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AIR ABPL30048 ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO:

SEMESTER 1, 2013

BRYAN FAN 394017


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CONTENT 4 5 6 10 14 18 22 26 28 30 34 46 52 62 66 70 82 86 114 118 122

Preface About Me Past Projects

Part A - EOI 1: Cases of Innovations A.1. Architecture as a discourse: Structure As Skin A.2. Computational Architecture A.3. Parametric Modelling A.4. Learning Outcomes

Part B - EOI 2: Design Approach B.1. Design Focus B.2. Case Study 1.0 - Green Void B.3. Case Study 2.0 - Hexigloo B.4. Technique: Development B.5. Technique: Prototype B.6. Technique Proposal B.7. Algorithmic Sketch B.8. Learning Objectives and Outcomes

Part C - Project Proposal C.1. Gateway Project: Design Concept C.2. Gateway Project: Tectonic Elements C.3. Gateway Project: Final Model C.4. Algorithmic Sketch C.5. Learning Objectives and Outcomes References

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PREFACE I would like to thank my group members Lisa and Vincent for their enthusiasm and effort in this project. This design won’t be achieved without their constant input in ideas and algorithmic solutions. I feel deeply honoured and lucky to be part of this team. I would also like to thank our tutor David and Michael for all the technical help and advice. Thank you for giving me the best studio experience so far in B.Envs.

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ABOUT ME My name is Bryan Fan. I am a 3rd year student studying Bachelor of Environments, major in Architecture. I was born and raised in Hong Kong, where I developed my interest in studying architecture in the environment of modernist skyscrapers. My experience in digital design theories and tools began with 1st year subject Virtual Environments, which I gained experience in using Rhino 3D and digitization techniques. Ever since Body Space project, I incorporate digital design techniques in my ADS subjects.

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past projects

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LEFT: Brickactites was inspired by the organic form of Stalactites and further developed by Rhino 3D using parametric techniques. The result is an object clad with non-continuous panels interlocking each other, sitting on the left shoulder of a person. RIGHT: Aboriginal Culture and Exhibition Centre, Herring Island. Parametric design techniques were used extensively in the project. From the building of 3D model, to form generation and the assembly of scaled model.

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PART A: EOI I - Cases of Innovation

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A.I.

ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE:

STRUCTURE AS SKIN

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Prada Aoyama Tokyo, Japan Herzog & de Meuron (2003)


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tructural skins intend to offer an unequivocal relation between form and structure. There is no possible separation between the interior space and external volume, where both of them are defined by the same geometry and one unique skin. Exterior of a building is not dependent on its structural support, thus skin and skeleton is dissociated.

& de Meuron as well.1 Irregular shapes or extensive ornaments rejected in the modernist movement due to its focus on using industrialized materials and minimal ornamental values. The combination of structure and skin with the aid of computational technologies allows a form of architecture which is aesthetically pleasing and cost effective at the same time.

In traditional warehouse construction, internal span of space is often restricted by the structural columns and the limited span of masonry structure. Since the modernist movement, architects and engineers such as Gustav Effel has started using steel frame structure to achieve a large span than masonry structures, the Galeries de Machine in 1889 was the beginning of such a movement. The structural development of skyscrapers in the 20th century has driven by the Modernist movement has demonstrated great efficiency of structural framed systems, which allows the external part of the building to contain a structural system of high rigidity against horizontal loads, like the Prada building in Tokyo by Herzog & de Meuron. Moreover, the density and integrity of this structural system more flexibility to faรงade designs, as computerization of design process liberates 21st century architecture from Euclidean shapes, allowing irregular design and openings with great flexibility, such as the Ciudad del Flamenco by Herzog

Perhaps one of the greatest advantage of structural skins is the flexibility it provides in terms of architecture programming and use of the building, due to the maximization of interior space from a column-less space. In addition, the integration of form, structure and aesthetics of structural skins has solved the problem of formal relation between building structure and its faรงade.2

Design process of graffiti inspired external structure Ciudad del Flomenco, Herzog & de Meuron

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he development of structure as skin might bring us to the age of “Responsive Architecture� and light/ heat sensitive construction techniques, where the structure skin adjusts its forms in response to the internal and external conditions. The Cartesian Wax by Neri Oxman explores the organization of materials influenced by structural and environmental performance. The project consist of a tilling system with a differentiated surface, which accommodates physical conditions include light transmission, heat flux, stored energy modulation

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and structural support. The surface will thicken locally if any area of the service requires additional structural support, and adjust its transparency in response the light condition of the environment. 3


The Cartesian Wax, Neri Oxman (2007)

“For Framtpon, a building skin ought not to conceal a structure, but to integrate it, yet his concerns are no less aesthetic, for he is interested primarily in the look of the building and how it is achieved.” - Richard Williams 1. 2. 3.

Eikongraphia, Graffiti, by Herzog & de Meuron (2007) <http://www.eikongraphia.com/?p=1050> [accessed 5 April 2013] A . Bernabeu Larena, J . Bernabeu Larena, Structures & Architecture: Chapter 235. Structural skins in contemporary architecture, ed. by Paulo J . S . Cruz (London: CRC Press, 2010), p. 529–530. Neri Oxman, Cartesian Wax (2007) <http://web.media.mit.edu/~neri/site/projects/cartesianwax/cartesianwax.html> [accessed 5 April 2013]. 13


A.II. computational architecture

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Serpentine Pavilion, London Toyo Ito & Arup (2002)


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omputational design process integrates conception and production at the early stages a project. The digital design platform generates different formal propositions for designer. In that notion, architecture design shifts to “finding of a form” instead if “making of form”. This suggests the rejection of fixed solution and opens up infinity variable potentialities of design exploration that response to complex contextual or functional parameters. The use of BIM technologies in recent years enable architects to coordinate information among various building professions and suppliers, and digital design allows the deign information to become the construction information. These gives architects more control over the building process, which eventually regain architect’s status as the master builder. The use of digital modelling software has opened new frontiers of architectural form exploration. It departs design away from Euclidean forms and platonic solids. It rejects conventional styles and aesthetics. As Greg Lynn suggests the new approach to develop “more fluid logic of connectivity” instead of “logic of conflict and contradiction” suggested by deconstructivism, where forms of architecture is generated by different parameters mentioned above in an unconventional form and aesthetics. 4

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TOP TO BOTTOM: 1. Process of finding the most suitable location for skylight opening 2. Network of lines generated by geometric algorithm 3. Zoning of structure for faster and smoother assembly 4. Structure design derived by algorithms

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he serpentine pavilion 2002 demonstrated the potentials of computational architecture and parametric design. Architect Toyo Ito and Arup team developed a design based on a geometric algorithm. The algorithm generate a network of lines by rotated rectangles based a defined angle and ration between different sides of the plane. The lines is then bent across a box to from the facade of the structure. The use of computational technology helped the team to explore the best structural solution for the project by analyzing the structural properties of different design potential.8

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Moreover, computational design software assisted the construction and fabrication stage of design. A sequence of construction was set up to make the assembly of the structure faster and smoother. These might not be possible if computational technology is not involved in the design of the project.


“While physical form can be defined in terms of static coordinates, the virtual force of the environment in which it is designed contributes to its shape” 4 - Greg Lynn

Blob Wall Pavilion. Greg Lynn (2008)

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Branko Kolarevic, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003), p. 3-28. Cecil Balmond, A+U Special Issue: Cecil Balmond (Tokyo: A and U, 2006). Toyo Ito, El Croquis #123: Toyo Ito 2001-2005 - Beyond Modernism (Madrid: El Croquis, 2004). Cecil Balmond, Geometry, Algorithm, Pattern, The Serpentine Pavilion 2002 – Toyo Ito and ARUP. Leach, N. Digital tectonics (London: Wiley-Academy, 2004). Ton Deuling, Serpentine Pavilion // Case Study (2011) <http://www.collectivearchitects.eu/blog/77/serpentine-pavilion-case-study> [accessed 5 April 2013]. 17


A.III. parametric modelling

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arametric modelling introduces a fundamental change to traditional design methods, where design parameters are interrelated and change parts of a design in a coordinate way. Designers can add, erase and repair parameters instead of simply adding and erasing. This integrated delivery design approach allows architects to test different design outcomes at the conceptual stage of design. The result is a more streamlined and efficient design and realization process, where the design process has less impact to the cost of a project compare to traditional design delivery methods. Thus, the cost of each projects will be reduced. The British Museum glass canopy project by Fosters+Partners demonstrates how parametric design influences design. Given the curvy shape of the canopy structure, there were no single piece of curved glass or steel frame in the structure. The dome is constructed by 3,312 pieces of glass, which no two of which are the same. Such precision of dimensions cannot be archived without parametric modelling. It allows designers to have a better control about the installation and assembly of the structure since the conceptual phase of the design.9

As mentioned in previous chapter, parametric modelling minimized the cost of production nonEuclidean forms. It rejects the rigid forms and simplicity of modernism, while encourages differentialities and interdependence of all systems, where “more fluid logic of connectivity” between functions and form is emphasized. Parametric design or “Parametricism”, will probably be “the great new style after modernism”, mentioned by Patrik Schumacher.

British Museum, London Fosters+Partners (2001)

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alzburg Music Pavilion by SOMA is a showcase of Parametricism. The form of the pavilion was generated by a script where 2 meters long aluminium sticks are layers along a guided surface by creating random angles with no repetition. The script was optimized and variates continuously by a genetic algorithm. Through combination, selection and mutation of different generations of designs, a solution that integrates architectural design and structural performance is achieved. The use of parametric modelling tools in this project demonstrates how these tools allow designs to tests their design at the early stage of design. And how these tools helps the design to achieve an solution with a balance in architectural design and structural properties. This is essential to architects in 21st century as architects are changing their role with more control over the building process of a project with the help of parametric modelling.11

design intent. In addition, the control of parametric design tools is and issue in parametric modelling. The difference between an amateur and professionals in parametric modelling brings out the discourse between computation and computerization.12 The level of efficiency and flexibility given to a design by parametric design tools can only be justified by the level of skills of the user themselves. An expert is the one who format the tools while amateurs are simply using the program as a tools. Its possible that amateurs are constrained by their lack of knowledge about parametric modelling which result in designs that are constrained by the technology.

Although parametric modelling allows the possibility of new geometries that was not achievable before, geometries are too complicated that might not be feasible or too adventurous to achieve, as any design alterations might result in drastic modification of parameters due to the interdependent nature of parametric modelling. Moreover, as Parametric Technology Corporation suggested, other designers can’t modify other designer’s design easily because they didn’t posses the knowledge about how the model was created and the original

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The British Museum, British Museum - Great Court <http://www.britishmuseum.org/about_us/the_museums_story/great_court.aspx> [accessed 1 April 2013]. Patrik Schumacher, Patrik Schumacher on parametricism - ‘Let the style wars begin’ (2010) <http://www.architectsjournal.co.uk/the-critics/patrik-schumacher-on-parametri cism-let-the-style-wars-begin/5217211.article> [accessed 1 April 2013]. Ridhika db, Soma: Music Pavilion - Salzburg Biennale 2011 (2010) <http://www.designboom.com/architecture/soma-music-pavilion-salzburg-biennale-2011/> [accessed 1 April 2013]. Robert Woodbury, Elements of Parametric Design (London: Routledge, 2010), p. 7-48.


Music Pavilion, Salzburg Biennale 2011; SOMA

Genetic Algorithm

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A.IV. learning OUTCOMES

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By defining the discourse of architecture in relation to computational design, i have a new understand of computational design which deviates from the understanding from Virtual Environments. This discourse made me realized the intimate relationship between computational techniques and contemporary architecture. It has foster a new way of design process which is optioneering based design method. Computational tool provides more possibilities in terms of feasible design outcomes. This technique could have be applied in my previous projects in Earth and Water studio, where parameters such as programme areas, local values, environmental factors be applied in the earlier stage of design to provide a wider choices of design outcomes. My discourse of structure as skin can also applied to my previous designs to optimize functional space and modify my form better.

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PART B: EOI ii - DESIGN approach

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B.I. DESIGN FOCUS O

ur aim is to design a gateway of Wyndham with place making qualities, as we believe this is the future of architecture discourse. According to the City of Wyndham City Plan 201115, developing a strong community focus is the key value and identity of City of Wyndham. The technique of geometry was adopted as such technique identifies various categories of informed designed directions. The design process of Gateway focus in exploring 2 types of geometries: form geometry and surface geometry. Form geometry explores the expression of tension and compression on a single surface, while surface geometry explores the relationship between interior and exterior of the design. From that we developed a theme of duality which we believe will spark longevity in interests due to 3 reflected major juxtapositions: 1. Site: Link and Boundary The Gateway is the connection between City of Wyndham and City of Melbourne. It defines the new boundary of Wyndham and a point of differentiation of Wyndham from a local sphere. 2. Form: Union and Division A cohesive form symbolized the unity of Wyndham community, while a spacial separation of general form differentiates City of Wyndham from City of Melbourne. 3. Phenomenon: Individual and Community To create phenomenon of individual experience, which generates a mutual and unique experience shared among the Wyndham community.

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Generating mutual and unique experience is essentially important in our design focus, due to its explicit relation to McMillian and Chavis’s studies on the sense of community. There research in 1986 suggested that “Sense of Community” has to be achieved by “Membership” through a “cultural symbol” that create “share memories”. Place making properties allows us to develope a cultural symbol of Wyndham through the design of the gateway, in which creates share memories among Wyndham communities. Thus our aspiration is to design a self-defining structure, which creates communal identity through mutual experience instead of reflecting particular ethnic culture within a diverse, multi-cultural community, through a non-neglective and non-discriminative design process. Parametric design is particularly advantageous in this design process, due to its capacity in efficient date processing,


Geometry

Tension & Compression

Form Geometry

Surface Geometry

Interior & Exterior

Duality

Mutual Experience

Communal Signature

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Using Lunchbox plug-in component Exoskeleton to generate tubular form

Relaxation ratio 0.80

Relaxation ratio 0.14

Pipe relaxed mesh geometry

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Reduce tube size

8 faces per tube

15 faces tube


B.II.

8 faces per tube

15 faces tube

CASE STUDY 1.0

GREEN VOID - LAVA 4

strategies were used to develope different outcomes of design. 1. density of mesh components. 2. relaxation rate of mesh. 3. methods of generating general form. 4. tubular sizes. These strategies were chosen as variations is limited by mesh generating component and a limited understanding to the Kangaroo plug-in. By adjusting the mesh density, there are more joins allowed be bent during relaxation. This generates a more fluid curved surface on the overall form of the design. The method of generating the general form is also an important factor in affecting the final outcome of the algorithm, as lunchbox exoskeleton component prevents misalignment of UV curves when using lofting. However, the use of exoskeleton component limits the general form composition of the tube as the diameter are identical between branches, whereas lofting provides the flexibility to generate more dramatic effects.

Relaxation ratio 0.80

As illustrated by LAVA studio, the definitions has a limited application on building projects as resulting form might not be achievable. It is most suitable for generating expressive installations, or small scale build works such playgrounds. Relaxation ratio 0.14

Generates tubular form through lofting 29


B.III.

CASE STUDY 2.0

HEXIgloo PAVILION - t. a. i

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Hexigloo is a fully parametrically designed pavilion resulting out of a seven day workshop in Bucharest Romania organized by Tudor Cosmatu, Irina Bogdan, Andrei Radacau, and guest tutors Andrei Gheorge (Angewandte, Vienna) Alexander Kalachev (DIA, Dessau) and Bence Pap (Zaha Hadid Architects London). Hexigloo is a pavilion based on a honeycomb cellular structure applied to a igloo surface. From concept to the final product, the process went through these steps: mapping hexagonal grid on a pre-modeled surface (14 rows + 14 columns, resulting in 196 elements), extrude the mapped hexagons on the Z axis in order to create a binding surface between the components and finally adding rigidity to the overall structure. The main focus was on the interior space, which was illustrated by cone like funnels that filter light into the interior space. When entering the structure, the contrast between the smooth exterior and the intricate interior reveals a moment of surprise experience.

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Create a surface as the external layer

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Transform the surface into hexagonal cell grid using Lunchbox plug-in.

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Offset curves to create smaller hexagons as perforations.

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Associate the sizes of perforations with point attractor.

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Grafting the list of curves and generate the external layer geometric surface through lofting.

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Offset the external layer hexagonal cell curves along Z direction to create the internal layer.

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Offset the hexagonal curves of the internal layer along the internal surface as internal perforations.

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Grafting the list of curves and generate the internal layer geometric surface through lofting.

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Loft hexigonal curves between the external and internal layers to generate a series of funnel shapes.

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Control the lengths of the funnels and sizes of hexagons by associating offset distances of step 6 and 7 with another point attractor.

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The outcome is very different from the original hexigloo. The hexagonal grid resembles a twisted hexagonal pattern rather than highly identical hexagon shown on the original. This related to the control of UV values when generating the grid through weaverbird plug-in. Besides, thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s is an issue of the outcome to hold its shape. This relates to the lack of contacting surfaces between individual hexagonal components to retain a structure and form integrity. In terms of contrasting effects between surface and interior, the outcome successfully resemble the effect of the original with funnels shapes generated through lofting between the internal and external hexagonal grid. The next step is to apply such technique with different geometric patterns and experiment it with another form.

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Pattern Exploration

B.IV.

TECHNIQUE:

DEVELOPMENT 35


Applying geometry to NURBS surface.

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Different patterns were examined to explore different surface geometry possibilities. From there we applied different patterns onto a pre-mould surface to explore the potentialities of these patterns. However, the results didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t reflect the effects of gradient and duality that we were aiming for. Therefore, we have driven our research into geometries being created from tesselation. We used Organic Origami by Croatian mathematician and computer scientist Goran Konjevod as a precedent to explore these ideas through manual folding.

Organic Origami - Goran Konjevod

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Failed geometric patterns

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Different geometries were tested through reengineering of hexigloo grasshopper matrix. This helped us to justified the potential of our case study in application to the gateway project. The results were positive and different geometries were successfully implemented to the hexigloo matrix.

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The exploration of form geometry began with finding a premoulded form through Rhino instead of Rhino. Such way gave us more control in preliminary form finding process. Surface are generated by sweeping and lofting between curve. The complexity of each service is explored through rebuilding surface with different UV values.

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Next, we explored the potentiality of using Grasshopper Minimal Surface plug-in to generate surface. From 2 curves minimal surface to 4 curves minimal surfaces. The result is a fluid curvilinear surface with a contrasting surface, formed by flipped geometric sequence.

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A breadth first search process is adopted throughout the development process. As stated in our design focus that geometries explored in terms of form geometries and surface geometries. In the form finding process, Grasshopper and Rhino explorations are conducted simultaneously to generate various alternatives of design. The same approach was adopted in surface geometry explorations, as different geometric pattern were tested to derive different design outcome. A breadth search process allows us to generate a large design outcome â&#x20AC;&#x153;databaseâ&#x20AC;? to compare and contrast its compatibility to our design intent.

The result is promising. As we have concluded minimal surface form finding approach best fits our design focus. Form geometry is expressed through tension and compression, which is generated through matrix of a minimal surface. Also the twisting form generates a that best resembles the theme of duality. Contrasting surface provides a continuity between interior and exterior of the structure.

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B.V.

TECHNIQUE:

PROTOTYPES

Assembly diagram of stripped Voronoi surface

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The striped voronoi geometry is chosen to be tested as prototype geometry as its perpendicular nature provides a good structural integrity. Different components are interconnected to each other through notches. This provide ease of assembly and structural coherence.

Strip voronoi geometry applied to a moulded surface

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Further geometric research is conducted through manual folding of paper with reference to Goran Konjevodâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Organic Origami. This also give us an insight to potential methods of assembly of the final design. As this prototype suggests a possible assemble method of modulated components

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The expression and assembly method of minimal surface is also explore through this wired model. The prototype suggests a minimal surface formed by linking wires between 2 giant arches, which provide large span and contrasting effects along the surface.

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As exploration continues, we were attempting combining patterning and minimal surfaces. This prototype projects a minimal surface through manual folding of paper, which is a planar material. This suggests the potential of express a minimal surface form through applying panels on a structure, which we had put forward to explore the technical realization of such design.

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B.VI. TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL

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n order to explore the structural possibility of our form geometry. We had explored built precedents that resembles a similar span of our proposal. The Heydar Aliyev Cultural Center in Azerbaijan by Zaha Hadid Architects includes the largest single roof structure in Europe, hosting 3 different function structures under one roof. Its roof is constructed by a space truss, where steel rods are connected to ball joins to for the underneath structure of the roof. Light weight panel is then applied on the frame to general curvilinear surface of the building. There are several benefits of using space truss on the gateway project. The most significant benefit is space truss realizes the form geometry of our design. The use of such technology also provide stability to large span structure,

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given estimate span of our design is approximately 50 meters. Also, the geometric nature of the truss provides a geometric presence to the structure pattern. On the other hand, space truss provides flexibility in paneling the surface. It can either be achieved by either panelling surface with prefab panels, or 3D modules within the truss. Furthermore, the idea of paneling a space truss provides ease of maintenance which ensures the longevity of the design. However, separating surface and structure defies the aim of formal coherency that our design intent tried to achieved. The geometric nature of space truss interferes with the experiential effects created by perforations.


Heydar Aliyev Center, Baku Zaha Hadid Architects (2006)

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relaxation

interior exterior compression

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Mutual and Unique Experience

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West Kowloon Cultural District Masterplan, Hong Kong Foster + Partners (2004)

Based on the exploration of using structure and the formal realization technique of the form. Further research has been conducted to explores potentials of perforations on a space truss. The West Kowloon Cultural District masterplan in Hong Kong by Foster + Partners features a large space truss structure covering the entire District. Surface patterns and perforations are generated between 2 layers of truss by a custom program. The organization of these panels inspired us to experiment different paneling technique which can be adopted in the future development of design

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Different methods of paneling surface to create perferations 59


whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s next? T

he next step design evolution of our group is to integrate surface geometry and form geometry. With our exploration in organic origami tessellate geometry and modular geometry through space truss, modularity and materiality will be incorporated in the design of the final formal of the Gateway. Perhaps its geometric sequence and representation can be inspired buy lantern design projects in Biligi University Istanbul, where geometries are joined in a modular typology while differentiated materiality between module creates contrasting effects over the general form of the structure.

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Lantern Design by Alptug Yilmaz & Ilkyaz Ates Bilgi University Basic Design Studio (2012)

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B.VII. ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

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B.VIII. learning objectives AND OUTCOMES

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Throughout the process of EOI 2 working in groups of 3, I had a significant progress in developing rigorous and persuasive design arguments. This was driven by group discussions and continuous research in cases of innovations. These have also processed my skill of critical thinking. In terms of 3D dimensional media skills, the skilled was developed through both individual and group exploration of algorithmic design matrix. Reverse engineering of the Hexigloo exposed me to a deeper understanding of parametric design and its possibility. The process of form finding provides an better understanding in terms of data tree structures and the basis of computational geometries. Further development is needed to gain more control over the technology form finding. This issue of â&#x20AC;&#x153;controlâ&#x20AC;? composed my personal repertoire of about the advantage and disadvantages of computational techniques. To me at this stage, the application of computational techniques such as Grasshopper is limited, as regards to my understanding of grasshopper is remain relatively shallow. As progress continuous I believe by the end of the semester I will gain better understanding of the system and be able to use it as an assisting tools in architectural design. The extensive research for this project has also widen my scope in the architecture world. This further develops my analytical skill in contemporary architectural projectsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; concept, technique and design.

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PART C: PROJECT PROPOSAL

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C.I.

GATEWAY PROJECT:

DESIGN PROPOSAL WYNDHAM

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O

ur groupâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mid semester presentation in regards of our design argument was practically well received by from the comments of the crit jury. However, few issues were addressed from their feedback. Including enforcing the relationship between the design itself (form and geometry) and the city of Wyndham and the use of space truss being contradictive to our design intent. Based on juriesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; comments, our group defined local parameters to reformulate the idea of community focus of the design. Geometric pattern based on the 1500 triangles grid surface represents the 1500 hundred population at Wyndham (2010 figure). This concept generates an effective cultural correlation between the existing local community and the gateway. Through gradient change of geometric patter of the design. The indifference in shapes provides a satisfactory representation of the multi-cultural community in Wyndham. Form was redefined as symbolic abstraction of the City of Wyndham City Council logo, while the theme of duality is expressed through 2 highly identical elongated shell shape joining at the center point of the entire design. The concept of tension and compression is expressed through gradient change in size of panels clad on the structural ribs.

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he redevelopment process of form and geometry finding involves exploration of new definition and design matrix. The polygon mesh provides possibility of generating a weaving surface. However the outcome is restricted in a polygonal form and uniform geometry pattern, which does not fit our notion of expressing the theme of duality through tension and compression.

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Hexagonal Grid

Triangular Grid

Hexagonal Grid (Edge trimmed by form)

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n the process of further design development, different geometric pattern were explored by mapping different geometric patterns onto a refined form as mentioned at the beginning of this Chapter. These include hexagonal grids, triangular grids and customized pattern. The aim to discover most suitable geometry that is able to construct designated form with the minimal distortion of geometric pattern. These patterns where further tested by constructing prototype to test their capabilities of bending and explore possible assemble methods, both the final model and possible structural solution of the design on site (i.e. joints, supports, etc.)

Customized panel on planar surface

Customized Pattern

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1, 2: Construct basic 3-sided geometry by notch joints. 3, 4: Construct two 3-sided geometry by 4 strips 5: Control internal bend of 3-sided geometry by clips. 6, 7: Slot-in joint system 8, 9, 10: Experiment 5-sided geometry and its twist qualities 11: Twisting test on 3-sided geometry 12, 13: 3-sided geometry constructed by translucent material 14: Ikea lamp exploration 15: Explore gradient change in strip thickness to achieve better structural integrity.

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n terms of materiality, our group suggested the use of structural steel to construct the ribs of the entire structure. The structure will be painted in black, to act as a protective layer and provide a certain degree of aesthetic presence of the structure visually. The panels made of tarnished aluminum. The tarnish of the material allows the panel to oxidized in response to the local environment at a controlled level. The provokes longevity of the design, where the structure adopts and evolves with the local environment. As time goes by, changing of individual panels for maintenance, the mix of old and new panel provides a new aesthetic appearance to the overall design of the structure.

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C.II.

GATEWAY PROJECT:

TECHTONIC ELEMENTS

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A

pproximate span of the final design at full scale is around 50 meters. This creates a challenge to achieve such large span with strong structural integrity, yet taking advantage the ease of parametric design to provide fast precise construction. To explore a feasible structural solution, a 1 to 20 detail of one geometry segment is made, which is composed of 6 panels and 24 strips. Polypropylene strips are used to represent structural steel component of the structure due to its elasticity of bend to form desired curvature. White Perspex is used as a representation of tarnished aluminum panel. The detail model is assembled by folding laser cut and scored polypropylene strips into 12 ellipses. Ellipses are then jointed into one coherent structure by glue as labeled. Panels are attached to the strips by slotting onto the notches on the edge of the strips. This model provides our group an insight into possible construction sequence of the structure in full scale. However, connections between elements would be very different in steel and megastructure construction. The National Stadium Beijing by Herzog & de Meuron provides an insight on mega steel structure. Parametrically designed, the stadium is built by prefab component with precision within 2 cm. These components are built off site and transport to the construction site. These structure are then place onto designated location and welded together to form one self supported structure.

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ith research based on 1 to 20 detail model, National Stadium Beijing, and earlier Heydar Aliyev Centre, our group proposed the following structural solution: 1. Steel members are prefabricated into Ellipse like components. 2. Steel components are place into designated located and lock into its position with metal rods slotted between components. Then the 3 components will be welded into one coherent structure. Metal rods will be removed after welding.

1.

3. Aluminum panels are installed onto the metal rib by bolting on to the cleats prefabricated onto the steel ellipses.

2.

3.

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PROPOSED construction sequence:

EXCAVATION

FOUNDATION

PREFABRICATION OF COMPONENTS

KEY STRUCTURAL RIBS

BUILDING STRUCTURE STARTING FROM BOTH SIDES OF THE ARCH. FORMING THE ENTIRE STEEL STRUCTURE

INSTALLATION OF PANELS

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C.III.

GATEWAY PROJECT:

FINAL MODEL T

he 1:500 model is fabricated with 3D printing technology. By transforming NURBS surface of the final design into mesh surface, the digital model is post-processed by MeshLab to thicken mesh and 3D-Coat software. The model is then printed by a powder 3D printer from the FabLab.

1:500 MODEL

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detail model (scale 1:50)

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T

he 1:50 detail model is 1/10 of a section of the entire gateway, which comprises of 150 panels and 450 strips. The components are label by Grasshopper definition, where it finds points on surface edge curve and panel surfaces. Then tag it with a series of number that matches the corresponding list length. Subsequently the 600 components are unrolled and nested onto 5 separate sheets automatically by an unrolling algorithm on Grasshopper. Components are cut by card cutter, using black card as the model material and assemble manually by hand.

93


S4158

S4159

S4160

S4158

94 A3778

A4008

A4002

A3996 A3774

A3772

A3842

A3836

S3824

S3818 A3818

S3855

A3822

Spray painting panels; Panels finished;

Structural ribs fabricated into separate strips; Applying panels to ribs. A3756

S3753

A3753

A3754

S3779

S3782

A3779

A3782

S3785 A3785

A3788

S3791A3791

S3788

S3792

A3792

A3789

A3783

S3780 A3780

S3783

S3786 A3786

S3789

A3795

A3796

A3790

S3781 A3781

S3784 A3784

S3787A3787

S3790

S3793A3793

S3796

A3893

A3869

A3863

S3857 A3857

S3863

S3869

S3875 A3875

S3881 A3881

S3887 A3887

S3893

S3899 A3899

S3905

A3911

A3905

S3912

S3925 A3925

S3858

S3864

A3913

A3907

A3858

A3864

S3859

S3865

A3859

A3865

S3871 A3871

S3877 A3877

S3883 A3883

A3882

A3876

S3889 A3889

S3895 A3895

S3901 A3901

S3907

S3913

A3888

A3894

A3900

A3906

A3912

S3919 A3919

A3924

A3918

S3931 A3931

A3930

S3870 A3870

S3876

S3882

S3888

S3894

S3900

S3906

A3937 S3937

S3943 A3943

S3986

S3860

S3866

S3872

S3878

S3884

S3890

S3896

S3902

S3908

S3914

S3920

S3926

S3932

S3938

S3944

S3950

S3956

S3962

S3968

S3974

S3980

A3938

A3860

A3866

A3872

A3878

A3884

A3890

S3861

S3867

S3873

S3879

S3885

S3891

S3903

S3897

A3896

S3909

S3915

S3921

S3927

A3902

A3908

A3914

A3920

A3926

S3933

S3945

S3939

A3944

A3932

S3957

S3951

A3956

S3963

S3969

S3975

S3981

A3950

A3962

A3968

A3974

A3980

S3987

A3992

A3986

S3999

S3993

A3998

A3975

A3915

S3916

A3873

A3861

A3867

S3862

S3868

S3874

S3880

S3886

A3885

A3879

S3892

S3898

S3904

S3910

A3891

A3897

A3903

A3909

S3922

S3928

A3927

A3921

S3934

A3933

S3946

S3940

A3939

A3945

S3958

S3952

A3957

S3964

A3951

A3963

S3970

S3976

A3981

A3969

S3988

S3982

A3987

S4000

S3994

S4006

S4012

A3993

A4005

A4011

A3999

A4012

A3862

A3868

A3874

A3880

A3886

A3892

A3898

A3904

A3910

A3916

A3922

A3928

A3934

A3940

A3946

A3952

A3958

A3964

A3970

A3976

A3982

A3988

A3994

A4000

A4006

S4074

S4174

A4014

A4024

A4034

A4163

A4173

A4183

A4113

A4123

A4133

A4083

A4073

A4053

A4023

A4033

A4043

S4013 A4013

S4023

S4033

S4043

S4053

S4063 A4063

S4073

S4083

S4093

A4093

S4103 A4103

S4113

S4123

S4133

S4143

A4143

S4153 A4153

S4163

S4173

S4183

A4115

A4125

A4135

A4065

A4075

A4085

A4095

A4045

A4035

S4015 A4015

A4071

A4041

A4031

S4196

S4016

S4026

S4036

S4046

S4056

S4066

S4076

S4086

S4096

S4106

S4116

S4126

S4136

S4146

S4156

S4166

S4082

A4197

A4022

A4032

A4042

S4177

A4016

A4026

A4036

A4046

A4056

A4066

A4076

A4086

A4096

A4106

A4116

A4126

A4136

A4107

A4117

A4127

A4137

A4077

A4087

S4017

S4027

S4037

S4047

A4017

A4027

A4037

A4047

S4057 A4057

S4067 A4067

S4077

S4087

S4097 A4097

S4107

S4117

S4127

S4137

S4147 A4147

A4167

A4177

S4157 A4157

S4167

A4121

S4018

S4028

S4038

S4048

S4058

S4068

S4078

S4088

S4098

S4108

S4118

S4128

S4138

S4148

S4158

S4168

S4178

S4188

S4198

S4091

S4101

A4018

A4028

A4038

A4048

A4058

A4068

A4078

A4088

A4098

A4108

A4118

A4128

A4138

A4148

A4158

A4168

A4178

A4188

A4198

A4091

A4101

S4111 A4111

S4121

S4131

A4131

A4052

S4141 A4141

S4151 A4151

A4072

S4171

S4170 S4172 F746

S4116

S4118 F728

A4062

A4082

S4187 A4187

S4197

S4022

S4032

S4042

S4052

S4062

S4072

S4169

S4167 F745

S4168

A4156

S4164

S4166 F744

S4114

F727 S4113

S4117

S4175

S4174 S4173 F747

S4120

S4119 F729

S4121

S4066

S4062

S4115

F711 S4065

F710 S4064

S4067

S4012

F693 S4011

S4013

S3957

S3959 S3958 F675

S3905

S3904 S3903 F657

S3851

S3849 F639

S3850

S3796

S3797

S3795 F621

F709 S4059

S4063

S4008

S4009 S4010 F692

S3955

S3956 S3954 F674

S3901

S3900 S3902 F656

S3846

S3847 S3848 F638

S3792

S3793

S3794 F620

S4060

S4061

S4006

S4007 S4005 F691

S3953

S3952S3951 F673

S3899

S3897 F655

S3898

A4146

A4166

A4176

A4186

A4196

S4021 A4021

S4031

S4041

S4051 A4051

S4176

A4084

A4081

S4061 A4061

A4104

A4094

S4025 A4025

S4035

S4045

S4081

S4071

S4186

S4162

S4161 F743

S4165

S4110

S4163

F726 S4112

S4108

S4111

S4056

F708 S4058

S4057

S4004

S4003 S4002 F690

S3949

S3948 S3950 F672

F725 S4107

S4109

S4054

S4053 F707

S4055

S4001

S3999 S4000 F689

S3947

S3946 S3945 F671

A4114

A4124

A4134

A4144

A4154

A4164

A4174

S4055 A4055

S4065

S4075

S4085

S4095

A4194

A4184

S4105 A4105

S4115

S4125

S4135

S4145 A4145

S4084

S4094

S4104

S4114

S4124

S4134

S4144

S4154

S4164

S4184

A4044

S4194

A4074

A4064

A4054

S4193 A4193

S4014

S4024

S4034

S4044

S4054

S4064

S4158

F742 S4160

S4159

S4104

F724 S4106

S4105

S4050

S4051 S4052 F706

S3997

S3996S3998 F688

S3896 F654 S3895

S3844

F637 S3843

S3845

S3790

S3791

S3789 F619

S4152

A4092

A4102

A4112

A4122

A4132

A4179

A4119

A4129

A4139

A4149

A4159

A4169

A4089

A4079

A4029

A4039

A4049

A4059

S4019 A4019

S4029

S4039

S4049

S4059

S4069 A4069

S4079

S4089

S4099 A4099

S4109 A4109

S4119

S4129

S4139

S4149

S4159

S4169

S4179

S4189 A4189

A4172

S4020

S4030

S4040

S4050

S4060

S4070

S4080

S4090

S4100

S4110

S4120

S4130

S4140

S4150

S4160

S4170

S4180

S4190

S4200

S4161

S4171

S4181

S4191

A4162

A4020

A4030

A4040

A4050

A4060

A4070

A4080

A4090

A4100

A4110

A4120

A4130

A4140

A4150

A4160

A4170

A4180

A4190

A4200

A4161

A4171

A4181

A4191

S4201 A4201

S4172

S4162

A4142

S4179

S4180 F749

S4181

S4127

S4126 S4125 F731

S4072

S4071 F713

S4184

S4183 S4182 F750

S4129

S4128 S4130 F732

S4074

F714 S4076

S4075

S4020

S4073

F696 S4022 S4018

S4021

S3966

S3968 F678

S3967

S3914

S3913 S3912 F660

S3859

S3858 S3860 F642

S3805

S3806 F624

S3804

F695 S4017

S4019

S3964

S3965 S3963 F677

S3911

S3909 S3910 F659

S3857

S3856 S3855 F641

S3802

F623 S3801 S3803

A4152

S4199 A4199

S4092

S4102

S4112

S4122

S4132

S4142

S4177

S4176 S4178 F748

S4123

S4124 F730

S4122

S4068

F712 S4070

S4069

S4014

F694 S4016

S4015

S3960

S3961 S3962 F676

S3907

S3906S3908 F658

S3853

S3852 S3854 F640

S3798

S3799

S3800 F622

S4185

S3754

S3755 A3755

S3756

S3795

S3799 A3799

A3802 S3802

A3801

A3798

S3911

A3955

A3949

A3942

S3949

S3955

A3936

A3948

A3954

S3961 A3961

S3967 A3967

S3973 A3973

S3998

S3992

S4011

S4005

S4156

F741 S4155

S4157

S4102

F723 S4101

S4103

S4047

S4049 S4048 F705

S3995

S3994 S3993 F687

S3892

S3891 F653

S3894

S3840

S3893

F636 S3842

S3838

S3841

S3786

S3788 S3787 F618

F635 S3837

S3839

S3784

S3783 S3785 F617

A4165

S3757 A3757

A3758

S3758

S3798

S3801

S3805 A3805

A3804

A3808 S3808

A3807

S3918

A3972

A3966

A3960

A3985

S3979 A3979

S3985

A3997

A3991

A4010

A4004

S4152

F740 S4154

S4153

S4098

S4100 F722

S4099

S4045

S4046 S4044 F704

S3991

S3990 S3992 F686

S3943

S3944 F670

S3942

S3888

F652 S3890

S3889

S3834

S3835 F634 S3836

S3780

F616

S3781 S3782

A4175

S4165

A3794

S3797 A3797

S3807

S3804

S3924

S3923 A3923

S3930

S3917 A3917

S3929 A3929

S3942

S3936

A3984

A3978

S3991

S3997

S4004

S4010

S4200

S4198

S4150

F739 S4149

S4151

S4096

S4095 F721

S4097

S4043

S4042S4041 F703

S3989

S3987 F685

S3988

S3940

F669 S3939

S3941

S3886

F651 S3885

S3887

S3832

S3831 F633

S3833

S3777

S3778 F615

S3779

S4175

S3794

S3800

A3760

A3759

S3760

S3759

A3800

S3803 A3803

S3806

A3941

S3935 A3935

S3941

S3948

S3954

S3960

S3966

S3972

S3978

S3984

A3990

A3996

A4003

S4009 A4009

S4003

F756 S4202

F755 S4197

S4201

S4146

F738 S4148

S4147

S4094

S4093 S4092 F720

S4039

S4194

S4199

S4144

S4143 F737

S4145

S4091

S4089 S4090 F719

S4037

S4038 S4040 F702

F754 S4196

S4195

S4140

S4142 F736

S4141

S4087

S4086S4088 F718

S4033

S4036 S4035 F701

S3985

S3986 F684

S3984

S3936

S3937 S3938 F668

S3882

F650 S3884

S3883

S3828

S3829 S3830 F632

S3775

S3774 S3776 F614

A4202

A3762

A3814

A3817

A3820

S3811 A3811

S3814

S3817

S3820

A3823

S3947 A3947

S3823

S3953

S3826 A3826

A3953

A3959

S3996

S3990

A4002

A4008

S4192

F753 S4191

S4193

S4137

S4139 S4138 F735

S4085

S4084 S4083 F717

S4030

S4034 F700

S4032

S3982

S3981 F683

S3934

F667 S3933

S3935

S3880

F649 S3879

S3881

S3826

S3827 S3825 F631

S3773

F613

S3772 S3771

A4155

S4202

S3761 A3761

S3971 A3971

S3965 A3965

S3959

S4008

S4002

S4188

S4190 F752

S4189

S4135

S4136 S4134 F734

S4081

S4031 F699 S4029

S3978

F682 S3980

S3983

S3930

S3928

S3979

F666 S3932

F665 S3927

S3931

S3876

S3877 S3878 F648

S3824

S3822 F630

S3823

S3769

F612

S3770 S3768

S3924

S3929

S3874

S3875 S3873 F647

S3821

S3820S3819 F629

S3767

S3766 S3765 F611

F664 S3926

S3925

S3870

F646

S3871 S3872

S3817

S3818 S3816 F628

S3763

S3764 F610

S3762

S4155

A4182

S3762

A3810

A3813

A3816

A3838

A3832

A3983

S3977 A3977

S3983

S3829 A3829

S3832

S3835A3835

S3838

A3995

S3989 A3989

S3995

A4001

S4007 A4007

S4001

S4186

S4185 F751

S4187

S4133

S4132 S4131 F733

S4079

S4077 F715

S4080 S4082 F716

S4026

S4024

S4078

S4028 F698

F697 S4023

S4027

S3976

S3972

S4025

F681 S3975

F680 S3974

S3977

S3922

F663 S3921

S3923

S3867

S3970

S3973

S3918

S3919 S3920 F662

S3865

S3869 S3868 F645

S3815

S3866 S3864 F644

S3814 S3813 F627

S3811

S3761

S3759 F609

S3760

S3810 S3812 F626

S3756

F608 S3758 S3757

F679 S3969

S3971

S3916

S3917 S3915 F661

S3863

S3862S3861 F643

S3809

S3808 S3807 F625

S3754

S3755

S3753 F607

A4192

S4182

A3806

S3813

S3810

A3812

S3809 A3809

S3812

A3764

S3816

S3819 A3819

S3822

S3764

S3763 A3763

A3837

A3831

A3834

A3844

S3841 A3841

A3825

S3815 A3815

A3850

A3847

S3844

S3847

S3850

A3843

S3825

A3765

A3856

S3853 A3853

S3856

A3840

A3846

A3849

A3852

A3855

S3828 A3828

S3831

S3834

S3837

S3840

S3843

S3846

S3849

S3852

S3765

A3821

S3821

A3766

S3767 A3767

S3766

A3824

S3827 A3827

S3769 A3769

S3768 A3768

S3830

A3830

S3833 A3833

S3836

S3839 A3839

S3842

S3845 A3845

S3848

A3848

S3770 A3770

S3771 A3771

S3772

A3773

S3774

S3773

A3775

S3776 A3776

S3775

A3854

F742 S3851 A3851

S3854

S4159

S3777 A3777

S4160

S3778

Fig. 2

S4192 S4195 A4195

A4185

Fig. 1

Fig. 1 Nested components

Fig. 2 Labelling of components and its relation between the panel and ribs

Fig. 3 Top to bottom, Left to right:

Using card cutter to produce precise components;

Structural ribs arranged into numerical categories;

All structural ribs arranged in categories in numerical order and referencing through original 3D model;


Fig. 3

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Drive - thru Experience Video Backup video: https://vimeo.com/67877930

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C.IV.

GATEWAY PROJECT:

ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES


Design Algorithm


Unrolling, Labelling and Nesting Algorithm


C.V. learning objectives AND OUTCOMES

118


As now reaches the final submission of journal. I have had a good understanding the formation and key elements of the age of optioneering. Through individual research and group explorations, I have gained a moderate ability to generate design varieties with a given situation through parametric modelling. The explorations had also equipped me valuable skill in parametric modelling, analytical diagramming and digital fabrication, especially the assembly of the final model. Though I have doubt of understanding the relationship between architecture and air and its connotation stated in the reader. But constant research has further developed my analytical and critical thinking skill to construct “vigorous” and “persuasive” arguments informed by contemporary architecture discourse. In addition, the exposure of parametric design provided me an insight in computational geometries, data tree structures and programming techniques. My experience in parametric modelling allows me to equip that experience as a tool in my future design process.

This projects has given me a total review of the role of computational techniques architectural design process. And in fact parametric modelling is developing as an intrinsic part of contemporary architecture design and fabrication. Through explorations, and technique development, I could obtain a fair degree of control in the process of parametric modelling. Though further experience is required to fully manipulate the technique. The value of parametric modelling in the course to me is not just about design, but also the construction and fabrication as well. With extensive use of computational techniques in the structure development stage of our design, I have gain adequate experience in using computational techniques to develope and fabricate feasible tectonic assemblies. From the labelling technique to unfolding to the exploration of Kangaroo plug-in, these experience equipped me the skill that the next generation of architect requires.

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bibliography A . Bernabeu Larena, J . Bernabeu Larena, Structures & Architecture: Chapter 235. Structural skins in contemporary architecture, ed. by Paulo J . S . Cruz (London: CRC Press, 2010), p. 529–530. Robert Woodbury, Elements of Parametric Design (London: Routledge, 2010), p. 7-48. Branko Kolarevic, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003), p. 3-28. Cecil Balmond, A+U Special Issue: Cecil Balmond (Tokyo: A and U, 2006). Cecil Balmond, Geometry, Algorithm, Pattern, The Serpentine Pavilion 2002 – Toyo Ito and ARUP. Leach, N. Digital tectonics (London: Wiley-Academy, 2004). Eikongraphia, Graffiti, by Herzog & de Meuron (2007) <http://www.eikongraphia.com/?p=1050> [accessed 5 April 2013] Neri Oxman, Cartesian Wax (2007) <http://web.media.mit.edu/~neri/site/projects/cartesianwax/cartesianwax.html> [accessed 5 April 2013]. Patrik Schumacher, Patrik Schumacher on parametricism - ‘Let the style wars begin’ (2010) <http:// www.architectsjournal.co.uk/the-critics/patrik-schumacher-on-parametri cism-let-the-stylewars-begin/5217211.article> [accessed 1 April 2013]. Ridhika db, Soma: Music Pavilion - Salzburg Biennale 2011 (2010) <http://www.designboom.com/architecture/soma-music-pavilion-salzburg-biennale-2011/> [accessed 1 April 2013]. The British Museum, British Museum - Great Court <http://www.britishmuseum.org/about_us/the_ museums_story/great_court.aspx> [accessed 1 April 2013]. Ton Deuling, Serpentine Pavilion // Case Study (2011) <http://www.collectivearchitects.eu/blog/77/ serpentine-pavilion-case-study> [accessed 5 April 2013]. Toyo Ito, El Croquis #123: Toyo Ito 2001-2005 - Beyond Modernism (Madrid: El Croquis, 2004).

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StudioAIR_S1_394107_BryanFan  

Bryan Fan 394017; Tutor: David Lister & Michael Wu

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