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Research Institutes First Annual Report


Editorial Board Editor in Chief:

Teresa Waller

Associate Editors: Dr Tracey Henshaw Joanna Babukutty Professor Susan Jobling

Thanks also go to Sally Trussler, Jean Grimshaw, the Research Support and Development Office, the Planning Office and the Brunel Research Institutes Central Support team for their contributions to the production of this Report.

For further information about research collaboration with the Institutes, please contact E T +44 (0) 1895 266200

For further information about the work of the Institutes, please contact E T +44 (0) 1895 266677

Designed and created in partnership with Research Media Ltd.

Welcome note I am delighted to introduce this first Annual Report of Brunel’s newly formed Research Institutes, in the year in which we celebrate the University’s 50th Anniversary. The Research Institutes provide opportunities for all staff, from whatever discipline, to participate in challenge-led, multidisciplinary research programmes. The way in which the three Research Institutes operate, drawing staff from across the whole university, is unique in UK higher education, and testament to Brunel’s ambition to build its profile as a world‑leading, research‑intensive institution. It is clear to me that the Research Institutes have produced a sea change in our research activity. Over the past year we have seen a large number of new and interesting multidisciplinary programmes emerge. This has driven an increase in the number of grants won, their value, and the number of staff winning grants. However, perhaps more importantly, many of us have noticed a new academic energy on the campus, driven by the new opportunities for staff to work together across and between disciplines. For many, this has been an exciting and enriching experience. I think our first Annual Report captures this new intellectual dynamism, illustrating what we have achieved already, and the opportunities that lie ahead. I commend it to you. Professor Geoff Rodgers Deputy Vice-Chancellor, Research



Contents 4

Introducing the three Research Institutes


Synthetic Biology Professor Nigel Saunders


Infographic The Research Institutes in numbers


Biomedical Engineering Professor Peter Brett


Welfare, Health and Wellbeing Professor Tess Kay


University governance


Organisational chart


Research Institute Theme Leaders


Research Institute Directors


Institute members




Institute of Energy Futures Professor Savvas Tassou Advanced Powertrain and Fuels Professor Hua Zhao Energy Efficient and Sustainable Technologies Professor Savvas Tassou


Smart Power Networks Professor Gareth Taylor


Resource Efficient Future Cities Professor Maria Kolokotroni

36 Institute of Materials and Manufacturing Professor Luiz Wrobel 38

Structural Integrity Professor Rade Vignjevic


Liquid Metal Engineering Professor Zhongyun Fan


Micro-Nano Manufacturing Professor Kai Cheng


Materials Characterisation and Processing Professor Jack Silver


Design for Sustainable Manufacturing Professor David Harrison

48 Industry partnerships


Institute of Environment, Health and Societies Professor Susan Jobling


Ageing Studies Professors Mary Gilhooly and Christina Victor


Environment and Health Professor Andreas Kortenkamp

50 International collaborations 52

Impact and outreach


Media coverage



Health Economics Professor Julia Fox-Rushby


Grants awarded




I ntroducing the three Research Institutes In 2014, Brunel University London created three Research Institutes in a bold and innovative plan to reconfigure our research activities into interdisciplinary areas of critical mass to address global, long­–term challenges facing society. These challenges require the generation of new forms of knowledge, drawing on interdisciplinary techniques and approaches that cross traditional disciplinary boundaries. Brunel’s Institutes comprise: • Energy Futures • Environment, Health and Societies • Materials and Manufacturing Each Institute draws together teams of leading and active researchers who bring multiple perspectives on the challenges within each domain. Over the past year, the Institutes have identified areas of priority for the development of long-term research programmes that will enable Brunel to make significant and inventive contributions, exploiting the range and depth of expertise across the Institute’s membership, the state-of-the-art facilities housed by the University and the strategic collaborations and partnerships we have built. The Institutes are outward facing, with collaboration at their heart. While each Institute applies itself to a different set of societal and industrial challenges, they share a common commitment to engagement with the users of research and problem solving for our collective benefit.




330 of external research funding


of proposals submitted

new funded research projects started

publications in top journals

national centres funded

61,252 Scopus citations

new collaborations with external partners

new licences signed

patent applications filed

Exhibited at

25th major industry conferences

in the Times Higher Education Top 100 World Rankings


University governance as it relates to the Research Institutes


Committees reporting

University Ethics

to Council

Health & Safety

Management committees reporting to the Executive Board

Academic committees

Senate Executive Board

reporting to Senate

Research & Knowledge Transfer Committee

For matters of strategy

For matters of Quality Assurance and Integrity

Institutes’ Research Strategy Committee

Institutes’ Research Membership Board


Research Strategy Committee

Infrastructure Strategy Committee

Research Institutes’ Management Board

Organisational chart Professor Geoff Rodgers

Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research)

Professor Susan Jobling Institute Director Institute of Environment, Health & Societies

Ageing Studies Professor Mary Gilhooly

Bio-medical Engineering Professor Peter Brett

Environment & Health Professor Andreas Kortenkamp

Professor Luiz Wrobel Institute Director Institute of Materials & Manufacturing

Professor Savvas Tassou Institute Director Institute of Energy Futures

Professor Clare Williams Dean of Research

Design for Sustainable Manufacturing Professor David Harrison

Advanced Powertrain & Fuels Professor Hua Zhao

Teresa Waller Research Support & Development

Liquid Metal Engineering Professor Zhongyan Fan

Energy Efficient & Sustainable Technologies Professor Savvas Tassou

Materials Characterisation & Processing Professor Jack Silver

Health Economics Professor Julia Fox-Rushby

Micro-Nano Processing Professor Kai Cheng

Synthetic Biology Professor Nigel Saunders

Structural Integrity Professor Rade Vignjevic

Dr Tracey Henshaw Research Institutes’ Central Support

Resource Efficient Future Cities Professor Maria Kolokotroni

Smart Power Networks Professor Gary Taylor

Andrew Ward Corporate Relations

Welfare, Health & Wellbeing Professor Tess Kay


Research Institute Theme Leaders Professor Mary Gilhooly

Professor Nigel Saunders

Professor Andreas Kortenkamp

Professor Kai Cheng

Professor David Harrison

Professor Savvas Tassou

Professor Zhongyun Fan Professor Tess Kay

Professor Maria Kolokotroni

Professor Rade Vignjevic Professor Julia Fox-Rushby

Professor Gareth Taylor


Professor Hua Zhao

Professor Jack Silver

Professor Peter Brett

Research Institute Directors Professor Savvas Tassou, Director of the Institute of Energy Futures Savvas holds a first degree and Doctorate in Mechanical Engineering and a Master’s in Business Administration, and has substantial experience in education and research management. Prior roles at Brunel include Head of the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Head of the School of Engineering and Design. Savvas currently leads the Energy Efficient and Sustainable Technologies research theme, and is also Director of the Research Councils’ UK National Centre for Sustainable Energy Use in Food Chains. Savvas’ research interests lie in energy efficient cooling and heating systems, particularly refrigeration and heat pumps.

Professor Susan Jobling, Director of the Institute of Environment, Health and Societies Susan’s work has led to the publication of numerous papers on the fate, behaviour, pharmacokinetics and endocrine effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals such as nonylphenols and phthalate plasticizers; chemicals that interfere with hormonal systems. A leader in her field, she is frequently ranked in the top 10 most highly cited environmental scientists. Among her many endeavours, she was Editor of the 2012 WHO UNEP State of the Science report on endocrine disrupting chemicals and of the European Environment Agency’s report on the same topic. In 2011, the Institute’s translation of environmental research into policy won a prestigious Queen's Anniversary Trust award.

Professor Luiz Wrobel, Director of the Institute of Materials and Manufacturing Luiz holds a PhD in Civil Engineering and was previously Deputy Head (Research) of Brunel’s School of Engineering and Design. Specialising in computational mechanics, his research interests range from structural integrity to multiphase flow and thermo-mechanical problems. He is the author/ co-author of four books on the development and application of advanced modelling and simulation techniques for a range of engineering problems, which were translated into Japanese, Chinese and Russian. Having worked and studied in institutions in both the UK and Brazil, he is the driving force behind Brunel’s participation in the Science without Borders programme, which has so far seen over 200 Brazilian students undertake exchange programmes at the University.


Institute members Institute of Energy Futures Advanced Powertrain & Fuels Prof Alasdair Cairns; Dr Jie Chen; Dr Lionel Ganippa; Dr Jun Ma; Prof Athanasios Megaritis; Dr Apostolos Pesiridis; Dr Jun Xia; Prof Hua Zhao

Energy Efficient & Sustainable Technologies Prof Hamed Al-Raweshidy; Dr Zahir Dehouche; Dr Alvin Gatto; Dr Yunting Ge; Prof Zahir Irani; Dr Hussam Jouhara; Prof Tassos Karayiannis; Dr Farbod Khoshnoud; Dr Afshin Mansouri; Dr Harjit Singh; Dr Valentina Stojceska; Prof Savvas Tassou; Dr Michail Theodoridis; Dr Jan Wissink

Resource Efficient Future Cities Mr Colin Axon; Dr Nuhu Braimah; Mr Anthony Cole; Dr Philip Collins; Prof Mizi Fan; Dr Zhaohui Huang; Dr Maria Kastrinou; Prof Maria Kolokotroni; Dr Thomas Owens; Dr Mujibur Rahman; Dr Hauke Riesch; Dr Peter Wilkin

Smart Power Networks Dr Maysam Abbod; Dr Mohamed Darwish; Dr Paresh Date; Prof Maozhen Li; Prof Guy Liu; Dr Ioana Pisica; Dr Barry Rawn; Prof Gareth Taylor; Dr Ahmed Zobaa

Institute of Environment, Health and Societies Ageing Studies Dr Anita Atwal; Prof Vasilios Baltzopoulos; Prof Peter Beresford; Dr Daniel Bishop; Dr Joanna Bridger; Prof Lorraine Desouza; Dr Gail Eva; Prof Kenneth Gilhooly; Prof Mary Gilhooly; Dr Priscilla Harries; Ms Eleanor van den Heuvel; Dr Nick Hubble; Dr Cherry Kilbride; Dr Ian Kill; Dr Chi-Pun Liu; Dr Evgeny Makarov; Dr Anne McIntyre; Dr Jago Morrison; Dr Sandra Naylor; Dr Meriel Norris; Dr Alexander Nowicky; Ms Anna Pratt; Dr Sweta Rajan-Rankin; Dr Lee Romer; Dr Jennifer Ryan; Ms Nastaran Sepanj; Dr Charles Simpson; Dr Kimberley Smith; Dr Georgia Spiliotopoulou; Dr Gabriella Spinelli; Dr Mary Sullivan; Ms Stephanie Tempest; Prof Philip Tew; Dr David Tree; Prof Christina Victor; Mrs Alyson Warland; Dr Will Young

Biomedical Engineering Prof Wamadeva Balachandran; Dr Konstantinos Banitsas; Dr Nikolaos Boulgouris; Prof Peter Brett;


Dr Laurence Brooks; Dr Krishna Burugapalli; Dr Malcolm Clarke; Prof John Cosmas; Dr Xinli Du; Prof Ibrahim Esat; Dr Lu Gan; Dr Vanja Garaj; Dr Takebumi Itagaki; Dr Ashraf Khir; Dr Szymon Klarman; Dr Christina Kolyva; Dr Carola Konig; Dr Quan Long; Miss Ruth Mackay; Dr Hongying Meng; Dr Amir Ali Mohagheghi; Dr Arthur Money; Professor Asoke Nandi; Dr Rajagopal Nilavalan; Dr Anastasia Papazafeiropoulou; Dr Predrag Slijepcevic; Mr Mohammad Swash

Environment and Health Dr Rhona Anderson; Dr Alice Baynes; Dr Concetta Bubici; Dr Abdul Chaudhary; Dr Sibylle Ermler; Dr Richard Evans; Dr Ian Garrard; Mr Christopher Green; Mr Peter Hewitson; Dr Anita Howarth; Dr Svetlana Ignatova; Prof Susan Jobling; Prof Rakesh Kanda; Dr Emmanouil Karteris; Dr Evina Katsou; Dr Stephen Kershaw; Prof Andreas Kortenkamp; Prof Suzanne Leroy; Dr Silvia Liverani; Dr Anne Lockyer; Dr Lourdes Lopez-Merino; Dr Nadarajah Manivannan; Dr Luigi Margiotta-Casaluci; Dr Olwenn Martin; Prof Mariann Rand-Weaver; Dr Edwin Routledge; Dr Tamsin Runnalls; Dr Andrew Russell; Prof Arturo Sala; Mr Martin Scholze; Dr Mark Scrimshaw; Dr Elisabete Silva; Dr Larisa Soldatova; Dr Gudrun Stenbeck; Prof John Sumpter; Prof Ian Sutherland; Dr Gera Troisi; Dr Allan Tucker; Dr Paola Vagnarelli; Dr Ariana Zeka

Health Economics Prof Douglas Coyle; Ms Kathryn Coyle; Ms Catriona Crossan; Dr Gemma Derrick; Dr Claire Donovan; Prof Julia Fox-Rushby; Mr Matthew Glover; Mrs Teresa Jones; Dr Puttarin Kulchaitanaroaj; Dr Nana Kwame Anokye; Dr Louise Longworth; Dr Joanne Lord; Dr Catherine Meads; Prof Francesco Moscone; Mr Oluchukwu Obinna Onyimadu; Dr Neil O'Connell; Dr Subhash Pokhrel; Dr Gabrielle Samuel; Dr Sabina Sanghera; Miss Jeshika Singh; Dr Simon Taylor; Dr Elisa Tosetti; Dr Keming Yu

Synthetic Biology Prof David Gilbert; Dr Crina Grosan; Dr Antima Gupta; Dr Amanda Harvey; Prof Xiaohui Liu; Dr Alessandro Pandini; Dr Mark Pook; Dr Christian Rudolph; Prof Nigel Saunders; Dr Stephen Swift; Dr Michael Themis; Dr Maria Tosi; Dr Veronica Vinciotti; Prof Zidong Wang

Welfare, Health and Wellbeing Dr Pam Alldred; Dr Nicola Ansell; Dr John Barker; Dr Andrew Beatty; Professor Susan Buckingham; Dr Amanda Croston; Dr Fiona Cullen; Dr Monica

Degen; Dr Bridget Dibb; Dr Terence Dovey; Dr Peggy Froerer; Dr Yohai Hakak; Prof Judith Harwin; Dr Lesley Henderson; Dr Laura Hills; Prof Tess Kay; Dr Sharon Lockyer; Dr Louise Mansfield; Dr Wendy Martin; Prof Lynn Myers; Dr Annette Payne; Ms Sarah Penny; Dr Frances Reynolds; Dr Daniel Rhind; Prof Clive Seale; Dr Jennifer Sheehy-Skeffington; Dr Fiona Smith; Dr Emma Wainwright; Prof Clare Williams

Institute of Materials and Manufacturing Design for Sustainable Manufacturing Dr Marco Ajovalasit; Dr Mark Atherton; Dr Marco Cavallaro; Dr Fabrizio Ceschin; Dr Youngok Choi; Dr Ian De Vere; Dr Peter Evans; Dr David Gallear; Prof Joseph Giacomin; Dr Olinkha GustafsonPearce; Dr Richard Harold Charles Bonser; Prof David Harrison; Dr Kate Hone; Dr Mark Jabbal; Dr Tatiana Kalganova; Dr Jinsheng Kang; Dr Busayawan Lam; Prof Mark Lycett; Prof Robert Macredie; Dr Alessio Malizia; Dr Koen Matthys; Dr Farnaz Nickpour; Dr Eujin Pei; Dr Ryszard Rakowski; Dr David Rees; Dr Stephen Smith; Prof Tadeusz Stolarski; Dr Antonio Vilches; Dr Yanmeng Xu

Liquid Metal Engineering Dr Kawther Al-Helal; Dr Leandro Bolzoni; Prof Dmitry Eskin; Prof Zhongyun Fan; Dr Feng Gao; Dr Yan Huang; Dr Shouxun Ji; Mr Bo Jiang; Dr Maria Jose Balart Murria; Dr Hu-Tian Li; Dr Brian McKay; Dr Hua Men; Dr Hari Nadendla; Dr Jayesh Patel; Dr Guosheng Peng; Dr Zhongping Que; Dr Mehdi Razavi; Prof Geoffrey Scamans; Dr Ian

Stone; Mr Javier Tamayo; Dr Iakovos Tzanakis; Dr Sreekumar Vadakke Madam; Dr Yun Wang

Materials Characterisation & Processing Dr Peter Allan; Dr Lorna Anguilano; Prof Paul Anthony Sermon; Prof Ashok Bhattacharya; Prof Ian Boyd; Dr Paolo Coppo; Dr Jean-Charles Eloi; Dr George Fern; Prof Christopher Frampton; Dr Paul Harris; Prof Peter Hobson; Dr Terry Ireland; Dr Jesus Javier Ojeda; Dr Manickam Jayamurthy; Prof Poopathy Kathirgamanathan; Mr Constantine Komodromos; Prof Asim Kumar Ray; Dr Dawn Leslie; Dr Paul Marsh; Prof Hari Mohan Upadhyaya; Dr Kun Qi; Dr Prabhakara Rao Bobbili; Mr Seenivasagam Ravichandran; Dr Irene Resa; Dr Alan Reynolds; Dr Alireza Salimian; Prof Jack Silver; Dr David Smith; Prof Jin-Hua Song; Dr Sivagnanasundram Surendrakumar; Prof Karnik Tarverdi

Micro-Nano Manufacturing Dr Richard Bateman; Prof Kai Cheng; Dr Rebecca De Coster; Dr Quoc Dung Ly; Dr Susan Grant; Mr Svetlin Isaev; Dr Atanas Ivanov; Dr Charalampos Makatsoris; Dr Timothy Minton; Dr Alireza Mousavi; Dr Tze Pei Chong; Dr Qingping Yang

Structural Integrity Dr Giulio Alfano; Prof Hamid Bahai; Mr Christopher Brown; Dr James Campbell; Dr Katherine Cashell; Prof Tat-Hean Gan; Dr Kevin Hughes; Dr Raymond Kirby; Dr Jane Lawrie; Dr Matthias Maischak; Dr Cristinel Mares; Prof Sergey Mikhailov; Dr Evgeniya Nolde; Dr Aleksey Pichugin; Dr Simon Shaw; Dr Kai Tai Wan; Prof Rade Vignjevic; Dr Bin Wang; Prof John Whiteman; Dr Matthias Winter; Prof Luiz Wrobel; Dr Xiangming Zhou


Institute of Energy Futures Institute Director: Professor Savvas Tassou

Smart Power Networks

Advanced Powertrain and Fuels

Resource Efficient Future Cities

Energy Efficient and Sustainable Technologies

Advanced Powertrain and Fuels, led by Professor Hua Zhao; Energy Efficient and Sustainable Technologies, led by Professsor Savvas Tassou; Resource Efficient Future Cities, led by Professor Maria Kolokotroni; Smart Power Networks, led by Professor Gareth Taylor

One of the major challenges facing society today is global warming, major contributing factors to which are economic activity and rising living standards. The challenge over the next few years is to continue to meet societal aspirations for economic growth and wellbeing whilst mitigating the impacts of population growth, increased urbanisation and global warming. National and international targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80% compared to 1990 levels, and limit average temperature rise at the earth’s surface to a maximum of 2o C compared to preindustrial levels, require the development and adoption of innovative technologies, policies, and social and business practices. In the UK, and the EU more generally, the most energy consuming sectors are transport, buildings (primarily involving heating and cooling), industry and services. The Institute of Energy Futures (IEF) capitalises on its unique engineering, mathematics and social sciences expertise, applying multidisciplinary approaches and engaging widely, to address energy demand reduction in these areas.

Institute structure Established just over a year ago, the IEF has made significant progress. Membership has grown by 50% from 30 to 45 members, with colleagues


joining from the engineering, mathematics and social sciences sectors.

Research priorities Within the Advanced Powertrain and Fuels theme, we have particular strengths in improving fuel efficiency and reducing running costs of existing engines using regenerative braking. We also use unique methodologies for the study of combustion and fuels, which involve experimental and modelling methods and the utilisation of advanced optical diagnostics. We are developing efficient bio-fuel supply chains, as well as a number of novel technologies for manufacturing biofuel from industrial waste. Within the theme of Energy Efficient and Sustainable Technologies, we host the Research Councils UK National Centre for Sustainable Energy Use in Food Chains (CSEF), which aims to reduce energy demand and emissions across the entire food chain. Other areas of strength include advanced refrigeration and heat recovery technologies, electrical and thermal energy generation from renewable sources, food processing technologies, energy storage, and advanced heat and mass transfer. The theme also possesses state-of-the art-experimental and

computational facilities to support research and development of new innovative technologies.

the food chain. The impact of the work to date includes the development and commercialisation of energy efficient technologies, considerable engagement with stakeholders and a large number of academic outputs.

Research on Resource Efficient Future Cities focuses on energy demand and environmental impact reduction; resilience and adaptation to climate change; sustainable materials for building construction; and infrastructure planning, including socioeconomic impact.

The ‘I-ThERM’ project The Institute has won a large Horizon 2020 grant on Industrial Thermal Energy Recovery Conversion and Management (I-ThERM). Co-ordinated by the IEF, the €4 million project involves 13 partners from seven EU countries that include: research organisations (RTDs), technology providers, and large and SME users.

Our research on Smart Power Networks focuses on the development of algorithms to improve distribution efficiency, and strategies to allow mass power generation from renewable energy sources to be efficiently integrated into the grid. Other areas of expertise include power electronics for efficient conversion of thermal to electrical energy; Direct Current (DC) power networks in commercial buildings and homes; and innovations to reduce electrical energy demand and optimised demand control.

The project aims to: 1. Develop and demonstrate technologies and processes for efficient and cost effective heat recovery from industrial facilities between the temperature range of 70°C to 1000°C

Institute highlights Centre for Sustainable Energy Use in Food Chains CSEF is one of six End Use Energy Demand Centres established by the UK Research Councils to address energy demand reduction in the country. It involves an investment of £12 million over five years, £6 million from the Research Councils, and the remainder from key stakeholders to address energy demand and emissions reduction from all stages of

2. Integrate the technologies with the existing energy systems, leading to energy and greenhouse gas emission savings of around 15% 3. Achieve economic performance with payback periods of less than 3 years

Vertical research themes

The Centre for Sustainable Energy

Whole system modelling UKTM

Interactions and new technologies

Innovative and new technologies

Socioeconomic aspects and human behaviour

Use in Food Chains’ main themes and work programme

Demand reduction in

Water supply security

Food security

Primary production direct energy


CSEF outcomes

Reduced enery demand

Energy demands in food chains


Reduced GHG emissions Reduced waste Reduced production costs


Consumption home/service

Energy security

Improved quality and affordability

Urbanisation, population growth, climate change, global effects External environmant


Advanced Powertrain and Fuels Theme Leader: Professor Hua Zhao

Why Advanced Powertrain and Fuels? More than 150 years after they were first produced in quantity, internal combustion engines are still the most efficient and compact power machines available. There are over one billion such engines in use across all kinds of industrial applications throughout the world, and around 200 million more are produced each year. It is reasonable to assume that the internal combustion engine will remain the dominant power plant in the near future. This being the case, the best way to improve the efficiency of engines and minimise emissions from them as a whole is to focus research efforts on internal combustion engines and the fuels they use. This is the purpose of the Institute of Energy Futures’ (IEF) Advanced Powertrain and Fuels theme.

What sub-themes are included? Sub-themes within Advanced Powertrain and Fuels include every aspect of an engine’s operation across a range of engine and fuel types. We study the fundamentals of fuel injection processes (including the modelling of fuel droplets and sprays), and focus, in particular, on injection and pollutant formation in diesel engines, and injection in spark ignition and compression ignition engines that use alternative fuels – such as biodiesel, ethanol, butanol and natural gas. Gaining a fuller understanding of these processes allows us to contribute to fuel reformation research towards


high-efficiency combustion and aftertreatment. Then there is our work on combustion itself. We examine this process in the alternative fuel engines mentioned above, but also deal with the fundamentals and applications of compression ignition combustion in gasoline engines and low-temperature combustion in diesel engines. Moreover, our investigations into more complex engine types involve probing the properties of dual fuel combustion engines as well as exploring problems such as knocking and low-speed pre-ignition in boosted spark ignition engines. Advanced boosting technologies, downsized fourstroke and two-stroke gasoline engines, and air and hydraulic powertrain technologies are also within our remit. Last, but by no means least, is our work on emissions. We have studies on technologies and systems to recover exhaust energy and heat, as well as to measure and abate gaseous and particulate emissions. To support all of our investigations across the board, we have also developed and applied our own advanced laser diagnostic and endoscopic techniques – which allow us to generate a clearer picture of what goes on inside an engine during operation.

How are research objectives being met? Brunel performs world-class research within the theme of Advanced Powertrain and Fuels, and our research into dual fuel engines has paid dividends in particular; we have significantly lowered emissions and improved combustion efficiency in a diesel and natural gas dual fuel heavy duty engine using advanced combustion processes, and similar results have also been demonstrated in the diesel and ethanol dual fuel combustion operations. The potential benefits of ethanol in both conventional and new combustion processes have been researched in a unique camless directinjection spark ignition engine capable of two- and four-stroke operations, and economical assessment of hydrous ethanol was performed to determine the optimal water content for the lowest life-cycle energy and CO2 emissions.

Several research and development projects have been successfully carried out on the diesel particulate trap and NOx removal devices in a purpose-built reactor. In a recent EU ESPIRIT project, the potential of low temperature NO oxidation by active carbon and ozone was investigated, and the results integrated into a system intended for locomotive applications. Funding from Innovate UK has enabled us to develop and optimise exhaust energy recovery systems through the Organic Rankine Cycle and other heat recovery technologies. Air hybrid is another technology that has been researched and developed to harness the vehicle kinetic energy for regenerative stop-start operations and assistant boost for buses and other vehicles. Having demonstrated its potential of 5-10% fuel savings over a typical city driving route by Yuchai, our industry partner in China, we have now turned our efforts towards adopting the technology on an engine used in double-decker buses in the UK.

Where are we going? The IEF has established itself as one of the globe’s leading research centres on controlled autoignition, also known as homogeneous charge compression ignition. A number of advanced in-cylinder optical and laser diagnostic techniques are continuously being adapted and applied to in-cylinder flow and combustion studies, a process which has been further enhanced by the establishment of a new Centre of Excellence for Engine Flow and Combustion Optical Measurements (CEEFCOM) through a large EPSRC Experimental Equipment grant of £850,000. CEEFCOM provides the academic research and industrial development communities with access to the most advanced experimental techniques for the creation of future combustion engines and the pursuit of future projects. The Centre is hosted in a newly refurbished area and comprises a range of laser-based optical equipment for flow, fuel injection, mixture formation and combustion

Single cylinder direct

studies as well as a state-of-art transparent direct injection engine. It will change the way we work and enable new possibilities within our theme. Overall, our vision is to be the foremost research centre on combustion engines and fuels for a range of applications. We are well on the way to achieving this goal.

Personal success story The faculty working on Advanced Powertrain and Fuels at Brunel have been recognised for their outstanding skills. In 2015, Hua was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering, joining other distinguished academics from renowned research institutions and technologists from world-leading engineering companies. Hua was honoured for his fundamental and applied research into novel engine combustion concepts, air hybrid engine and vehicle technologies, and advanced laser diagnostics for the development of high efficiency and ultra-low emission powertrains for the automotive industry.

Companions in collaboration Collaboration is important in any field of research and the Advanced Powertrain and Fuels theme is no exception. Productive dialogues are maintained with both industrial and academic partners in the UK and beyond. In addition to a number of EPSRC-funded projects the theme has participated in major consortium initiatives including: • 4-SPACE (EU) • NICE (EU) • ESPIRIT (EU) • Several Innovate UK projects The theme has also established important links with industry. International partners include:

injection optical engine and laser diagnostic techniques

• Ford • Jaguar Land Rover • Delphi • Lotus • Mahle • Ricardo • Shell • BP • Innospec and Johnson Matthey • IFP and Renault (France) • Yuchai and SAIC (China/UK)


Energy Efficient and Sustainable Technologies Theme Leader: Professor Savvas Tassou A large part of our work looks at heating and refrigeration systems, and thermal energy recovery. We have projects on efficient and sustainable refrigeration, cooling and heating technologies, and a number of innovative refrigeration technologies improving energy efficiency by between 10 and 25% have been developed and licensed to industry. Through our fundamental research into heat and mass transfer at microscale, we have been able to design much more efficient heat-transfer equipment. Our work on thermal energy recovery and power generation from waste heat sources concentrates on heat-pipe heat exchangers and heat-to-power conversion.

Why Energy Efficient and Sustainable Technologies? In the fight to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions on a global scale, innovations in scientific understanding and technology have a significant role to play. The aim of the Energy Efficient and Sustainable Technologies theme is to minimise the environmental impacts of energy-consuming products, services, buildings and industry through both fundamental and applied research. Our fundamental studies help us to understand the physical phenomena that underpin and influence the behaviour of individual processes and systems from micro to macro scale, and our applied work uses this knowledge to inform the development and application of innovative energy-efficient technologies and practices that lead to end-use energy demand reduction.

What sub-themes are included? Our research employs advanced modelling and simulation techniques, supported by sophisticated experimental facilities and equipment for model validation, prototype development and testing. Most of the work we do is carried out in close collaboration with key stakeholders, and is funded by national and international funding bodies and industry. It focuses on a number of key topics and sub-themes.


As well as examining what we can do to recover waste heat, we also look at how heat can help us to deal with waste. We have a project focused on developing an innovative heat-pipe based lowtemperature pyrolysis system to convert municipal waste into an inert char that can be safely used as a domestic fuel – eliminating the need to send waste to landfill. Another area that is ripe for improvement is food processing technology, and in this arena our current projects address efficient food dying using superheated steam and energy demand reduction in chilled food manufacturing and baking. Finally, we perform projects towards technologies and practices that can support these innovations. One prominent issue with renewable energy technology, for example, is that there are challenges in energy storage – and our work addresses hydrogen storage technologies, solar thermal systems and vacuum insulation. In addition, we are investigating business models and information, as well as communications technologies. This research underpins the successful development and implementation of new energy efficient technologies.

How are research objectives being met? Many success stories have come out of this research theme. Firstly, I would highlight the project on design optimisation of CO2 heat exchangers and small-scale Organic Rankine Cycle systems. CO2 refrigeration technologies are emerging as the preferred choice for commercial refrigeration and cooling applications due to their negligible

CO2 heat exchanger test rig and CFD simulation of heat exchanger

direct greenhouse gas emissions and superior efficiency in key applications over conventional refrigeration technologies. CO2 can also be used as a working fluid in new innovative heat recovery and power generation cycles from waste or biomass heat sources. With funding directly from industry, the EPSRC and Innovate UK researchers in the Energy Efficient and Sustainable Technologies theme have developed and tested improved CO2 heat exchanger designs that offer energy savings of up to 10% compared with conventional designs. They have also developed software tools for the optimal design and specification of CO2 heat exchangers for a major manufacturer in the UK, which now supplies the technology to prominent retail food chains in the UK and European markets. Building on this success, we have established – with the support of additional funding – research facilities that enable the investigation of the performance of different working fluids including CO2, and components in Organic Rankine Cycle systems. Our other great success has been with a heat‑pipe based pyrolysis system for municipal waste treatment. Municipal waste management and treatment have significant environmental impacts, and more stringent landfill legislation and costs provide motivation for the development of more effective municipal waste treatment approaches. One such approach involves the development of a domestic waste disposal system based on pyrolysis and heat-pipe technology. The project, which is funded by a waste disposal company, utilises expertise in heat-pipe technology within the Energy Efficient and Sustainable Technologies theme to investigate a low-temperature waste treatment system for home use and develop it to the proof-of-concept stage. Innovative heatpipe technology is being employed to ensure uniform heat distribution in the pyrolysis chamber, which improves system efficiency and reduces the temperature and energy required to drive the process. The patented technology has now been shown to be able to convert a wide range of waste samples to inert char and valuable organic oils. The design of the chamber enables the use of a wide range of heat sources including high temperature waste heat. The ultimate objective is for the unit to be of similar size to conventional white goods and easily installed in the home, garage, garden or communal areas.

Where are we going? Our research over the next three to five years will continue to address the priority areas listed above, and build on current activities and funding successes. In particular, we will focus on energy recovery and power generation from waste heat sources through the EU’s Horizon 2020 project ‘I-ThERM’, which we co-ordinate. We’ll continue to lead the UK Research Councils End Use Energy Demand Centre, examining energy demand reduction in food chains. Another funding achievement has been our new large EPSRC Grant, which will afford us the opportunity to further investigate the miniaturisation of heat and mass transfer equipment. We will also pursue a number of other research initiatives, which include high temperature solar thermal systems, integration of photovoltaic and solar thermal technologies, integrated energy networks, vacuum insulation and innovative energy storage technologies – among others.

Personal success story Funding from the Research Councils UK to establish the National Centre for Sustainable Energy Use in Food Chains (CSEF) has led to the development of its physical infrastructure on the Brunel campus. Costing more than £3 million to build, the Centre supports experimental and computational work. Facilities include three large environmental chambers that enable refrigeration and other equipment to be independently tested for performance evaluation and certification under controlled environmental conditions, such as air temperature, relative humidity and velocity. Members of the Energy Efficient and Sustainable Technology theme served on the Government’s Steering Committee for the development of decarbonisation roadmaps for the food sector to 2050. This work has progressed to the second stage and involves the development of decarbonisation action plans in consultation with key stakeholders.


Smart Power Networks Theme Leader: Professor Gareth Taylor in the research and development of advanced computational tools (software and hardware) for the analysis, control, operation, management and design of electricity generation, transmission and distribution systems. As a result, computer models and optimisation algorithms developed by members of this theme have been implemented in over 35 utility companies in seven countries.

How are research objectives being met? The Developing Scalable Smart Grid Infrastructure to Enable Secure Transmission System Control project, which began in 2013 and is scheduled to run until February 2016, is an example of a successful endeavour. Spearheaded by Principal Investigator Professor Gareth Taylor, the £670,000 collaborative smart grids research project involves researchers from both the UK and China. While Taylor leads the research in the UK, Professor YongHua Song of Tsinghua University leads the research in China.

Why Smart Power Networks? Energy utility companies continue to undergo rapid technological change as a consequence of international deregulation and the increasing importance of alternative and renewable sources. The Smart Power Networks theme (previously known as Brunel Institute of Power Systems) responds to evolving research requirements in these fields by focusing on the development of algorithms to improve distribution efficiency and strategies to allow mass power generation from renewable energy sources to be efficiently integrated into the grid.

What sub-themes are included? Members of the Smart Power Networks theme have strong links with the electricity industry in the UK as well as international links across Europe, China and the USA. The research draws on the disciplines of electrical power engineering, control engineering, optimisation theory, high-performance computing and ICT. The Institute of Energy Futures (IEF) is a leader in the field of handling and analysing big data provided by sensors and instrumentation, and in producing novel ICT solutions for smart grids. The theme has a record of international excellence


In the UK, as the GB transmission operator, the National Grid has established the ‘Gone Green’ scenario, which results in 35% of UK electricity coming from renewable energy sources – such as intermittent and highly variable wind power – by 2020, compared with about 6-7% today. Therefore, in the UK, the National Grid will face significant operational challenges over the next decade and beyond. Similarly, in the Guangzhou province of China, one of the most technologically advanced and operationally complex transmission systems in the world is already in place. From 2005 onwards, China Southern Power Grid has been experiencing operationally complex challenges due to the impact of large-scale renewable energy source deployment on the transmission system. It is clear that similar operational challenges, as faced in the UK by the GB transmission system operator, are also being faced by transmission network operators in China and in other parts of the world. Decision making in transmission system control centres is becoming more complex and control room actions are required to reduce timescales, and with greater reliance on more accurate risk assessment in the future to enable optimal operation of transmission systems. The proposed collaborative interdisciplinary smart grids research will investigate and develop scalable

tools on secure high-performance computing platforms that support large-scale, interoperable near to real-time data processing and data mining methods. Novel near-to-real-time simulation techniques and computational analyses will be investigated with regard to deployment and performance at high computational speeds, using scalable tools and infrastructure such as trusted cloud computing platforms or dedicated cluster computing platforms. Recent developments in secure cloud computing that exploit improved processor, chipset and platform-level security will be developed to provide protected computational environments such that critical applications cannot be compromised. The novel smart grid tools and techniques in this project can provide and support faster actions to securely control complex transmission systems in shorter time scales and therefore accommodate greater amounts of energy from renewable energy sources on an operational basis in future transmission systems. Transmission system operators in the UK, China and other parts of the world will benefit considerably from the future availability of such scalable, high-performance and secure tools when operating complex future transmission systems that accommodate greater amounts of renewable energy resources in 2020 and beyond, as they will be able to securely accommodate larger amounts of intermittent renewable energy sources and thereby enable the decarbonisation of the electricity supply industry in line with 2020 targets.

Where are we going? Research on novel heuristic optimisation techniques will have benefits for many technological applications and areas of interest to the group. The theme intends to respond to evolving research requirements and also (where possible) anticipate future needs: for example, producing novel algorithms for the operation of power systems as energy markets that incorporate risk management under technical and financial uncertainties.

Vital statistics • Internationally leading research collaborators: Sichuan University, Tsinghua University and CEPRI, China; University of Oklahoma, USA; Nester R&D, Portugal; RTE, France • Key UK-based industrial collaborators: National Grid, GE, Intel and Nortech • Current number of PhD research students: 30 • Current number of Research Associates and Research Fellows: 5

Personal success story In 2015, Professor Gareth Taylor was elected by the CIGRÉ-UK National Committee as the Regular Member of the International Study Committee SC D2 'Information Systems and Telecommunication'. The appointment was in recognition of the ongoing research activities that he has led in the development of novel ICT infrastructure for Smart Grids. In 2015, Dr Ahmed Zobaa was nominated and elected as a Fellow of the African Academy of Sciences in recognition of his excellent academic track record and ongoing research activities in the field of electrical power system


Resource Efficient Future Cities Theme Leader: Professor Maria Kolokotroni roofs and surfaces, but it could also extend to adapting communities and buildings to the thermal environment – as well as likely future environments created by climate change. Our work on end-use energy demand and energy efficiency in buildings also plays into this topic. Our built environment has to be not only constructed, but managed and updated. In this theme, we maintain projects that work throughout that cycle, investigating not only the use of natural, recyclable and smart materials in construction, but also holistic approaches to sustainable development and infrastructure management. Our investigators are also tackling roads and pavements, researching their thermal behaviour and suggesting how they can best be managed.

Why Resource Efficient Future Cities? With urbanisation increasing at an unprecedented speed and UN statistics predicting that 66% of the global population will be living in cities by 2050, there has never been a better time for us to critically examine our built environment. The Resource Efficient Future Cities theme is a multidisciplinary research group addressing national and international energy-related, societal challenges in towns and cities. Our team includes engineers and social scientists supported by business and legal experts. The aim of our research activities is to address energy demand reduction and environmental impact in cities and communities, ultimately improving quality of life and strengthening urban economies through sustainable planning.

What sub-themes are included? Investigations are carried out through a combination of field measurements and laboratory experimentation with the use of in-house and commercial software. Firstly, we look at thermal energy, examining the impact of urban heat islands on urban buildings and how these effects may be mitigated. This might mean the use of cool


Technological solutions will also play a role in the management of future cities, and that’s why we are handling the research and development of ICT systems for Chinese eco-cities, as well as exploring the possibilities offered by vehicular ad hoc networks in terms of increasing traffic efficiency and use of infrastructure. We have projects focused on the integration of renewable and passive systems with active mechanical systems into buildings, and – finally – we are publishing metrics and indicators for sustainability and energy security and policy.

How are research objectives being met? The theme’s diverse funding streams and varied portfolio of projects are supported by its staff ’s proven record in meeting and exceeding research objectives; there are many examples of this proficiency. Here are three: • A Distributed Energy Storage Network in a student accommodation building is maintained by us with members of the Smart Grids theme and Brunel’s energy manager. Moixa Technology, under a project funded by the DECC, installed 16 maslow energy storage units and high-efficiency LED lighting in Fleming Hall in August 2014. This facility is part of a 300-site deployment of Moixa’s Maslow system to demonstrate enduser and aggregate grid-balancing services. A single Maslow was installed in each of 16 flats




Closing the gap

Operational data inform energy efficient technology development that focuses on people





Energy use/ environment


Energy use/ environment

to supply all the DC lighting (corridor, kitchen, bedrooms and bathrooms) and extraction fans in the bathrooms. Maslow is a distributed battery storage system that provides power to homes, offices and flats. Each unit has 2 kWh of battery storage and supports a DC microgrid to avoid AC-DC conversions and increase the efficiency of LED lighting and consumer devices. It can store energy on smart tariffs at night or when local solar is in surplus, then export energy from its battery to reduce peak grid demand or avoid peak pricing at home. A further benefit is that if a grid power outage occurs, lighting continues to operate, meaning that students with a Maslow can carry on studying. Monitoring of the system’s performance is continuing. Preliminary analysis suggests that an energy saving of approximately 85% for the devices replaced is possible. • Clean Future Communities: Solar Powered Production of Hydrogen as Fuel for Cooking project is conducted with participation from members of the Energy Efficient and Sustainable Technologies theme. This project is funded by the ACP Caribbean & Pacific Research Programme for Sustainable Development of the European Union (EuropeAid/130381/D/ACT/ ACP); it started in 2012 and was completed in December 2015. The main objective is to investigate the application of a standalone proton exchange membrane electrolyser plant to produce hydrogen gas at a scale suitable for storage and distribution to multiple households for cooking. The motivation is to replace biomass-fuelled cooking for health reasons and LPG fuel for energy security reasons in Jamaica. The developed system is installed in experimental houses in Jamaica. There is already interest from other countries: a feasibility field study was carried out in Ghana of users’ preference and cooking needs for the uptake of the technology. Other potential applications are in off-the-grid buildings and communities in the UK as storage medium for surplus PV output, and in hydrogen to be used for hot water and heating.

• Finally, we have our Grow2Build: Natural Fibre Construction Materials project – an INTERREG IVB project that seeks to promote the use of hemp and flax (linseed) as raw materials for construction products in North West European. It has 11 partners from Germany, France, Belgium, Holland and the UK. INTERREG North-West Europe is an EU Programme to promote the economic, environmental, social and territorial future of the region. It funds activities based on the cooperation of partners from eight countries: Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Switzerland and the UK. The Grow2Build European Centre of Excellence was established at Brunel in the summer 2015 and will ensure the continuation of the funded project. The aim is to achieve a recognisable presence within the construction industry as a place to seek consultation on every aspect of flax- and hemp-based materials; from cultivation and processing to laboratory research and development to the application of marketready products.

Where are we going? The design-performance gap is becoming a more important focus for energy research. Determining how people choose to use space and energy is one of the major challenges for modelling buildings, transport and the urban environment. While maintaining our current activities, we aim to develop models and strategies suitable for studying the energy performance of future cities and valuing energy in buildings informed by engineering, social science and data analysis methodologies.

Personal success story Professor Maria Kolokotroni was elected as one of two board members to represent the UK in the longest-running project maintained by the International Energy Agency ‘Energy in Buildings and Communities’ programme: Annex 5 Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre (AIVC). The AIVC includes representatives from 18 countries.


Institute of Environment, Health and Societies Institute Director: Professor Susan Jobling environmental quality, ecology, social resilience, health and wellbeing both globally and locally. We have a number of partnerships in the health and care sectors, as well as with providers of environmental services (clean air and water, biodiversity) and of treatment and recycling of waste. We are part of West London biomedical care networks and members of the Cumberland Initiative, a Brunel-led ‘spin out’ venture involving more than 10 other universities, that aims to transform the quality and cost of NHS care delivery through simulation, modelling and systems thinking.

Institute structure The Institute for Environment, Health, and Societies (IEHS) brings together more than 150 researchers from across Brunel in business, the arts and social sciences, health, engineering, design and physical sciences.

Rapid advances in public health, health and social care, and technological development over the past 50 years or so have brought great benefits to humanity. Life expectancy is greater now than at any time in history and death rates in young children have decreased. Yet, chronic diseases and disorders such as cancer, obesity, diabetes, reproductive disorders, mental health issues, asthma and heart disease are now the principal causes of illness around the world, and there are unacceptably large social and cultural inequalities. The health of our ecological systems is also deteriorating on a scale never before seen in human history and there is growing evidence of known and as yet unknown, or unquantified, consequences to human health. How to achieve lifelong health and wellbeing for individuals and society is a global challenge that requires identification and understanding of social, economic and natural environmental drivers and the interactions between them. Underpinning our research is the belief that human health and wellbeing are rooted in the creation and maintenance of healthy social, cultural and natural environments that foster human potential, promote resilience and protect against harm. The more we know about how our environments affect health outcomes, the greater our ability to create environments that improve our health and wellbeing.

IEHS comprises six multidisciplinary research themes; key vehicles for stimulating world-class research that will sustain the natural systems that support life and which facilitate lifelong health and wellbeing for

Ageing Studies

Biomedical Engineering

Environment and Health

Health Economics

Synthetic Biology

Welfare, Health and Wellbeing

Ageing Studies, Professor Mary Gilhooly; Biomedical Engineering, Professor Peter Brett; Environment and Health, Professor Andreas Kortenkamp; Health

In addition to cutting-edge research, we ensure translation of our results into relevant and useful advice, products and services, improving


Economics, Professor Julia Fox-Rushby; Synthetic Biology, Professor Nigel Saunders; Welfare, Health and Wellbeing, Professor Tess Kay

individuals and societies.

Research priorities In Ageing Studies, we bring a range of disciplinary perspectives to address our key research challenges. We map the ways in which people age and contribute to the development and evaluation of health, as well as social care interventions, to optimise the potential for ageing well. In Biomedical Engineering, we develop novel approaches to implanting medical devices, the monitoring of implants and point-of-care diagnostics. In Environment and Health, we strive to increase understanding of the links between the health of humanity and the health of the environment, and to improve and sustain human and ecological health through applied research; providing cleaner water, cleaner air, and safer and healthier foods and medicines. The Health Economics theme includes researchers with a strong international reputation for policyrelevant and innovative research on the evaluation of healthcare technologies; the economics of public health; the measurement and valuation of health outcomes; and the assessment of research impact. The Synthetic Biology theme uses knowledgebased design to modify living systems, develop new processes and products based upon sustainable systems, and deliver new products and sustainable solutions to current and future real-world problems. There are three primary areas of activity: technologies for gene therapy; microbial synthetic biology; and computer sciences, statistics and maths for synthetic systems design. In the Welfare, Health and Wellbeing theme, we undertake research into health, welfare and wellbeing inequalities in the UK and internationally. Researchers work in multidisciplinary groupings to improve the effectiveness of health and welfare

interventions, especially for the marginalised and/or vulnerable populations.

Institute highlights What Works Centre for Wellbeing The IEHS has been successful in winning one of four collaborative awards from the ESRC and the What Works Centre for Wellbeing. The aim of this £1 million, three-year project is to conduct an evidence review of how sporting and cultural activities can benefit people’s wellbeing and to translate wellbeing measures into easy-to-use information about effectiveness, cost and applicability. The project also examines how long benefits last and how they may be differentially experienced by various groups within the population. Led by both the Welfare, Health and Wellbeing and Ageing Studies themes and colleagues at the University of Brighton, the London School of Economics and Political Science, and the University of Winchester, the full programme spans 12 universities and five civil society groups, and reaches internationally through the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

Grants awarded in 2014-15: 65 active research grants or contracts with a total value of £5 million 47 new research grants, totalling £5.9 million across the six research themes

Publications and awards The Institute of Environment, Health and Societies has: • Published 368 peer-reviewed journal articles, four patents, one performance, eight books and 20 book chapters. Published manuscripts include five Lancet papers (impact factor 45), one in Plos Medicine (impact factor 14.4), one in the New England Journal of Medicine (impact factor 55.8), one in Thorax (impact factor 8.29) and one in Nature Scientific Reports (impact factor 5.78). About a third of all publications are in ERA2010-ranked A and A* journals • Collaborated with 68 countries across the world • Launched an article entitled: ‘Estimating the returns to UK publicly funded cancer-related research in terms of the net value of improved health outcomes’ (Matthew Glover et al., BMC Medicine) at the All Party Parliamentary Group on Medical Research, House of Commons, June 2015 • Awarded the prestigious Cathy Harman Award in Sexual Health for the Biomedical Engineering group’s eSTI2 chlamydia online clinical care pathway for the first e-sexual health clinic in the UK


Ageing Studies Theme Leader: Professor Mary Gilhooly The first of these is new ageing populations. The population defined as ‘older’ is very varied, and a key area in our research is understanding the diverse of ways of growing old and the emergence of new groups living long enough to grow old. Examples of our research in these areas include the experiences of growing old in minority communities, ageing without children, growing old with Downs Syndrome and ageing with disabilities such as multiple sclerosis. The second area is concerned with the environments of care; the social and physical environments that significantly influence the quality of life of older people. Our research examines how design can promote ageing well, how stopping driving poses challenges for older people and how social or technological interventions can mitigate some of these challenges – such as the detection of financial abuse of older people, and the impact of loneliness and isolation in compromising quality of life in old age.

Why Ageing Studies? The overall aim of the Ageing Studies theme is to advance our knowledge and understanding of how to improve the health and quality of life of older people. We bring a range of disciplinary perspectives to addressing our key research challenges: maximising the ability of people to age well, mapping the diverse and dynamic ways that people age, and contributing to the development and evaluation of health and social care interventions that optimise the potential for ageing well. Old age brings a range of challenges such as the onset of chronic illness or bereavement, events which can compromise quality of life and may require the use of health and social care services. As very few of us will die before we get old, it is important to undertake research into the experience of ageing and later life.

What sub-themes are included? Our theme, which has 40 members, embraces the four key disciplinary perspectives that underpin the understanding of ageing well: social and behavioural sciences, biology, clinical and health sciences, and arts, humanities, policy and politics. In the main, however, our research focuses on three key areas of activity.


Finally, we devote a portion of our research to ageing and public health. There are a number of age-related health problems, and our work focuses on key areas such as stroke, dementia, falls, incontinence and ageing with a number of health problems; we pay particular attention to the evaluation of prevention, interventions and services. Our research on incontinence focused on raising awareness of continence issues, improving public understanding of treatment services and developing assistive devices for older people with continence disability.

How are research objectives being met? Our approach to these research areas is interdisciplinary, and we strive to extend our understanding of these subjects by asking novel questions, reframing questions and looking at established topics in more depth. The two case studies below provide examples of these approaches. Case Study 1 - Financial elder abuse Our first case study is a project on detecting and preventing the financial abuse of older people, a significant problem. In the UK, at least 70,000 older people each year have money stolen from them by people they trust and, with the number of older people placing their financial affairs in the hands of others rapidly increasing, detecting and preventing

such abuse is an important national challenge – especially given that many of the most vulnerable suffer from cognitive impairments such as dementia, which can also lead to false accusations. Professors Kenneth Gilhooly, Mary Gilhooly and Priscilla Harries, as well as Dr Mary Pat Sullivan, have completed a programme of funded studies to help professionals caring for older people develop policy and procedures not only to uncover abuse, but to intervene effectively to prevent it occurring. They found that, while many large financial organisations had guidance for staff about financial abuse, it was not clear that this was ‘fit for purpose’. The team developed a range of key indicators for use by professional staff to highlight that abuse was occurring and developed a web-based training tool for those dealing with the financial affairs of older people.

What marks out 21st-Century Britain, as well as other countries in the developed world, is the number and proportion of people who live to old age. In Britain, life expectancy at birth is now 81 years – and 17% of our population, 11 million people, are aged 65 and older. There are 13,000 centenarians, people aged 100 years or more

This research raised awareness of a largely hidden problem, and the project also had major international impact – with the training resources on accessed by professionals as far as the US and New Zealand. In the UK, the work has been endorsed by bodies as diverse as the College of Occupational

The Ageing Studies theme has found that: • Fitness-to-drive decisions by occupational therapists (OT) can be improved using a decision-aid developed using statistically modelled international judgement policies of expert OT driving assessors • Adults with cerebral palsy have a higher prevalence of a number of age- and life-style related chronic diseases such as stroke and arthritis • A single continence promotion intervention delivered to groups of older women by trained

Therapists, the Building Societies Association and multidisciplinary fraud detection agency CIFAS. The team has developed this work further by extending the study to look at the occurrence of financial abuse within the power of attorney system. Case Study 2 - Loneliness Our second case study project asks: why aren’t all old people lonely? One of the most enduring stereotypes of old age and later life is that of the ‘lonely old person’. Loneliness is presented as being synonymous with later life and as something that is almost part of normal ageing. Research by Professor Christina Victor, Dr Mary Pat Sullivan and Dr Jitka Pikhartova has focused on understanding the extent of loneliness in later life, how it changes as people age and rethinking the factors linked to loneliness. We also followed up a cohort of people to map changes in loneliness over a year, and showed that the biggest increases in loneliness were recorded in the summer months and not in the Christmas/ winter periods as commonly perceived. A range of groups, such as the widowed, are especially vulnerable to experiencing loneliness in later life – but we have shown that the experience is not universal, and we have identified that older people from minority communities are also highly vulnerable to loneliness. In addition, we have shown that those with negative stereotypes about, and low expectations of, old age are more likely to experience loneliness than those with a more positive outlook. We are now focusing on understanding what the factors are that protect the majority of people from experiencing loneliness in old age.

facilitators can significantly improve continence status in communitydwelling women aged 65 and older • People ageing without children have the same concerns about future care as people with children. Most are able to compensate for the lack of help from children via financial resources and other family members such as nieces and nephews • Having immortalised HutchinsonGilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) cells, the Brunel progeria group has now established a sensitive test that is able to determine the levels of normal protein with the level

of toxic protein progerin. This can be used as a diagnostic for HGPS patients and an endpoint tool to look for small molecule treatments • Fear of falling is linked with reduced visual search and inefficient attentional processing which, in turn, increase fall risk • Although alcohol use is normally seen as an obstacle for healthy ageing, our in-depth research on the role of alcohol in retirement found that alcohol provides connections with preretirement rituals and an access point for participation in post-retirement social life


Environment and Health Theme Leader: Professor Andreas Kortenkamp extreme weather events, such as convection storms leading to cataclysmic floods.

Why Environment and Health? Environmental and lifestyle factors can greatly influence our health and wellbeing, as well as affecting ecosystems and wildlife. An intimate understanding of such factors – chemical substances, for example, or changes in radiation or temperature – is urgently needed to better understand disease trends in humans and adverse effects on wildlife. Our research in the area of environment and health can provide the foundations necessary to pinpoint preventable causes of ill-health and adversity; and underpin development of evidence-based primary prevention policies. A second important focus for our research is to understand the impacts of human civilisation on Earth's natural systems and the ecosystem services that support us. We are developing technologies and approaches to prevent and remedy pollution as well as to renew and restore degraded ecosystems.

What sub-themes are included? The Environment and Health theme is one of the largest in the Institute of Environment, Health and Societies (IEHS); there are now more than 40 theme members whose research focuses on four particular areas.


Environmental change: By investigating environmental and biodiversity changes that happened millions of years ago, theme members reconstruct biological resilience to environmental change and apply this knowledge to current biodiversity crises. The knowledge gained in the course of this work will enable us to model future diversity shifts under different global change scenarios. We also research the factors that trigger

Chemicals, human and ecosystem health: Our society is entirely dependent on the use of chemicals, and there are tens of thousands of substances in commercial use, including pesticides, biocides, pharmaceuticals, personal care product ingredients and industrial chemicals. This means that humans and ecosystems are exposed to large numbers of chemicals simultaneously, all at rather low levels. We research the consequences of this combined exposure, with a view to improving chemical risk assessment and chemical regulation. This research had already had a considerable impact in the regulatory arena. The widespread use of myriad chemicals also poses two additional challenges: that of testing all these substances to ensure their safe use, and that of measuring exposure to multiple chemicals in human tissues and wildlife. We are investigating new testing strategies by which this can be done in a cost-effective and meaningful way, without testing in animals. This relies on new computational and machine-learning approaches. Capturing the totality of chemical exposures, the so-called exposome, requires novel approaches in chemical analytical technologies coupled with biological testing. Clean water and air: Existing water clean-up technologies are stretched to their limits when it comes to removing chemicals from effluent in sewage treatment works. This is particularly true of highly active and potent chemicals that are present at minute levels – hormonally active chemicals, for example. These challenges call for innovative approaches, such as novel enzyme mimetics that can effectively destroy water-borne chemical pollutants. We are also researching energy-efficient solutions for the renovation of existing wastewater treatment plants by applying low-carbon techniques which can recover materials that are otherwise lost. We are working on technological solutions that can prevent the emission of polluting substances into air and water at the source, for example by re-designing the toilet as well as engineering solutions to polluting emissions from shipping. The pollution of surface waters with chemicals necessitates innovative technologies that can

ensure effective pollution monitoring and water quality management. We are developing efficient, user-friendly water monitoring strategies and systems that will provide real-time data for important water quality parameters, and showcasing eco-innovative autonomous and radio controlled boats, sensors, DNA test kits and run-off treatment technologies. Biological systems and signalling: Finally, many disease processes are the result of the disruption of cellular signalling networks. We are conducting basic research on such networks, in an attempt to underpin a better understanding of cancer, obesity and ageing.

How are research objectives being met? In the Environment and Health theme, our successfully completed research objectives are often accompanied by discoveries with obvious significance for policy makers and the public. There are two recent examples of this. The first is our work on the removal of ethinylestradiol ecotoxicity by using a novel synthetic peroxidase enzyme replica. Ethinylestradiol (EE2) is a synthetic oestrogen in oral contraceptives, and is found in inland waterways worldwide as a result of human consumption and excretion into wastewater treatment systems. At very low concentrations, EE2 induces feminisation of male fish, which diminishes reproductive success and can cause fish population collapse. To protect the aquatic environment from these effects, we need to meet rigorous water quality standards for EE2 – but these are hard to achieve with existing clean-up technologies. Theme members have evaluated the effectiveness of a small-molecule, fully functional peroxidase enzyme replica called TAML, in destroying EE2 under conditions found in wastewater treatment plants. The enzyme replica TAML curtailed the effects of EE2 in a test tube assay. It substantially diminished fish feminisation when the fish were exposed to water contaminated with EE2 and treated with TAML. These findings are an exciting starting point for a future clean-up process in which tens of thousands of tonnes of wastewater could be treated in an energy-saving, environmentally compatible way. The second example of the impact our work has concerns surprising combination effects of chromosome-damaging chemicals not anticipated by conventional safety testing. Chemicals used to kill worms in agriculture, certain anticancer drugs and other synthetic substances have the ability to break the chromosomes in living cells. This may have serious consequences in terms of cancer risks. As a result of this toxicity, fragments of genetic material become visible in the cytoplasm of the affected cells, so-called micronuclei. Dose-escalation experiments show that these chromosome-damaging effects do not occur below

certain levels of the chemicals. It is important to establish such threshold levels, as they are used to define safe levels of the chemicals. Researchers in the Environment and Health theme wanted to know if the cells were safe from chromosome-damaging effects if several of these chemicals were combined at concentrations below their threshold levels. In experiments with mixtures of up to five of these chemicals, substantial chromosome damage was observed, although each substance was individually present at concentrations well below its threshold. This observation shows that the conventional safety testing philosophy breaks down when there is exposure to several chemicals that jointly produce the effect under consideration. In real life, such mixed exposures are the rule, rather than the exception.

Where are we going? Research in the next three to five years will continue to address the priority areas mentioned above, and will build on the outcome of the high-profile international projects we have won for the IEHS. The EU-funded doctoral training network PRIDE will be an engine for research on paleoenvironmental changes. The EU-funded FP7 project SOLUTIONS will develop strategies for the prioritisation of water-borne pollutants for emission reduction measures, and for the assessment of the combined effects of exposures to multiple chemicals in water. This research will lead to significant improvements of current EU water regulations. Very recently, theme members were successful in attracting significant EU funding for projects on developing novel technologies for sewage treatment, and on innovative water quality monitoring technologies; we look forward to further exploring these areas in the future.

Personal success story In collaboration with AstraZeneca, postdoctoral researcher Luigi Margiotta Casaluci has developed a quantitative species-extrapolation approach to predict the adverse effects of pharmaceuticals in fish using data generated during human drug discovery and development. Predicting these effects with high accuracy is a critical step towards ensuring the protection of environmental health, but it also has significant scientific, ethical and economic implications; it enables a significant reduction in the number of animals used in regulatory toxicology studies, and accelerates the environmental risk assessment process while maintaining scientific reliability. The impact of our approach is already being demonstrated by its rapidly growing popularity among both regulatory scientists and pharmaceutical companies.


Health Economics Theme Leader: Professor Julia Fox-Rushby

focused on the promotion of healthier lifestyles, (e.g. increased physical activity and tobacco control) and prevention of infectious disease. We work alongside before/after studies as well as clinical trials, using decision-modelling and econometric estimation. Methodological research tests alternative specifications for key economic variables in demand models, develops decisionsupport models for commissioners, and considers the incorporation of short-term and non-health benefits in economic evaluations.

Why Health Economics? The Health Economics theme aims to improve health and wellbeing through improved decisionmaking. We focus on economic evaluation and systematic reviews of a broad range of clinical and health service technologies by providing highquality, applied, policy-relevant research, as well as developing and refining methods to increase the rigour and relevance of such studies.

What sub-themes are included? Four streams of research underpin this theme. The first is the evaluation of health technologies; we specialise in the evaluation of nonpharmaceutical interventions, such as medical devices, interventional procedures, screening and diagnostic tests. The methods we use include costeffectiveness analysis based on clinical trial data and decision analytic modelling. We also conduct systematic reviews in a wide variety of health topics and alongside economic evaluations. Our research involves the development and testing of new methods of analysis and how economic evidence is used in decision-making. The second research stream examines the economics of public health. Research here has


Measurement and valuation of healthcare outcomes is our third research stream. Our research includes measuring the impact of health interventions on people’s quality of life and wellbeing. We also develop and use methods for eliciting preferences for different states of health and types of healthcare interventions. In addition, we work on the design of questionnaires to measure and value changes of health generally, and in people who have specific diseases. We are developing new research to account for the benefits of healthcare beyond health. Finally, we evaluate the payback from expenditure on research. This work develops, refines and applies methods for assessing the scientific and wider impact of health research. Our internationally acclaimed 'payback' framework has been used to assess research funded by, for example, the Medical Research Council and the the Australian National Breast Cancer Foundation. Methodological research is focused on valuing benefits from research, and developing frameworks aimed at improving wellbeing beyond healthcare.

How are research objectives being met? Some of our most successful projects have already met with a lot of attention and publicity. This August, BBC News reported that listening to music before, during and after an operation can help reduce pain. Dr Catherine Meads from the Health Economics theme, as well as researchers at Queen Mary University of London found evidence to confirm, for the first time, that people who listened to music experienced reduced pain and anxiety and were less likely to request pain relief. The study involved analysing the results of 73 randomised controlled trials to produce one

Another endeavour that has been in the public eye is our long-standing research into the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of abdominal aortic screening (AAA). New research has shown that not only is AAA screening implemented in England still highly cost-effective, but that it would be efficient if surveillance intervals could be extended for men screened and found to have smaller aneurysms. Current funding from the National Institute of Health Research with colleagues at the Universities of Cambridge, Imperial and Leicester investigates whether, and under which protocols, screening women may be cost-effective.

Examining a patient for abdominal aortic aneurysm

systematic review. The review included data on adult patients undergoing a variety of surgical procedures, with or without anaesthesia, to any part of the body. The only exclusions were surgery on the central nervous system, head and neck (because of potential hearing impairment). The study was published in The Lancet (Hole J, et al. ‘Music as an aid for postoperative recovery in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.’ The Lancet. 2015, 386, 10004, p.1659–1671). Choice of music, timing and duration varied in all the studies analysed, and evidence showed these factors made little difference to the outcome. Music was effective even when patients were under general anaesthetic. Catherine commented: “Following our review of the evidence… we’re asking, why is this not part of routine medical practice?” Most people undergo a surgical procedure at some point in their lives. Around 4.6 million hospital admissions lead to surgical care in England. We hope now to produce advice leaflets on preparing for surgery in hospitals, so patients know to take music with them to listen to it before, during or after the procedure, as directed by hospital staff.

This work has been documented in a number of published papers, including one in the British Journal of Surgery (Glover MJ et al. ‘Costeffectiveness of the National Health Service abdominal aortic aneurysm screening programme in England’. Brit J Surg 2014, 101(8):976-82) and in Health Technology Assessment (Thompson S et al. ‘Systematic review and meta-analysis of the growth and rupture rates of small abdominal aortic aneurysms: implications for surveillance intervals and their cost-effectiveness’. Health Technology Assessment 2013, 17, 41).

Personal success story Health Economics alumnus James Chambers has been presented with the prestigious International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Award for Value in Health Paper of the Year. The paper, relating to James' PhD thesis, examined the potential cost savings and health benefits that could be achieved from reallocation of US Medicare expenditures based on costeffectiveness information and was published in the journal Value in Health (Chambers J et al. ‘Illustrating Potential Efficiency Gains from Using Cost-Effectiveness Evidence to Reallocate Medicare Expenditures’. Value in Health 16 (2013) 629-638). The award, established in 2011, promotes quality research, originality and utility in healthcare decisions.


Synthetic Biology Theme Leader: Professor Nigel Saunders

Why Synthetic Biology? Synthetic Biology is poised to revolutionise a range of fields, from medicine to energy to environmental protection. We can use synthetic biology to detect and remove environmental contaminants and create safer and cleaner air and water. We can also use synthetic biology to improve applications that would monitor and respond to disease in humans and animals, and develop new medicines that are more effective and efficient than ever before. We believe synthetic biology provides a means by which we can achieve a truly sustainable future. It provides both the demonstration that total sustainability is possible, and the means to provide it through appropriate engineering and modification of biological systems. The overall aim of the Synthetic Biology theme is to address major environmental, health and societal challenges by engineering biological systems such that they display functions that do not exist in nature, as well as re-designing existing biological systems so that they perform new functions.

What sub-themes are included? Our research focuses on three key areas of activity. The first is technologies for gene therapy; some diseases and disorders happen because certain genes work incorrectly or no longer work at all. We are designing therapeutic interventions for human diseases and disorders by developing the technologies to correct defective genes. Our current projects within this area look at vector development for effective gene therapy,


assessing and avoiding the risks of gene therapy (genotoxicity) and using the technologies of gene therapy to give new insights into cancer development. Then there’s microbial bioengineering. The most exploitable and engineerable organisms are bacteria, so we want to harness their capacity and diversity to create white technologies – those which cause no harm. Our research uses integrated genomics strategies to direct bacterial engineering for a number of translational applications. We look at possible ways to create novel bacteria – bacteria that can produce clean proteins, for example, or bacteria that can improve the performance of cement. Using bioengineered microbes, we look at ways to degrade environmental pollutants; generate products using alternatives to petrochemicals; and reuse waste biomaterials from biomass and biodiesel manufacture. There are even investigations within our theme into ways of addressing antibiotic resistance in medically important bacteria. We are exploring other areas, and are open to developing new lines of research that will make the best use of the strain and widely applicable tools for strain assessment and development, especially when they are directed at projects that have sustainability as part of what they seek to achieve. Finally, in computer sciences, statistics and maths, we are working on data analysis, bioinformatics, and system modelling to inform synthetic system

design and efficient laboratory engineering strategies. These outcomes will support our other strands of research.

How are research objectives being met? In technologies for gene therapy, we are focusing on engineering and testing gene delivery systems and investigating how they are best targeted. We have a real strength in the area of gene delivery and use the most recent viral and non-viral vectors that have been demonstrated to be effective in achieving targeted and permanent or transient gene transfer. Complementing this work, and as a further platform for future research in this area, we have a strong position in the use of animal models of genetic disease. Our approach in microbial synthetic bioengineering is to mine existing and deliberately evolved diversity to produce bio-parts for engineering and design. The primary strategy here is based on new ways of using next-generation sequencing to find, define and exploit the parts. We have invented new ways to define the parts consistently, so that the reasons why bacteria behave differently can be identified, and to then exploit the relevant different components within them to design and build new, better versions – which can be used to build a better world through the creation of improved products and processes. Our objectives include better fuels, petrochemical replacements, better plastics, drug precursors, and bacteria to remediate environmental pollution. We are now building a national collection of bacteria for many applications through the national innovation and knowledge centre for synthetic biology and its partners, so that we can rapidly translate what we have done into progress in synthetic biology across the UK.

Where are we going? To give a couple of specific examples of how our work is progressing, here are two case studies: • Firstly, in targeted gene therapies, we have developed specific skills in vector safety and have exploited this by developing a robust genotoxicity platform with a solid tumour phenotype. This project supports our expertise in vector development and production, and has benefited enormously from our collaboration with Professor Christof von Kalle and Dr Manfred Schmidt at the Division of Oncology DKFZ, Heidelburg, Germany, who support our safe vector insertion site research. We have some of the UK’s bestrecognised experts in using animal models to explore treatments for inherited genetic disorders at our disposal, and are working towards parallel studies exploiting our expertise in this

area to other similar disorders such as Fragile X syndrome. • In our microbial synthetic bioengineering strand, we are tackling a very different challenge. Synthetic biology strategies used to date do not properly exploit the fact that we now have the opportunity to use multiple genomes from different strains as a starting point (rather than annotating and working in the same way that we did when we had only one or a few). Also, the sequences and strains used for experimentation are normally physically separated – making comparative experimental genomics impossible for most. We have directly addressed these issues in order to pursue our synthetic biology objective; starting more than two years ago, we are developing a completely new approach from the bottom up. The new approach and methodology is now fully established in-house. The Valor Plus EU FP-7 programme is supporting the development of strains of various bacteria species for their fermentation properties and ability to use waste glycerol from biodiesel manufacture.

Personal success story Professor Nigel Saunders was awarded the first interdisciplinary research award from our inhouse Research Catalyst Fund, to identify critical components for future design and construction of optimised strains of bacteria for a variety of industrial applications. Applications include a collaboration with Professor Mizi Fan to engineer self-healing concrete, exploiting the calcium binding effects of bacterial capsules, urease activity to generate reactive ammonia, carbon dioxide to generate calcium carbonate in micro-fractures and the longevity, and alkali resistance properties of spore forms of bacteria. Project two is in collaboration with Professor Rakesh Kanda and aims to identify metabolic pathways that are applicable to the degradation of particular environmental chemical pollutants, as well as genes and alleles that can be exploited to create engineered organisms with enhanced degradation properties. Dr Svetlana Ignatova will perform optimisation of protein production and purification strategies in order that saleable strains can be developed rapidly and efficiently.


Biomedical Engineering Theme Leader: Professor Peter Brett automated screening technology for first point of care; and, finally, investigations into care and recovery for high-priority conditions such as stroke and dementia.

How are research objectives being met? Conducted by multidisciplinary research teams, drawn from our pool of experts in engineering and clinical professions, the research is delivering real solutions compatible with the unmet needs in practice. Bioengineering at Brunel is well supported by premier clinical teams both nationally and internationally. Top, and leading, clinical practitioners and clinical centres of excellence are an essential ingredient to augment growth in this research field. We will be appointing more visiting professors for research to both acknowledge and reinforce the participation of internationally leading clinical experts.

Why Biomedical Engineering? Technology is a key enabler for medicine and health. Bioengineering at Brunel is investigating new technology to increase the standard of healthcare provision and access to it. The research is delivering innovative smart devices; modelling and software systems that enable greater access, precision and efficiency in therapy and diagnosis; and improved restoration of function and rehabilitation opportunities for patients.

What sub-themes are included? There are a variety of examples of our unique approach from different strands of our research. Staff within biomedical engineering are working in teams to build research in specific areas that serve current and future prominent unmet needs in health. The aim is to output real solutions for application in practice. The expertise for achieving the necessary fundamental innovation in technology and experience of application in practice exists within the research team. Our work covers three main areas: the development of medical devices, including robotic surgical tools, as well as implants – particularly those used in otology and cardiology; research on technology to improve access to healthcare, encompassing telemedicine in primary care and


One of our most successful projects has been Diagnostic Technologies for Precision Medicine. This endeavour, led by Professor Wamadeva Balachandran in a new Centre of Excellence, enables prompt and appropriate treatment at the point of care. Automatic diagnostic systems on a chip, working at the scale of micro-fluidics, are used to provide near-instantaneous results from a patient sample, such as urine or swab. The lowcost approach addresses the unmet need to widen access to diagnostic processes, both within the developed and developing world. The Centre brings together leading professionals from engineering, design, life sciences, health economics and systems biology as well as key external clinical collaborators.

Where are we going? Currently, we are focusing on four key areas: sample preparation, plastic microfluidics, paper microfluidics and the organ-on-a-chip concept. Increasing our knowledge of microfluidic devices opens up the possibility of creating automated devices that can take raw sample input (blood, urine or saliva), process the sample in under 30 minutes and produce rapid results with the capability to detect multiple pathogens. The organ-on-a-chip concept is a little different; these devices can be used for fundamental studies on organ-like tissues to achieve high-throughput screening of new drugs under development.

the fundamentals of the application of automatic invasive devices in the body have imposed significant challenges. At Brunel we have the first surgical robot guided by the state of tissues and tissue interactions, as opposed to scan data or visual feedback. This has already been deployed in theatre.

Vision of a sample diagnosis device

From this advance we have derived a device that interacts with the state and motion of both tissue and operator as a hand-guided surgical robotic tool. In contrast with scan data guided systems, the precision of tool position with respect to the tissue is, in general, a few orders of magnitude greater with respect to the position of deforming tissues. The new solution is guided by hand, requires little set-up time, and comes with low infrastructure costs and training requirements – since the tool adopts the form of conventional tools. The result is both precise and consistent. This approach will likely extend the benefit of robotics to a wide range of invasive processes, and if such tools are considered single-use, will make a considerable contribution to building markets for surgical robotics and the sustainability of manufacturers.

Hand-guided surgical robotic tool

In current work we are targeting STDs and TB. The research is undertaken as part of the eSTI2 consortium ( Another project deals with surgical robots in the tissue environment. In the field of robotics and smart devices for surgery research, the theme is building towards a vision of devices that assist the transformation of health provision, integrating diagnosis and therapy across the health sectors. The technical approach will widen access to treatment, and increase precision and consistency by allowing controlled interaction between tool and tissues in real time. This goal aligns with future projections of health provision in the developed world, and addresses the fundamental question of available surgical expertise in the developing world, emergency care and, more generally, remote health provision. Much energy has been devoted to determining the optimal application and benefit of robotic technology to surgical processes over the past three decades, and there have been notable achievements. Both the impact of advanced devices in the operating room environment and

To date, this robotics research is focused on processes in otology, vascular surgery and neuromodulation, for which the outcome of being more precise with respect to the tissue is both measurable and obvious. Recently, working with research partners in Bern and the University Hospitals Birmingham Trust, investigations have produced a system to maximise tissue preservation and minimise trauma in cochlear implantation. In parallel, research on the design of single-function and single-use surgical robots addresses the vision more fully, and is the subject of current research proposals.

Personal success story In June 2015, Professor Wamadeva Balachandran was part of the interdisciplinary team of researchers that won the prestigious Cathy Harman Memorial Prize for Multidisciplinary Team Innovation from the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV. The eSTI2 consortium, funded by the UKCRC, is made up of academic, commercial and clinical partners, including St George’s, University of London and Public Health England. It has conducted basic and translational research to develop the eSTI2 Chlamydia Online Clinical Care Pathway, the first e-Sexual Health Clinic in the UK. The project built on the pioneering work of Wamadeva and his team in developing technologies to support rapid point of care diagnosis of infectious diseases.


Welfare, Health and Wellbeing Theme Leader: Professor Tess Kay of sport, and youth and community studies. Their studies range from a focus on the experiences of individuals through to those which address the agencies and structures that affect them, including international, national and local governmental partners, and third-sector and commercial organisations. There is a strong international flavour to our research, which is conducted throughout Europe, Africa and Asia, and includes projects with global scope.

Why Welfare, Health and Wellbeing? Researchers in the Welfare, Health and Wellbeing theme believe that good research can contribute to social justice by revealing the causes of inequalities, informing effective responses to them, and giving voice to those who often go unheard. That is why we work in the UK and internationally to improve knowledge of the social processes that contribute to people’s welfare, health and wellbeing. We especially aim to increase understanding of the situations of vulnerable and at-risk populations, including those who are disadvantaged by deprivation, afflicted by illness and disability, or otherwise marginalised. We address these challenges through robust, ethical research and by developing innovative methodologies to advance how research, knowledge production and evaluation are conducted. We have strong connections with policy making and practice, and a commitment to social impact and public engagement.

What sub-themes are included? Welfare, Health and Wellbeing applies diverse disciplinary expertise to a wide agenda of contemporary social issues. Theme members are drawn from across the University’s Colleges of Health and Life Sciences and Business, Arts and Social Sciences, creating a rich intellectual community that offers the multidisciplinary approaches that today’s complex societal challenges demand. Our experienced researchers, who number around 25, offer specialisms in sociology, psychology, anthropology, geography, education, literature, performing arts, social science


The scope in terms of topics covered is also broad. All of our work is underpinned by principles of social justice, with a number of our studies specifically informing practices to redress forms of discrimination and provide protection from harm. In Europe, separate projects are addressing genderbased violence (GBV) affecting young people, GBV in European universities, and GBV in sport. In England our research into families with drug- or alcohol-addicted parents has informed the creation of a specialist family court that can address these situations more quickly than regular care services. We apply a range of disciplinary perspectives to the study of people’s experience of health and illness across the life course. Our work here includes studies of adjustment to chronic illness and disability, including for those involved in caregiving. We also address experiences and barriers to health and wellbeing in everyday life across the life course. Our theoretically and methodologically innovative studies on culture, creativity, health and wellbeing address qualitative dimensions of health experiences. They include research into comedy, health and wellbeing; the meanings of arts and crafts for people living with illness; health-related storytelling through popular fictional media; the use of creative writing and dramatherapy to challenge the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM); and the use of photography to engage research participants in representing their everyday experiences. Brunel’s social science research in sport, another strong suit for us, includes world-leading investigations into child protection in sport. Current work with UNICEF and the NSPCC is informing the development of standards for safeguarding young people in sport worldwide. Several studies support the national agenda to promote physical activity

through sport, working with diverse policy makers and providers in community and school settings to enhance the delivery of sport opportunities. Much of the theme’s research is focused on children, youth and young adults, who are prominent in our work on social justice, health behaviour and sport. This includes work in the UK addressing health behaviours in community and educational settings; work in Europe addressing a wide range of health and relationship issues for adolescents; and multiple studies with young people in low-income countries. Our studies in low-income countries address a broad social change agenda as part of our critical development work. These include studies in Africa on the impact of social cash transfers on generational relations and youth poverty trajectories in rural Lesotho and Malawi, and – in India – research into education, aspiration and social mobility among rural communities. More specialist approaches include our projects in Africa using dramatherapy to enable autobiographical storytelling in underprivileged communities, and our work with community organisations using sport to deliver HIV-AIDS education and promote gender empowerment. Our research in health behaviour addresses physical (in)activity and eating behaviours, two major risk factors for non-communicable diseases. In relation to physical activity and sedentary behaviour, we work with Public Health England, Sport England and Macmillan Cancer Support to address barriers to healthy behaviour in families, communities and workplaces, and develop more effective evaluation methodologies for public health interventions. In the area of diet and eating behaviours, theme research includes specialist work with children with restrictive feeding disorders, and a contribution to inform government policy restricting direct advertising to children for unhealthy food items.

How are research objectives being met? We have a good track record in obtaining funding that supports innovative, relevant research into some of the most pressing social issues – ranging from major national and international studies, to high-quality, localised ones. Our portfolio of projects is very varied, reflecting the diverse disciplines represented in the theme, but there are some common features to our work which are important ingredients in our successes. One of these is our collaborative approach to research: we embrace partnership in all aspects of our studies, from the design stage through to implementation and then dissemination. We work with academics and other experts in the UK and internationally to develop projects that are informed by the best expertise available, and also collaborate with research users in the co-production of knowledge, which helps ensure the relevance of our work.

Another defining feature of the theme’s research is the importance attached to social value: Brunel has a long track record of working with practice communities and fostering public engagement — most of us were working to an impact agenda long before we had to! Finally, theme members are often working in challenging situations, conducting research on sensitive topics with vulnerable or difficult to access groups; we benefit from our inventiveness with research methods and our spread of subject expertise, which allows us to be innovative in our methodological approaches and research designs. Together, these approaches equip us well for research into welfare, health and wellbeing.

Personal success story Dr Nicola Ansell, Reader in Human Geography, is one of the most senior members of the theme. Her work sits primarily within the theme’s critical development studies expertise, intersecting also with our social justice and youth research. During 2014-15 Nicola has obtained substantial new funding for her own research, and also developed new collaborations with theme members with overlapping interests. Nicola’s primary research interest is on the impacts of social and cultural change on the lives of young people in southern Africa and in the Global South more broadly. This year she has secured substantial funding (ESRC-DFID £299,870, 2015-18) to examine the implications of a major recent innovation in policy responses to poverty in sub-Saharan Africa: the use of social cash transfer schemes (SCTs) which disburse cash to poor people in Lesotho and Malawi. The project builds on her previous research with young people in Malawi and Lesotho in 2007-08. The research will identify how SCTs operating in Malawi and Lesotho intervene in structural power relationships that shape young people’s lives and the consequences this has for young people’s poverty trajectories. The research project will also investigate how political and economic power relationships between national and international institutions are implicated in the design and implementation of SCT schemes. In addition to securing this major grant, in 2015 Nicola worked with theme members Dr Pam Alldred and Dr Fiona Cullen on a Horizon 2020 bid focusing on the young as drivers of social change in Europe (outcome awaited), and with Dr Peggy Froerer on a further bid to ESRC-DFID on education systems, aspiration and learning in remote rural settings in India, Laos and Lesotho. Nicola and Peggy were notified of their success at the end of the year and will commence work on the new project in 2016.


Institute of Materials and Manufacturing Institute Director: Professor Luiz Wrobel Institute structure IMM was established in 2014, following a transformational change at Brunel that led to the creation of three colleges and three research institutes. The overarching aim of this change is to address the changing funding landscape and enable the University to secure its position as an internationally competitive, research-intensive university. The Institute’s membership now totals 117 academic and research staff.

Liquid Metal Engineering

Structural Integrity

The ongoing revolution in manufacturing combined with the development of new materials will have an impact on all aspects of society. Brunel has invested heavily in the development of research capability in materials and manufacturing (mainly casting/processing and precision/additive manufacturing) and structural integrity (metallic and composite structures and materials). By combining unique expertise and facilities in these areas with predictive numerical modelling, sensors and signal processing, the short- and long-term aims of the Institute of Materials and Manufacturing (IMM) are to increase its recognition and impact at a national and international level. Our mission is to improve the performance of materials and structures, including their design, manufacturing, integrity and use through a combined theoretical and experimental approach. We hope to integrate all aspects of structures/ materials research, from developing fundamental understanding, modelling and characterisation of new and existing structures/materials, to their design, manufacturing and exploitation. These developments will be paralleled with existing complementary experimental capability (with advanced measurement techniques), enabling research in the field of materials and structures for a range of applications, including their performance in extreme environments.


Micro-nano Manufacturing

Materials Characterisation & Processing

Design for Sustainable Manufacturing

Structural Integrity, Professor Rade Vignjevic; Liquid Metal Engineering, Professor Zhongyun Fan; Micronano Manufacturing, Professor Kai Cheng; Materials Characterisation & Processing, Professor Jack Silver; Design for Sustainable Manufacturing, Professor David Harrison

Institute highlights Grain refiner Magnesium and its alloys are characterised by specific mechanical performances (strength and stiffness), thermal conductivity, electromagnetic

shielding capacity, as well as machinability and low density. Consequently, in the past two decades, the use of magnesium and its alloys was extended to the automotive and aeronautical industries for the production of lightweight structural components, and in the electronic industry for thin-walled castings. Currently, various techniques are available for the grain refinement of aluminium-containing magnesium alloys. Research at the Brunel Centre for Advanced Solidification Technology (BCAST) has identified a chemical compound that can refine the grain structure of both commercially used aluminium-free and aluminium-containing magnesium alloys, leading to the development of a grain refiner fabricated in the form of a master alloy. Tests have demonstrated that including a grain refiner improves microstructural features significantly. High strength aluminium alloy Weight reduction in the automotive industry through the use of lightweight materials remains a successful and simple means of improving fuel economy and reducing harmful emissions. One significant advance in recent years has been the development and application of aluminium-

intensive car body structures. BCAST has developed a super-ductile diecast aluminium alloy that can satisfy the necessary mechanical properties of thin-walled castings for application in automotive body structures.

Key collaborations IMM continues to develop strategic partnerships with industrial companies and the not-for-profit sector, as exemplified by the existing TWI, Jaguar Land Rover and Constellium partnerships. A number of strategic academic collaborations are also being developed with universities in Europe, China, India, Brazil and the Middle East.

2014-15: The Institure of Materials and Manufacturing (IMM) exceeded its research income target by 42% 257 publications were published, an average of 2.2 per IMM member

Awards • Liquid Metal Engineering: Highlights this year include £15 million from the Higher Education Funding Council of England awarded to BCAST for Phase II of the Advanced Metals Casting Centre (AMCC), which will see a new building on campus housing specialist metal processing and testing equipment, as well as leveraging an additional £62 million in industrial cash and in-kind support. This is in addition to a £3.9 million EPSRC award in 2013-14 for equipment for Phase I of AMCC • Design for Sustainable Manufacturing secured funding of £1,120,942 from Jaguar Land Rover for a four‑year programme to establish an Automotive Habitat Lab. This experimental facility explores the use of human-centred design approaches to understand and model human behaviour in automobiles • Materials Characterisation and Processing was awarded Brunel’s first successful grant as lead partner under the EU’s Horizon 2020 (H2020) research programme. The project, entitled FLEXOLIGHTING, aims to develop and scale up innovative and environmentally sensitive systems for the manufacture of organic light emitting diodes lighting. With a total project award of €4.3 million (£921,415 to Brunel), the consortium brings together some of Europe’s most innovative SMEs and leading technology companies • Structural Integrity received a number of grants, including two Innovate UK awards: £597,945 for the AutoDISC project to investigate automated ultrasonic inspection of aerospace composites and £480,338 for a project on automated defect recognition in powder metallurgy, ceramic and composite net shape components. The theme has also won two H2020 awards: £353,775 for the VORTEXSCAN project (Rapid Low Cost Scanning and Improved Non-Destructive Testing of Large Concrete Structures) and £318,124 for the LEAKFREE project, which aims to develop a reliable quality control system using advanced non-destructive evaluation technologies for the production of leak-free fuel tanks from plastics and composites • Micro-Nano Manufacturing was awarded EPSRC funding of £282,029 for a project to investigate advanced flow technology for healthcare materials manufacturing. A collaborative research programme, the aim is to design and demonstrate a new, sustainable and scalable approach for manufacturing highvalue nanomaterials with advanced properties in a way that is controllable and reproducible, and that does not involve significant upscaling issues


Structural Integrity Theme Leader: Professor Rade Vignjevic

Why Structural Integrity? The increased interest in structural integrity and its associated societal importance – as well as its potential for significant economic benefit – combined with Brunel’s existing capabilities in the relevant fields have motivated the establishment of the Structural Integrity theme. Structural integrity can be defined as the science and engineering relating to the safe and reliable life or life cycle of structures. The field of structural integrity is primarily driven by social demands for safety, reliability, the reduction of impact on the environment and the reduction of total life cycle cost. Modern structures are routinely designed using high-fidelity finite-element models where the loads and structural response over the entire life cycle of a structure is simulated. This crucial engineering area, of relevance to industry, public services and the public at large, is of particular importance to key sectors such as oil and gas, aerospace, ground transport, construction and alternative energy.


What sub-themes are included? The main challenges in structural design and the exploitation of structures are directly related to structural integrity. To be specific, the weakest links are the reliable prediction of structural failure modes, ultimate strength, residual strength, and fatigue life in both new and ageing structures. In order to address these challenges and enable engineers to design safe structures and maintain their integrity, it is necessary to improve our understanding of the physical phenomena associated with different types of damage and failure. This understanding will enable the development of improved deterministic and stochastic simulation tools for modelling material and structural damage, novel test methods, measurement techniques, validation techniques and structural health monitoring systems. It is important to note that data and knowledge generated through the structural

health monitoring of real-world structures will also contribute to our understanding of structural Integrity. Researchers from our theme are therefore working on systems for structural health monitoring and asset management – but the research doesn’t stop there. We also look at the integrity of materials and structures, characterising those materials and developing novel numerical methods and advanced modelling techniques to support this. Finally, there is work within the theme delving into data sciences, signal processing, sensors and instrumentation.

How are research objectives being met? Brunel has an excellent track record in structural integrity research. Since 2008, Brunel academics in the field of structural integrity have published 245 journal papers of which 122 were published in journals with the highest A* and A rankings by the ERA. Over the period of three years to 2013/14, research grant income in the area has totalled £14.3 million from sources including EPSRC, TSB, the EC and industry. With a current cohort of 35 PhD students working in the field of structural integrity, and plans to train a total of 200 PhD students and over 212 MSc students over the next 10 years, Brunel has a demonstrable commitment to the development of world-leading research in this area.

Where are we going? Focusing on the collation of disciplines that underpin the safe design, manufacture and operation of structures, the Structural Integrity theme aims to develop a critical mass of research across the field of structural integrity, informed by the needs of industry – and, ultimately, to make Brunel the research provider of choice.

Test data from the

Collaborative ties Brunel is the leading academic partner in the National Structural Integrity Research Centre (NSIRC) with TWI, which provides a direct link to engineers and decisionmakers in major UK industrial companies. Considering TWI’s research interests and the background of both NSIRC- and Uxbridgebased staff, a number of research areas were identified as being of specific interest for collaborative research: • High-rate loading of materials and structures (modelling, experimental characterisation and design/optimisation) • Ultrasound wave propagation in solids (modelling, experimental validation, signal processing and sensors) • Composite materials (modelling, experimental characterisation, new materials including hybrids and optimisation of material properties) • Concrete (material design, manufacturing, modelling and experimental characterisation) • Fatigue and fracture (modelling and experimental characterisation) • Welding (modelling, experimental validation, process optimisation and novel welding processes) • Stochastic finite element method (uncertainty quantification, uncertainty propagation and interactions)

Personal success story

physical experiments on the neutral section were correlated with the simulation results

Our research in Railway Overhead Line Behaviour is led by Dr Kevin Hughes, in collaboration with Network Rail. The work has focused on understanding the influence of uncertainty in predicting the stress state and fatigue life for the overhead line environment. Uncertainties include manufacture/installation procedure, boundary conditions and loading. This challenging, dynamic problem required high fidelity models of line sections (where components were scanned to determine manufacturing tolerances), coupled with beam elements to extend the domain size in order to understand the stress state in the wire due to a moving pantograph.


Liquid Metal Engineering Theme Leader: Professor Zhongyun Fan

It may seem hard to believe, but almost all metallic parts were liquid at some stage of their production. Whether shaped in the foundry by direct casting, or formed by starting with bulk cast ingots or billets and extruding or rolling them later on, the vast majority of metal parts are more or less reliant on liquid metal – and liquid metal engineering. The metals casting industry, which adds £2.6 billion to the economy every year and employs 30,000 people in the UK, underpins the competitive position of every sector of manufacturing.

What sub-themes and topics are included? The Liquid Metal Engineering theme is led by the Brunel Centre for Advanced Solidification (BCAST), a dynamic research centre focused on solidification and casting, which has steadily grown to become one of the largest and best-recognised groups in the field worldwide. Our vision is for ‘full metal circulation’: a world in which the demand for metallic materials is met using recycled and reused secondary metals, with only limited addition of primary metals each year.


This vision is deeply rooted in the approach we take to our research, which ranges from atomiclevel basic research to industrial-scale trials of new technology. At the basic end, we conduct fundamental research into microstructural control through the nucleation stage of solidification, and

develop novel metallic materials by crafting new alloys that have significantly improved properties and can be recycled entirely. Our work in technology development is more practical, and involves the manufacture of highperformance metallic components and feedstock materials by innovative solidification processing. Then there is our work, in close concert with industrial partners throughout the supply chain, to up-scale and transfer new technologies and develop sustainable metallurgy – studies that are wholly focused on application.

How are research objectives being met? The microstructure of metal is very important, because it determines the ease with which all later stages of manufacturing (heat treatment, extrusion, machining and anodising, for example) can be carried out, as well as the final properties of the metal product. We believe that microstructural control is most effectively achieved through a command of the nucleation stage of the solidification process, which can be developed using the principles of liquid metal engineering. In all practical cases, nucleation happens unevenly, and the structure of liquid metals is generally considered to be amorphous – but using molecular

dynamics simulation, we have demonstrated that there is some predictability to the process. Prior to nucleation, within the first nanometre above the substrate, the liquid tends to be layered and to exhibit a degree of order within these layers. Based on this observation, we have developed a new epitaxial nucleation model, which allows us to take greater control over this stage in the casting process.

Liquid Metal Engineering (LiME), a national centre of excellence in solidification and casting. Having recently been awarded a further £10 million over seven years by the EPSRC, LiME will continue to provide a platform for our fundamental and long-term user-led research in the form of the Future LiME Hub, one of the first examples of the EPSRC’s new vehicle for centres of excellence in manufacturing.

When casters want to change the microstructure or grain of a metal product as they cast it, they often add master alloys that fine-tune the ‘recipe’ of the metal. Some of these master alloys, however – like TiB2, used in aluminium alloys – have an uncertain effect on nucleation. Using atomic-resolution imaging and chemical analysis at the national SuperSTEM facility, we have solved this problem; free titanium adsorbs onto the surface of the TiB2 particles to form a single atomic layer, and it is this layer that acts as the nucleating substrate.

Using recent major investments in BCAST, the Liquid Metal Engineering theme is also establishing an Advanced Metal Casting Centre and an Advanced Metal Processing Centre as national facilities for scaling up metallurgical research and development on Brunel’s campus. Phase I, funded with £4 million from EPSRC, £6 million from Brunel and £8 million from industry (Jaguar Land Rover, Constellium and a number of other companies in the supply chain), is due for completion in early 2016. It comprises a 1,500m2 building housing pilot or industrial scale equipment for high and low pressure die casting, direct chill casting, twin roll casting and extrusion. Phase II will follow in 2017, and is being funded with £15 million from HEFCE, a further £3 million from Brunel and £62 million from industry for research. It will complete the range of industrial casting equipment and house large‑scale equipment for fabricating and testing assemblies of extruded profiles, all in a second 1,500m2 building. Phase II will also provide a comprehensive range of non-destructive, analytical and mechanical testing facilities, and a simulation and modelling suite.

We have created new master alloys for metals which have not had them in the past, like aluminiumcontaining, magnesium-based alloys. Our studies have shown that the ductility of Mg-Al alloys is increased by our novel grain refiner, with a subsequent improvement in the deflection before failure of vehicle front-end carriers that use the material. We used a similar technology to improve the recyclability of scrap aluminium through the removal of deleterious iron impurities. Aluminium alloys used for shape casting are generally not able to match the ductility and strength of aluminium alloys for wrought processing. We have recently developed a ‘superductile’ aluminium casting alloy, however, which has sufficient ductility to allow cast vehicle body components to be more readily joined by selfpiercing riveting. We have also developed a superior high-strength casting alloy which has been licenced to a tier 1 aerospace supplier. Thoroughly mixing alloys by exposing them to high shear forces disperses harmful oxide films into benign particles, and refines the metal’s microstructure and chemistry. We have created a simple and compact rotor-stator mechanism that can be easily incorporated into conventional casting processes which accomplishes this mixing, and we have successfully combined it with both the twinroll casting process and direct-chill casting. These revolutionary approaches have allowed us to cast thin magnesium alloy sheets that can be directly stamped into component shapes, and large ingots or billets of aluminium alloys for downstream rolling or extrusion that exhibit a refined microstructure and uniform chemical composition without the need for the addition of grain refiners.

Where are we going? For the past five years our fundamental research has been supported by BCAST’s leadership of the EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in

Personal success story Professor Zhongyun Fan obtained his first two degrees, a BASc in Extractive Metallurgy and an MSc in Metallurgical Thermodynamics, from the University of Science and Technology in Beijing. He went on to complete a PhD in Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Surrey. After three years in industry and two stints as a Research Fellow – first for the University of Surrey and then Oxford University – he joined Brunel in 1996. Two decades later, he has risen to become not only Theme Leader for Liquid Metal Engineering, but also the Founder and Director of BCAST, the Director of the new EPSRC Future LiME Hub, and one of Brunel’s top-earning research scientists – having brought in over £118 million in grant funding. Zhongyun has published more than 270 papers, and is the recipient of the Elegant Work Prize (1995), the Cook/Ablett Award (2003), the Corac Research Award (2003), the Dowding Medal and Prize (2012), and the Institute of Cast Metal Engineers’ Diploma Award (2012).


Micro-Nano Manufacturing Theme Leader: Professor Kai Cheng micro- and nano-manufacturing, smart tooling and manufacturing, CAD and digital manufacturing and energy-efficient manufacturing. We also examine individual processes within manufacturing on a smaller scale, conducting research into simulations, system and multiscale modelling, multi-physics based modelling and engineering design and analysis. We then look at other stages in the process: condition monitoring and control, ultraprecision machining and the design of precision and micro-machines.

Why Micro-Nano Manufacturing? The Micro-Nano Manufacturing theme conducts world-class, cutting-edge research, which centres on the technology, systems and management of modern high-value manufacture, including manufacturing methods, advanced engineering design, applied control and automation, precision manufacturing and metrology, and manufacturing business modelling and analysis.

What sub-themes are included? Within the Micro-Nano Manufacturing theme, our research and development focuses on knowledge-based approaches to ultra-precision and micro-manufacturing. This consists of three key areas of research activity. The first is ‘top-down’ ultraprecision and micro- or nano-manufacturing through the integration of high-precision machines, smart tooling and micro-cutting mechanics and physics. Then we have ‘bottom-up’ ultraprecision as well as micro- and nano-manufacturing through molecular manufacturing with application to chemical engineering, pharmaceutical industry and 3D-printing fabrication. Finally, we look at multiscale multi-physics based modelling and analysis, which provides the essential foundation for both top-down and bottom-up ultraprecision and micro- or nano-manufacturing. More specifically, the expertise in our theme covers around 20 areas. We are looking into the prospects for several innovative types of manufacturing: sustainable manufacturing and systems, e-manufacturing, global manufacturing,


Investigations into metrology and robotics in manufacturing are an important part of our work, and have great relevance to the sector – as does our industrial-facing work on business process engineering and the management of supply chains, technology and innovation. Finally, we have special projects examining electrical discharge machining (EDM) processes and the manufacture of integrally bladed rotors. Research facilities are available in three laboratories: those within Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Advanced Engineering Design and Enterprise Engineering and Systems. They include a range of high-precision machines for the manufacturing of ultraprecision and micro-structures, simulation tools and analytic systems, as well as technologies for developing agile, personalised and bespoke precision manufacturing.

How are research objectives being met? Engineers at Brunel have created the UltraMill machine and the associated ultraprecision and micro-manufacturing technology, which help UK and European manufacturers compete in highvalue manufacturing – particularly 3D freeform ultra-precision and micro-manufacturing. Used to produce medical devices, watch and electronic components, UltraMill has inspired a pioneering diamond-cutting tool and has been used by Apple to make the bevels around the edge of the iPhone 5S. UltraMill was developed by Professor Kai Cheng and his team in Brunel’s Advanced Manufacturing and Enterprise Engineering group, in collaboration with Ultra Precision Motion Ltd. Their aim was to support UK and European SMEs working in highvalue manufacturing in their efforts to develop an edge over their global competitors. When we say ‘high-value’, however, we include value that is

This work has led to further research towards developing a new, smart cutting tool, which can monitor the precision-machining process by measuring the cutting forces in process. Further exploitation is being undertaken for smart micromachining purposes.

Where are we going? The UltraMill project is just one example of the fine work being carried out within our theme; the aforementioned case studies also demonstrate our expertise, and are currently being carried out by theme members working in close collaboration with a number of leading manufacturing companies. There are substantial industrial impacts expected to be achieved, particularly technological breakthroughs, job creation and diverse business benefits to the companies involved and, ultimately, their industries.

Vital statistics • 6 postdoctoral fellows • 40 PhD students • 5 MSc programmes in the College of Engineering, Design and Physical Sciences • 100 students enrolled on the MSc programme annually • Collaboration with 50 industrial companies worldwide on various research projects funded by the EPSRC, EU, research councils, international organisations and the industrial partners themselves

TRL 6 technologies derived from non-profit elements such as social impact. Brunel’s UltraMill machine is a bench-top micromilling machine which mills, drills and grinds a wide range of miniature components, as well as the fine surface features on components of dimensions up to 150x150x80mm. Its unique construction, using air bearings and direct drives on all axes, means the UltraMill can achieve outstanding dimensional precision, surface geometry and the finest surface textures. The UltraMill is now being manufactured using parts provided by UK manufacturing companies and, inspired by the new tool, a global market leader in diamond-cutting tools has developed the world’s first diamond micro-milling tool. Four companies now have this technology and it has been used by Apple to create the bevelled edges of the iPhone 5S and iPad mini tablets; 150,000 iPhone 5S units are manufactured every day.

Thanks to two major EU FP7 grants, plus other funding, two prototype micro-electrochemical machining (µECM) machines have been built and tested. One is located at Brunel, where it is used as a platform for research, while the other is currently at Sonplas GmbH, a German manufacturer of custom built machines for the automotive industry. Both prototypes have achieved Technology Readiness Level 6 (TRL 6).

Prototype µECM machine

Prototype µECM


machine at Brunel University London


Materials Characterisation & Processing Theme Leader: Professor Jack Silver and fellows attached to research programmes in our theme.

How are research objectives being met?

Why Materials Characterisation and Processing? UK businesses that produce and process materials are essential to the UK economy. They employ over 2.6 million people, and represent 11% of the country’s Gross Value Added with a turnover of £140 billion per annum and exports valued at £46 billion in 2013. The significance of advanced materials for the UK economy was recently highlighted by its inclusion in the Government’s strategy as one of the 'eight great technologies' crucial for the UK’s future success. Often, it is not the material itself which is ‘advanced’, but rather the processing techniques used to create it or to integrate it with other materials.

What sub-themes are included? We aim to undertake research into the development and processing of new materials including nanomaterials, nano-phosphors and nanostructured carbon, biofuels, polymers and bio-polymers. Our research on materials characterisation and processing harnesses multiple technologies for the processing and manufacture of novel materials, particularly biomaterials and polymers. There is a particular focus on phosphors and other materials for lighting devices. We have a world-leading collection of materials characterisation techniques at our disposal, including a recently commissioned transmission electron microscope. In this area we have relationships with a large number of SMEs. There are currently around 50 academic and support staff, together with postgraduate students, associates


The theme has had a very successful year. Within the displays and lighting phosphor materials group, Professor Jack Silver and Dr George Fern are working with companies to make high brightness displays. They have worked with US and German industry to study quantum dots and rods, and these studies have led to members of the group being invited to give lectures at international conferences in the USA, Japan and Europe. Indeed, a new collaboration with Professor Jay Dickerson, Deputy Director of the Nanomaterials Laboratory of the Brookhaven National Laboratory, US Department of Energy (who is now also an associate professor at Brunel) led to Jack being invited to give a lecture at the International Display Workshop meeting in Japan. Our organic light emitting diode (OLED) work led by Professor Poopathy Kathirgamanathan has attracted a large EU Horizon 2020 (H2020) grant that will provide the group with funding for four years. The project, coordinated by Brunel and entitled FLEXOLIGHTING, will develop and scale up innovative and environmentally sensitive systems for the manufacture of OLED Lighting. With a total project award value of €4.3 million, the consortium brings together some of Europe’s most innovative SMEs and leading technology companies. This has been a good period with the nanomaterials group becoming cohesive, interactive with others nationally (Liverpool/London) and internationally (Shanghai/Almaty), and taking on three Brazilian project ‘Science without Frontiers’ students. Samples from the groups are being externally validated at this time for the first ever technology submission by the UK Government to the Forensic Ombudsman. Professor Paul Sermon has been asked onto the organising committee for the 5th International Conference of Forensic Research & Technology to be held in 2016. Several theme members are involved in an EPSRCfunded HTRaD project. We have now achieved 100% efficient diamond radiation detectors, which we have evaluated with a number of alpha emitting radioactive

isotopes. Current work in the final year of this project aims to produce a working device, plus associated amplifier, characterised at an operating temperature of 200⁰C. The four-year duration H2020 project, AIDA-2020, was approved and is now underway. In this project we will help evaluate new types of fluorescent and scintillating fibres using our 60-coblat radiation facilities. The Polymer and Biopolymer processing group led by Professors Karnik Tarverdi and Jim Song made significant contributions to the EU FP7 project Valor Plus. We were responsible for quality control of feedstock from biomass, namely lignin and hemicellulose for the downstream biological and chemical processes for new applications in materials, biofuel and fine chemicals. In addition, we also established fractionation of biomass, as well as extraction and purification of lignin/hemicellulose, from a range of biomass and supplied the materials to our collaborators for further refinement and conversion. Finally, we have initiated research in graphene electronics, hosting a Commonwealth Scholar who visited Brunel for three months towards the end of 2014. Her experimental work on graphene led to four articles in peer-reviewed journals and a research collaboration with the National Physical Laboratory, with joint research projects and funding proposals underway. Professor Asim Ray is Editor-in-Chief of the IET Circuits, Devices and Systems Journal and he oversaw the publication of two special issues in graphene electronics, attracting articles from internationally well-recognised groups of authors all over the globe.

Where are we going? Opportunities for expansion of our research will initially focus in the new area of solar engineering, where research in solar cell degradation and thermo‑mechanical problems are of great industrial interest. Another developing area of research cutting across the expertise of our theme and others within the Institute involves the use of lightweight materials. The increasing need for improved fuel/energy savings has created a huge interest in lightweight aerospace and automotive structures. Structures

can be best lightened through innovative design strategies directed toward weight saving (e.g. thinwalled components) and by employing lightweight materials, such as bulk metallic glasses (super-alloys) and composites with high strength to weight ratio. The main challenges are associated with the scalingup of materials development and production, as well as the design, optimisation and manufacture of lightweight structures, with high structural integrity, in a cost‑effective and environmentally friendly way.

In total, members of the theme have published over 100 papers in international journals in the past year

Personal success story Professor Hari Upadhyaya joined Brunel in January 2015 and leads the Materials Characterisation and Processing theme’s activities in solar energy conversion research. He led a successful submission to the EPSRC as the UK coordinator for the £3 million APEX-II project with India. With UK collaborators from Oxford, Cambridge, Imperial and Edinburgh, and Indian partners from a number of leading universities, the project will develop new materials, device structures and manufacturing processes to improve the efficiency of excitonic solar cells. With his past experience in thin film photovoltaics for about 25 years, Hari is an expert in low-cost (non-vacuum) and conventional (vacuum-based) thin-film materials and photovoltaic device processing research and characterisation. His research involves activities on Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCOs), Dye Solar Cell (DSC), Provskite solar cells, CdTe and CIGS thin-film solar cell technologies, as well as on electrochemical storage technologies.


Design for Sustainable Manufacturing Theme Leader: Professor David Harrison How are research objectives being met? There are many research highlights that showcase our theme’s excellent track record in meeting and exceeding research expectations, but Light.Touch. Matters, Powerweave and MovAid are some of our proudest achievements. Light.Touch.Matters is an EU-funded research project where designers and material researchers join forces to develop a completely new generation of smart materials that can sense touch and respond with luminescence. The base technologies are novel piezo-plastics and flexible organic light-emitting diodes. Being thin, flexible and formable, these ‘light touch materials’ promise to revolutionise product design by integrating luminescence and touch in such a way that eventually the product becomes the interface.

Why Design for Sustainable Manufacturing? The vision of our theme is to be the leading provider of design research responding to societal issues, and to be at the forefront of emerging technologies and design practice. Design reflects innovation and creativity; it is vital to the UK economy, and makes up a significant part of product development and realisation – as well as manufacturing. Based on design principles derived from an understanding of human capabilities and limitations, researchers aim to develop products, services and manufacturing processes that will deliver economically and environmentally sustainable solutions.

What sub-themes are included? Design for Sustainable Manufacturing research at Brunel is a multidisciplinary activity driven by human needs. The team has a well-established record of research excellence and a broad spectrum of expertise that spans human-centred, inclusive and sustainable design; design management and CAD; design-led electronic, mechanical, manufacturing and materials engineering; and social sciences.


During the project, various technology demonstrators have been developed to show the potential of these novel interface technologies, principally within the domain of care and wellbeing. Light.Touch.Matters is a unique cooperation between product designers and material scientists, with 17 partners from nine EU countries. It is funded through an EU FP7 grant. Powerweave is also an EU-funded research project, but with the goal of developing a fabric that generates energy from sunlight using photovoltaic threads and retains it in energy-storing threads woven into the fabric. The key challenges have been the development of the photovoltaic and energy-storage materials to be applied as flexible thin coatings on monofilament fibres, and the development of fibre spinning and coating methods for these materials. The base technologies are petrovskite solar materials developed at EPFL in Switzerland, and weavable supercapacitor threads developed by researchers at Brunel. The project is coordinated by TWI in the UK, and has 12 other European partners. Finally, the MovAid project is researching the production of custom-made orthotics through 3D-printing. This project is led by Marco Cavallaro.

Parts are designed and produced to fit morphological customer unique characteristics towards comfort and performance

MADs are innovative, modular, 'passive' and customised devices, providing active compensation of human (upperlower limb) movements, exploiting solutions based on advanced generative design, embedded sensing and additive technology production

Custom kinematics combines computational geometric designs with rigid body physics to drive personalised target motion

Multi-material additivebased production to deliver the desired mechanical proprieties of the components

Embedded sensing enables the delivery of 1) adapted spare parts during the product life-cycle and 2) user-centred services (e.g. userelated services, monitoring)

The manufacturing & assembly of a complex KinetoDynamics equipment calls for a suitable value-chain capable to deliver advanced products in suitable times and prices

The ageing population is growing fast; in five years’ time, there will be a significant increase in the number of elderly people who require mobility aids or orthoses, which need to be fitted in order to live at their home independently. To achieve long-term benefits for European society, the project is developing the next generation of movement-assistive devices: innovative, passive and highly customised kineto-dynamic equipment, built to provide natural compensation to human movements – both upper and lower limbs. Movement-assistive devices are being

conceived and developed, exploiting a generative design approach – an approach capable of combining unique morphological characteristics with personalised kinematics – coupled with an innovative additive multi-material technology capable of delivering specific mechanical properties. This project is funded through the EU Horizon 2020 programme.

Personal success story

reduce the sensitivity of product or process performance to variability in loading, material properties, tolerances, disturbance and other ‘noise’ characteristics.

Mark Atherton is a reader in mechanical engineering who has conducted many projects with industrial organisations, involving rapid product development, computational fluid dynamics, product improvement and robust design solutions. One example of his work is a dental drill noise-reduction system, developed using adaptive filtering and active ‘anti-noise’ technologies funded by W&H Gmbh, an Austrian dental drill company. This reduced the unpleasant noise of dental drills and has been developed into an anti-noise system with potential for further adaptation towards vibration control of precision surgical instruments. Mark’s main research interest is robust engineering design, particularly in regard to mechanical and mechatronic devices, natural and complex systems. Robust engineering design seeks to

Mark has recently been awarded a new EPSRC project: Design Assistant for Semantic Comparison of Intellectual Property. The aim of this project is to develop a design tool that highlights potential patent infringement of an emerging design, and helps steer that design towards a novel solution – as well as avoiding costly litigation. The focus will be on mechanical engineering designs where the novel inventive step relies heavily upon how functions and key geometrical features of the design interact. Current patent retrieval systems only employ text-based search methods, and there is a need for image-based semantic search approaches to be developed for designers to use.


Industry partnerships Partnership in Advanced Light Metals A £15 million award to Brunel from the UK Government will unlock a further £62 million of private sector support to help advance research into lightweight structural castings. The funding, awarded in May 2015, will enable a second phase of the new Advanced Metal Casting Centre (AMCC) to scale up processes and innovations that work in the laboratory but have yet to achieve their full potential on the factory floor. The Centre is led by Professor Zhongyun Fan, Director of BCAST and his team in the Liquid Metal Engineering research theme. There is compelling evidence that the casting industry has neither been able to conduct highlevel research and development by itself nor been previously supported by adequate academic research in UK universities. The aim of the new Centre is to help increase the competitiveness of casting for UK manufacturing in sectors including automotive, aerospace and energy.

“Every failed casting represents a huge waste of energy, time and money. We know that our new techniques can reliably create first class components from recycled metal. Our challenge now is to scale these methods up for commercial use and to show that they can reduce cost, improve quality, and conserve natural resources.” Professor Zhongyun Fan Director BCAST Theme Leader: Liquid Metal Engineering The first phase of the AMCC is a 1500m2 purposebuilt facility housing pilot and commercial metals processing equipment. It will act as a national scaleup facility to bridge the gap between fundamental, laboratory-scale research and full-scale industrial trials. Supported by the EPSRC, Brunel University and industry, the new facility is being completed and all equipment is due to be fully commissioned by early 2016. The latest funding will complete the AMCC's essential range of factory-level metal casting/ processing equipment. It will also establish critical supporting research facilities for developing advanced metallic materials, underpin component performance testing and create a suite for process modelling and simulation. In support of our industrial partners, including Jaguar Land Rover and Constellium, the AMCC will initially serve the automotive industry, but the longer term aim is to make the facilities


available to partners in the aerospace and other engineering sectors. Industrial partners will continue to work with BCAST for long-term basic research, and then seamlessly through the AMCC to scale laboratorydeveloped technologies up to the production demonstrator scale, thus shortening the time to bring laboratory discoveries to market. Underpinning the work of the Centre is fundamental scientific research that changes the emphasis for the study of metal solidification. The traditional approach has been to look at the process of crystal growth as metal cools, but this has been replaced with a focus on nucleation, the effect that tiny impurities in the metal have on the process of solidification. By controlling at a microscopic level the interface between the liquid metal and the impurity particles, the characteristics of the solidified metal casting can be manipulated to produce the required properties. The goal is to produce materials and components with fine and uniform microstructure, uniform chemical composition and reduced or eliminated casting defects. This forms part of Brunel’s intention to establish an advanced light metals research park that will further accelerate the industrial take-up of new technologies. It would also form an integral part of the national infrastructure for revitalising the UK manufacturing sector. The size of this new award to Brunel underlines how important cutting-edge casting technology is to the competitive position of every sector of UK manufacturing across automotive, aerospace, defence, energy and general engineering. It makes Brunel one of the world’s leading and best equipped universities for solidification and casting research.

Aerial view of the Structural Integrity Research Centre

The National Structural Integrity Research Centre

the energy, power generation, transport, advanced manufacturing and infrastructure sectors, including:

In the spring of 2015, a £33.6 million capital programme was completed to construct and equip the National Structural Integrity Research Centre (NSIRC), a purpose-built facility at TWI Ltd’s headquarters near Cambridge for postgraduate research and teaching in structural integrity.

• asset integrity management, repair and maintenance, non-destructive testing/risk‑based inspection/structural health and condition monitoring, defect/flaw recognition and evaluation engineering critical assessment

The Centre, led by Brunel and TWI along with a consortium of other leading universities, is a unique facility that aims to become a world-renowned centre of industrially driven academic excellence. Founder sponsors include the Lloyds Register Foundation, TWI and BP. This development builds on a longstanding strategic partnership between Brunel and TWI extending over the past 10 years. Starting in 2004, with a single Brunel EngD student appointed to conduct a research project at TWI, a cofunded industrial PhD training programme was subsequently developed that supported over 30 EngD and PhD studentships working on jointly defined projects. Brunel and TWI went on, in 2009, to form the Brunel Innovation Centre (BIC), which is based at TWI’s Cambridge site and researches advanced inspection technologies. Established with initial pump-priming, it has become financially sustainable, having to date secured over £15 million in research grants for 30 projects. Building on this relationship, exploratory discussions began in 2011 about the formation of a large-scale research and postgraduate training campus aligned to the needs of UK industry for enhanced techniques, technology and staff qualified in structural integrity and located at TWI’s headquarters in Granta Park, Cambridge. Inside the Advanced Metal Casting Centre

In summer 2012, Brunel and TWI identified two potential sources of funding to support the venture and made successful applications to both. Brunel led an application to HEFCE under its UK Research Partnership Investment Fund (UKRPIF) for £15 million of capital equipment and TWI led a proposal to the Regional Growth Fund managed by the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) for £18.6 million towards the construction of a new building to house NSIRC.

• development of new structural materials (i.e. metals, composites, thermo-plastics and ceramics), end effectors and sensors (e.g. very high sensitivity, ultra high temperature, cryogenic, hazardous environments, including radioactive nuclear, toxic, explosive, deep water sub-sea using remote operating vehicles and permanently installed monitoring systems), nano-materials and nano-coatings, and the development of wireless monitoring systems and energy harvesting techniques for long-term, in situ condition monitoring • software for through-life inspection and management of all types of structure and the integration of failure prediction and analysis with condition monitoring sensor results NSIRC will also deliver postgraduate programmes at Masters and doctoral level that will train and develop industry-ready engineers and scientists in structural integrity disciplines such as fail-safe design, flaw evaluation, corrosion prevention and structural health monitoring. In its capacity as the lead academic partner of NSIRC, Brunel’s specific role and commitment is to: • train and supervise 200 PhD students over the first 10-year life of the Centre. 30 students had started their research projects at NSIRC by the end of 2014/15, with a further 25 projects identified • teach 200 MSc students over the first 10-year life of the Centre. The first MSc programme was launched in September 2014 with 22 students taking up a place on the course • manage and assure the quality of all aspects of the learning, training and welfare provision for Brunel students based at NSIRC

NSIRC’s scope and objectives NSIRC will carry out fundamental research to address long-term structural integrity challenges of


International collaborations Distribution and intensity of international collaborations of Institute members expressed as jointly authored research outputs since 2008

Europe Country with most joint research outputs Germany: 644

North America Country with most joint research outputs USA: 729

South America Country with most joint research outputs Brazil: 464


Oceania Country with most joint research outputs New Zealand: 447

Asia Country with most joint research outputs China: 1,125

No. of research outputs 1,125




Impact and outreach Research in motion A regenerative engine braking device for buses, developed by Brunel, is reducing China’s carbon footprint – and sights are now set on Europe In the mid-2000s, Professor Hua Zhao’s team worked on an air hybrid engine adaption, RegenEBD, for use in buses with frequent stopstart operations. The RegenEBD technology allowed otherwise wasted kinetic energy during the vehicle braking process to be captured and stored in the form of compressed air, which can then be used for re-starting the engine or for other applications such as providing an instant supply of compressed air to speed up the engine. Brunel licensed this technology to Yuchai Machine Company in South Western China, the largest diesel engine manufacturer in the country, for use in China. The technology has delivered fuel savings of up to 10%, equivalent to 7.2 tonnes of carbon saving per year per vehicle. Having employed a team of 30 engineers to work on the development programme, Yuchai’s ultimate aim is to equip hundreds of buses with the RegenEBD technology. In 2014, Brunel turned its attention to developing a retrofit version for the European urban bus market; buses have a long lifetime, often 25-30 years or more, during which they are refurbished once or twice. These refurbishments offer an opportunity to


retrofit the Brunel technology (which is not possible with competitive and more expensive technologies such as electric hybrid engines or flywheels), and provides a route not only to reduced fuel usage but also to complying with increasingly strict carbon dioxide emission regulations in Europe. Zhao’s team are now working directly with a UK SME engine design company, PTech, to develop designs for the application of the technology to European diesel bus engines. EPSRC Impact Accelerator funding and an Innovate Smart award have been used to support the development process, and an on-road trial is planned for 2016.

From research to industry Brunel’s presence at key industry events has led to significant partnerships and collaborations The Institutes’ dedicated business development support team actively promotes research to potential beneficiaries, especially industry and external stakeholders. One way of achieving this is by having a presence at key conferences and industry exhibitions. This provides an excellent opportunity to market Brunel’s capabilities and raise awareness of its research strengths to the outside world. It also offers opportunities to meet new potential partners and discuss ideas for projects and collaborations.





intake system allows compressed air to be captured and stored

Outcomes from exhibiting and attending these events include gathering new market intelligence and an understanding of the key players in the supply chain. Following up these contacts, companies are then invited to visit research groups in Brunel, leading to new joint projects; for example, one recent collaborative project is looking at light metal composites for use in the aerospace industry. During 2014/15, the Institutes attended and exhibited at: Low Carbon Vehicle event 2014 The Low Carbon Vehicle (LCV) event aims to provide a showcase for UK capabilities, positioning the country as a leader in LCV technology development and exploitation, and building organisations’ awareness and confidence to adopt LCV technologies in vehicles and fleet operations. This event provided an opportunity to launch the ‘Brunel Automotive’ brand and marketing materials, which were well received, in particular the clear summary of Brunel capabilities. Excellent contacts were made, including links with the Advanced Propulsion Centre (APC). Future Power Train Conference There was a particular focus on engaging with delegates with an interest in next generation internal combustion engine research as well as applications in off-road and heavy duty vehicles. This Conference provided an excellent opportunity for networking with industry and key stakeholders; as a result advanced discussions for joint research are now underway with a large construction and mining equipment maker. Advanced Engineering show The focus here was on engaging with delegates with an interest in the performance metals engineering and automotive areas. Again, the show afforded the perfect opportunity to network with key industry partners and stakeholders. Contacts made for follow up include links with a company interested in Brunel’s aluminium grain refiner research and partners for future automotive powertrain projects. Food Matters Live As part of the ongoing strategy to engage more food manufacturers and processors in the RCUK National Centre for Sustainable Energy in Food Chains (CSEF), led by Brunel, we exhibited at Food Matters Live at Excel Arena, London. Brunel’s stand situated in the Research Pavilion attracted considerable interest. Useful contacts made include

a major soft drinks company and a microwave technology company, both of whom have subsequently visited Brunel for further talks.

From research to policy Brunel’s independent evaluation of specialist family drug and alcohol courts will help more vulnerable families stay together Specialist courts that tackle the widespread problem of parental substance misuse in care proceedings will be rolled out in various regions throughout the UK after an independent evaluation by Brunel found the pilot Family Drug and Alcohol Court (FDAC) to be a success. Judith Harwin, Professor of Social Work led the five-year evaluation of the first FDAC in England. Funded by the Nuffield Foundation and the Home Office, the evaluation found that the new approach to care proceedings was more likely than ordinary proceedings to help parents stop misusing and be reunited with their children. Rates of fresh neglect or abuse in the first year following reunification were also lower among FDAC families. In February 2015, the Department of Education (DfE) announced that an estimated £2.5 million of funding was available to develop a National FDAC Development Unit and to nurture new courts across the country. Harwin, who carries out research within the FDAC Development Unit, said: “Our independent evaluation found that FDAC is effective in helping to break the cycle of harm caused by parental substance abuse. This approach helps

Key findings from Brunel’s independent evaluation • FDAC families had a higher rate of stopping substance abuse than people who had been through normal care proceedings, with 40% of mothers stopping, compared with 25% • In 35% of cases, FDAC mothers stopped misusing and were reunited with their children, compared with 19% who had been through ordinary care proceedings


reduce the number of children taken into care and enables more families to stay together. The evidence provides compelling support for rolling out FDAC more widely. Thanks to the DfE, there is now a significant opportunity to research the sustainability of FDAC over the longer term. This is a brilliant example of how research, policy and service development are working together to intercept the corrosive cycle of parental substance misuse.” The national FDAC unit is based at Coram Campus, where FDAC London is currently located, and is led by the Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust. It is supported by Brunel and other partner organisations, including the Centre for Justice Innovation, Coram, Manchester University and RyanTunnardBrown. New sites opened in Milton Keynes and Buckinghamshire in July 2014, and in East Sussex in April 2015, with more sites planned for the forthcoming year in Kent and Medway; Coventry; Southampton; Plymouth, Torbay and Exeter; and Leeds.

The Happiness Tree 3 February 2015 saw the official unveiling of ‘The Happiness Tree’ at Coca-Cola Enterprises GB and European headquarters in Uxbridge. The sculpture was unveiled following the completion of a design

project that saw Brunel design students tasked to create an installation for the new head office which reflected the company’s environmental and social values and vision. Installed in the forecourt outside the company’s headquarters, ‘The Happiness Tree’ stands 3.9 metres tall, is made of stainless steel and takes its inspiration from the Coca-Cola dynamic ribbon logo. It was designed by postgraduate students Sophie Dobber, Philip Hawthorne, Robert Hulse, Chloe Eunsung Kim, Milena Kukova and Matthew Said. Hubert Patricot, Coca-Cola Enterprises (CEE) Executive Vice President and President, European Group, said: “We’re delighted to be officially unveiling ‘The Happiness Tree’ today at Enterprises House. This design project with Brunel University London brought together two key focus areas for CCE – sustainability and supporting young people. We have worked closely with Brunel to make the original concept a reality and the resulting installation is an exciting piece of modern sculpture that creatively signifies our company’s values and our vision.”

Health policy interventions in Kazakhstan A team of Brunel academics have been given a prestigious award to help reduce health risks and

Prof Alasdair Cairns presenting Brunel's automotive research capability to an industrial audience


of efficient and robustly tested solutions. One of Kazakhstan’s key priorities for building public health capacity is to strengthen scientific communication and exchange through projects such as this.

Eliminating Legionella through electrolysis In the UK, controlling Legionella and Pseudomonas bacteria in buildings, such as hospitals, universities, schools, leisure centres and hotels, can be an expensive challenge, thought to cost building owners and facilities managers around £140 million every year. Brunel’s Professor Tassos Karyannis, Dr Edwin Routledge and PhD student Giovanna Cossali teamed up with the leading provider of testing, inspection and compliance services, Environmental Sciences Group Ltd, to develop a new water disinfection device, which kills harmful pathogens in large-scale water systems using a direct electric current, and reduces the need to chemically control infective organisms in hot water systems as well as the associated costs. The device also increases the carbon efficiency of domestic hot water systems in buildings as it potentially allows water temperatures to be reduced from 60°C to 45°C. It is estimated that UK non-domestic buildings could generate energy savings of up to £62 million through the use of Protex. Scientific research informs evidence-based policy making

environmental damage in Kazakhstan. The crossdisciplinary group received the £157,000 grant from the British Council’s Newton Institutional Links programme, with the aim of developing evidencebased recommendations for policy makers in the central Asian country. The two-year project, titled ‘A multi-dimensional environment-health risk analysis system for Kazakhstan’, began in April 2015 and brings together two universities in Kazakhstan (Kokshetau State University and Pavlodar State University) with Brunel staff, led by Dr Andrew Russell. Russell commented that Kazakhstan is interesting from an environment and health perspective as: “GDP is quite high, mostly due to natural resources, but health levels are generally quite poor. Environmental degradation plays a large role in this ‘health lag’ as there have been many years of lax environmental control going all the way back to Soviet era nuclear tests”.

Protex was observed at Chiltern Multiple Sclerosis Centre, and monitored by Brunel University London over a two-year period. The study proved the effectiveness and provided the first reported long-term monitoring of an electrolytic device in a building’s hot water recirculation system. This led to Knowledge Transfer Partnership funding being awarded from Innovate UK.

Protecting the public from exposure to hazardous chemicals In January 2015, the USA Consumer Products Safety Commission voted to ban certain phthalate plasticizers in children’s products, as recommended in a report co-authored by Brunel’s Professor Andreas Kortenkamp. The Commission voted 3-2 (along party lines) to publish a proposed rule that would permanently ban the use of several phthalates in children’s toys and child care articles. Andreas sat on a Chronic Hazard Advisory panel (CHAP) to study the effects on children’s health of all phthalates and phthalate alternatives used in children’s toys and childcare articles, and to provide recommendations to the Commission regarding whether any phthalates other than those already prohibited should be added to the list.

The project uses big data techniques applied to health and environment data to identify important relationships. This will enable the development


Media coverage

Institute of Energy Futures New hybrid solar panel roof slashes energy bills ScienceDirect: The performance of a novel flat heat pipe based thermal and PV/T (photovoltaic and thermal systems) solar collector that can be used as an energy-active building envelope material

• • Science Daily

Institute of Environment, Health and Societies Research confirms listening to music during surgery reduces pain and anxiety The Lancet: Music as an aid for postoperative recovery in adults: a systematic review and metaanalysis. J Hole, M Hirsch, E Ball, C Meads

• Institution of Mechanical Engineers

• Classical Music Magazine

• Daily Mirror • Mail On Sunday

• Telegraph India • Design, Products & Applications

• Gizmag

• The Telegraph

• EOG Asia • Clean Technology Business Review • Energy Matters

• Infrastructure • Laboratory Equipment • Reuters

• Psych Central

• BBC News

• MSN Australia



Breastfeeding for longer could save the NHS £40 million a year British Medical Journal: Potential economic impacts from improving breastfeeding rates in the UK. S Pokhrel, M Quigley, J Fox-Rushby, F McCormick, A Williams, P Trueman, R Dodds and M Renfrew

Institute of Materials and Manufacturing Cost-saving ultrasound degassing now possible in continuous processing of aluminium melt Maney Online: Ultrasonic degassing of aluminium alloys: basic studies and practical implementation D Eskin, N Alba-Baena, T Pabel, M da Silva

• Daily Mail

• BBC News

• The Independent

• The Times

• Nursing Times

• Science Codex

• International Business Times

• NHS Choices

• The Engineer

• Materials Today


• Advanced Manufacturing

• Technobahn

• Reuters • Huffington Post

• AZO Materials • Health Medicine Network

• Converter News

• Engineer Live

• Chemical Engineering

Tiny catalysts could wipe billions off the cost of cleaning wastewater Nature: Removal of ecotoxicity of 17a-ethinylestradiol using TAML/peroxide water treatment. M R Mills, K Arias-Salazar, A Baynes, L Q Shen, J Churchley, N Beresford, C Gayathri, R R Gil, R Kanda, S Jobling and T J Collins


• Medical News Today

• Military Technologies News

• Health Medicine Network

• Chemistry World

• Lab Manager

• Science Newsline

• Scientific Reports

• National Public Radio

• HealthNewsFlorida


Grants awarded Institute of Energy Futures > £50k Principal Investigator



Advanced Powertrain and Fuels Prof Hua Zhao


Dr Alasdair Cairns

Prof Hua Zhao, Dr Jun Xia


Dr Apostolos Pesiridis

Prof Hua Zhao, Dr Yunting Ge

Innovate UK

Dr Alasdair Cairns

Prof Hua Zhao

Innovate UK

Dr Hussam Jouhara

Professor Savvas Tassou

Innovate UK

Prof Tassos Karayiannis

Dr Edwin Routledge

Innovate UK

Energy Efficient and Sustainable Technologies

Prof Savvas Tassou


Prof Zahir Irani

Prof Amir Sharif

Qatar National Research Fund (QNRF)

Resource Efficient Future Cities Prof Mizi Fan

Forestry Commission

Prof Maria Kolokotroni

European Commission

Smart Power Networks Dr Ioana Pisica

Prof Gareth Taylor

Thames Water

Institute of Environment, Health and Societies > £50k Principal Investigator



Biomedical Engineering Prof Wamadeva Balachandran

Dr Maysam Abbod

Dr Krishna Burugapalli

Innovate UK Innovate UK

Environment and Health Dr Alexandra Lewin

Medical Research Council (MRC)

Dr Larisa Soldatova


Prof Suzanne Leroy

European Commission

Dr Larisa Soldatova

Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)

Dr Andrew Russell

Dr Abraham Althonayan, Dr Maged Ali, Dr Ariana Zeka, Prof Suzanne Leroy, Dr Elisabete Silva, Dr Mark Scrimshaw, Dr Allan Tucker

Dr Evina Katsou

European Commission

Dr Elisabete Silva Dr Evina Katsou

British Council

NERC Dr Mark Scrimshaw


Dr Svetlana Ignatova

The Royal Society

Dr Emmanouil Karteris

Cancer Treatment and Research Trust (CTRT)

Prof John Sumpter


Health Economics Dr Simon Taylor

Dr David Bell

Innovate UK

Dr Simon Taylor

Dr Gheorghita Ghinea, Dr Pamela Abbott

European Commission

Dr Joanne Lord

National Institute for Health Research (NIHR)

Dr Simon Taylor

European Commission


Project Title

Ultra Efficient Engines and Fuel Innovative Low Carbon, High Fuel Efficiency Power Generation Technology

Total Value Awarded

£756,774.00 £230,046.00

Adapting Waste Heat Recovery Technologies for Low Carbon Off-Highway Vehicles


Clean Air Power KTP: Advanced Dual Fuel HD Engines


Active refrigeration shelf with thermal storage


KTP - Waterwise


Redivivus: Recovery and re-use of energy, water and nutrients from waste in the food chain


Safeguarding Food and Environment in Qatar (SAFE-Q)


ReWoBioRef - Mobilisation and utilisation of recycled wood for lignocellulosic bio-refinery processes


MENS - Meeting of Energy Professional Skills 649773 — MEnS


Sponsored studentship - Thames Water Utilities (part time)


Project Title

Marine Exhaust Gas Treatment System (MAGS) SERS based POC Device for Detection of Drugs of Abuse

Total Value Awarded

£362,644.00 £59,825.96

Transfer in - Methods and tools for structural models integrating multiple high-throughput omics data sets in genetic epidemiology


Adaptive Automated Scientific Laboratory (Adalab)


PRIDE - drivers of Pontocaspian biodiversity RIse and Demise Big Machine Science Muliti-dimensional environment-health risk analysis for Kazakhstan (Newton Fund)


£316,927.00 £293,609.00 £157,371.00


The London NERC Doctoral Training Partnership (Offer letter Ref: NE/L002485/1)


The London NERC Doctoral Training Partnership (Offer letter Ref: NE/L002485/1)


Countercurrent chromatography coupled with MS detection


Validation of the Image Screen and Screen Cell devices on clinical patient samples, to evaluate individual platform performance on various cancers (Additional Funds) - Mode of Action Ecotoxicology of Pharmaceuticals

£59,715.00 £50,000.00

CraftBrew Brewery Management System


Sci-GalA -Energising Scientific Endeavour through Science Gateways and e-Infrastructers in Africa


PROTOCOL - Evaluation of the Impact of High-Intensity Specialist-Led Acute Care (HiSLAC) on Emergency Medical Admissions to NHS Hospitals at Weekends





Institute of Environment, Health and Societies > £50k (continued) Principal Investigator



Dr Jennifer Ryan

Dr Thomas Korff, Dr Cherry Kilbride, Prof Bill Baltzopoulos

Action Medical Research

Prof Christina Rita Victor

Dr Louise Mansfield, Dr Annette Payne, Prof Tess Kay, Dr Catherine Meads, Dr Louise Longworth


Dr Priscilla Harries

Prof Joseph Giacomin, Ms Farnaz Nickpour, Dr Will Young


Prof Mary Gilhooly

Dr Priscilla Harries, Prof Kenneth James Gilhooly, Dr Mary Sullivan, Dr Gillian Dalley

Dawes Trust

Prof Mary Gilhooly

Dr Mary Sullivan, Prof Kenneth James Gilhooly, Mrs Anne Mcintyre


Ageing Studies

Prof Christina Rita Victor

Dunhill Medical Trust

Welfare, Health and Wellbeing Dr Nicola Ansell


Prof Judith Harwin

Dr Subhash Pokhrel, Dr Stephen Swift

The Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation

Dr Stephen Swift

Nuffield Foundation

Dr Monica Degen

British Academy

Prof Judith Harwin

Synthetic Biology Dr Mark Pook

Takeda Cambridge Ltd (TCB)

Institute of Materials and Manufacturing > £50k Principal Investigator



Dr Alessio Malizia

Jaguar Land Rover (JLR)

Design for Sustainable Manufacturing Prof Joseph Giacomin Dr Steve Love

European Space Agency

Dr Tatiana Kalganova

Intel Corporation USA

Liquid Metal Engineering Prof Zhongyun Fan Prof Zhongyun Fan

HEFCE Prof Geoff Scamans, Dr Shouxun Ji

Innovate UK

Prof Zhongyun Fan

Constellium France SAS

Prof Zhongyun Fan

Jaguar Land Rover (JLR)

Dr Brian Mckay

European Commission

Dr Yan Huang

European Commission

Dr Hari-Babu Nadendla

European Commission

Materials Characterisation and Processing Prof Poopathy (Pk) Kathirgamanathan

European Commission

Prof Hari Upadhyaya Prof Jack Silver

EPSRC Dr George Fern, Prof Karnik Tarverdi


Prof Peter Hobson

Science & Technology Facilities Council (STFC)

Prof Paul Anthony Sermon

Dstl Commercial Services

Prof Peter Hobson

Dr Paul Kyberd

Science & Technology Facilities Council (STFC)

Micro-Nano Manufacturing Dr Harris Makatsoris



Project Title

Total Value Awarded

The development and evaluation of a resistance training programme to improve gait efficiency and increase physical activity and participation in adolescents with cerebral palsy


What Works Wellbeing: Culture, Sport and Wellbeing Evidence Review: Social Diversity and Context Matters


Scoping our future research priorities: A Research Proposal for Motability 10th Anniversary Trust




(Additional Funds) - Seeing what they see compensating for cortical visual dysfunction in Alzheimer’s disease


Why aren’t all old people lonely? A comparative analysis of European Union


Social cash transfers, generational relations and youth poverty trajectories in rural Lesotho and Malawi


FDAC Innovation Hub


(Additional Funds) - Timescapes of Urban Change (Additional Funds) - A study of supervision order and their contribution to family justice and child outcomes

Proteasome inhibitor and DAO inhibitor studies of FRDA

Project Title

Automotive Habitat

£110,900.00 £73,264.00


Total Value Awarded


U - An interactive learning space that talks about the Universe


Supply Chain Network Models AEUR - Collaborative Research


Advanced Metals Casting Centre Phase II LEAAST - Lightweight Energy Absorbing Aluminium Structures for Transport AMCC Programme Next Generation of Automative Casting Alloys (5year agreement - Year 1 costs only) (amcc) Altitude - ALTernative to Indium Tin Oxide materials for sustainable growth of displays, solar and automobile industries

£15,000,000.00 £593,690.00 £393,784.37 £390,000.00 £262,197.00

NewBioGen - New Generation of orthopaedic Biomaterials




FLEXOLIGHTING - Long Life, Large Area, Large Uniformity Flexible and Conformable OLEDs for Lighting


APEX Program - Phase II


Plastic Packaging Recycling using Intelligent Separation Technologies for Materials (PRISM)


Training Grant Brunel


Nanoengineered IR coatings - Option3


GridPP4 Brunel Tier2 One year staff extension


Advanced Flow Technology for Healthcare Materials Manufacturing



Institute of Materials and Manufacturing > £50k (continued) Principal Investigator



Micro-Nano Manufacturing Dr Harris Makatsoris


Structural Integrity Prof Tat-Hean Gan

Innovate UK

Prof Tat-Hean Gan

Birmingham City Council

Prof Tat-Hean Gan

Innovate UK

Prof Tat-Hean Gan

European Commission

Prof Tat-Hean Gan

European Commission

Prof Sergey Mikhailov


Dr Xiangming Zhou

European Commission

Dr Katherine Cashell


Publications Institute of Energy Futures Authors

Journal OR Published proceedings

2014 Doyle TS, Dehouche Z, Aravind PV, Liu M, Stankovic S

International Journal of Hydrogen Energy

Lin S, Huang Z, Fan M

Journal of Constructional Steel Research

Riesch H

Public Understanding of Science

Ergun H, Rawn B, Belmans R, Van Hertem D

Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Ge YT, Tassou SA, Santosa ID, Tsamos K

Applied Energy

La Scala M, Vaccaro A, Zobaa AF

Applied Thermal Engineering

Shinjo J, Xia J, Ganippa LC, Megaritis A

Physics of Fluids

Suwan T, Fan M

Construction and Building Materials

Zhang Y, Zhao H

Applied Energy

Samadi A, Shayesteh E, Eriksson R, Rawn B, Söder L

Renewable Energy

Zhou Y, Fan M, Luo X, Huang L, Chen L

Carbohydrate Polymers

Date P, Islyaev S

European Journal of Operational Research

2015 Alzuwaid F, Ge YT, Tassou SA, Raeisi A, Gowreesunker L

Applied Thermal Engineering

Date P, Ponomareva K, Roman D

European Journal of Operational Research

Eiza MH, Owens TJ, Ni Q

IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing

Feneley A, Pesiridis A, Andwari AM

Applied Energy

Hao L, Gallop JC, Cox DC, Chen J

IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics

Khan M, Jin Y, Li M, Xiang Y, Jiang C

IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems

Liu Q, Chen YF, Fan SZ, Abbod MF, Shieh JS

Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine

Rose J, Persson JS, Heeager LT, Irani Z

Information Systems Journal

Sahebjamnia N, Torabi SA, Mansouri SA

European Journal of Operational Research

Wan K, Wang Z, He Y, Xia J, Zhou Z, Zhou J, Cen K


Zhou Y, Fan M, Chen L, Zhuang J

Composites Part B: Engineering

Al-Hmood H, Al-Raweshidy HS

Electronics Letters

Wilkin P, boudeau C

Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy

Ashton PM, Saunders CS, Taylor GA, Carter AM, Bradley ME

IEEE Transactions on Power Systems

Fadhl B, Wrobel LC, Jouhara H

Applied Thermal Engineering

Gunasekaran A, Irani Z, Choy KL, Filippi L, Papadopoulos T

International Journal of Production Economics

Mroue H, Ramos JB, Wrobel LC, Jouhara H

Applied Thermal Engineering


Project Title

Total Value Awarded

Advanced flow technology for healthcare materials manufacturing


AutoDISC - Automated ultrasonic inspection of aerospace composites with enhanced defect detection probabilities aided by gantry deployed, CAD controlled robotics


(AMSCI) In line Automated defect recognition in powder metallurgy, ceramic and composite net shape components


UNION (Ultrasonic Nuclear InspectiON)


VORTEXSCAN - Vortex Robot for Rapid Low Cost Scanning and Improved Non-Destructive Testing of Large Concrete Structures




Mathematical Analysis of Boundary-Domain Integral Equations for Nonlinear PDEs REMINE - Reuse of mining waste into innovative geopolymeric-based structural panels, precast ready mixes and insitu applications Industrial CASE Studenship

£90,000.00 £69,524.00


Investigating the impact and reaction pathway of toluene on a SOFC running on syngas Modelling partial end-plate connections under fire conditions Why did the proton cross the road? Humour and science communication Technology and Topology Optimization for Multizonal Transmission Systems Design optimisation of CO₂ gas cooler/condenser in a refrigeration system A goal programming methodology for multiobjective optimization of distributed energy hubs operation Physics of puffing and microexplosion of emulsion fuel droplets Influence of OPC replacement and manufacturing procedures on the properties of self-cured geopolymer Investigation of combustion, performance and emission characteristics of 2-stroke and 4-stroke spark ignition and CAI/HCCI operations in a DI gasoline Multi-objective coordinated droop-based voltage regulation in distribution grids with PV systems Acidic ionic liquid catalyzed crosslinking of oxycellulose with chitosan for advanced biocomposites A fast calibrating volatility model for option pricing

The novel use of phase change materials in a refrigerated display cabinet: An experimental investigation An algorithm for moment-matching scenario generation with application to financial portfolio optimization Secure and robust multi-constrained QoS aware routing algorithm for VANETs Variable Geometry Turbine Turbocharging: A Review Fabrication and analogue applications of nanoSQUIDs using Dayem bridge junctions Hadoop Performance Modeling for Job Estimation and Resource Provisioning EEG Signals Analysis Using Multiscale Entropy for Depth of Anesthesia Monitoring during Surgery through Artificial Neural Networks Managing e-Government: Value positions and relationships Integrated business continuity and disaster recovery planning: Towards organizational resilience Experimental and modeling study of pyrolysis of coal, biomass and blended coal-biomass particles Lignocellulosic fibre mediated rubber composites: An overview Performance analysis of energy detector over η - μ fading channel: PDF-based approach Public participation and public services in British liberal democracy: Colin Ward’s anarchist critique Inertia estimation of the GB power system using synchrophasor measurements CFD Modelling of a Two-Phase Closed Thermosyphon Charged with R134a and R404a Performance measures and metrics in outsourcing decisions: A review for research and applications Experimental and numerical investigation of an air-to-water heat pipe-based heat exchanger


Institute of Energy Futures (continued) Authors

Journal OR Published proceedings

2015 Sun R, Burgess IW, Huang Z, Dong G

Engineering Structures

Date P, Islyaev S

European Journal of Operational Research

Irani Z, Sharif AM, Papadopoulos T

IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management

Liao F, Huang Z

Computers and Structures

Ghaffar SH, Fan M

Biomass and Bioenergy

Patel T, Li B, Gallop J, Cox D, Kirkby K, Romans E, Chen J, Nisbet A, Hao L

IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity

Radovanovic A, Stojceska V, Plunkett A, Jankovic S, Milovanovic D, Cupara S

Food Chemistry

Institute of Environment, Health and Societies Authors

Journal OR Published proceedings

2014 Leotta CG, Federico C, Brundo MV, Tosi S, Saccone S

PLoS One

Luo M, Chen ZQ, Zhao L, Kershaw S, Huang J, Wu L, Yang H, Fang Y, Huang Y, Zhang Q, Hu S, Zhou C, Wen W, Jia Z

Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology

Lynch AE, Triajianto J, Routledge E

PLoS One

Abu-Jamous B, Fa R, Roberts DJ, Nandi AK

BMC Bioinformatics

Bo V, Curtis T, Lysenko A, Saqi M, Swift S, Tucker A

PLoS One

Castellucci LA, Cameron C, Le Gal G, Rodger MA, Coyle D, Wells PS, Clifford T, Gandara E, Wells G, Carrier M

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Rintoul RC, Ritchie AJ, Edwards JG, Waller DA, Coonar AS, Bennett M, Lovato E, Hughes V, FoxRushby JA, Sharples LD

The Lancet

Bai B, Cai X, Jiang Y, Karteris E, Chen J, Chen J

Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine

Chan K, Shah K, Lien K, Coyle D, Lam H, Ko Y-J

PLoS One

De Polo A, Margiotta-Casaluci L, Lockyer AE, Scrimshaw MD

PLoS One

Leroy SAG, López-Merino L, Tudryn A, Chalié F, Gasse F

Quaternary Science Reviews

Lioy PJ, Gennings C, Hauser R, Koch HM, Kortenkamp A

Environmental Health Perspectives

Margiotta-Casaluci L, Owen SF, Cumming RI, De Polo A, Winter MJ, Panter GH, Rand-Weaver M, Sumpter JP

PLoS One

Richards K, Bolikhovskaya NS, Hoogendoorn RM, Kroonenberg SB, Leroy SAG, Athersuch J

The Holocene

Sharples L, Glover M, Clutterbuck-James A, Bennett M, Jordan J, Chadwick R, Pittman M, East C, Cameron M, Davies M, Oscroft N, Smith I, Morrell M, Fox-Rushby J, Quinnell T

Health Technology Assessment

Arnold KE, Brown AR, Brown AR, Ankley GT, Sumpter JP

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

Johnson AC, Sumpter JP

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

Lagravinese R, Moscone F, Tosetti E, Lee H

Regional Science and Urban Economics

McMillen D, Moscone F, Mullahy J

Regional Science and Urban Economics

Mishanina E, Rogozinska E, Thatthi T, Uddin-Khan R, Khan KS, Meads C


Moscone F, Tosetti E, Canepa A

Regional Science and Urban Economics

Soldatova LN, Nadis D, King RD, Basu PS, Haddi E, Baumlé V, Saunders NJ, Marwan W, Rudkin BB

BMC Bioinformatics

Vallé F, Dupont LM, Leroy SAG, Schefuß E, Wefer G

Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology

Williams R, Aspinall R, Bellis M, Camps-Walsh G, Cramp M, Dhawan A, Ferguson J, Forton D, Foster G, Gilmore SI, Hickman M, Hudson M, Kelly D, Langford A, Lombard M, Longworth L, Martin N, Moriarty K, Newsome P, O’Grady J, Pryke R, Rutter H, Ryder S, Sheron N, Smith T

The Lancet

Collin PY, Kershaw S, Tribovillard N, Forel MB, Crasquin S

International Journal of Earth Sciences

Dong H, Wang Z, Ding SX, Gao H


Hayashi G, Shen Y, Pedersen TL, Newman JW, Pook M, Cortopassi G

Human Molecular Genetics

Kortenkamp A

Current Opinion in Pharmacology

Marsden-Jones S, Colclough N, Garrard I, Sumner N, Ignatova S

Journal of Chromatography A

Molitor J, Brown IJ, Chan Q, Papathomas M, Liverani S, Molitor NT, Richardson S, Van Horn L, Daviglus ML, Dyer A, Stamler J, Elliott P, INTERMAP research group


Pokhrel S, Quigley MA, Fox-Rushby J, McCormick F, Williams A, Trueman P, Dodds R, Renfrew MJ

Archives of Disease in Childhood

Sahdeo S, Scott BD, McMackin MZ, Jasoliya M, Brown B, Wulff H, Perlman SL, Pook MA, Cortopassi GA

Human Molecular Genetics



Progressive failure modelling and ductility demand of steel beam-to-column connections in fire Electricity futures price models : calibration and forecasting Organizational energy: A behavioral analysis of human and organizational factors in manufacturing An extended finite element model for modelling localised fracture of reinforced concrete beams in fire Revealing the morphology and chemical distribution of nodes in wheat straw Investigating the Intrinsic Noise Limit of Dayem Bridge NanoSQUIDs The use of dry Jerusalem artichoke as a functional nutrient in developing extruded food with low glycaemic index


HLXB9 gene expression, and nuclear location during in vitro neuronal differentiation in the SK-N-BE neuroblastoma cell line Early Middle Triassic stromatolites from the Luoping area, Yunnan Province, Southwest China: Geobiologic features and environmental implications Low-Cost Motility Tracking System (LOCOMOTIS) for time-lapse microscopy applications and cell visualisation Comprehensive analysis of forty yeast microarray datasets reveals a novel subset of genes (APha-RiB) consistently negatively associated with ribosome biogenesis Discovering Study-Specific Gene Regulatory Networks Clinical and safety outcomes associated with treatment of acute venous thromboembolism: A systematic review and meta-analysis Efficacy and cost of video-assisted thoracoscopic partial pleurectomy versus talc pleurodesis in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MesoVATS): An open-label, randomised, controlled trial Heterodimerization of apelin receptor and neurotensin receptor 1 induces phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and cell proliferation via Gαq-mediated mechanism A bayesian meta-analysis of multiple treatment comparisons of systemic regimens for advanced pancreatic cancer A new role for carbonic anhydrase 2 in the response of fish to copper and osmotic stress: Implications for multi-stressor studies Late Pleistocene and Holocene palaeoenvironments in and around the middle Caspian basin as reconstructed from a deep-sea core Changing trends in phthalate exposures Quantitative cross-species extrapolation between humans and fish: The case of the anti-depressant fluoxetine Reconstructions of deltaic environments from Holocene palynological records in the Volga delta, northern Caspian Sea Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness results from the randomised controlled Trial of Oral Mandibular Advancement Devices for Obstructive sleep apnoea– hypopnoea (TOMADO) and long-term economic analysis of oral devices and continuous positive airway pressure Medicating the environment: Assessing risks of pharmaceuticals to wildlife and ecosystems Putting pharmaceuticals into the wider context of challenges to fish populations in rivers The impact of air pollution on hospital admissions: Evidence from Italy Special issue on health econometrics: Editors’ introduction The authors respond Real estate market and financial stability in US metropolitan areas: A dynamic model with spatial effects EXACT2: the semantics of biomedical protocols Pliocene environmental change in West Africa and the onset of strong NE trade winds (ODP Sites 659 and 658) Addressing liver disease in the UK: A blueprint for attaining excellence in health care and reducing premature mortality from lifestyle issues of excess consumption of alcohol, obesity, and viral hepatitis Geochemistry of post-extinction microbialites as a powerful tool to assess the oxygenation of shallow marine water in the immediate aftermath of the endPermian mass extinction Finite-horizon estimation of randomly occurring faults for a class of nonlinear time-varying systems Frataxin deficiency increases cyclooxygenase 2 and prostaglandins in cell and animal models of Friedreich’s ataxia Low dose mixture effects of endocrine disrupters and their implications for regulatory thresholds in chemical risk assessment Using quantitative structure activity relationship models to predict an appropriate solvent system from a common solvent system family for countercurrent chromatography separation Blood Pressure Differences Associated With Optimal Macronutrient Intake Trial for Heart Health (OMNIHEART)–Like Diet Compared With a Typical American Diet Potential economic impacts from improving breastfeeding rates in the UK Dyclonine rescues frataxin deficiency in animal models and buccal cells of patients with Friedreich’s ataxia


Institute of Environment, Health and Societies (continued) Authors

Journal OR Published proceedings

2014 Sahdeo S, Scott BD, McMackin MZ, Jasoliya M, Brown B, Wulff H, Perlman SL, Pook MA, Cortopassi GA

Human Molecular Genetics

Sullivan SM, Coyle D, Wells G

PLoS One

2015 Alldred P, Fox N

Sexualities: Studies in Culture and Society

Alvarino T, Suarez S, Katsou E, Vazquez-Padin J, Lema JM, Omil F

Water Research

Ansell N

International Development Planning Review

Au B, Smith KJ, Gariépy G, Schmitz N

Journal of Psychosomatic Research

Au B, Smith KJ, Schmitz N

Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health

Azim AW, Abrar S, Zerguine A, Nandi AK

Signal Processing

Brack W, Altenburger R, Schüürmann G, Krauss M, López Herráez D, van Gils J, Slobodnik J, Munthe J, Gawlik BM, van Wezel A, Schriks M, Hollender J, Tollefsen KE, Mekenyan O, Dimitrov S, Bunke D, Cousins I, Posthuma L, van den Brink PJ, López de Alda M, Barceló D, Faust M, Kortenkamp A, Scrimshaw M, Ignatova S, Engelen G, Massmann G, Lemkine G, Teodorovic I, Walz K-H, Dulio V, Jonker MTO, Jäger F, Chipman K, Falciani F, Liska I, Rooke D, Zhang X, Hollert H, Vrana B, Hilscherova K, Kramer K, Neumann S, Hammerbacher R, Backhaus T, Mack J, Segner H, Escher B, de Aragão Umbuzeiro G

Science of the Total Environment

Chayka O, D’Acunto CW, Middleton O, Arab M, Sala A

Journal of Biological Chemistry

Clavica F, Parker KH, Khir AW

Journal of Biomechanics

Crossan C, Tsochatzis EA, Longworth L, Gurusamy K, Davidson B, Rodríguez-Perálvarez M, Mantzoukis K, O Brien J, Thalassinos E, Papastergiou V, Burroughs A

Health Technology Assessment

Degen MM, Melhuish C, Rose G

Journal of Consumer Culture

Dominelli P, Render JN, Molgat-Seon Y, Foster GE, Romer LM, Sheel AW

The Journal of Physiology

Gardner J, Williams C

Sociology of Health and Illness

Harris T, Kerry SM, Victor CR, Ekelund U, Woodcock A, Iliffe S, Whincup PH, Beighton C, Ussher M, Limb ES, David L, Brewin D, Adams F, Rogers A, Cook DG

PLoS Medicine

Hawken S, Kwong JC, Deeks SL, Crowcroft NS, McGeer AJ, Ducharme R, Campitelli MA, Coyle D, Wilson K

Emerging Infectious Diseases

Jahangirian M, Taylor SJE, Eatock J, Stergioulas L, Taylor PM

Journal of the Operational Research Society

Kaba D, Wang Y, Wang C, Liu X, Zhu H, Salazar-Gonzalez AG, Li Y

Optics Express

Kaur S, Jobling S, Jones CS, Noble LR, Routledge EJ, Lockyer AE

PLoS One

Li Z, Wang Z, Wang Z, Ding D, Shu H

International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control

Lockyer S

Journal of Popular Culture

Molavi-Arabshahi M, Arpe K, Leroy SAG

International Journal of Climatology

Money AG, Barnett J, Kuljis J, Duffin D

Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences

Moscone F, Tosetti E

Economics Letters

Moseley GL, O’Connell NE


Mullen KA, Coyle D, Manuel D, Nguyen HV, Pham B, Pipe AL, Reid RD

Tobacco Control

Norris M

Ageing and Society

Nyssen OP, Taylor SJC, Wong G, Steed L, Bourke L, Lord J, Ross CA, Hayman S, Field V, Higgins A, Greenhalgh T, Meads C

Health Technology Assessment

Payne AM, Wilson F, Bourton E, Stergioulas L

Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education

Ray M, Milne A, Beech C, Phillips JE, Richards S, Sullivan MP, Tanner D, Lloyd L

British Journal of Social Work

Skodras AN, Aburdene MF, Nandi AK

Electronics Letters

Ward DP, Cárdenas-Fernández M, Hewitson P, Ignatova S, Lye GJ

Journal of Chromatography A

West R, Raw M, McNeill A, Stead L, Aveyard P, Britton J, Stapleton J, McRobbie H, Pokhrel S, Lester-George A, Borland R


Dong H, Wang Z, Ding SX, Gao H


Pernigo S, Fukuzawa A, Pandini A, Holt M, Kleinjung J, Gautel M, Steiner RA

Journal of Molecular Biology

Simpson AJ, Romer LM, Kippelen P

Med Sci Sports Exerc

Spórna-Kucab A, Garrard I, Ignatova S, Wybraniec S

Journal of Chromatography A

You WH, Zhu HM, Yu K, Peng C

World Development

Adhami HR, Zehl M, Dangl C, Dorfmeister D, Stadler M, Urban E, Hewitson P, Ignatova S, Krenn L

Food Chemistry

Borlotti A, Park C, Parker KH, Khir AW

Journal of Hypertension

Coyle D, Coyle K, Essebag V, Birnie DH, Ahmad K, Toal S, Sapp J, Healey JS, Verma A, Wells G, Krahn AD

Journal of the American College of Cardiology

Hauser R, Skakkebaek NE, Hass U, Toppari J, Juul A, Andersson AM, Kortenkamp A, Heindel JJ, Trasande L

Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism



Dyclonine rescues frataxin deficiency in animal models and buccal cells of patients with Friedreich’s ataxia What guidance are researchers given on how to present network meta-analyses to end-users such as policymakers and clinicians? A systematic review

The sexuality-assemblages of young men: a new materialist analysis Removal of PPCPs from the sludge supernatant in a one stage nitritation/anammox process Shaping global education: International agendas and governmental power Response to Kawada: C-reactive protein, depressive symptoms and incident diabetes mellitus with special emphasis on physical activity Depressive symptoms, C-reactive protein, and incidence of diabetes Steady-state performance of multimodulus blind equalizers The SOLUTIONS project: Challenges and responses for present and future emerging pollutants in land and water resources management

Identification and pharmacological inactivation of the MYCN gene network as a therapeutic strategy for neuroblastic tumor cells Wave intensity analysis in air-filled flexible vessels Cost-effectiveness of non-invasive methods for assessment and monitoring of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with chronic liver disease: Systematic review and economic evaluation Producing Place Atmospheres Digitally: Architecture, Digital Visualisations Practices and the Experience Economy Oxygen cost of exercise hyperpnoea is greater in women compared with men Corporal diagnostic work and diagnostic spaces: Clinicians’ use of space and bodies during diagnosis A Primary Care Nurse-Delivered Walking Intervention in Older Adults: PACE (Pedometer Accelerometer Consultation Evaluation)-Lift Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial Simulation study of the effect of influenza and influenza vaccination on risk of acquiring guillain-barré syndrome Causal study of low stakeholder engagement in healthcare simulation projects Retina layer segmentation using kernel graph cuts and continuous max-flow The nuclear receptors of Biomphalaria glabrata and Lottia gigantea: Implications for developing new model organisms H∞ fault estimation with randomly occurring uncertainties, quantization effects and successive packet dropouts: The finite-horizon case Performance, Expectation, Interaction and Intimacy: On the Opportunities and Limitations of Arena Stand-up Comedy for Comedians and Audiences Precipitation and temperature of the southwest Caspian Sea region during the last 55 years: Their trends and teleconnections with large-scale atmospheric phenomena Patient perceptions and expectations of an anticoagulation service: A quantitative comparison study of clinic-based testers and patient self-testers Robust Estimation under Error Cross Section Dependence Finding the balance in complex regional pain syndrome: Expertise, optimism, and evidence Economic evaluation of a hospital-initiated intervention for smokers with chronic disease, in Ontario, Canada The complexities of ‘otherness’: reflections on embodiment of a young White British woman engaged in cross-generation research involving older people in Indonesia Does therapeutic writing help people with long-term conditions? Systematic review, realist synthesis and economic considerations (Under review) Feedback in e-learning systems-what, when and how? Gerontological Social Work: Reflections on its Role, Purpose and Value Two-band fast Hartley transform Centrifugal partition chromatography in a biorefinery context: Separation of monosaccharides from hydrolysed sugar beet pulp Healthcare interventions to promote and assist tobacco cessation: a review of efficacy, effectiveness and affordability for use in national guideline development Finite-horizon reliable control with randomly occurring uncertainties and nonlinearities subject to output quantization The crystal structure of the human titin:obscurin complex reveals a conserved yet specific muscle M-band zipper module Self-reported symptoms after induced and inhibited bronchoconstriction in athletes New solvent systems for gradient counter-current chromatography in separation of betanin and its derivatives from processed Beta vulgaris L. juice Democracy, Financial Openness, and Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Heterogeneity Across Existing Emission Levels Preparative isolation of oleocanthal, tyrosol, and hydroxytyrosol from olive oil by HPCCC Reservoir and reservoir-less pressure effects on arterial waves in the canine aorta Cost Effectiveness of Continued-Warfarin Versus Heparin-Bridging Therapy During Pacemaker and Defibrillator Surgery Male reproductive disorders, diseases, and costs of exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the European Union


Institute of Environment, Health and Societies (continued) Authors

Journal OR Published proceedings

2015 Kakroodi AA, Leroy SAG, Kroonenberg SB, Lahijani HAK, Alimohammadian H, Boomer I, Goorabi A

Marine Geology

Pirani M, Best N, Blangiardo M, Liverani S, Atkinson RW, Fuller GW

Environ Int

Trasande L, Zoeller RT, Hass U, Kortenkamp A, Grandjean P, Myers JP, Digangi J, Bellanger M, Hauser R, Legler J, Skakkebaek NE, Heindel JJ

Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

Altenburger R, Ait-Aissa S, Antczak P, Backhaus T, Barceló D, Seiler T-B, Brion F, Busch W, Chipman K, de Alda ML, de Aragão Umbuzeiro G, Escher BI, Falciani F, Faust M, Focks A, Hilscherova K, Hollender J, Hollert H, Jäger F, Jahnke A, Kortenkamp A, Krauss M, Lemkine GF, Munthe J, Neumann S, Schymanski EL, Scrimshaw M, Segner H, Slobodnik J, Smedes F, Kughathas S, Teodorovic I, Tindall AJ, Tollefsen KE, Walz K-H, Williams TD, Van den Brink PJ, van Gils J, Vrana B, Zhang X, Brack W

Science of the Total Environment

Frison N, Chiumenti A, Katsou E, Malamis S, Bolzonella D, Fatone F

Journal of Cleaner Production

Johnson AC, Keller V, Dumont E, Sumpter JP

Science of the Total Environment

Johnson AC, Sumpter JP

Environmental Science and Technology

Lichtensteiger W, Bassetti-Gaille C, Faass O, Axelstad M, Boberg J, Christiansen S, Rehrauer H, Georgijevic JK, Hass U, Kortenkamp A, Schlumpf M


Ryan J, Hensey O, McLoughlin B, Lyons A, Gormley J

PLoS One

Vieira MN, Costa FDN, Leitão GG, Garrard I, Hewitson P, Ignatova S, Winterhalter P, Jerz G

Journal of Chromatography A

Zubair M, Norris M

Ageing and Society

Ågerstrand M, Berg C, Björlenius B, Breitholtz M, Brunström B, Fick J, Gunnarsson L, Gunnarsson L, Larsson DGJ, Sumpter JP, Tysklind M, Rudén C

Environmental Science and Technology

Bruti G, Kolyva C, Pepper JR, Khir AW

Artificial Organs

Callington A, Long Q, Mohite P, Simon A, Mittal TK

Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery

Gardner J, Samuel G, Williams C

Science Technology and Human Values

Gaskin J, Rennie C, Coyle D

Environ Health Perspect

Haghani S, Leroy SAG, Khdir S, Kabiri K, Beni AN, Lahijani HAK

The Holocene

Makarova OV, Makarov EM

PLoS One

Singh JA, Singh JA, Singh JA, Cameron C, Cameron C, Noorbaloochi S, Cullis T, Tucker M, Christensen R, Ghogomu ET, Coyle D, Clifford T, Tugwell P, Wells GA, Wells GA

The Lancet

Abu-Jamous B, Fa R, Roberts DJ, Nandi AK

BMC Bioinformatics

Arrebola JP, Molina-Molina JM, Fernández MF, Sáenz JM, Amaya E, Indiveri P, Hill EM, Scholze M, Orton F, Kortenkamp A, Olea N


Carrier M, Lazo-Langner A, Shivakumar S, Tagalakis V, Zarychanski R, Solymoss S, Routhier N, Douketis J, Danovitch K, Lee AY, Gal GL, Wells PS, Ramsay T, Coyle D, Chagnon I, Kassam Z, Taves D, Rodger MA, Tao H

Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis

Carrier M, Lazo-Langner A, Shivakumar S, Tagalakis V, Zarychanski R, Solymoss S, Routhier N, Douketis J, Danovitch K, Lee AY, Le Gal G, Wells PS, Corsi DJ, Ramsay T, Coyle D, Chagnon I, Kassam Z, Tao H, Rodger MA

New England Journal of Medicine

Leggott J, Lockyer S, White R

Critical Studies in Television: The International Journal of Television Studies

Lockyer S

Critical Studies in Television: The International Journal of Television Studies

Bishop D, Addington N

Learning and Instruction

Campbell F, Holmes M, Everson-Hock E, Davis S, Buckley Woods H, Anokye N, Tappenden P, Kaltenthaler E

Health Technology Assessment

Dong H, Wang Z, Ding SX, Gao H

IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing

Donnachie RL, Johnson AC, Sumpter JP

Environ Toxicol Chem

Ivanova D, Taylor T, Smith SL, Dimude JU, Upton AL, Mehrjouy M, Skovgaard O, Sherratt DJ, Retkute R, Rudolph C

Nucleic Acids Research

Li M, Yang S, Liu X

Artificial Intelligence

Rajab RS, Dražić M, Mladenović N, Mladenović P, Yu K

Journal of Global Optimization

Sumption N, Goodhead DT, Anderson RM

PLoS One



Late Pleistocene and Holocene sea-level change and coastal palaeoenvironment along the Iranian Caspian shore Analysing the health effects of simultaneous exposure to physical and chemical properties of airborne particles Estimating burden and disease costs of exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the European Union Future water quality monitoring - Adapting tools to deal with mixtures of pollutants in water resource management

Mitigating off-gas emissions in the biological nitrogen removal via nitrite process treating anaerobic effluents Assessing the concentrations and risks of toxicity from the antibiotics ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and erythromycin in European rivers Improving the quality of wastewater to tackle trace organic contaminants: Think before you act! Differential gene expression patterns in developing sexually dimorphic rat brain regions exposed to antiandrogenic, estrogenic, or complex endocrine disruptor mixtures: Glutamatergic synapses as target Associations of Sedentary Behaviour, Physical Activity, Blood Pressure and Anthropometric Measures with Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Children with Cerebral Palsy Schinus terebinthifolius scale-up countercurrent chromatography (Part I): HIGH performance countercurrent chromatography fractionation of triterpene acids with off-line detection using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry Perspectives on ageing, later life and ethniciy: ageing research in ethnic minority contexts Improving environmental risk assessment of human pharmaceuticals Measurements of Intra-Aortic Balloon Wall Movement During Inflation and Deflation: Effects of Angulation Computational fluid dynamic study of hemodynamic effects on aortic root blood flow of systematically varied left ventricular assist device graft anastomosis design Sociology of Low Expectations: Recalibration as Innovation Work in Biomedicine Reducing Periconceptional Methylmercury Exposure: Cost-Utility Analysis for a Proposed Screening Program for Women Planning a Pregnancy in Ontario, Canada. An early Little Ice Age brackish water invasion along the south coast of the Caspian Sea (sediment of Langarud wetland) and its wider impacts on environment and people The 35S U5 snRNP Is Generated from the Activated Spliceosome during In vitro Splicing Risk of serious infection in biological treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis UNCLES: Method for the identification of genes differentially consistently co-expressed in a specific subset of datasets A novel biomarker for anti-androgenic activity in placenta reveals risks of urogenital malformations Screening for occult malignancy in patient with unprovoked venous thromboembolism: an open randomized controlled trial using a comprehensive abdomen/ pelvis computed tomography (some trial) Screening for occult cancer in unprovoked venous thromboembolism

‘Acting Up: Gender and Television Comedy’ An Extra Slice of Jo Brand Using Visual Guidance to Retrain an Expert Golfer’s Gaze: A Case Study A systematic review and economic evaluation of exercise referral schemes in primary care: a short report Event-Based H<inf>∞</inf> filter design for a class of nonlinear time-varying systems with fading channels and multiplicative noises A rational approach to selecting and ranking some pharmaceuticals of concern for the aquatic environment and their relative importance compared to other chemicals Shaping the landscape of the Escherichia coli chromosome: replication-transcription encounters in cells with an ectopic replication origin Bi-goal evolution for many-objective optimization problems Fitting censored quantile regression by variable neighborhood search Alpha-Particle-Induced Complex Chromosome Exchanges Transmitted through Extra-Thymic Lymphopoiesis In Vitro Show Evidence of Emerging Genomic Instability.


Institute of Materials and Manufacturing Authors

Journal OR Published proceedings

2014 Chatrchyan S, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics

Chatrchyan S, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology

Chatrchyan S, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

European Physical Journal C

Chatrchyan S, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology

Chatrchyan S, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology

Chatrchyan S, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

European Physical Journal C

Wang C, Cheng K, Nelson N, Sawangsri W, Rakowski R

Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture

Attard-Montalto N, Ojeda JJ, Reynolds A, Ismail M, Bailey M, Doodkorte L, De Puit M, Jones BJ


Chatrchyan S, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Physical Review Letters

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics

Shamass R, Alfano G, Guarracino F

Engineering Structures

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

European Physical Journal C

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

European Physical Journal C

Chatrchyan S, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology

Denia FD, Sánchez-Orgaz EM, Baeza L, Kirby R

Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics

Gallear D, Ghobadian A, Li Y, Oregan N, Childerhouse P, Naim M

Production Planning and Control

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

European Physical Journal C

Chatrchyan S, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

European Physical Journal C

Yang W, Ji S, Wang M, Li Z

Journal of Alloys and Compounds

Chatrchyan S, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

European Physical Journal C: Particles and Fields

Dong W, Zhou X, Wu Z

Engineering Fracture Mechanics

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

European Physical Journal C: Particles and Fields

Men H, Fan Z

Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science

Mitchell J, Vandeperre L, Dvorak R, Kosior E, Tarverdi K, Cheeseman C

Waste Management

Zhou X, Dong W, Oladiran O

Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering

Atherton MA, Bates RA, Wynn HP

PLoS One

Chatrchyan S, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Nuclear Physics A

Das S, Barekar NS, El Fakir O, Wang L, Prasada Rao AK, Patel JB, Kotadia HR, Bhagurkar A, Dear JP, Fan Z

Materials Science and Engineering A

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Phys Rev Lett

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Physics Letters Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics

Kirby R, Amott K, Williams PT, Duan W

Journal of Sound and Vibration

2015 Bolzoni L, Nowak K, Nadendla HB

Materials and Design

Denia FD, Sánchez-Orgaz EM, Martínez-Casas J, Kirby R

Finite Elements in Analysis and Design

Duan W, Kirby R

Finite Elements in Analysis and Design

Joshi U, VadakkeMadam S, Eskin DG, Nadendla HB

Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

European Physical Journal C



Measurement of jet fragmentation in PbPb and pp collisions at s NN =2.76 TeV Measurement of the muon charge asymmetry in inclusive pp →w+X production at s =7TeV and an improved determination of light parton distribution functions Measurement of jet multiplicity distributions in tt production in pp collisions at root 7 = 7TeV Search for WWγ and WZγ production and constraints on anomalous quartic gauge couplings in pp collisions at s =8TeV Search for anomalous production of events with three or more leptons in pp collisions at s =8TeV Search for jet extinction in the inclusive jet-pT spectrum from proton-proton collisions at s=8TeV Measurement of WZ and ZZ production in pp collisions at (Formula presented.) in final states with b-tagged jets Cutting force-based analysis and correlative observations on the tool wear in diamond turning of single-crystal silicon Determining the chronology of deposition of natural fingermarks and inks on paper using secondary ion mass spectrometry Evidence of b-jet quenching in PbPb collisions at √(s(NN))=2.76 TeV Search for top-squark pairs decaying into Higgs or Z bosons in pp collisions at √s=8 TeV Measurement of the ratio B(t→Wb)/B(t→Wq) in pp collisions at s=8 TeV Constraints on the Higgs boson width from off-shell production and decay to Z-boson pairs A numerical investigation into the plastic buckling paradox for circular cylindrical shells under axial compression Searches for electroweak production of charginos, neutralinos, and sleptons decaying to leptons and W, Z, and Higgs bosons in pp collisions at 8 TeV Measurement of top quark–antiquark pair production in association with a W or Z boson in pp collisions at √s = 8 TeV Measurement of the ratio of inclusive jet cross sections using the anti- k T algorithm with radius parameters R=0.5 and 0.7 in pp collisions at s =7TeV Point collocation scheme in silencers with temperature gradient and mean flow An environmental uncertainty-based diagnostic reference tool for evaluating the performance of supply chain value streams Observation of the diphoton decay of the Higgs boson and measurement of its properties Measurement of pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles in proton–proton collisions at (Equation Present) TeV by the CMS and TOTEM experiments Precipitation behaviour of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy and diffraction analysis from η′ precipitates in four variants Measurement of differential cross sections for the production of a pair of isolated photons in pp collisions at root s=7TeV A fracture mechanics-based method for prediction of cracking of circular and elliptical concrete rings under restrained shrinkage Search for excited quarks in the γ + jet final state in proton-proton collisions at √s=8TeV Search for heavy neutrinos and W bosons with right-handed couplings in proton-proton collisions at root s=8TeV An Analytical Model for Solute Segregation at Liquid Metal/Solid Substrate Interface Recycling disposable cups into paper plastic composites Experimental and numerical assessment of restrained shrinkage cracking of concrete using elliptical ring specimens Dimensional analysis using toric ideals: Primitive invariants CMS Collaboration Effect of melt conditioning on heat treatment and mechanical properties of AZ31 alloy strips produced by twin roll casting Measurement of Prompt ψ(2S) to J/ψ Yield Ratios in Pb-Pb and p-p Collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=2.76 TeV Measurement of the tt production cross section in pp collisions at √s=8 TeV in dilepton final states containing one τ lepton Searches for heavy Higgs bosons in two-Higgs-doublet models and for t →ch decay using multilepton and diphoton final states in pp collisions at 8 TeV Search for pair production of third-generation scalar leptoquarks and top squarks in proton-proton collisions at v root s=8 TeV On the acoustic performance of rectangular splitter silencers in the presence of mean flow

Grain refinement of Al-Si alloys by Nb-B inoculation. Part II: application to commercial alloys Finite element based acoustic analysis of dissipative silencers with high temperature and thermal-induced heterogeneity A numerical model for the scattering of elastic waves from a non-axisymmetric defect in a pipe Development Of Al-B-C Master Alloy Under External Fields Measurement of electroweak production of two jets in association with a Z boson in proton–proton collisions at √s=8TeV


Institute of Materials and Manufacturing (continued) Authors

Journal OR Published proceedings

2015 Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics

Kpenyigba KM, Jankowiak T, Rusinek A, Pesci R, Wang B

International Journal of Impact Engineering

Leung CKY, Wan KT, Inaudi D, Bao X, Habel W, Zhou Z, Ou J, Ghandehari M, Wu HC, Imai M

Materials and Structures/Materiaux et Constructions

Musto M, Alfano G

International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering

Nowak M, Bolzoni L, Nadendla HB

Materials and Design

Nowak M, Yeoh WK, Bolzoni L, Nadendla

Materials and Design

Pawar S, Zhou X, Thompson GE, Scamans G, Fan Z

Journal of the Electrochemical Society

Serpieri R, Sacco E, Alfano G

European Journal of Mechanics A: Solids

Sreekumar VM, Nadendla HB, Eskin D, Fan Z

Materials Science and Engineering A: Structural Materials: Properties, Microstructure and Processing

Vignjevic R, Hughes K, De Vuyst T, Djordjevic N, Campbell JC, Stojkovic M, Gulavani O, Hiermaier S

International Journal of Impact Engineering

Yang L, Zhou X, Curioni M, Pawar S, Liu H, Fan Z, Scamans G, Thompson G

Journal of the Electrochemical Society

Yang L, Zhou X, Liang SM, Schmid-Fetzer R, Fan Z, Scamans G, Robson J, Thompson G

Journal of Alloys and Compounds

Bolzoni L, Nowak M, nadendla

Journal of Alloys and Compounds

Fan Z, Wang Y, Zhang Y, Qin T, Zhou XR, Thompson GE, Pennycook T, Pennycook T, Hashimoto T

Acta Materialia

Ji S, Yan F, Fan Z

Materials Science and Engineering A

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Physical Review Letters

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Physical Review Letters

Bolzoni L, Nowak M, Hari Babu N

Materials Science and Engineering A

Brewin MP, Birch MJ, Mehta DJ, Reeves JW, Shaw S, Kruse C, Whiteman JR, Hu S, Kenz ZR, Banks HT, Greenwald SE

Annals of Biomedical Engineering

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Physical Review Letters

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology

Lam B, Chen YP, Whittle J, Binner J, Lawlor-Wright T

The Design Journal

Vorozhtsov SA, Eskin DG, Tamayo J, Vorozhtsov AB, Promakhov VV, Averin AA, Khrustalyov AP

Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science

Yang W, Ji S, Li Z, Wang M

Journal of Alloys and Compounds

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

European Physical Journal C

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

European Physical Journal C

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Journal of High Energy Physics

Nowak M, Bolzoni L, Nadendla HB

Journal of Alloys and Compounds

Pawar S, Zhou X, Hashimoto T, Thompson GE, Scamans G, Fan Z

Journal of Alloys and Compounds

Salski B, Gwarek W, Korpas P, Reszewicz S, Chong AYB, Theodorakeas P, Hatziioannidis I, Kappatos V, Selcuk C, Gan T-H, Koui M, Iwanowski M, Zielinski B

Composite Structures

Serpieri R, Alfano G, Sacco E

International Journal of Solids and Structures

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Physical Review Letters

Bourga R, Moore P, Janin Y-J, Wang B, Sharples J

International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

European Physical Journal C



Measurement of the pp→ZZ production cross section and constraints on anomalous triple gauge couplings in four-lepton final states at s=8 TeV Search for new resonances decaying via WZ to leptons in proton-proton collisions at √s=8TeV Search for long-lived neutral particles decaying to quark-antiquark pairs in proton-proton collisions at s =8TeV Measurement of the production cross section ratio σ(χb2(1P))/σ(χb1(1P)) in pp collisions at s=8TeV Effect of projectile nose shape on ballistic resistance of interstitial-free steel sheets Review: optical fiber sensors for civil engineering applications A fractional rate-dependent cohesive-zone model Grain refinement of Al-Si alloys by Nb-B inoculation. Part I: concept development and effect on binary alloys Development of Al–Nb–B master alloys using Nb and KBF4 Powders The role of intermetallics on the corrosion initiation of twin roll cast AZ31 Mg alloy A thermodynamically consistent derivation of a frictional-damage cohesive-zone model with different mode i and mode II fracture energies Structure-property analysis of in-situ Al-MgAl2O4 metal matrix composites synthesized using ultrasonic cavitation Lagrangian analysis led design of a shock recovery plate impact experiment Corrosion behavior of pure magnesium with low iron content in 3.5 wt% NACL solution Effect of traces of silicon on the formation of Fe-rich particles in pure magnesium and the corrosion susceptibility of magnesium Grain refining potency of Nb-B inoculation on Al-12Si-0.6Fe-0.5Mn alloy Grain refining mechanism in the Al/Al-Ti-B system Development of a high strength Al-Mg2Si-Mg-Zn based alloy for high pressure die casting Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton-proton collisions at s = 7 TeV Search for displaced supersymmetry in events with an electron and a muon with large impact parameters Study of vector boson scattering and search for new physics in events with two same-sign leptons and two jets Assessment of the influence of Al-2Nb-2B master alloy on the grain refinement and properties of LM6 (A413) alloy Characterisation of Elastic and Acoustic Properties of an Agar-Based Tissue Mimicking Material Measurements of jet multiplicity and differential production cross sections of Z+jets events in proton-proton collisions at s =7TeV Long-range two-particle correlations of strange hadrons with charged particles in pPb and PbPb collisions at LHC energies Search for monotop signatures in proton-proton collisions at s =8TeV Search for long-lived particles that decay into final states containing two electrons or two muons in proton-proton collisions at s =8TeV Search for supersymmetry using razor variables in events with b -tagged jets in pp collisions at s =8TeV Search for resonances and quantum black holes using dijet mass spectra in proton-proton collisions at s =8TeV Better Service Design for Greater Civic Engagement The Application of External Fields to the Manufacturing of Novel Dense Composite Master Alloys and Aluminum-Based Nanocomposites Grain boundary precipitation induced by grain crystallographic misorientations in an extruded Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy Search for quark contact interactions and extra spatial dimensions using dijet angular distributions in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV Measurements of differential and double-differential Drell–Yan cross sections in proton–proton collisions at √s = 8TeV Search for decays of stopped long-lived particles produced in proton–proton collisions at √s= 8, TeV Search for stealth supersymmetry in events with jets, either photons or leptons, and low missing transverse momentum in pp collisions at 8 TeV Search for physics beyond the standard model in dilepton mass spectra in proton-proton collisions at root s=8 TeV The Effect of Nb-B Inoculation on Binary Hypereutectic and Near-eutectic LM13 Al-Si Cast Alloys Investigation of the microstructure and the influence of iron on the formation of Al8Mn5 particles in twin roll cast AZ31 magnesium alloy Non-destructive testing of carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer materials with a radio-frequency inductive sensor A mixed-mode cohesive-zone model accounting for finite dilation and asperity degradation Combined measurement of the higgs boson mass in pp collisions at s =7 and 8 TeV with the ATLAS and CMS experiments Leak-before-break: Global perspectives and procedures Measurement of jet multiplicity distributions in t(t)over-bar production in pp collisions at root s = 7 TeV (vol 74, 3014, 2014)


Institute of Materials and Manufacturing (continued) Authors

Journal OR Published proceedings

2015 Engelsen D, Harris PG, Ireland TG, Fern G, Silver J


Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

European Physical Journal C

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

European Physical Journal C

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

European Physical Journal C

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

European Physical Journal C

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Physical Review Letters

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics

Tzanakis I, Xu WW, Eskin DG, Lee PD, Kotsovinos N

Ultrasonics Sonochemistry

Beltempo A, Balduzzi G, Alfano G, Auricchio F

Engineering Structures

Bhagurkar AG, Hari Babu N, Dennis AR, Durrell JH, Cardwell DA

IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

European Physical Journal C

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

European Physical Journal C

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)


Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Physical Review Letters

Lee KM, Cheng K, Ding H, Kazmer DO, Lin W, Luo RC, Melkote SN

IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics

Pichugin A, Tyas A, Gilbert M, He L

Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization: computeraided optimal design of stressed solids and multidisciplinary systems

Procter P, Bennani P, Brown CJ, Arnoldi J, Pioletti DP, Larsson S

Clinical Biomechanics

Shamass R, Zhou X, Alfano G

Journal of Bridge Engineering

Vezzoli C, Ceschin F, Diehl JC

Journal of Cleaner Production

Vezzoli C, Ceschin F, Diehl JC, Kohtala C

Journal of Cleaner Production

Winter M, Wei J

Journal of Dynamics and Differential Equations

Gao S, Cheng K, Chen S, Ding H, Fu H

Tribology International

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

European Physical Journal C

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology

Khachatryan V, et al. (CMS Collaboration)

Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics

Legg M, Yuecel MK, de Carellan IG, Kappatos V, Selcuk C, Gan TH


Saithna A, Chizari M, Morris G, Anley C, Wang B, Snow M

Clinical Biomechanics



Contrast and decay of cathodoluminescence from phosphor particles in a scanning electron microscope Search for dark matter, extra dimensions, and unparticles in monojet events in proton–proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV Measurement of the inclusive 3-jet production differential cross section in proton–proton collisions at 7 TeV and determination of the strong coupling constant in the TeV range Search for a standard model-like Higgs boson in the μ+μ- and e+e- decay channels at the LHC Nuclear effects on the transverse momentum spectra of charged particles in pPb collisions at √s<inf>NN</inf> = 5.02 TeV Precise determination of the mass of the Higgs boson and tests of compatibility of its couplings with the standard model predictions using proton collisions at 7 and 8 TeV Measurement of J/ψ and ψ(2S) Prompt Double-Differential Cross Sections in pp Collisions at √s=7 TeV Searches for supersymmetry based on events with b jets and four W bosons in pp collisions at 8 TeV In situ observation and analysis of ultrasonic capillary effect in molten aluminium Analytical derivation of a general 2D non-prismatic beam model based on the Hellinger–Reissner principle Characterization of bulk MgB2 synthesized by infiltration and growth Measurement of the cross section ratio σttbb/σttjj in pp collisions at √s=8 TeV Constraints on parton distribution functions and extraction of the strong coupling constant from the inclusive jet cross section in pp collisions at √s = 7 TeV Search for a standard model Higgs boson produced in association with a top-quark pair and decaying to bottom quarks using a matrix element method Observation of the rare B<sup>0</sup><inf>s</inf>→μ<sup>+</sup>μ<sup>-</sup> decay from the combined analysis of CMS and LHCb data Evidence for Collective Multiparticle Correlations in p-Pb Collisions Guest editorial introduction to the focused section on mechatronics for intelligent manufacturing Optimum structure for a uniform load over multiple spans

Variability of the pullout strength of cancellous bone screws with cement augmentation Finite-element analysis of shear-off failure of keyed dry joints in precast concrete segmental bridges Sustainable Product-Service System Design applied to Distributed Renewable Energy fostering the goal of sustainable energy for all New design challenges to widely implement ‘Sustainable Product-Service Systems’ Existence and stability of a spike in the central component for a consumer chain model CFD based investigation on influence of orifice chamber shapes for the design of aerostatic thrust bearings at ultra-high speed spindles Measurement of diffractive dissociation cross sections in pp collisions at s =7TeV Distributions of topological observables in inclusive three- and four-jet events in pp collisions at √S=7 TeV Search for pair-produced resonances decaying to jet pairs in proton-proton collisions at s=8 TeV Constraints on the spin-parity and anomalous HVV couplings of the Higgs boson in proton collisions at 7 and 8 TeV Search for heavy Majorana neutrinos in μ<sup>±</sup>μ<sup>±</sup> + jets events in proton-proton collisions at s=8 TeV Acoustic methods for biofouling control: A review An analysis of the biomechanics of interference screw fixation and sheathed devices for biceps tenodesis



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