to the City of Wyndham City Plan 201115, developing a strong community focus is the key value and identity of City of Wyndham. The technique of geometry was adopted as such technique identifies various categories of informed designed directions. The design process of Gateway focus in exploring 2 types of geometries: form geometry and surface geometry. Form geometry explores the expression of tension and compression on a single surface, while surface geometry explores the relationship between interior and exterior of the design. From that we developed a theme of duality which we believe will spark longevity in interests due to 3 reflected major juxtapositions: 1. Site: Link and Boundary The Gateway is the connection between City of Wyndham and City of Melbourne. It defines the new boundary of Wyndham and a point of differentiation of Wyndham from a local sphere. 2. Form: Union and Division A cohesive form symbolized the unity of Wyndham community, while a spacial separation of general form differentiates City of Wyndham from City of Melbourne. 3. Phenomenon: Individual and Community To create phenomenon of individual experience, which generates a mutual and unique experience shared among the Wyndham community.
Generating mutual and unique experience is essentially important in our design focus, due to its explicit relation to McMillian and Chavis’s studies on the sense of community. There research in 1986 suggested that “Sense of Community” has to be achieved by “Membership” through a “cultural symbol” that create “share memories”. Place making properties allows us to develope a cultural symbol of Wyndham through the design of the gateway, in which creates share memories among Wyndham communities. Thus our aspiration is to design a self-defining structure, which creates communal identity through mutual experience instead of reflecting particular ethnic culture within a diverse, multi-cultural community, through a non-neglective and non-discriminative design process. Parametric design is particularly advantageous in this design process, due to its capacity in efficient date processing,
Tension & Compression
Interior & Exterior
City of Wyndham 27
Using Lunchbox plug-in component Exoskeleton to generate tubular form
Relaxation ratio 0.80
Relaxation ratio 0.14
Pipe relaxed mesh geometry
Reduce tube size
8 faces per tube
15 faces tube
8 faces per tube
15 faces tube
CASE STUDY 1.0
GREEN VOID - LAVA 4
strategies were used to develope different outcomes of design. 1. density of mesh components. 2. relaxation rate of mesh. 3. methods of generating general form. 4. tubular sizes. These strategies were chosen as variations is limited by mesh generating component and a limited understanding to the Kangaroo plug-in. By adjusting the mesh density, there are more joins allowed be bent during relaxation. This generates a more fluid curved surface on the overall form of the design. The method of generating the general form is also an important factor in affecting the final outcome of the algorithm, as lunchbox exoskeleton component prevents misalignment of UV curves when using lofting. However, the use of exoskeleton component limits the general form composition of the tube as the diameter are identical between branches, whereas lofting provides the flexibility to generate more dramatic effects.
Relaxation ratio 0.80
As illustrated by LAVA studio, the definitions has a limited application on building projects as resulting form might not be achievable. It is most suitable for generating expressive installations, or small scale build works such playgrounds. Relaxation ratio 0.14
Generates tubular form through lofting 29
CASE STUDY 2.0
HEXIgloo PAVILION - t. a. i
Hexigloo is a fully parametrically designed pavilion resulting out of a seven day workshop in Bucharest Romania organized by Tudor Cosmatu, Irina Bogdan, Andrei Radacau, and guest tutors Andrei Gheorge (Angewandte, Vienna) Alexander Kalachev (DIA, Dessau) and Bence Pap (Zaha Hadid Architects London). Hexigloo is a pavilion based on a honeycomb cellular structure applied to a igloo surface. From concept to the final product, the process went through these steps: mapping hexagonal grid on a pre-modeled surface (14 rows + 14 columns, resulting in 196 elements), extrude the mapped hexagons on the Z axis in order to create a binding surface between the components and finally adding rigidity to the overall structure. The main focus was on the interior space, which was illustrated by cone like funnels that filter light into the interior space. When entering the structure, the contrast between the smooth exterior and the intricate interior reveals a moment of surprise experience.
Create a surface as the external layer
Transform the surface into hexagonal cell grid using Lunchbox plug-in.
Offset curves to create smaller hexagons as perforations.
Associate the sizes of perforations with point attractor.
Grafting the list of curves and generate the external layer geometric surface through lofting.
Offset the external layer hexagonal cell curves along Z direction to create the internal layer.
Offset the hexagonal curves of the internal layer along the internal surface as internal perforations.
Grafting the list of curves and generate the internal layer geometric surface through lofting.
Loft hexigonal curves between the external and internal layers to generate a series of funnel shapes.
Control the lengths of the funnels and sizes of hexagons by associating offset distances of step 6 and 7 with another point attractor.
The outcome is very different from the original hexigloo. The hexagonal grid resembles a twisted hexagonal pattern rather than highly identical hexagon shown on the original. This related to the control of UV values when generating the grid through weaverbird plug-in. Besides, thereâ€™s is an issue of the outcome to hold its shape. This relates to the lack of contacting surfaces between individual hexagonal components to retain a structure and form integrity. In terms of contrasting effects between surface and interior, the outcome successfully resemble the effect of the original with funnels shapes generated through lofting between the internal and external hexagonal grid. The next step is to apply such technique with different geometric patterns and experiment it with another form.
Applying geometry to NURBS surface.
Different patterns were examined to explore different surface geometry possibilities. From there we applied different patterns onto a pre-mould surface to explore the potentialities of these patterns. However, the results didnâ€™t reflect the effects of gradient and duality that we were aiming for. Therefore, we have driven our research into geometries being created from tesselation. We used Organic Origami by Croatian mathematician and computer scientist Goran Konjevod as a precedent to explore these ideas through manual folding.
Organic Origami - Goran Konjevod
Failed geometric patterns
Different geometries were tested through reengineering of hexigloo grasshopper matrix. This helped us to justified the potential of our case study in application to the gateway project. The results were positive and different geometries were successfully implemented to the hexigloo matrix.
The exploration of form geometry began with finding a premoulded form through Rhino instead of Rhino. Such way gave us more control in preliminary form finding process. Surface are generated by sweeping and lofting between curve. The complexity of each service is explored through rebuilding surface with different UV values.
Next, we explored the potentiality of using Grasshopper Minimal Surface plug-in to generate surface. From 2 curves minimal surface to 4 curves minimal surfaces. The result is a fluid curvilinear surface with a contrasting surface, formed by flipped geometric sequence.
A breadth first search process is adopted throughout the development process. As stated in our design focus that geometries explored in terms of form geometries and surface geometries. In the form finding process, Grasshopper and Rhino explorations are conducted simultaneously to generate various alternatives of design. The same approach was adopted in surface geometry explorations, as different geometric pattern were tested to derive different design outcome. A breadth search process allows us to generate a large design outcome â€œdatabaseâ€? to compare and contrast its compatibility to our design intent.
The result is promising. As we have concluded minimal surface form finding approach best fits our design focus. Form geometry is expressed through tension and compression, which is generated through matrix of a minimal surface. Also the twisting form generates a that best resembles the theme of duality. Contrasting surface provides a continuity between interior and exterior of the structure.
Assembly diagram of stripped Voronoi surface
The striped voronoi geometry is chosen to be tested as prototype geometry as its perpendicular nature provides a good structural integrity. Different components are interconnected to each other through notches. This provide ease of assembly and structural coherence.
Strip voronoi geometry applied to a moulded surface
Further geometric research is conducted through manual folding of paper with reference to Goran Konjevodâ€™s Organic Origami. This also give us an insight to potential methods of assembly of the final design. As this prototype suggests a possible assemble method of modulated components
The expression and assembly method of minimal surface is also explore through this wired model. The prototype suggests a minimal surface formed by linking wires between 2 giant arches, which provide large span and contrasting effects along the surface.
As exploration continues, we were attempting combining patterning and minimal surfaces. This prototype projects a minimal surface through manual folding of paper, which is a planar material. This suggests the potential of express a minimal surface form through applying panels on a structure, which we had put forward to explore the technical realization of such design.
B.VI. TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL
n order to explore the structural possibility of our form geometry. We had explored built precedents that resembles a similar span of our proposal. The Heydar Aliyev Cultural Center in Azerbaijan by Zaha Hadid Architects includes the largest single roof structure in Europe, hosting 3 different function structures under one roof. Its roof is constructed by a space truss, where steel rods are connected to ball joins to for the underneath structure of the roof. Light weight panel is then applied on the frame to general curvilinear surface of the building. There are several benefits of using space truss on the gateway project. The most significant benefit is space truss realizes the form geometry of our design. The use of such technology also provide stability to large span structure,
given estimate span of our design is approximately 50 meters. Also, the geometric nature of the truss provides a geometric presence to the structure pattern. On the other hand, space truss provides flexibility in paneling the surface. It can either be achieved by either panelling surface with prefab panels, or 3D modules within the truss. Furthermore, the idea of paneling a space truss provides ease of maintenance which ensures the longevity of the design. However, separating surface and structure defies the aim of formal coherency that our design intent tried to achieved. The geometric nature of space truss interferes with the experiential effects created by perforations.
Heydar Aliyev Center, Baku Zaha Hadid Architects (2006)
interior exterior compression
Mutual and Unique Experience
West Kowloon Cultural District Masterplan, Hong Kong Foster + Partners (2004)
Based on the exploration of using structure and the formal realization technique of the form. Further research has been conducted to explores potentials of perforations on a space truss. The West Kowloon Cultural District masterplan in Hong Kong by Foster + Partners features a large space truss structure covering the entire District. Surface patterns and perforations are generated between 2 layers of truss by a custom program. The organization of these panels inspired us to experiment different paneling technique which can be adopted in the future development of design
Different methods of paneling surface to create perferations 59
whatâ€™s next? T
he next step design evolution of our group is to integrate surface geometry and form geometry. With our exploration in organic origami tessellate geometry and modular geometry through space truss, modularity and materiality will be incorporated in the design of the final formal of the Gateway. Perhaps its geometric sequence and representation can be inspired buy lantern design projects in Biligi University Istanbul, where geometries are joined in a modular typology while differentiated materiality between module creates contrasting effects over the general form of the structure.
Lantern Design by Alptug Yilmaz & Ilkyaz Ates Bilgi University Basic Design Studio (2012)
B.VII. ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES
B.VIII. learning objectives AND OUTCOMES
Throughout the process of EOI 2 working in groups of 3, I had a significant progress in developing rigorous and persuasive design arguments. This was driven by group discussions and continuous research in cases of innovations. These have also processed my skill of critical thinking. In terms of 3D dimensional media skills, the skilled was developed through both individual and group exploration of algorithmic design matrix. Reverse engineering of the Hexigloo exposed me to a deeper understanding of parametric design and its possibility. The process of form finding provides an better understanding in terms of data tree structures and the basis of computational geometries. Further development is needed to gain more control over the technology form finding. This issue of â€œcontrolâ€? composed my personal repertoire of about the advantage and disadvantages of computational techniques. To me at this stage, the application of computational techniques such as Grasshopper is limited, as regards to my understanding of grasshopper is remain relatively shallow. As progress continuous I believe by the end of the semester I will gain better understanding of the system and be able to use it as an assisting tools in architectural design. The extensive research for this project has also widen my scope in the architecture world. This further develops my analytical skill in contemporary architectural projectsâ€™ concept, technique and design.
PART C: PROJECT PROPOSAL
DESIGN PROPOSAL WYNDHAM
ur groupâ€™s mid semester presentation in regards of our design argument was practically well received by from the comments of the crit jury. However, few issues were addressed from their feedback. Including enforcing the relationship between the design itself (form and geometry) and the city of Wyndham and the use of space truss being contradictive to our design intent. Based on juriesâ€™ comments, our group defined local parameters to reformulate the idea of community focus of the design. Geometric pattern based on the 1500 triangles grid surface represents the 1500 hundred population at Wyndham (2010 figure). This concept generates an effective cultural correlation between the existing local community and the gateway. Through gradient change of geometric patter of the design. The indifference in shapes provides a satisfactory representation of the multi-cultural community in Wyndham. Form was redefined as symbolic abstraction of the City of Wyndham City Council logo, while the theme of duality is expressed through 2 highly identical elongated shell shape joining at the center point of the entire design. The concept of tension and compression is expressed through gradient change in size of panels clad on the structural ribs.
he redevelopment process of form and geometry finding involves exploration of new definition and design matrix. The polygon mesh provides possibility of generating a weaving surface. However the outcome is restricted in a polygonal form and uniform geometry pattern, which does not fit our notion of expressing the theme of duality through tension and compression.
Hexagonal Grid (Edge trimmed by form)
n the process of further design development, different geometric pattern were explored by mapping different geometric patterns onto a refined form as mentioned at the beginning of this Chapter. These include hexagonal grids, triangular grids and customized pattern. The aim to discover most suitable geometry that is able to construct designated form with the minimal distortion of geometric pattern. These patterns where further tested by constructing prototype to test their capabilities of bending and explore possible assemble methods, both the final model and possible structural solution of the design on site (i.e. joints, supports, etc.)
Customized panel on planar surface
1, 2: Construct basic 3-sided geometry by notch joints. 3, 4: Construct two 3-sided geometry by 4 strips 5: Control internal bend of 3-sided geometry by clips. 6, 7: Slot-in joint system 8, 9, 10: Experiment 5-sided geometry and its twist qualities 11: Twisting test on 3-sided geometry 12, 13: 3-sided geometry constructed by translucent material 14: Ikea lamp exploration 15: Explore gradient change in strip thickness to achieve better structural integrity.
n terms of materiality, our group suggested the use of structural steel to construct the ribs of the entire structure. The structure will be painted in black, to act as a protective layer and provide a certain degree of aesthetic presence of the structure visually. The panels made of tarnished aluminum. The tarnish of the material allows the panel to oxidized in response to the local environment at a controlled level. The provokes longevity of the design, where the structure adopts and evolves with the local environment. As time goes by, changing of individual panels for maintenance, the mix of old and new panel provides a new aesthetic appearance to the overall design of the structure.
pproximate span of the final design at full scale is around 50 meters. This creates a challenge to achieve such large span with strong structural integrity, yet taking advantage the ease of parametric design to provide fast precise construction. To explore a feasible structural solution, a 1 to 20 detail of one geometry segment is made, which is composed of 6 panels and 24 strips. Polypropylene strips are used to represent structural steel component of the structure due to its elasticity of bend to form desired curvature. White Perspex is used as a representation of tarnished aluminum panel. The detail model is assembled by folding laser cut and scored polypropylene strips into 12 ellipses. Ellipses are then jointed into one coherent structure by glue as labeled. Panels are attached to the strips by slotting onto the notches on the edge of the strips. This model provides our group an insight into possible construction sequence of the structure in full scale. However, connections between elements would be very different in steel and megastructure construction. The National Stadium Beijing by Herzog & de Meuron provides an insight on mega steel structure. Parametrically designed, the stadium is built by prefab component with precision within 2 cm. These components are built off site and transport to the construction site. These structure are then place onto designated location and welded together to form one self supported structure.
ith research based on 1 to 20 detail model, National Stadium Beijing, and earlier Heydar Aliyev Centre, our group proposed the following structural solution: 1. Steel members are prefabricated into Ellipse like components. 2. Steel components are place into designated located and lock into its position with metal rods slotted between components. Then the 3 components will be welded into one coherent structure. Metal rods will be removed after welding.
3. Aluminum panels are installed onto the metal rib by bolting on to the cleats prefabricated onto the steel ellipses.
PROPOSED construction sequence:
PREFABRICATION OF COMPONENTS
KEY STRUCTURAL RIBS
BUILDING STRUCTURE STARTING FROM BOTH SIDES OF THE ARCH. FORMING THE ENTIRE STEEL STRUCTURE
INSTALLATION OF PANELS
FINAL MODEL T
he 1:500 model is fabricated with 3D printing technology. By transforming NURBS surface of the final design into mesh surface, the digital model is post-processed by MeshLab to thicken mesh and 3D-Coat software. The model is then printed by a powder 3D printer from the FabLab.
detail model (scale 1:50)
he 1:50 detail model is 1/10 of a section of the entire gateway, which comprises of 150 panels and 450 strips. The components are label by Grasshopper definition, where it finds points on surface edge curve and panel surfaces. Then tag it with a series of number that matches the corresponding list length. Subsequently the 600 components are unrolled and nested onto 5 separate sheets automatically by an unrolling algorithm on Grasshopper. Components are cut by card cutter, using black card as the model material and assemble manually by hand.
Spray painting panels; Panels finished;
Structural ribs fabricated into separate strips; Applying panels to ribs. A3756
S4170 S4172 F746
S4174 S4173 F747
S3959 S3958 F675
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S3847 S3848 F638
S4007 S4005 F691
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F696 S4022 S4018
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F623 S3801 S3803
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S3829 S3830 F632
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S4139 S4138 F735
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S3827 S3825 F631
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S4031 F699 S4029
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S3818 S3816 F628
S4132 S4131 F733
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S3919 S3920 F662
S3869 S3868 F645
S3866 S3864 F644
S3814 S3813 F627
S3810 S3812 F626
F608 S3758 S3757
S3917 S3915 F661
S3808 S3807 F625
F742 S3851 A3851
S4192 S4195 A4195
Fig. 1 Nested components
Fig. 2 Labelling of components and its relation between the panel and ribs
Fig. 3 Top to bottom, Left to right:
Using card cutter to produce precise components;
Structural ribs arranged into numerical categories;
All structural ribs arranged in categories in numerical order and referencing through original 3D model;
Drive - thru Experience Video Backup video: https://vimeo.com/67877930
Unrolling, Labelling and Nesting Algorithm
C.V. learning objectives AND OUTCOMES
As now reaches the final submission of journal. I have had a good understanding the formation and key elements of the age of optioneering. Through individual research and group explorations, I have gained a moderate ability to generate design varieties with a given situation through parametric modelling. The explorations had also equipped me valuable skill in parametric modelling, analytical diagramming and digital fabrication, especially the assembly of the final model. Though I have doubt of understanding the relationship between architecture and air and its connotation stated in the reader. But constant research has further developed my analytical and critical thinking skill to construct “vigorous” and “persuasive” arguments informed by contemporary architecture discourse. In addition, the exposure of parametric design provided me an insight in computational geometries, data tree structures and programming techniques. My experience in parametric modelling allows me to equip that experience as a tool in my future design process.
This projects has given me a total review of the role of computational techniques architectural design process. And in fact parametric modelling is developing as an intrinsic part of contemporary architecture design and fabrication. Through explorations, and technique development, I could obtain a fair degree of control in the process of parametric modelling. Though further experience is required to fully manipulate the technique. The value of parametric modelling in the course to me is not just about design, but also the construction and fabrication as well. With extensive use of computational techniques in the structure development stage of our design, I have gain adequate experience in using computational techniques to develope and fabricate feasible tectonic assemblies. From the labelling technique to unfolding to the exploration of Kangaroo plug-in, these experience equipped me the skill that the next generation of architect requires.
bibliography A . Bernabeu Larena, J . Bernabeu Larena, Structures & Architecture: Chapter 235. Structural skins in contemporary architecture, ed. by Paulo J . S . Cruz (London: CRC Press, 2010), p. 529–530. Robert Woodbury, Elements of Parametric Design (London: Routledge, 2010), p. 7-48. Branko Kolarevic, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003), p. 3-28. Cecil Balmond, A+U Special Issue: Cecil Balmond (Tokyo: A and U, 2006). Cecil Balmond, Geometry, Algorithm, Pattern, The Serpentine Pavilion 2002 – Toyo Ito and ARUP. Leach, N. Digital tectonics (London: Wiley-Academy, 2004). Eikongraphia, Graffiti, by Herzog & de Meuron (2007) <http://www.eikongraphia.com/?p=1050> [accessed 5 April 2013] Neri Oxman, Cartesian Wax (2007) <http://web.media.mit.edu/~neri/site/projects/cartesianwax/cartesianwax.html> [accessed 5 April 2013]. Patrik Schumacher, Patrik Schumacher on parametricism - ‘Let the style wars begin’ (2010) <http:// www.architectsjournal.co.uk/the-critics/patrik-schumacher-on-parametri cism-let-the-stylewars-begin/5217211.article> [accessed 1 April 2013]. Ridhika db, Soma: Music Pavilion - Salzburg Biennale 2011 (2010) <http://www.designboom.com/architecture/soma-music-pavilion-salzburg-biennale-2011/> [accessed 1 April 2013]. The British Museum, British Museum - Great Court <http://www.britishmuseum.org/about_us/the_ museums_story/great_court.aspx> [accessed 1 April 2013]. Ton Deuling, Serpentine Pavilion // Case Study (2011) <http://www.collectivearchitects.eu/blog/77/ serpentine-pavilion-case-study> [accessed 5 April 2013]. Toyo Ito, El Croquis #123: Toyo Ito 2001-2005 - Beyond Modernism (Madrid: El Croquis, 2004).