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CREATIVE ROADBLOCKS

DEVELOPING A PROCESS TO ALLEVIATE CREATIVE BLOCK AMONG COLLABORATING CREATIVE TEAMS

BRITTANY STROZZO | FINAL PROJECT PROCESS BOOK | DMGT 748 | SPRING 2016

CREATIVE ROADBLOCKS 1


CREATIVE ROADBLOCKS DEVELOPING A PROCESS TO ALLEVIATE CREATIVE BLOCK AMONG COLLABORATING CREATIVE TEAMS BRITTANY STROZZO

DEFINITION OF DESIGN MANAGEMENT: Design Management is the application of design thinking, paired with business strategy, to enable innovation through human-centered interaction. Final Project submitted to the faculty of the Design Management Department at the Savannah College of Art and Design on June 2, 2016 in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Design Management.

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INTRODUCTION ABSTRACT A Case Study of ...... The purpose of Creative Block was to discover what creative barriers existed in professional work environments and develop a solution to alleviate these issues through strengthening team collaboration and removing the stressors that lead to such barriers. This study was composed of ethnographic research methods in order to gain qualitative data on what problems currently exist for individuals and teams in professional settings, what is currently done or not done to alleviate these issues, and to gain an understanding of what the main factors are and where to start in reducing these barriers that restrict not only individuals but all professionals working together. Primary research was conducted in DeLand, Florida from March to May 2016, which included in-person and virtual interviews, in-person and virtual surveys, as well as on-site observations. This research content was supported by peer-reviewed research documentation as well as information from books and online studies. All data obtained was processed, analyzed, synthesize, and tested in order to validate questions around what affects the work environment in association with creative barriers and team collaboration.

Stetson University is a very unique campus that allows some pets in dorms with students. This led to the idea of incorporating well-behaved pets into the environment. These two concepts are leading components to a strong workforce and research, along with user testing, lead to the development of a plan that included both of these equally effective ideas. Also, both are good to exist equally but if pets is strongly unaccepted for any given reason the office space is a low-budget concept to fall back on. It is recommended that management, and other leaders in companies, take advantage of the low-budget component and work with employees to develop an environment free of creative barriers that positively affects the working environment and leads to strong collaboration and less stressors to weigh professionals down.

The first concept that was tested involved the idea of incorporation more facilitation methods into the work environment until studies showed that most problems existed with the individuals first then spread into the team environments second. Due to this realization, the researcher changed focus to understanding what about the office spaces was causing such negative environments and it was discovered that office arrangements played a large role in how people were able to brainstorm, produce work, and it even affected how they maintained workloads. Another discovery was made when I considered the fact that

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DEDICATION To my husband, Caleb, who has been by my side through every step of the way these past three years, doing everything possible to provide support in times of high stress, through health issues faced during the school year, and for just being there as someone I can count on to push me when I am down and support me through all of my struggles. Thank you for always pushing me to do more than even I knew I was capable. To my family, Pam, Nelson, Kathleen, and Bobby, thank you for always being there ans supporting my dreams and knowing that I can do whatever I set my mind to. You have shown me how working hard is how to achieve my dreams and it is through your guidance and example that I have worked so hard to be where I am today.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENT Many thanks for everyone that I have worked with along the way and every student that has taught me something new in the field of design management that I can apply towards moving forward in my career. Working online with each of you has given me a new sense of culture and the ability to reach out to individuals no matter the location and advance my network. The support and friends I have made while attending Savannah College of Art and Design has been amazing and their support was very beneficial when working on new types of research projects or carrying out large amounts of research in a short span of 10-weeks. Also, the amazing faculty and staff at the Savannah College of Art and Design who have taught me so much to take with me as I move into management in the professional field of graphic design. I would like to express my gratitude to those at my current job at Stetson University's Marketing Department for working with me to make all collaborative research and observation aspects possible and to allow me the opportunity to conduct research during actual work hours. It has been an experience I could not have obtained without the staffs help and guidance. I would like to extend a thank you to my family who has always been there, through the ups and downs, and supported me as they always knew I could accomplish anything I set my mind to. Without their loving support, I would not have overcome many of the obstacles that were presented to me in life and through the course of obtaining my masters degree. Finally, I would like to extend a special thank you to my editor, Michael "Mike" Candelaria, who volunteered his time to help with editing 75% of my process books contents.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS PROJECT FRAMING

DESIGN OPPORTUNITIES & CRITERIA

REFERENCES

Subject of Study...................................................... 8

Opportunities for Design Matrix....................... 46

Annotated Bibliography...................................... 88

Problem Statement................................................. 8

Opportunities for Design Map........................... 47

Additional Sources............................................... 92

Target Audience...................................................... 8

Reframing/Design Criteria................................. 48

List of Tables......................................................... 94

Purpose.................................................................... 8

PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING

Scope........................................................................ 9

Prototype Ideas..................................................... 50

Significance of Study............................................ 10

Concept Development Process.......................... 51

PROJECT POSITIONING Opportunity Statement....................................... 12 Positioning............................................................ 13

List of Figures....................................................... 95 List of Images........................................................ 96 APPENDICES

Exploration of Diverse Concepts....................... 56

Appendix A: Timeline & Milestones................. 98

Chosen Concept Development.......................... 67

Appendix B: Research Questions Matrix.......... 99

FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET

Appendix C: Working Wall...............................102

ZAG Steps............................................................. 22

Final Chosen Concept and Prototype............... 67

Appendix D: Signed Consent Forms...............105

Value Proposition/Onliness Statement............. 24

Business Model Canvas....................................... 69

Appendix E: Transcribed Interviews...............106

Implementation Plan........................................... 79

Appendix E-1: Interview Questions................107

RESEARCH PLANNING Research Space..................................................... 26

CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS

Research Methodology & Activities.................. 27

Conclusions.......................................................... 85

Research Questions.............................................. 28

Recommendations............................................... 86

Appendix E-2: Interview Questions................108 Appendix F: Survey Results..............................109 Appendix F-1: Survey Questions.....................110

Research Data Collection Methods................... 29

Appendix G: Field Observation Notes............111

Research Findings................................................ 36

Appendix H-J: Survey Results & Questions...112

Research Synthesis............................................... 41

Appendix K: PMI Interview.............................117

Research Findings at a Glance............................ 44

Appendix L: Office Pet Observation................119

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PROJECT FRAMING SUBJECT OF STUDY

The subject of study was to understand how creative barriers develop in professional work environments and explore how creative teams can more effectively collaborate to overcome barriers.

TARGET AUDIENCE The target audience included professionals in collaborative work environments.

PROBLEM STATEMENT

PURPOSE

Creative professionals (creatives) continue to face higher work demands, stricter deadlines, and lower employment rates. This leaves current employees with the expectation of being multi-talented—possessing talents outside of required job responsibilities (Lebowitz, S., 2016). This has created unnecessary pressure on creatives and reduced their ability to innovate. The mental and physical well-being of professionals is also affected, resulting in lowered self-efficacy and a reduction of output (Davis-Laack, P., 2013).

The purpose of this project was to discover how creative teams use design management methods to cultivate innovative thinking and reduce creative barriers in professional work environments.

In order to resolve these issues that arise from creative barriers in team-based collaborative work environments, current job frameworks and collaboration methods were evaluated to understand why creative blocks existed, what the leading causes were and what can be implemented to aid in alleviating creative barriers.

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The study focused on the evaluation of individuals and teams to understand how barriers arose in different circumstances and situations.


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PROJECT FRAMING SCOPE CONTEXT The scope of this project was to observe creative professionals who work in collaborative creative teams and identify issues within those environments that caused creative barriers. CONTENT The project consisted of group collaboration methods, along with understanding what design management methods are part of regular work reoutines and introducign professionals to different way sof envisioning ideas creatively.

DELIMITATIONS This project did not include the research of any individuals under the legal age of 18, nor did it include observation without written consent. Individuals were not singled out during this project as the main focus was the collaborative effort of professional work teams and the understanding what helps them work together and what caused creative barriers in professionals.

SUBJECTS The subjects of this study included professionals primarily in the marketing and communications field (i.e. designers, managers, directors, web developers, writers, photographers, etc.). The secondary subjects were external to the creative groups and included employees who partook in creative collaboration to aid in idea generation (i.e. adjacent department or business) and non-creative fields. All subjects were professionals above the age of 18. LOCATION Research and fieldwork were conducted in DeLand, Florida. Online surveys and virtual (Google Video) interviews were conducted with creatives working outside of DeLand. TIMELINE This project spanned a 10-week period from March 28, 2016, until June 2, 2016. All secondary research was conducted prior to March 28, 2016, and was further investigated throughout the final project.

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PROJECT FRAMING SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY FOR THE DESIGN MANAGER The researcher is passionate about the establishment of successful collaborative team environments, where innovative ideas are developed and maintained among co-workers and self-efficacy is elevated. This project was a way for the researcher to be aware of the issues that exist in collaborative environments. In turn, with this knowledge the researcher could develop ways to manage professional teams efficiently without being affected by existing business procedures. FOR THE DESIGN MANAGEMENT FIELD The researcher gained an understanding of the different types of work environments that are currently present in the creative field and promote the development of open communication and collaboration in any professional setting while reducing creative barriers and understanding how such barriers can be prevented. FOR THE WORLD AT LARGE The researcher is passionate about the incorporation of creative thinking strategies into all companies to promote collaboration gaps within work environments and bridge the gaps between business and design. This project was meant to be a focus on helping companies adopt new ways to allow internal and external collaboration with employees to reduce creative barriers, promote growth, employee relations and self-efficacy.

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PROJECT POSITIONING OPPORTUNITY STATEMENT A university is filled with creative professionals. At the same time, pressures to perform well under strict deadlines. This type of work environment provided the ideal opportunity to conduct this research. Study of this work environment afforded the opportunity to observe and evaluate existing collaboration methods and to discover opportunities to develop a strong team structure - one that would reduce or eliminate barriers to creativity and inter-department conflicts. The opportunity is to find ways to eliminate creative barriers in order to promote functional team collaboration without conflict.

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PROJECT POSITIONING COMPETITOR/COLLABORATOR ANALYSIS OBJECTIVES: Hightail is an online service for teams to share files and images, as well as manage and assign tasks. This service allows teams to work faster and more efficiently, and in general be more creative.

WHAT IS THEIR VALUE? Provides a service for teams designed to make creative collaboration more accessible through the sharing of files, feedback, and the use of the tools between team members and clients.

APPROACH:

HOW DO THEY CREATE VALUE? Allows employees to access all files and provide feedback in order to reduce time between editing and releasing final content in a virtual or office-based team environment.

MEMBERS:

WHAT CATEGORIES DO THEY FALL INTO? • Designers • Managers • Directors • Clients

CHANNEL:

WHAT IS THEIR ENTRY POINT? • Online (cloud based) • Collaboration • Immediate feedback on projects • Project and Task Management • Unite company employees

LESSONS:

WHAT CAN THEY TEACH US? Storage of all content online in a central location allows all employees to be able to access all content in order to leave feedback in an online collaborative environment.

OUR OPPORTUNITIES: HOW DO WE OVERLAP?

Helps teams collaborate from any location. Provides a more immediate feedback from other employees, management and clients.

Figure 1. Collaborator analysis: hightail. Author’s image.

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PROJECT POSITIONING COMPETITOR/COLLABORATOR ANALYSIS OBJECTIVES:

Apple, a company founded by Steve Jobs, a man who understood the workforce of today needs a space that fosters creativity and transparency without physical separate in the work environment. The result was a pleasing workspace that increased productivity.

WHAT IS THEIR VALUE? Develop a work space or environment that stimulates employees on a daily basis. This allows employees to successfully collaborate and maintain the necessary business processes to complete jobs in at timely manner.

APPROACH:

HOW DO THEY CREATE VALUE? Create value by making sure the environment is designed to support positivity and in turn aid in design and development of products.

MEMBERS:

WHAT CATEGORIES DO THEY FALL INTO? • Designers • Managers • Directors • Developers • Engineers • Programmers

CHANNEL:

WHAT IS THEIR ENTRY POINT? • Design of workspace for effective work • Foster communication of employees • Sales • Consultation • Service • Online • Training

LESSONS:

WHAT CAN THEY TEACH US? The structure of the work place is very important in order to be able to maintain a positive work environment that harbors collaboration and allows for positive self-efficacy among employees.

OUR OPPORTUNITIES: HOW DO WE OVERLAP?

Helps to develop a positive atmosphere that supports creativity and development while maintaining the well-being of employees.

Figure 2. Collaborator analysis: apple. Author’s image.

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PROJECT POSITIONING COMPETITOR/COLLABORATOR ANALYSIS OBJECTIVES: Pixar is an animation studio that focuses on the development of American CGI film production. The company’s computer-graphic division was originally purchased by Steve Jobs in 1986, when it was turned into the digital film company it is today. Pixar is a company focused on the development of unique ideas, telling stories that compel audiences through the use of visual imagery developed by cutting-edge technological innovations.

WHAT IS THEIR VALUE? Combining creative employees in a work environment where they can build and develop from one anothers strengths and have the freedom to explore new concepts and ideas for film development. This work environment also provides a strong feedback and support system.

“The view that good ideas are rarer and more valuable than good people is rooted in misconception of creativity (Catmul, E., 2008).”

APPROACH:

HOW DO THEY CREATE VALUE? Value is created through employee collaboration until a unified vision emerges which cohesively merged the multitude of concepts presented when developing a movie. Also, the support given by employees helps to elevate wellbeing in the team work environment and promotes positivity for strong project development.

MEMBERS:

WHAT CATEGORIES DO THEY FALL INTO? • Designers • Filmographers • Animators • Artists • Managers • Marketing • Software Developers • Sound • Editorial

CHANNEL:

WHAT IS THEIR ENTRY POINT? • Group reviews • Cross-departmental collaboration/ communication • Meetings • Online presence

LESSONS:

WHAT CAN THEY TEACH US? How to give employees the ideal amount of space needed for the development of creative ideation methods and cross departmental collaboration.

OUR OPPORTUNITIES: HOW DO WE OVERLAP?

Pixar believes in an open level of collaboration which allows creatives within the company time to develop and test ideas. This provides a positive environment which fosters creativity.

Figure 3. Collaborator analysis: pixar. Author’s image.

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PROJECT POSITIONING COMPETITOR/COLLABORATOR ANALYSIS OBJECTIVES: IDEO is a design firm with a human-centered design approach, geared to help organizations be innovative in both public and private business sectors. IDEO works to develop “products, services, spaces, and interactive experiences that bring [brands] to life” (IDEO, 2016). IDEO helps companies develop a creative culture, which they can sustain over time by providing necessary resources to help them understand what creativity is and how it can be innovative for their company’s overall growth and development (IDEO, 2016).

WHAT IS THEIR VALUE? Using a human-centered design approach “to integrate the needs of people, the possibilities of technology, and the requirements for business success” (IDEO, 2016).

APPROACH:

HOW DO THEY CREATE VALUE? IDEO uses design thinking as a tool to help clients see existing operations and help companies grow and develop overtime through the use of information from the concept of change by design, developed by CEO Tim Brown.

MEMBERS:

WHAT CATEGORIES DO THEY FALL INTO? • Designers • Researchers • Managers • Directors • Engineers • Marketing • Speakers

CHANNEL:

WHAT IS THEIR ENTRY POINT? • Online • Online tools • Books • Toolkits • Seminars/Conferences • Workshops

LESSONS:

WHAT CAN THEY TEACH US? Design thinking involves the use of inspiration, ideation, and implementation. These three strategies help stimulate human processes often overlooked by conventional problemsolving strategies.

OUR OPPORTUNITIES: HOW DO WE OVERLAP?

Develop strategies to help companies achieve innovative growth and stratgize new ways to be successful through team collaboration.

Figure 4. Collaborator analysis: IDEO. Author’s image.

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PROJECT POSITIONING COMPETITOR/COLLABORATOR ANALYSIS OBJECTIVES: Slack allows teams to work together in an online platform through public and private channels, file sharing, direct messaging, and file archiving. This tool allows team members to collaborate from any location and keeps all the files and conversations in one location.

WHAT IS THEIR VALUE? The goal is to make it easier to work in teams where the experience is pleasant and productive.

APPROACH:

HOW DO THEY CREATE VALUE? This allows for less confusion through multiple emails and reduces internal emails and improves productivity of work and people’s well-being.

MEMBERS:

WHAT CATEGORIES DO THEY FALL INTO? • • • • •

Designers Managers Directors Clients Team-based work environments

CHANNEL:

WHAT IS THEIR ENTRY POINT? • Online (app for computer and mobile devices) • File sharing and chat • Collaboration virtually • Free and paid services

LESSONS:

WHAT CAN THEY TEACH US? Teaches teams how to collaborate virtually and organize files all in one location for ease of access and editing.

OUR OPPORTUNITIES: HOW DO WE OVERLAP?

Helps to improve the speed of collaboration and ease communication methods in team-based virtual environments. Develops a stronger connection in online team environments.

Figure 5. Collaborator analysis: slack. Author’s image.

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PROJECT POSITIONING COMPETITOR/COLLABORATOR ANALYSIS OBJECTIVES: Citrix - Go To Meeting is an online program used to connect people in order to conduct professional business meetings, conferences, training sessions, seminars, and workshops. This service connects people from all across the world, enabling a meeting to be conducted with easy through the software that makes everyone appear to be in one location on screen.

WHAT IS THEIR VALUE? Provide a secure service for professionals and businesses to connect easily from anywhere at anytime. This is a collaboration tool.

APPROACH:

HOW DO THEY CREATE VALUE? Easy to use program that is built for meetings and easy to start, join, and has a simple interface that makes collaborating seamless.

MEMBERS:

WHAT CATEGORIES DO THEY FALL INTO? • Professionals • Businesses • Team collaboration

CHANNEL:

WHAT IS THEIR ENTRY POINT? • Online presence • Online seminars, meetings, conferences, workshops, and trainings • Private meetings

LESSONS:

WHAT CAN THEY TEACH US? A new way to experience professional collaboration in an online environment. Brings people from different places to one online video conference room. This simulates being together in a room but being face-to-face with your screen not the actual human-being.

OUR OPPORTUNITIES: HOW DO WE OVERLAP?

Provide a way for professionals to collaborate even if they are not in the same location. Allows for the sharing of ideas, files, and all information crucial for project development.

Figure 6. Collaborator analysis: citrix - go to meeting. Author’s image.

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PROJECT POSITIONING TEAM-BASED

2X2 AXIS CHART In this 2x2 axis chart, companies are compared to one another based on the type of interactions offered and whether or not the interactions are direct or indirect.

CITRIX PIXAR

• TEAM-BASED - This category represents work environments where employees collaborate in order to progress ideas and/or projects within the company.

• INDIRECT - This category includes all types of online communications, including emails, cloud drives, feedback, or any type of communication not conducted in person. OPPORTUNITY The opportunity here is to bridge the gap between individual work and team-based development. The opportunity is to find a balance between working alone and working in a team in both a direct and indirect method.

DIRECT INTERACTION

• DIRECT - This category includes all types of inter-personal interactions among employees in a company.

IDEO SLACK

HIGHTAIL

OPPORTUNITY SPACE

INDIRECT INTERACTION

• SELF-GUIDED (INDIVIDUAL) - This category represents employees who complete projects without assistance from other members of the team through either choice or company structure.

APPLE

SELF-GUIDED (INDIVIDUAL) Figure 7. Market analysis: 2x2 axis a. Author’s image.

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PROJECT POSITIONING HIGH CREATIVITY

2X2 AXIS CHART In this 2x2 axis chart, companies are compared to one another based on creativity levels within the company and whether or not the companies provide experience-based or outcome-based results.

• EXPERIENCE-BASED - This category relates to the idea of the experience gained from the development of a product, service, or solution instead of the actual outcome itself.

EXPERIENCE-BASED

• LOW CREATIVITY - This category represents companies that are working to resolve problems or develop products/ services but do not focus on anything more than production and income.

APPLE

SLACK

OPPORTUNITY SPACE

• OUTCOME-BASED - This category represents a company that focuses only on what the outcome will be, not the steps required to obtain it.

HIGHTAIL

OPPORTUNITY There is an opportunity to incorporate more creativity into companies, which allows employees to fully understand the experience and why it is important for the outcome.

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OPPORTUNITY SPACE

CITRIX LOW CREATIVITY Figure 8. Market analysis: 2x2 axis b. Author’s image.

OUTCOME-BASED

• HIGH CREATIVITY - This category represents the fact that the company is encouraging creative thinking strategies alongside business strategies. This company focuses more on the innovation of the product/service rather than the market value.

PIXAR

IDEO


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PROJECT POSITIONING CORPORATE MARKET

2X2 AXIS CHART In this 2x2 axis chart, companies are compared to one another based on which type of market presence is embodied and which type of communication method is desired.

• INDIRECT COMMUNICATION - This category represents any type of communication that is not face-to-face. • DIRECT COMMUNICATION - This category represents all communication that is face-to-face and excludes contact via indirect means such as email, online forums, online software, etc. OPPORTUNITY There are many companies that indirectly communicate internally, but there is an opportunity here to develop a more direct communication method to bring employees closer within a company, even when working online.

CITRIX

OPPORTUNITY SPACE

HIGHTAIL

DIRECT COMMUNICATION

• ONLINE MARKET - This category represents all companies built online that exist through cloud-based servers so that the company and/or programs offered can be accessed anywhere at anytime.

APPLE

INDIRECT COMMUNICATION

• CORPORATE MARKET - This category represents companies that are more corporate-based with physical headquarters, where employees can collaborate and work together on location or in-person for those not team-based.

PIXAR

IDEO

SLACK ONLINE MARKET Figure 9. Market analysis: 2x2 axis c. Author’s image.

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PROJECT POSITIONING ZAG STEPS STEP 1: WHO ARE YOU? Developed by a graphic designer who is determined to create guidelines that assist companies who struggle with team collaboration and reduce negative work environments which promote creative block.

STEP 6: WHAT MAKES YOU THE ONLY? The focus is primarily on work environments where there is no collaboration or collaboration is not allowed due to improper management methods. This idea can be implemented in any company alongside any current business strategy.

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STEP 2: WHAT DO YOU DO? Work to provide design materials that helps all work environments understand the importance of facilitation, collaboration, and creative thinking to innovatively structure a company and maintain the well-being of the employees, as well as reduce stressors.

STEP 7: WHAT SHOULD YOU ADD OR SUBTRACT? Toolkit that provides guidelines to help teams collaborate and develop facilitation activities to develop affective ideation practices and promote team collaboration to improve employee self-efficacy.

STEP 3: WHAT’S YOUR VISION? A vision to reduce the affect of negative work environments on employees and eliminate the issues that promote creative block.

STEP 8: WHO LOVES YOU? Creatives working in stifled environments or employees that desire more input and ideation but are not sure how to being such methods in their company.

STEP 4: WHAT WAVE AM I RIDING? Collaboration Creative Thinking Ideation Innovation

STEP 9: WHO IS THE ENEMY? Micro-managers, or other forms of strict management that do not typically understand their negative affects. Also, business based companies that do not understand creativity and do not wish to change their current business methods.

STEP 5: WHO ELSE SHARES MY BRANDSCAPE? IDEO shares the same views on team collaboration and the well-being of a company.

STEP 10: WHAT DO THEY CALL YOU? Creative Roadblocks: A Guide of Processes to Alleviate Creative Block Among Collaborating Creatives

Figure 10. Project positioning: zag steps 1-10. Author’s image.


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PROJECT POSITIONING STEP 11: HOW DO YOU EXPLAIN YOURSELF? Collaboration is key to an effective, productive, and positive work environment.

STEP 12: HOW DO YOU SPREAD THE WORD? Online, word-of-mouth, corporations, universities, expos, and other businesses.

STEP 16: HOW DO YOU EXTEND YOUR SUCCESS?

STEP 17: HOW DO YOU PROTECT YOUR PORTFOLIO?

Development of a toolkit that can be shared as a set of guidelines which are easy for everyone to follow. The toolkit with have different variables and step-by-step instructions with examples for ease of use.

Authoring and publishing the content so that it won't be replicated by others and so that it can be sent out to aid others in research, development, and collaboration methods.

Figure P11. Project positioning: zag steps 11-17. Author’s image.

STEP 13: HOW DO PEOPLE ENGAGE WITH YOU? People engage through group facilitation and understanding the importance of collaboration to develop innovative ideas/products/ services.

STEP 14: WHAT DO THEY EXPERIENCE? A new way to creatively think and collaborate to develop ideas and a strong work ethic.

STEP 15: HOW DO YOU EARN THEIR LOYALTY? Earn their loyalty through providing and example of how effective collaboration can be for ideation and the information that can be obtained in different facilitation methods versus working individually.

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PROJECT POSITIONING VALUE PROPOSITION

ONLINESS STATEMENT

FOR professional creatives WHO seek ways to alleviate creative block and effectively

The only brochure and website for creative professionals, meant to educate managers and employees on proper ways to collaborate effectively and to enhance creative thinking methods, alleviate creative block and bridge the communication gaps between business and design minded persons.

collaborate for ideal production of products and/or services.

OUR brochure will provide the proper way of using design management methods,

between management and employees, to successfully facilitate and develop innovative concepts and strategies through creative thinking that reduce stress.

WHAT - design materials for creative professionals

WE DO THIS BY providing information that works with any work environment and

HOW - encourage new collaborative methods

UNLIKE other guides developed for design-thinking and human-centered ideation

WHO - for management and employees

OUR'S is positioned to alleviate stress which causes creative block and promote creative

WHERE - the United States and Global creative companies

promotes team well-being and self-efficacy of employees.

thinking and collaboration strategies that will bridge the gap between business and design.

WHY - to introduce new collaborative design management methodologies WHEN - in a society where management is too strict, collaboration is overlooked, and

people can not think on creative levels

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RESEARCH

ACTIVITIES & SYNTHESIS


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RESEARCH PLANNING

Design Management • Erichsen, P. G., & Christensen, P. R. (2013). • Girard, P., & Robin, V. (2006). • Gruber, M., de Leon, N., George, G., & Thompson, P. (2015). • Nielsen, S. L., Christensen, P. R. (2014). • Norman, C., & Jerrard, R. N. (2012).

MAP OF RESEARCH SPACE Innovation

Map of Research Space Key

Design Management

Smaller, Lighter Circles - Sub Categories

Design Strategies

Gray Circles - Effects of Creative Block Blue Circles - Ways to Reduce Creative Block Effects

diverse

Research & Data

Work Environment Support

Leadership

diverse

s

Methods

Reduces Creativity

Group Facilitation

Collaborative Creative Teams & Creativity

Experiences

Innovative Concepts

Interactions

Pattern Breaking

(new ideas)

Environment Changes

Affects Wellbeing

• • • •

Creative Thinking

Creativity

SelfDoubt

Expertise

Environmentally Symptomatic

Motivation

Davis-Laack, P. (2013). Glei, J. (2000). Hughes, L. (2002). Lebowitz, S. (2016).

k oc

eB l

Isolation Forms Barriers

Creative Block

Knowledge

Reduces Productivity Harms Relations

• Barczak, G. Lassk, F., & Mulki, J. (2010). • Bennis, W., & Bieclerman, P. (1997). • Chiocchio, F., Forgues, D., David, C., & Iordanova, I. (2011). • DeGraff, J. (2015). • Eric, C., & Xiaofang, M. (2010). • Gupta, B. (2009). • Jarrett, C. (2016). • Kylén, S. F., & Shani, A. (2002). • Salonen, E. (2012).

Collaboration & Facilitation

Crea ti v

Share

Creativity

iv at

m ea T e

or a t iv eC

re

Cooperate

Diverse

Thinking Methods

Self-Efficacy

on C olla b

Collaborative Creative Teams

of Creative Block

Content is meant to represent hierarchy progression from large to small circles, the larger being the main topic and the smaller being the least important component. The hierarchy is also represented through color usage, from bright to neutral coloration.

Communicate

Effects

Arrows indicate paths to which the three diagrams can be read individually and how they interact as a group.

Trust

a

k loc b e tiv

Effects of

Reading the Map of Research

Business Strategies

How design managemen t re

Large Circles - Focus of Group

du ce sc re

Solutions

Bad Management

Boredom/ Repetition

SelfRestraint & Doubt

OverBurdened Figure 12. Research space. Author’s image.

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RESEARCH PLANNING RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

This project was developed to collect qualitative research on the collaborative nature of professionals in a creative work environment. The study was supported by various research methods, where professional were studied through an ethnographic lens. The study was conducted through the use of facilitation of these professionals in order to evaluate their working environment, analyze how the worked together, and understand all the methods they have used to collaborate and share ideation. This qualitative research gave the researcher the ability to become part of the environment and to not only understand but experience how the group functions as a whole.

•• Secondary research was conducted prior to March 28, 2016, from the design industry standpoint regarding management, collaborative team environments, and creative block symptoms/issues.

The study incorporated direct involvement with marketing and communication professionals, supported by the understanding of design management methods, to engage and promote different methods of ideation. Through the implementation of design management methods, the team relayed responses, which led to the understanding of creative-thinking capabilities, data synthesis, and the ability to affinitize all data, presenting opportunities to develop innovative solutions.

•• Observations were conductedApril 11, 2016 and May 27, 2016.

•• In person and virtual interviews were conducted from April 4, 2016, until May 1, 2016, with creative professionals. •• An online surveys were conducted April 4, 2016 to May 1, 2016, and May 21, 2016 to May 29, 2016, using Polldaddy.com and surveymonkey.com. •• Participatory observations were conducted on April 11, 2016, with professionals.

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M.A. FINAL PROJECT

RESEARCH QUESTIONS MAIN RESEARCH QUESTION

SUB-RESEARCH QUESTIONS

How might collaborative creative teams utilize design management methods to overcome creative block?

1) What is a collaborative creative team?

Research Matrix located in Appendix B

•• What can collaborative creative teams learn from the application of design management methods? •• How are collaborative creative teams established? •• What affect does team collaboration have on creative block? •• What are the common goals of a collaborative creative groups? 2) What are design management methods? •• How can design management methods be utilized to stimulate creative teams? •• What design management methods can be applied to reduce the effects of creative block? •• What impact will the facilitation of design management methods have on teams with creative block? 3) How is creative block defined? •• How does creative block affect a creative teams’ productivity and well-being? •• How does communication, and the presences of others, boost performance and morale for creatives? •• What are the current methods used to combat creative block? •• Why do creative individuals, in a team environment, develop creative block?

28 RESEARCH


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

RESEARCH DATA COLLECTION CONSENT FORMS The consent forms were an explanation of the project for participants to review and if they agreed to all terms then they signed the actual consent form authorizing the use of their information for this projects research purposes. Signed consent forms located in Appendix D.

Informed Consent Form

Creative Roadblocks The following information provides an introduction to Creative Roadblocks, a project that will be conducted in DeLand, Florida from March 28, 2016 until June 2, 2016 by Brittany Strozzo, a Savannah College of Art and Design (SCAD) graduate student in the Design Management program.

I voluntarily agree to participate in an interview/inquiry performed by students at the Savannah College of Art and Design. I understand that this interview/inquiry is being conducted by Brittany Strozzo, in order to identify the following opportunities for design:

Brittany Strozzo is a Web and Graphic Designer at Stetson University, as well as a Design Management graduate student at SCAD. After working as a Graphic Designer for over six years, she discovered the inconsistencies in creative work environments and decided to discover how creative block affects the way in which creative teams collaborate and what parts of the work environment allow this block to develop.

The purpose of this project is to discover how collaborative creative teams use design management methods to cultivate innovative thinking processes and reduce symptoms of creative block.

Discover how collaborative creative teams use design management methods to cultivate innovative thinking processes and reduce symptoms of creative block.

I understand that the evaluation methods may include:

1. recorded (audio, video and/or photography) observations Research will be guided by the following research question(s) Main Research Question - How might collaborative creative teams utilize design management methods to overcome creative block?

2. my completion of an evaluation questionnaire(s) and/or 3. my participation in a 30–60 minute interview

Sub-Research Questions 

What can collaborative creative teams learn from the application of design management methods?

How are collaborative creative teams established?

 

What affect does team collaboration have on creative block? What are the common goals of collaborative creative groups?

How can design management methods be utilized to stimulate creative teams?

What design management method can be applied to reduce the effects of creative block?

I grant permission for the interview/inquiry to be recorded and transcribed, and to be used only by Brittany Strozzo for analysis of interview data. I grant permission for this data—

What impact will the facilitation of design management methods have on teams with creative block?

How does creative block affect a creative teams’ productivity and well-being?

How does communication, and the presence of others, boost performance and morale for creatives?

 

What are the current methods used to combat creative block? Why do creative individuals, in a team environment, develop creative block?

generated from the above methods—to be used in an educational setting.

I understand that any identifiable information in regard to my name and/or company name will be removed from any material that is made available to those not directly involved in this study.

In this case study, the research seeks to identify how creative block affects collaborative creative teams. This study encompasses an ethnographic and participatory lens to gather qualitative data.

Participants will have the option to anonymize any data obtained prior to the work being shared.

Data will be stored and protected on my external hard drive until June 1, 2018.

_________________________________ _________________________________ Printed Name Signature _________________________________ Date

For additional information please contact: Researcher: Brittany Strozzo | 386.681.7397 | blinar20@student.scad.edu or brilinstrozzo@gmail.com Professor: Regina Rowland | rrowland@scad.edu

Brittany Strozzo

Printed 04/05/2016 Informed Consent Form

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RESEARCH DATA COLLECTION DATA COLLECTION METHOD #1 - INTERVIEW FORMS Dates Conducted: April 4, 2016 - May 1, 2016

Creative Roadblocks

Creative Roadblocks

Subject Types: Marketing and Communication creatives (i.e. writers, designers, and web content developers) and manager/directors. Number of actions: 8 interviews were conducted Rationale with desired outcomes: The interview questions were formulated in two different ways in order to gear the questions for regular employees and for management. These interviews posed questions in different ways to gain a full understanding of each persons work experiences and to obtain their current insight on collaboration and what methods were being used. Transcribed interviews and readable interview questions located in Appendix E.

Name: _____________________________________________ Title/Company: ______________________________________

Title/Company: ______________________________________

Location: ___________________________________________

Location: ___________________________________________

Degree (if applicable): _________________________________

Degree (if applicable): _________________________________ 1.

What is your profession? Experience? Job responsibilities?

2.

What does collaboration mean to you?

3.

Is there collaboration of any type at your current position? Why or why not?

a.

4.

Please tell me about your role as a manager?

2.

How would you describe your management style?

3.

What strategies do you utilize when proposing a new product to your creative team?

a.

4.

What does the term “creative block” mean to you? How do you define it?

a.

1.

If yes, what are the common goals?

5. b.

What types of skill sets are present in your creative team? (i.e. web, design, writers, etc.)

What are some of the biggest challenges you have faced with managing a team?

a.

How do you believe creative blocks affect well-being? Work ethic? Work environment?

How did you overcome these challenges?

What challenges do you face when hiring employees? What are the top qualities you look for?

Why do you think creative block exists in creatives?

Brittany Strozzo

30 RESEARCH

Manager/Director – Interview Questionnaire

Marketing & Communications “Creatives” – Interview Questionnaire Name: _____________________________________________

Printed 04/18/2016

Brittany Strozzo

Printed 04/18/2016


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RESEARCH DATA COLLECTION DATA COLLECTION METHOD #2 - SURVEY FORM

Dates: April 4, 2016 - May 1, 2016 Subject Types: The survey was online and open to both creative and non-creative professionals. The results obtained a wide variety of individuals who worked both collaboratively and individually. The subject types were as follows - retail, web development, graphic design, information technology, art directors, board/design managers, interior designers, artisans or self-employed persons, art teacher, photographer, UX designers, social media and interactive marketing manager, and a musician. Number of actions: 24 people took the survey Strozzo, B., & Polldaddy.com. Collaboration and creative work environments. (2016).

Rationale with desired outcomes: This survey was used to conduct research with professionals not located locally, in the central Florida region, or those individuals not able or willing to conduct an interview which required the signing of a consent form. The outcome was to obtain an understanding of what collaboration methods exist, the viewpoints that exist on collaboration, and how the currently perceived and dealt with creative block symptoms. Affinity working wall located in Appendix C.

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RESEARCH DATA COLLECTION DATA COLLECTION METHOD #3 - FIELD RESEARCH OBSERVATION FORM Date: April 11, 2016 and May 27, 2016 Subject Types: Marketing and Communication creatives (i.e. writers, designers, and web content developers) and manager/directors. Number of actions: 2

187

wO R K S H E E T:

HIGHLIGHTS » T y p E O F AC T I v I T y: » DAT E :

» NAME:

» L O C AT I O N :

T H I N G S T H E pA R T I C I pA N T( S ) S A I D O R D I D T H AT S U R p R I S E D yO U O R M O S T M E M O R A b L E Q U O T E S :

group Interview

In-Context Immersion

Individual Interview

Other

T H I N G S T H AT M AT T E R M O S T T O T H E pA R T I C I pA N T( S ) :

Rationale with desired outcomes: The purpose of using field notes was to observe a typical work meeting and note the important factors, or main focal points, addressed in order to gain an understanding of different methods of testing could be easily conducted for group involvement and engagement. Written notes are located in Appendix G and L.

32 RESEARCH

M A I N T H E M E S O R L E A R N I N G S T H AT S T O O D O U T FROM THIS INTE RvIEw:

NEw TOpICS OR QUESTIONS TO EXpLORE IN FUTURE INTERvIEwS:

IDEO, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, IDE, Heifer International, & ICRW. (2011, p. 187)


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RESEARCH DATA COLLECTION DATA COLLECTION METHOD #4 - SURVEY FORM ON OFFICE SPACE DESIGN & PRODUCTIVITY Date: May 21, 2016 - May 29, 2016 Subject Types: All professional fields. Survey conducted online via survey monkey. Number of actions: 27 Rationale with desired outcomes: The purpose of this study was to determine the main factors that affect the ideal flow of a fully collaborative work space arrangement. Written notes are located in Appendix H.

Survey Monkey, & Strozzo, B. (2016).

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RESEARCH DATA COLLECTION DATA COLLECTION METHOD #5 - SURVEY FORM ON WHAT'S YOUR STRESS INDEX? Date: May 27, 2016 Subject Types: Marketing and Communication creatives (i.e. writers, designers, and web content developers) and manager/directors. Number of actions: 8 Rationale with desired outcomes: This test was to address the different levels of stress present in an office work environment. Written notes are located in Appendix I.

Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety. (2016).

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RESEARCH DATA COLLECTION DATA COLLECTION METHOD #6 - INTERVIEW QUESTIONS - BRING YOUR PET TO WORK Date: May 27, 2016

Could you take a few moments to answer these few questions by the end of day today? It is greatly appreciated.

Subject Types: Marketing and Communication creatives (i.e. writers, designers, and web content developers) and manager/directors.

Now that everyone has met my puppies, I hope that you think they are just as cute and sweet as I do. I would like you to email me back the answers to these questions. 1. What are your thoughts on being able to bring your pet to work? (If you don’t own a pet, answer in regards to associating with others pets, etc.). 2. Do you feel that it would relieve stress?

Number of actions: 3

3. How do your pets help you relieve stress at home?

Rationale with desired outcomes: The purpose of this interview was to gain feedback on having a pet present in the office to get an idea of what people thought and how it helped them progress through their workday.

4. What type of stressors affect you most?

Written notes are located in Appendix J.

9. How would you handle what types of animals are allowed based on breed, socialization skills, etc.?

5. What do you like most about the idea of having your pet to at work to relieve stress? 6. What do you dislike about the idea? 7. Why do you feel it could be a nice addition to the office at Stetson? Why would it not? 8. How would you handle allergy issues at work if pets were allowed?

Thanks everyone for your help in my research. One more week to graduation. Wish me luck I am so excited to finally have another amazing chapter down and to be able to apply my Design Management skills to projects here at Stetson.

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FINDINGS The most referenced job titles contained in this word cloud include marketing, design, management, universities and brand managers. Other fields included, but were not limited to, architecture, web, musicians, business, administrators, teachers, telecommunication, and other types of creative and business based professionals.

ONLINE PHONES

ISSUES

CREATIVE PROBLEM OUTCOME DIFFERENT WEB ENVIRONMENT

IDEAS

ORGANIZATION DISCIPLINES

TOGETHER

EXPERTISE

MARKETING TALENTS

MANAGEMENT

SHARED

SOLVE

PROJECT

BUSINESS

MEETINGS

WORKING TEAMS PROCESS

CREATE COLLABORATION PEOPLE EMPLOYEES TASKS SKILLS MEMBERS FACE-TO-FACE COMPLIMENT

CONFERENCE PROGRESS

ORDER

GOALS

WEAKNESSES

36 RESEARCH

CR EA TIV

IO

PR

The word cloud was used to visualize data obtained during the online survey and represented the varied viewpoints of collaboration and creative block in a professional work environment. The answers came from both creative and noncreative job backgrounds.

OF ES S

WORD CLOUD

ORATION B A OLL SEPARATION C L NA

E

RESEARCH FINDINGS

GROUP

S PTOM M SY K SOLUTION OC L B KNOWLEDGE

DAY

FEEDBACK THINKING REFERENCE ROUTINE

SINGLE USED TIMELINE

PRESSURE PRODUCTION UNCLARITY

LONG

STRESS

TIME

CLIENT PROJECT TIRED

PROBLEM

WORKING UNDERSTANDING UNPRODUCTIVE

LACK

STRAINED SLEEP

WORK

STUCK BLOCK

REPETITIOUS

TRYING

PRODUCE

UNIQUE TEAM

PROFESSIONALS

CLIENTS LEARN

Figure 13. Research synthesis: word cloud. Author’s image.


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RESEARCH FINDINGS AFFINITY DIAGRAM "If people can't work together it may create barriers for collaboration" "there are a lot of worthless meetings I'm in" "[team collaboration] not promoted"

Negative Aspects "egos are involved and nothing gets done" "assumptions and negativity kill good shared experience in collaboration" "too many creative ideas could ruin a project" "harmful are those who don't know how to properly critique" "too many cooks in a kitchen" "voice/idea is not given the opportunity to be heard" Figure 14. Affinity diagram. Author’s image.

"Brainstorming; project meetings; professional development"

"sharing designs and getting feedback" "think outside-ofthe-box" "listening to others"

"unique set of skills" "make products better" "questions never go unanswered"

"working together with other skilled professionals, not necessarily always in the same field as you, in order to achieve one desired outcome."

Team Collaboration

Work Environment

"Keep the communication going between all areas. This allows for better collaboration, when each area knows what the other areas are doing."

"come together to help get the job done"

"spark new ideas they may not have come to fruition without the input of others." "discuss the ideas and decide together the ultimate hypothesis and inact it."

"best possible outcome"

"procrastination" or "stress" "out of ideas" "stuck on an idea" "writers block" or "mental block"

When reviewing content from interviews and surveys conducted, it was noticeable that there was a large amount of both creative and non-creative professionals that had touched on collaboration, mainly through meetings and group brainstorming, and that professionals all experienced some type of creative block, or block of sorts.

"collaborative frameworks" "input from multiple stakeholders is a requirement of all production."

"shared goal" "collaboration" "meetings"

When reviewing the findings through affinitzing, it was noticed that diverse collaboration methods did not exist, regardless of the work environment or position.

Affinity working wall located in Appendix C.

"mind fog" "inability to move forward"

•• Design Coordinator - Jewelry Company

•• Marketing Communications

•• University

•• Marketing

•• Web Design •• Editor/Writer

Symptoms Creative Block Remedies "move onto another project then come back to it" "puzzles"

"Working with other members on a team in which each person has unique skills and experiences that combine to create something greater than the sum of its parts."

FINDINGS

"take a break and do something completely different then come back to the project later with clearer thinking and better focus" "get up adn take a walk around the block or even if it's just a walk downstairs" "stimulate my brain to get out of a block"

Job Types

Creative

Non-Creative

•• Graphic Designer

•• Ag Supply (retail)

•• Art Director

•• Manager of IT Security

•• Social Media & Interactive Marketing Manager

•• Receptionist

•• Musician •• UX Designer •• Interior Designer & Researcher

•• Administrative Assistant •• Library Assistant •• Content Manager •• Academic Advisor •• Marketing Outreach

•• Self-employed cake designer •• Brand & Design Manager •• Art Teacher •• Photographer

RESEARCH 37


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RESEARCH FINDINGS DATA DIAGRAM

Creative Block Causes/Issues

•• Work towards task completion where groups could delay work or cause unwanted distractions •• Higher quality work produced •• Generate ideas that can obtain feedback once completed from groups •• Split duties and reconvene •• Individually because weak teams lead to some members doing more work than others

•• Seek help •• Solve creative problems without input •• Not all projects require high levels of collaboration for success •• Development of person vision and creative exploration •• Assignment based perception •• More productive without having to collaborate •• Slack off in teams but work harder individually (due to others carrying load and some members may not feel they have to work as hard in a group)

Creative Block Alleviation Methods Exercise Clear the mind Change task Reading Proper nutrition Sleep

38 RESEARCH

FINDINGS The findings represent key facts on areas that need the most focus in regards to development of a solution.

Management & Employees

Individual Work Habits

•• •• •• •• •• ••

This diagram is a representation of the comparison of data taken from interviews and surveys. The information is a reference of the important components and relationships from management to individuals to collaboration to creative block causes/issues.

•• •• •• •• •• ••

No self-pity Confidence Music Research Walk Breathe

•• •• •• ••

Leave computer/place Relocate Take a break Brainstorm

•• Disarray •• Lack of ideas •• Negative or badly developed work environment •• No inspiration •• Micromanagement or strict management •• Lack of communication •• Imbalance •• Tasks outside of job responsibilities •• Lazy (no motivation) •• Emotional •• Overloaded or too busy which leaves no room for creativity or creative thinking •• Unspoken ideas •• Mundane or routine tasks •• Job pressures •• Over-thinking •• Too many restrictions

•• Lack of knowledge or instruction •• Management •• No leadership •• Time of day •• Too much time spent on one task •• No breaks •• Tired/fatigued •• Too long of work days •• No room for individuality •• Too many ideas •• Too easy of tasks (no challenge) •• Frustration (slows workflow) •• Work distractions or wasted time •• Lack of, or no, constructive feedback •• No direction, confusion •• Stress •• Procrastination

Collaborative Work Habits •• •• •• •• •• ••

•• •• ••

Meet as a team Product research Professional development Shared work goals Development of team/ work ethic Cross-disciplinary, or work with other departments or people with different skill types Diverse teams Listening Unique skills

•• •• •• ••

Creativity Timelines/charts Advice from others Task distribution

Creative Block Alleviation Methods •• •• •• ••

Idea generation Communication Discussion Work balance (environment structure, positivity, etc.) •• Meetings

•• •• •• •• ••

Creative thinking Retreats Building on ideas/feedback Brainstorming Trust

Figure 15. Research Synthesis: data mapping. Author’s image.


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RESEARCH FINDINGS SURVEY HIGHLIGHTS The survey focused on the different aspects of team collaboration and creative thinking with emphasis on how creative block affected work in general. When reviewing this piece of the survey on creative block, it was apparent that stress was the leading factor of issues in the work environment followed closely but over thinking, working long hours, fatigue, unclear on direction/instructions, and heavy workloads. These are factors that also lead to higher levels of stress which in turn affects work ethic, well-being (health), and overall self-efficacy. Stress can cause many issues which include the following data collected from a health research study in Canada: •• elevated blood pressure, metabolism, cholesterol, blood sugar levels, and the increase of stomach acid production •• causing accidents from fatigue, over-medicating, depression, anxiety, and anger/recklessness •• along with employees being distracted, making poor judgment calls, increase of strains/sprains, and just the threat to overall physical well-being.

Strozzo, B., & Polldaddy.com. Collaboration and creative work environments. (2016).

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RESEARCH FINDINGS SWOT ANALYSIS The SWOT diagram shows the given strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats present from data obtained from survey and interviews. This information was gathered from survey and interview answers.

FINDINGS The research provided insight to what is collaboration methods are used most in different types of job environments. Also, the different components of what hurt collaboration in most jobs.

• Communication promotes creativity and work balance • Redistribution or distribution of team workloads • Brainstorming • Sharing of feedback • Collaboration reduces creative block symptoms/issues • People are available to ask questions in a group • Support • Diverse teams with diverse skills • Strong meetings • Hands-off management

S

STRENGTHS

40 RESEARCH

Figure 16. Research synthesis: swot analysis. Author’s image.

• Not working in same environment (i.e. home or virtually) • Bad attitudes or ego issues • Barriers in collaboration environment • Gossiping and venting at work • No team building activities • Unstructured work environment • Bad leadership • Too much emotion • Confusion/lack of knowledge • Too may information relay points • Overworking or over-thinking • Shift t of responsibilities too often

W WEAKNESSES

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

Coach teams with focus points Open communication/discussions Cohesion and group activities Regular breaks Professional development Product research Supportive work environment for team collaboration Reduce routine/mundane work More hands-on group activities Less individualistic workloads Creative thinking incorporation Reduce overworking Group distressing exercises

O

OPPORTUNITIES

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

Work days too long/overworked Pressure from co-workers/job Stress and distractions Change of locations Disarray from lack of communication Lack of trust Arrogance and negativity One person making all decisions Too much individual work Controlling or hands-off manager Too many strict rules Unproductive meetings Numerous ideas/involvement

T

THREATS


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RESEARCH SYNTHESIS PERSONA #1: SINGLE YOUNG WOMAN JESSIE BAKER •• Age: 27 •• Status: Single •• Profession: Graphic/Web Designer •• Education: BFA in Graphic Design •• Annual Income: $35,000 •• Location: DeLand, Florida Image 1. Free stock photo of woman with blackhair on chain swing smiling (Nys, L., 2014).

Jessie is a very hard working, over-achieving individual who strives to advance in her career at an exponential rate, but along the way takes on more work than is necessary and become overburdened and stressed. Jessie ends up working too much and not having enough time for exercise and hanging out with her family and friends. When Jessie isn't working and does make time for herself, she enjoys traveling to theme parks and hanging out with her few close friends.

EMPLOYEE

MANAGER

MARRIED

SINGLE

CREATIVE

NON-CREATIVE

LOW INCOME

HIGH INCOME

8 HOUR DAY

8+ HOUR DAY

MEETINGS

NO CHILDREN

GROUP ACTIVITIES CHILDREN

NON-CORPORATE

CORPORATE

LOW RESPONSIBILITY

HIGH RESPONSIBILITY

LOW MOTIVATION

HIGH MOTIVATION

INDIVIDUAL WORK

COLLABORATION

GOALS •• Ensure collaboration is present to gain feedback on projects. •• Design content to establish strong brand identity. •• Get enough rest between work days to stay alert and focused. •• Work hard to advance in abilities and in job positions.

NEEDS

PAIN POINTS

Figure 17. Persona comparisons. Author's image.

•• Needs more activity after work to improve stress levels and health. •• Works too often and too much, needs a life outside of working. •• Too many stressors which leads to health conditions which contribute to missed work and too much make-up time. •• Improved income to accommodate for excessive work loads.

•• Regular feedback at work for ideation processes. •• Shorter work hours - works daily at her career and nightly as a freelancer to make up for lower income. •• Needs more downtime to de-stress and improve health conditions.

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RESEARCH SYNTHESIS PERSONA #2: MIDDLE-AGED MARRIED MALE FRED CAMPBELL •• Age: 38 •• Status: Married with 2 children •• Profession: Graphic Designer •• Education: BA in Graphic Art •• Annual Income: $40,000 •• Location: DeLand, Florida Image 2. Bearded hipster wearing hat with upper lips piercing friendly laughing iStock image (Getty Images, 2016).

Fred is a very laid-back middle-aged male who works very hard for his family and over the years has become a designer with various talents which include photography and videography - both are strong passions of his. Through experience, Fred has very strong creative insights on concept development. When Fred is not working hard for his job to provide for his family, he is spending quality time hanging out with his wife and children, along with constant in-home renovations to update and maintain his property.

42 RESEARCH

EMPLOYEE

MANAGER

MARRIED

SINGLE

CREATIVE

NON-CREATIVE

LOW INCOME

HIGH INCOME

8 HOUR DAY

8+ HOUR DAY

MEETINGS

NO CHILDREN

GROUP ACTIVITIES CHILDREN

NON-CORPORATE

CORPORATE

LOW RESPONSIBILITY

HIGH RESPONSIBILITY

LOW MOTIVATION

HIGH MOTIVATION

INDIVIDUAL WORK

COLLABORATION

GOALS •• Ensure a successful career for children. •• Sustain a family on one income - wife is a stay-at-home mom. •• Works diligently to maintain may different job talents. •• Maintains job efficiency.

NEEDS •• Higher income to accommodate workload and raising family. •• More assistance with tasks - too many tasks which means less time to finish work assigned. •• Longer breaks to recoup for upcoming tasks. •• Space to design and function in work space.

PAIN POINTS

Figure 18. Persona comparisons. Author's image.

•• Distractions from co-workers. •• Access to better equipment and proper tools to do all required tasks, as not all software is available. •• Works hard and needs more income for his family and bills - pay is not high enough in regards to him being a designer, photographer, videographer, and other tasks as assigned for editing.


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RESEARCH SYNTHESIS EMPLOYEE PERSONA #3: EXPERIENCED PROFESSIONAL MARRIED MALE

SEAN FLORES •• Age: 50 •• Status: Married with 4 children •• Profession: Senior Manager of Information Technology Security •• Education: BS in Computer Science •• Annual Income: $125,000 •• Location: Statesboro, GA Image 3. Free stock photo of man, person, suit (Digwal, P., 2015).

Sean is a very hardworking individual and due to being a senior level manager must devote the majority of his time to managing his team and other work tasks of his company. Sean willingly devotes his time for his family's benefit over his own.

GOALS

When Sean is not working, he enjoys traveling and going on trips with his wife and four children. Sean's passion is to give his children a life that he has had to work so hard for and be able to afford them an education where they can graduate debt-free.

NEEDS

MANAGER

MARRIED

SINGLE

CREATIVE

NON-CREATIVE

LOW INCOME

HIGH INCOME

8 HOUR DAY

8+ HOUR DAY

MEETINGS

NO CHILDREN

GROUP ACTIVITIES CHILDREN

NON-CORPORATE

CORPORATE

LOW RESPONSIBILITY

HIGH RESPONSIBILITY

LOW MOTIVATION

HIGH MOTIVATION

INDIVIDUAL WORK

COLLABORATION

•• Develop complex plan for company applications. •• Serve as an expert for portfolio applications. •• Enhance company security and production. •• Help employees maintain a strong work ethic.

•• Shorter commute to work. •• Less work on weekends and shorter work days. •• More collaboration among team to discuss and pitch new ideas for company advancement.

PAIN POINTS

Figure 19. Persona comparisons. Author's image.

•• Work commute and position hours are too long and take away valuable family time. •• Long work hours and on-call for weekends and vacations - no real time off from work flow. •• Taking time away is not possible without working virtually. •• A lot of individual coding means less time for collaboration and too many meetings reduce work time.

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RESEARCH SYNTHESIS RESEARCH FINDINGS AT-A-GLANCE Findings from research indicated that there was a very limited understanding of design management methods used in group collaboration to alleviate negative work components like creative block, and other negative work components.

work environments not designed for collaboration

management does not assist with ways to alleviate creative block

communication methods vary

ways to alleviate creative block

limited to no understanding of design management collaboration methodology or how it can effectively prevent creative block

individual work present collaboration only for final results collaboration through meetings and brainstorming methods

limited ideation methods present high levels of on-the-job stressors 44 RESEARCH

Figure 20. Map of research findings. Author’s image.

ways to alleviate creative block


OPPORTUNITIES & SYNTHESIS CREATIVE ROADBLOCKS 45


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

OPPORTUNITIES & SYNTHESIS OPPORTUNITIES FOR DESIGN MATRIX

Table 1. Opportunities design matrix.

INSIGHTS

HOW MIGHT WE...

OPPORTUNITIES

1

People are aware of creative blocks but not sure how to fully eliminate the presence

Aid people in eliminating creative block from work environments

Develop strategies or tools to eliminate creative block and increase positivity in work environment

2

Stress is a strong component of creative barriers in professional, leading to the lack of collaboration and miscommunication

Incorporate a component that is low-cost and effective to alleviate stress and creative barriers in professionals

Reduce stress with the addition of office pets, or the ability to bring your pet to work as having pets is known to alleviate creative and communication barriers

3

Creative block has been combated by professionals in a number of ways

Develop ways to alleviate creative barriers and address how these barriers can be overcome

Develop a solution that makes information readily available for management to help alleviate creative block issues with co-workers and support methods to alleviate symptoms

4

Breaks are not always permitted or allowed due to heavy workloads or company obligations

Allowance of more breaks to aid in company/personal productivity

Develop a set of guidelines for all companies to follow in regards to self-efficacy and mental/physical health of employees

5

Work environments are not always designed to support collaboration

Reorganize spaces to harbor positive interaction

Develop a way to open up work spaces to promote interaction among co-workers and increase positive collaboration strategies

6

Negative components affect a work environment and methods of interaction among its employees

Organize space and group employees to optimize productivity and well-being overall

Developing a strategy to remove negative people or ideas in order to improve work flow

7

Brainstorming is the most common method of ideation used today

Use design management methodology in order to introduce innovative ways of thinking

Introduce other ideation methods, or toolkit, in a format that is easily understood and can be used by management

46 OPPORTUNITIES & SYNTHESIS


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

OPPORTUNITIES & SYNTHESIS 2

OPPORTUNITIES FOR DESIGN MAP

The opportunities presented through research synthesis were components centered around design strategies or an office arrangement to aid professionals in collaboration methods

3

Develop a solution that makes information readily available for management to help alleviate creative block issues with co-workers and support methods to alleviate symptoms

Reduce stress with the addition of office pets, or the ability to bring your pet to work as having pets is known to alleviate creative and communication barriers

1 Creative Blocks

Develop strategies or tools to eliminate creative block and increase positivity in work environment

6

FINDINGS

The research findings provided an insight on components that focus on collaboration, work environments, and creative block. This includes a solution based around the reorganization of space as well as the inclusion of well-behaved pets in order to increase employee self-efficacy, productivity, and health, as well as decrease creative barriers that arise due to stress.

7

4 Collaboration

Work Environments 5

Introduce other ideation methods, or toolkit, in a format that is easily understood and can be used by management

Developing a strategy to remove negative people or ideas in order to improve work flow

Develop a set of guidelines for all companies to follow in regards to self-efficacy and mental/physical health of employees

Develop a way to open up work spaces to promote interaction among co-workers and increase positive collaboration strategies

Figure 21. Opportunities for design map. Author’s image.

OPPORTUNITIES & SYNTHESIS 47


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

OPPORTUNITIES & SYNTHESIS DESIGN CRITERIA •• No or low-cost to user •• Easily accessible to all business and creative professional fields •• Development of a product/service to aid with collaboration among creative and non-creative persons •• Relieving of stress to promote the use of design management methods and reduce creative barriers and increase collaboration •• Information accessible anywhere at any time •• Include the entire professional work force •• Must be a simplistic in nature and easy to understand and use

REFRAMING Through the gathering of qualitative research, it has become apparent that even though collaboration does exist in most creative environments, the collaboration is limited to obtaining feedback, sharing ideas, and brainstorming. There are many different facilitation methods present through the application of design management methodology that is not even being utilized in professional work environments. The research also represented a strong insight into what affects creative block most in employees and information for surveys relayed that stress was the number one factor. The realization was then made that in order to alleviate creative barriers and increase company collaboration, stress levels needed to be reduced. "Stress is experienced when either [the alarm reaction or adaptation] mechanisms are not functioning properly or when [it is difficult] to switch appropriately from one to another (Michie, S., 2002). The alarm reaction is when a person is confronted with a threat, while adaptation is the ability to respond and learn from the environment around such threats. The ability to overcome any stress is dependent on the environment and the individuals personal abilities. Once the threat is judged, the individual will access if its a high level or low level stress and judge accordingly how to tackle this scenario. This project's initial goal was to alleviate the components of creative barriers in professional work environments through the development of ideal design management methods. The research

48 OPPORTUNITIES & SYNTHESIS

indicated that design management methods are already applied to some degree and they were not the largest factor attributing to creative block in collaborative work environments. Further research presented the component of stress as the largest factor affecting work relationships, creative thinking methods, and collaboration. Stress presents itself there is a "combination of high demands in a job and low amount of control over the situation" or "pressure to perform" is too great and individuals fear "job redundancy"(Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 2016). If stress levels continue to climb, companies begin to encounter "absenteeism, illness, alcoholism, 'petty internal politics', bad or snap decisions, indifference and apathy, lack of motivation or creativity are all by-products of an over stressed work place" (Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 2016). There are good and bad stressors, but with the evaluation of this new research it became apparent to focus on a way to reduce stress levels which are the largest component of creative block and collaboration problems withing a workspace. This new found understanding is what lead the researcher to research new ways, not yet fully realized, to alleviate stressors in the work environment in order to increase collaboration, reduce stress levels, and promote self-efficacy among professionals. Addressing these factors will in turn address the negative affects stress has on health, well-being, collaboration, and overall atmosphere.


PROTOTYPE

DEVELOPMENT & TESTING


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING PROTOTYPE IDEAS

MANAGEMENT

The opportunities were narrowed down based upon the different components of a professional's daily interactions at work. These categories include management, creative and non-creative employees, collaboration, the work environment and how it is arranged, as well as creative block factors. The lines represent how each component relates to the opportunities presented from research.

CREATIVE

The connections were developed based on answers taken from surveys and interviews then based on the job fields and types of work conducted. Connecting work aspects to opportunities where the factors would be present narrowed down the focus to the development of concepts about a toolkit, collaborative game and positive arrangement of work space. All of this is meant to enhance current conditions, not create entirely new ones.

NON-CREATIVE

Reduce stress with the addition of office pets, or the ability to bring your pet to work as having pets is known to alleviate creative and communication barriers Develop a solution that makes information readily available for management to help alleviate creative block issues with coworkers and support methods to alleviate symptoms. Develop a set of guidelines for all companies to follow in regards to self-efficacy and mental/physical health of employees.

COLLABORATIVE Develop a way to open up work spaces to promote interaction among co-workers and increase positive collaboration strategies.

WORK ENVIRONMENT

CREATIVE BLOCK Image 4. Prototype ideation. Author’s image.

Develop strategies or tools to eliminate creative block and increase positivity in work environment.

Figure 22. Prototype ideation. Author’s image.

50 PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING

Developing a strategy to remove negative people or ideas in order to improve work flow.

Introduce other ideation methods, or toolkit, in a format that is easily understood and can be used by management.

Opportunities with four or more connecting points from key terms which include: management, creative, non-creative, collaborative, work environment, and creative block.

Opportunities with three or less connecting points from key terms which include: management, creative, non-creative, collaborative, work environment, and creative block.


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING CONCEPT #1: TOOLKIT IDEA: The development of a toolkit with design management methods listed in procession of collaboration importance. The toolkit will break down these methods into exercises that are easy to understand, containing explanations and examples for ease of use. The design management methods include, however are not limited to, brainstorming, affinity diagrams, journey mapping, storyboarding, and other team building activities. GOAL: The goal is to develop a method for management to integrate collaboration into the professional work environment and elevate morale and productivity in the process. The activities listed in the tool kit are meant to bring together diverse professionals and build trust, collaboration and understanding, as well as break down walls that lead to seclusion and low self-efficacy.

Image 5. Toolkit prototype idea sketch. Author’s image.

Image 6. Toolkit prototype idea sketch. Author’s image.

PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING 51


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING CONCEPT #2: CREATIVE BLOCK ALLEVIATION GAME IDEA: A collaborative game to alleviate creative block symptoms and challenge the minds of professionals through team-building interaction. GOAL: The goal of this game is to promote different ways of thinking outside-the-box. This game aims to help professionals not only by providing a challenge of developing ways to overcome creative block situations that are presented on the cards, but also by providing a mental break for individuals able to leave the office building.

Image 7. Creative block game prototype idea sketch. Author’s image.

52 PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING CONCEPT #3: REMOVE NEGATIVITY IDEA: A strategy to remove negatively arranged work environments. GOAL: The goal is to reformat current work space in order to enhance selfefficacy and productivity of employees while developing a space to promote collaboration. When it comes to the environment in which professionals spend time daily, it is understood that the "working environment has a direct impact on employee productivity and morale, so it makes perfect sense to generate a workspace that is conducive to the wellbeing of th workforce (Areasq, n.d.)."

Image 8. Negativity removal prototype idea sketch. Author’s image.

PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING 53


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING CONCEPT #4: STRESS RELIEF IDEA: The addition of animals in people's lives is known to possess a de-stressing component, which is why dogs are used as so well as Emotional Stress Dogs (ESA). The idea is to allow employees to bring their well-behaved pets to work. GOAL: Having well-behaved pets at work leads to the increase in well-being, mood, productivity, creativity, and collaboration. This would be the lowest-cost way to alleviate creative barriers, promote connections at work, and allows employees to de–stress by having to take the pets out for walks/breaks, and have the pet to help them relax during stressful times.

Image 9. Digtal image of dog and cat, (Pixabay, n.d.).

54 PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING CONCEPT #5: OFFICE COMBO IDEA: Rearranging the office space and allowing pets are two of the least expensive components to reducing stress while increasing collaboration, productivity, well-being, and better employment rates. This idea contains two options due to the fact that animals may not be allowed for specific situations and if this is the case and no exceptions can be made outside of having service animals, reorganizing the office space is the only other low-cost way to increase employee interactions. Reorganizing the work space is not the same as re-developing it as the re organization only entails rearranging what is already present in the space. GOAL: The goal of this idea is to not only develop the space to reduce creative barriers but also incorporate the addition of pets in order to raise morale, reduce stress, and push the collaboration component even more. If this is carried out successfully, then facilitation and the use of design management methods will fall right into place very easily in a very excited and enthusiastic work environment.

Image 10. Negativity removal prototype idea sketch. Author’s image.

Image 11. Prototype idea sketch. Author’s image.

PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING 55


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING PMI QUESTIONS QUESTIONS: • What do you find interesting about the idea? • What do you like most about the idea? • What do you dislike about the idea? FINDINGS: The answers given by the 4 people interviewed gave a strong understanding of why toolkits would become more of a hassle to users than using card games or reorganizing the office. When asked what the users favorite concept would, they were all interested most in office space arrangements and the addition of pets (from pet interview conducted at a later time). These two components they believe will not only bring employees closer together and allow everyone to easily approach and communicate with one another, but it will also prove beneficial for reduction of stress and developing a more positive work environment with happy and productive employees. Written notes are located in Appendix K.

56 PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING CONCEPT #1: TOOLKIT IDEA: The development of a toolkit with design management methods listed in procession of collaboration importance. The toolkit will break down these methods into exercises that are easy to understand, containing explanations and examples for ease of use. The design management methods include, but are not limited to, brainstorming, affinity diagrams, journey mapping, story boarding, and other teambuilding activities. FINDINGS: Concept 1 ranked second highest of the group due to the toolkits ability to offer important components for group collaboration among creative professionals. This concept will provide guidelines for teams to follow and for management to use when organizing ideation sessions. The missing components would involve focusing on ways not to make it information heavy, as this will overwhelm the user and make the guidelines simple and user-friendly without complex words and examples.

PLUS

MINUS

INTERESTING

• Team bonding (+1) • Collaboration (+3) • New way to help employees conceptualize information (+2) • New way to ideate (+1) • Adds team ideas, not just one persons ideas (+1) • Change work atmosphere (+2)

• Referring to a guide and being able to remember (-2) • Difficult to learn and/or master due to there being too many components (-1) • May not have enough time to fulfill assignments or ideation processes during work schedule (-2) • People learn at different rate (-1) • Too many different insights (-1)

• Encourages individual output and participation (+2) • Decision does not rest on one person (+1) • Teams build trust and learn new ways of thinking through toolkit collaboration (+3)

Total = +10

Table 2. Concept testing for toolkit.

Total = -7

Total = +6

TOTAL = 9

PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING 57


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING CONCEPT #2: CREATIVE BLOCK ALLEVIATION GAME IDEA: A collaborative game to alleviate creative block symptoms and challenge the minds of professionals through team-building interaction. FINDINGS: This concept has the lowest score, because even though the concept is strong in nature it would only work if there were time allowed for breaks at work, which would allow for thinking outside-the-box. If this were not allowed the game would be useless as people would not want to use it at home; it is a professional, at-work, team-building experience. Components that would strengthen this concept are being able to use the cards as activities by management in a daily break from the routine work flow.

PLUS

MINUS

INTERESTING

• Creativity affects all aspects of the work environment; positive creativity enhances work productivity (+1) • Healthy mental breaks from mundane, repetitive, or boring tasks (+2) • Team building exercise (+2) • Educational for creative thinking (+2) • Hands-on experience (+1) • Learn about creative block and its affects (+2) • Improves self-efficacy (+3)

• Creativity affects all aspects of the work environment; negative creativity decreases work productivity (-1) • Too many scenarios could exist confusing the game instead of helping it (-3) • Not taken seriously as a learning experience (loss of professionalism) (-3) • Not having the time to conduct the game (-2) • Inability to collaborate during work hours (-2)

• Reduces boredom and creative block symptoms by breaking up workday (+1) • New way to work together to solve problems and understand work related issues (+1) • Alleviate work stressors (+2)

Total = +13 Table 3. Concept testing for creative block alleviation game.

58 PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING

Total = +11

Total = +4

TOTAL = 6


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING CONCEPT #3: REMOVE NEGATIVITY IDEA: A strategy to remove negatively arranged work environments. FINDINGS: Concept three ranked highest because the development of the ideal collaborative work space proves to be the best idea to increase at-work collaboration. The ideal arrangement of an office is key in order for there to be a positive atmosphere and a strong level of productivity. The results show that there are still issues with privacy and other factors that people will need to maintain individuality in work flow, but a balance must be discovered as isolation and negativity are present when professionals are too closed off from one another.

PLUS

MINUS

• Improve/develop interpersonal relationships (+3)

• Isolating work space causes negative mindset (-1) • Too open of a workspace causes distraction and gossip (-2) • All employees seem to be on same level - may cause loss of respect for management (-2) • No room for privacy or private conversations (-2) • Decreased productivity (-1) • One negative person can cause a bad atmosphere (-1)

• Opens collaboration abilities (+2) • Opens up communication and people are willing to work together and ask questions (+3) • Increased productivity (+2) • Improves overall health of employs and reduces negativity from separation (+3) • Stay on task (+3) Total = +14 Table 4. Concept testing for negativity removal.

Total = -9

INTERESTING • Reduce individual workloads (+2) • Reduce isolation of employees (+3) • Stay organized (+2)

Total = +7

TOTAL = 12

PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING 59


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING CONCEPT #4: STRESS RELIEF IDEA: The addition of animals in people's lives is known to possess a de-stressing component, which is why dogs are used as so well as Emotional Stress Dogs (ESA). The idea is to allow employees to bring their well-behaved pets to work in order to increase well-being, mood, productivity, creativity, and collaboration. FINDINGS: The addition of well-behaved pets into the work environment increases employee collaboration, cooperation, morale, and productivity, while reducing absenteeism, negativity, and creative barriers. The presence of a pet also takes away and coworker tensions as the pet is not only a stress reliever due to the fact that most individuals will come by your office just to socialize with the pet and therefore aiding camaraderie. Happier employees have stronger self-efficacy and do not mind working longer hours if necessary because they no longer have to worry about getting home to tend to their pets.

60 PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING

PLUS • Boost morale (+3) • Reduce stress (+3) • Higher job satisfaction (+3) • Better performance or employees (+3)

MINUS

INTERESTING

• Not as helpful for those without pets or those that leave the pets at home (-3) • Destructive pet - not well trained or socialized (-3) • Allergies of co-workers (-3)

• Employees with pets at work are less likely to be absent (+2) • Less burnout (+2) • Fewer creative barriers exist (+2)

• Increases co-worker collaboration/ cooperation (+3) • Pets are happier (+1)

Total = +15 Table 4. Concept testing for negativity removal.

Total = -9

Total = +6

TOTAL = 12


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING VALIDATION

IDEATION

RESEARCH

UNDERSTANDING

PROTOTYPE

DISCOVERY

ONLINE SURVEY

The arrangement of an office is the first component in working towards the development of a highly productive professional team and/or environment. If the work atmosphere is not ideal for the tasks conducted then creative block symptoms will always be present. It is important to therefore avert environmental distractions, obstructions, and other aspects that are part of a daily work cycle. A well lit and well organized office is just the start to having happy and productive employees. Once this has been addressed then all the other components, such as guidebooks, toolkits and games are just a piece of what aids in alleviating mental block and office disorder. The importance of the ideal working environment is centralized around the fact that "regardless of other elements, working in a disorganized environment consisting of stack of unfiled documents or scattered notes on the work surfaces makes an employee's workday a real struggle" (CIPHER, 2015). "The design of your office, whether you work at home or in a larger company environment, is of importance; where you work has an enormous impact on how you work - on your ability to focus (and stay focused) and your overall ability to be productive" (Rees, H., n.d.). Therefore, this is why developing an ideal space to work and collaborate is of importance. Concept #3 and #4 did not come out with the same numbers for no reason. The additional of pets, when allowed and well-behaved with strong socialization skills, can also be added to a work environment to reduce stress which in turn reduces anxiety while increasing productivity, collaboration, morale, selfefficacy, and much more. In order for these policies to be accepted, companies must first realize they are the low-budget formats for building a stronger team with fewer creative barriers and stronger communication skills while also convincing them that the addition of pets is ideal for any stressful or over burdned work atmosphere.

Image 12. Icons, (Freepik, n.d.).

PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING 61


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING VALIDATION - SURVEY The work environment has an impact on employees even if it is not realized. The ability for employees to focus is highly important for productivity. If the office is in a state of chaos then the ability to focus is greatly reduced. In order to obtain a productive staff, it is important to maintain a balance between components such as interior distribution of space, airflow, noise levels, lighting, smells, organization of desk materials, color and the type of furniture used.

FINDINGS

Image ?. xxxx

First, gray was the most dominate color for office spaces and through research of color psychology is apparent that gray is about "conformism," and "unresponsive color" that is "emotionless and still" and "depleting to physical human body" while still possessing the components of "intellect, futurism, modesty, sadness" and" hardworking but not dull" (Color Psychology, n.d.). All of the typical components that involve distractions or affect work productivity affect everyone in an equal manner so balance is key to a success work environment arrangement. There were 23 anonymous survey responses as of May 22, 2016. Questions and full survey results located in Appendix H.

Survey Monkey, & Strozzo, B. (2016).

"Yes, I would definitely support a redesign even if it cost money. Our cubicles are grey and our floors are brown industrial carpet, which makes for a kind of depressing atmosphere." - anonymous " Absolutely, spending money on the working conditions of your employees is a smart investment." - anonymous

62 PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING

"We just need a reorganization of where my desk is. It is currently out of place and in the open where customers actually have to walk behind the desk to get to the front door." - anonymous


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING OBSERVATION VALIDATION Research was conducted with the presence of the researchers dog at work to gauge the differences in interaction with employees as well as how the prescence of a non-distruptive pet changed the work environment for not only the researcher, but other employees.

FINDINGS The following was observed while the pet was present at the researchers desk: •• more break time when taking dog for routine potty breaks outside of the office •• more focus on work, less distracted

Image 13. Pet observation. Authors image.

Image 14. Pet observation. Authors image.

•• more socialization, employees would approach desk just to pet the dog and it appeared to uplift their moods •• less stress overall for the researcher and other employees •• less reasons to worry about stressors •• more getting up and moving around when the dog was present, not just sitting at the desk Image 18. Pet observation. Authors image.

•• co-workers take the time to socialize with me about the dog that normally would not approach my desk, more positive energy and smiles from busy co-workers •• the researcher took all three dogs to work, but when one barked it proved distracting and caused too much maintenance leading to more stress, therefore pets must be well-behaved (like pictured) Questions and full survey results located in Appendix J. Observation results located in Appendix L.

Image 15. Pet observation. Authors image.

Image 16. Pet observation. Authors image.

Image 17. Pet observation. Authors image.

Image 19. Pet observation. Authors image.

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M.A. FINAL PROJECT

PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING VALIDATION - SURVEY This survey, which was conducted on May 27, 2016 and taken by 3 employees, was designed to test the reaction having a pet in the office would have on team members in comparison to what studies had shown about incorporation of pets in corporations. There were not enough carried out in order to make a strong case to the additional being helpful or not to Stetson University's Marketing Department, but there were still nice insights.

FINDINGS The results showed that employees were pleased to have a change in the environment and would go out of their way to walk by the researchers office to talk and see how the dog was doing. This effectively opened up lines of communication with everyone in the office and allowed the researcher to stress less and focus on work at hand. However, there was not enough information as the employees were not fully convinced of the aid as they were not around the dog for long periods of time and in order to experience the true results they would also have to bring their dogs along or spend more time in the same location. Overall, they were willing for the idea to be a rotating concept and if the pet was quiet then it would add a nice positive component to a stress work atmosphere. Questions and full survey results located in Appendix J.

64 PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING

Image ?. xxxx


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING VALIDATION - STRESS LEVELS TEST

HOW IT WORKS...

Stress is normal and everyone faces some level of stress in life regardless if it is a work or home. Factors that lead to stressors at work include but are not limited to the following: workload, pace of job, hours worked, lack of proper training, environment (i.e. loud, cluttered, no airflow, etc.), conflict, job security, well-being (i.e. increases blood pressure, depression, mood, increase in stomach acids, and other serious issues) and management style are just a few issues that cause more severe levels of stress that affect not only work habits but also a person's well-being and ability to perform their tasks properly.

Descriptions are copied directly from the Canadian Mental Health Association study. "0-5: There are few hassles in your life. Make sure though, that you are not trying to deliberately avoid problems. 6-10: You've got your life in fairly good control. Work on the choices and habits that could still be causing you some unnecessary stress in your life. 11-15: You are approaching the danger zone. You may be suffering stress-related symptoms and your relationships could be strained. Think carefully about choices you've made and take relaxation breaks every day.

FINDINGS The stress test is a way to understand what level of stress employees are facing on a daily basis. Eight employees were given the test and asked to check yes or no based on the questions asked. When reviewing the results 4 employees stated they were in fairly good control (6-10), 3 employees felt they had few hassles (0-5), while 1 employee was approaching the danger zone with stress levels (11-15). The findings here showed that most people have a moderate level of stress at work and at times it can increase to dangerous levels that can cause health-problems and affect work efficiency. In order to be more affective more employees would have to have been tested in order to get a better average of results. Questions and full survey results located in Appendix H.

16-25: Emergency! It is critical that you stop and re-think how you are living; change your attitudes and pay careful attention to diet, exercise and relaxation(Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 2016)".

Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety. (2016).

PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT & TESTING 65


FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET WEBSITE COMPONENT The website is developed for understanding of the components that make up a successful and productive office arrangement and a way to mock up the arrangement that you would like with the free building software on the home page. The goal of the website is to provide access for professionals to understand how to better the office arrangement for productivity and improve self-efficacy for employees, all as a means of reducing creative block. Also, the employees are offered a virtual setup that allows them to design the office space they would like to have and then use that as a reference guide when rearranging their office in a similar format to promote productivity.

OFFICE SPACE & OFFICE PETS HOME

OFFICE STRESS

OFFICE PETS

OFFICE SPACE

CONTACT

OFFICE STRESS OFFICE PETS OFFICE SPACE

DESIGN YOUR OFFICE SPACE Image 20. Website development, (Pixabay, n.d.).

Image 21. Website development, (Pixabay, n.d.).

FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET 67


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET KNOWING YOUR

• Conflicts between employees • Lack of clarity in job assignment or tasks • Responsibility

WORKPLACE STRESS

Career Stressors • • • •

Work Relationship Stressors

What is stress?

• Stress is anything in your environment that causes you to respond to change (i.e. emotional, physical, economic, workloads, and other similar factors).

• • • • • • • •

Work participation Style of management (strict or slack) Not engaging employees properly Unfair treatment of employees or not treating employee equally

Work and Life Balance Stressors • Job role • Responsibilities • Hazard exposure

Identifying Job Stress

Overloaded with work tasks Responsibilities Hours worked No appreciation Environment Isolation Abilities that do not match assigned job (expected to do work outside of your skills)

OFFICE PETS OFFICE PETS & STRESS RELIEF & STRESS RELIEF

WaysPets Office Pets Relieve Ways Office Relieve Stress Stress

What Pets Can Reduce What Pets Can Reduce • Absenteeism • Absenteeism • Negativity and conflict • Negativity and conflict • Low-production rates • Low-production rates • Illness • Illness • Stress • Stress • Gossip • Gossip

The of inclusion of well-behaved pets will promote The inclusion well-behaved pets will promote trust among employees, with breaks trust among employees, along withalong breaks which are which are order tocreative alleviateblock. creative block. These necessary necessary in order toinalleviate These walks to take yourare dog outhealthy are very walks to take your dog out very forhealthy the for the as itfor is them a wayto fortake them to take their minds employeesemployees as it is a way their minds work to re-energize and able to become off of workofftoofre-energize and be able to be become Studies that having a pet in that the office that more is Studies show that show having a pet in the office is more productive upon return. productive upon return. well-behaved can eliminate greatly reduce stress well-behaved can eliminate or greatly or reduce stress Any petsinto brought into a would company would need to have Any pets brought a company need to have and help overall productivity of employees. levels andlevels help overall productivity of employees. their full shots, be socialized, pottywelltrained, welltheir full shots, be socialized, potty trained, Notemployees only are employees more productive with higher Not only are more productive with higher behaved, and overall non-disruptive because behaved, and overall non-disruptive because a dog or a dog or levels of self-efficacy, butcollaborating they are collaborating more levels of self-efficacy, but they are more even is not well-behaved would cause more even cat that is cat notthat well-behaved would cause more it is just talking the pet being present. even if it iseven just iftalking due to thedue pet to being present. harm then good amongst employees by increasing harm then good amongst employees by increasing Individuals dogsare toalso work are also Individuals that bringthat theirbring dogstheir to work other types of disruption. noise and noise other and types of disruption. muchthan happier dopets not or have pets or much happier thosethan thatthose do notthat have petsAlso, at home. Also, individuals leave theirleave pets their at home. individuals that bringthat bring petsare tomore work inclined are moretoinclined to work longer their pets their to work work longer hoursthey because have less stressto orleave desire to leave hours because have they less stress or desire the environment. the environment. • • • • •

• Boost morale Boost morale • Encourage collaboration Encourage employee employee collaboration Providesupport positivefor support Provide•positive ownerfor owner Relieves stress Relieves• stress • Spark conversations Spark conversations

Adding a pet to the environment is also Adding a pet to the environment is also a very low-a very lowcostinmethod in comparison to other ways of relieving cost method comparison to other ways of relieving stressors that can cause the more company more money. stressors that can cause the company money.

68 FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET

Image 22. Booklet of office space development. Author's image.

HOW PETS RELIEVE OFFICE STRESSORS

• • • • • • •

Conflicts with management Violence or harassment threats Trust issues Lack of reporting methods

Organizational Stressors

Workplace stress

• Workplace stress can surface when there are physical and emotional conflicts resulting in overwhelmed employees, layoffs, redundancy of job, pressures to perform tasks assigned, negativity in the work environment, and disorganization to name a few.

Job security Redundancy of position Lack of career development Job satisfaction

CAUSES OF WORK STRESS

The printed version is a more detailed guide, provided to management, to understand different arrangements and how they affect the well-being and productivity of employees. The guide also provides explanations of stressors in the workplace, why office pets are helpful to overall morale and to reduce creative block similary to reorganization of office space. All of this is addressed in detail within this prototype (pictured right). The two pages represent a small piece of what makes up this detailed brochure that provides the argument of why it is imporant to remove creative barriers and enhance employee well-being in order to develop a stronger space for increased productivity and reduced turnover rates.

HOW PETS RELIEVE OFFICE STRESSORS

INFORMATIVE BROCHURE

Job Roles Stressors


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET BUSINESS MODEL CANVAS KEY PARTNERS • Non-profits • For-profits • Design Firms • Business Firms • Corporations • Marketing Firms

KEY ACTIVITIES • Creative thinking • User interaction (team environment) • Interaction of professionals (management and employees) • Maintain to enhance collaboration and reduce creative barriers

KEY RESOURCES • Creatives (i.e. design, web, etc.) • Business minded professionals • Networking • Marketing and communications • Universities, corporations, businesses • Human Resources

COST STRUCTURE • Marketing expense (advertising) • Online web presence • Print costs (publicize content and pass out to management/businesses)

Table 5. Business model canvas.

VALUE PROPOSITIONS • Enhance creative environments • Raise self-efficacy of professionals • Reduction of creative block • Removal of collaboration barriers • Increase in productivity • Increase in inter-employee relations

CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIPS • Increase collaboration and communication • Bridge gaps in different departments • Introduce new ways of thinking as a team and individually

CHANNELS

CUSTOMER SEGMENTS • Reduce creative barriers for professionals • Remove negative components • Understand ways to reduce creative block for all employees • Open communication • Introduce new ways to think and work as a team

• Website • Word-of-mouth • Management • Professionals • Printable content

REVENUE STREAMS • Online advertisements • Sponsorships • Donations • Endorsements • Partners • Fundraising

FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET 69


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET KEY PARTNERS • Non-profits • For-profits • Design Firms • Business Firms • Corporations • Marketing Firms

• • • • •

Tax exemption (non-profits) Grant eligibility (non-profits) Money (for-profits) Digital space (marketing) Strategic thinking (marketing/ business) • Creative thinking (marketing) • Understanding of consumer behaviours (marketing) • Clients

S

STRENGTHS

70 FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET

• • • • •

Cost (non-profits) Paperwork (non-profits) Shared control (non-profits) Lack of clients (marketing/agency) Weak or unskilled employees

W WEAKNESSES

• Virtual communities (marketing/ business) • Reputation • Partnership • Location

O

OPPORTUNITIES

• Regulation (non-profit) • Liquidity of assets (for-profit) • Not enough employees for workloads • Other agencies with similar goals and projects • Budget

T

THREATS

Figure 23. SWOT analysis. Author’s image.


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET KEY ACTIVITIES • Creative thinking • User interaction (team environment) • Interaction of professionals (management and employees) • Maintain to enhance collaboration and reduce creative barriers

• • • •

Thinking outside-of-the-box Team building Reduces creative block Inter-communication

S

STRENGTHS

Figure 24. SWOT analysis. Author’s image.

• Negativity • Teams don't understand how to work together

W WEAKNESSES

• Build diverse teams • Allow employees to work together to overcome creative block • News ways to collaborate • New ideas • Advancements

O

OPPORTUNITIES

• Employees don't get along • No hierarchy between management and employee being managed • Management not respected • Micro-management (helicopter bosses)

T

THREATS

FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET 71


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET KEY RESOURCES • Creatives (i.e. design, web) • Business-minded professionals • Networking • Marketing and communications • Universities, corporations, businesses • Human Resources

• • • • •

Strategic and creative thinking New perspectives Strong network of professionals Enlarge business scope Global reach

S

STRENGTHS

72 FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET

• Too much insight (different ideas and/or opinions) • Too much diversity

W WEAKNESSES

• Meeting new professionals • Developing Connections • Developing professional relationships • Increased chances of gaining sponsorships, donations, etc.

O

OPPORTUNITIES

• Too many connections • Difficulty communicating ideas • Too many language barriers

T

THREATS

Figure 25. SWOT analysis. Author’s image.


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET VALUE PROPOSITIONS • Enhance creative environments • Raise self-efficacy of professionals • Reduction of creative block • Removal of collaboration barriers • Increase in productivity • Increase in inter-employee relations

• Reorganize work environments to enhance productivity • No creative blocks leads to higher productivity levels and happy employees - less overturn • Internal communication • Creative environment • Bounce ideas

• Work environments that do not harbor collaboration or open communication • Not enough diversity of employees • Too many opinions • Too many ideas • Too much talking/gossiping • Not all creative block symptoms are properly alleviated

S

W

STRENGTHS

Figure 26. SWOT analysis. Author’s image.

WEAKNESSES

• Change work environments to enhance productivity, communication, and collaboration • Remove negativity • Develop stronger ways of communicating • Remove unnecessary socialization • Increase bond between management and employees • Reduce fear of management

O

OPPORTUNITIES

• Strict work environments with little communication abilities and/ or collaboration opportunities • Internal conflict which would reduce inter-communication strategies • Change is not always accepted • Managers that will not change their management styles

T

THREATS

FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET 73


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIPS • Increase collaboration and communication • Bridge gaps in different departments • Introduce new ways of thinking as a team and individually

• Strong co-worker bonds • Strong communication • New ideas from different departments • Company can work together as a whole even if each person has a different set of skills - everyone contributes

S

STRENGTHS

74 FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET

• • • • •

Non-supportive Unaware of contacts Too many connections Too few connections Lack of cooperation from partners

W WEAKNESSES

• Remove all communication barriers • Remove internal issues • Work with new firms/companies • Growing internal, national, and global relationships

O

OPPORTUNITIES

• Negative relationships • Lack of cooperation • Refusal to work with a company due to morals, previous failures, or other similar reason

T

THREATS

Figure 27. SWOT analysis. Author’s image.


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET CHANNELS • Website • Word-of-mouth • Management • Professionals • Printable content

• • • • • •

Spread the word globally online Free access for all companies Paid for through advertisements Increase productivity Increase self-efficacy Management would have a reference to make the office a more positive environment

S

STRENGTHS

Figure 28. SWOT analysis. Author’s image.

• Lack of budget to promote change • Not enough space to promote change in the office • Not enough furniture • Office too closed off or too open (could require construction to change this factor)

W WEAKNESSES

• • • • • • • • •

Increase productivity Increase self-efficacy Promote collaboration Inter-communication increase Reduce creative block Reduce conflict Reduce turnover Increase in thinking strategies Increase in ideation

O

OPPORTUNITIES

• Not enough funding • Not enough outreach of product • Lack of companies willing to pay for advertisement, sponsor, or support in any way • Employees not willing to accept change • Management refuses to change arrangement of office regardless of the information presented

T

THREATS

FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET 75


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET CUSTOMER SEGMENTS • Reduce creative barriers for professionals • Remove negative components • Understand ways to reduce creative block for all employees • Open communication • Introduce new ways to think and work as a team

• All areas communicate • Office arrangement promotes productivity and well-being • New ideation methods are introduced • Introduction of new skills from different departments • Bridging of gaps within the work environment

S

STRENGTHS

76 FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET

• Breakdown in communication • Barriers exist or stay present • Different departments not understanding how to effectively speak to one another

W WEAKNESSES

• Reduce all work barriers • Understand methods of increasing employee self-efficacy • Understanding of arrangements within the office to promote wellbeing and productivity

O

OPPORTUNITIES

• Concepts or changes not readily accepted by everyone • Language barriers

T

THREATS

Figure 29. SWOT analysis. Author’s image.


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET COST STRUCTURE • Marketing expense (advertising) • Online web presence • Print costs (publicize content and pass out to management/businesses)

• • • • • •

Low cost Donations Sponsorships Paid advertisement Free hosting possibilities Volunteer workers

S

STRENGTHS

Figure 30. SWOT analysis. Author’s image.

• Costs can rise quickly • Expensive to enter market to advertise or print • Unable to find workers to volunteer or work consistently for low wages to promote product

• Enhance productivity with restructuring of spaces • Promotion of inter-communication and collaboration • Promote a product that enables more effective work environments • Promote health and well-being of employees

W

O

WEAKNESSES

OPPORTUNITIES

• • • • •

Lack of skilled workers Entrance costs Print costs Advertising costs Inability to get project done in a timely manner to keep up with market trends • Not accepted by employees or management

T

THREATS

FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET 77


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET REVENUE STREAMS • Online advertisements • Sponsorships • Donations • Endorsements • Partners • Fundraising

• • • • • • •

Business funding Donations Free hosting sites Volunteers Partnerships Fundraising Advertise for companies for funding

S

STRENGTHS

78 FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET

• Unable to obtain enough funding • Unable to host on a site effective enough to carry out desired outcome • Unable to get acceptance by many different companies that do not accept change

W WEAKNESSES

• Bring positive change to workforces and well-being of employees • Bridge gaps • Open communication • Promote collaboration • Reduce fear of approaching management to discuss content

• Cost • No partners, sponsors, volunteers, employees, etc. • Rejection by companies/businesses

O

T

OPPORTUNITIES

THREATS

Figure 31. SWOT analysis. Author’s image.


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET FOCUS The focus is the incorporate to components into businesses with a creative-based work ethic. The first component is the reorganization of the office space to create a more collaboration friendly environment that supports positive communication and team-building among employees. In turn, this will increase self-efficacy and overall employee happiness. A positive atmosphere with strong organization will promote a better overall work ethic. In addition to this aspect, the other lowcost addition is allowing well-behaved pets to accompany their owners to work. Studies show that those who are able to take their pets to work have better communciation skills, more productive throughout the day, willing to work longer hours, and worry and stress far less than those without pets or that leave their pets at home. The overall goal is to make employees happy and bring them together for strong communication by reducing stress with these combined strategies.

CURRENT ENVIRONMENT The current environment is that of overworked and overloaded employees that possess creative barriers due to high stress levels and long work hours. Reduction of these two factors is necessary in order to increase productivity and eliminate high turnover resulting from unhappy employees. The current environment also is made up of both small and large office spaces within a creative business. The purpose is to address management in order to get the above focus implemented into the office on a regular basis or permanently.

KEY RISK FACTORS • No budget • No pet policy and unwillingness to adapt change or change policies. • People with allergies would eliminate the pet policy. • Not enough room or furniture to rearrange for space optimization.

VISION Our vision is to decrease creative barriers that result in the reduction of collaboration and productivity amongst professionals.

MISSION Our mission is to eliminate creative barriers and increase team collaboration methods by removing and/or reducing the stress component.

KEY SUCCESS FACTORS • Low-cost modifications • Increase employee self-efficacy, productivity, collaboration, well-being (health), lower turn-over, and absenteeism.

FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET 79


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET VALUE This project values the overall well-being of employees and making sure creative barriers are eliminated so that productivity and self-efficacy can be positively developed and retained. Also, reducing stress is first and foremost how the elimination of barriers begins, leading to the collaboration of team members.

VALUE PROPOSITION FOR professional creatives WHO seek ways to alleviate creative block and effectively

collaborate for ideal production of products and/or services.

OUR brochure will provide the proper way of using design management methods, between management and employees, to successfully facilitate and develop innovative concepts and strategies through creative thinking that reduce stress.

WE DO THIS BY providing information that works with any work environment and promotes team well-being and self-efficacy of employees.

UNLIKE other guides developed for design-thinking and human-centered ideation OUR'S is positioned to alleviate stress which causes creative block and promote creative

thinking and collaboration strategies that will bridge the gap between business and design.

80 FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET MARKET SEGMENTATION GEOGRAPHIC

DEMOGRAPHIC

• Professionals located in the United States.

• Ages 18 - 65.

• Professional work environments that are both design/creative and business firms.

• All genders.

• Urban and rural locations.

• Creative and business fields. • The socioeconomic group is made up of professionals that have worked their way up in a business or obtained a college education. Income levels are not determinate factors.

BEHAVIORAL • The product could be used daily, weekly, monthly or when management allows. • Seeks to alleviate stressful work situations and increase productivity, well-being, selfefficacy, decrease workload issues, and other components of the work environment that limit collaboration and work efficiency. • Management would be deciding factor on if the idea was able to be implemented, along with other governing work policies and personal preferences of employees.

PSYCHOGRAPHIC • All personality traits and components would benefited in a positive manner. • An open mind would have to be present and and strong understanding of what benefits exist and how it would help everyone's productivity, reduce stress, increase wellbeing and promote collaboration that was not present prior to the concepts incorporation into the work environment. • There is no exclusion of class as this involves anyone working in any business that promotes collaboration, team work, productivity, production-based work, and other similar components which require interaction. This incorporate business and creative job fields predominately.

Figure 32. Marketing segmentation. Author’s image.

FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET 81


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET TARGET MARKETING PRIMARY

Marketing and communications professionals in collaborative work environments. This includes designers, writers, managers, directors, and other creative fields.

SECONDARY

This includes businesses that are not as creative focused and hold a stronger non-creative component but still involve collaboration among departments.

TERTIARY

All fields that support collaboration in office environments thats are not considered creative and are in need of stronger communication methods, productivity and employee self-efficacy.

82 FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET

DRIVING FACTORS IN THE INDUSTRY Stress is the leading factor to seclusion amongst professionals leading to many negative aspects which include but are not limited to lack of communication, absenteeism, illness, lack or productivity, disorganization, and other factors that negatively impact people. Emotional Stress Animals (ESA) are ideal at eliminate stress in any person but are limited to prescriptions based on psychiatrists. Incorporating the same idea of an ESA companion without all the doctor visits is the key to relieving stress amongst employees, promoting new levels of collaboration and increasing their well-being (health). When these components are brought forward, creative barriers are easily addressed and employees are more willing to work together to try new methods of ideation. Addressing the underlying factor behind creative barriers is the first step to alleviating issues and aiding new levels of cooperation and ideation.


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET MARKETING IMPLEMENTATION ROADMAP INTERVIEWS • Develop a budget for hiring full-time and part-time designers and developers with internship-based student hires to assist in minor design and development. • Build relationships with businesses and stakeholders for sponsorships and final project implementation.

COST • Estimate the number of companies to approach in order to calculate price of how many information brochures need to be printed. • Cost to host website. • Cost of employees full and part-time.

Figure 33. Marketing implementation roadmap. Author’s image.

BUILDING A TEAM • Hire graphic and web designers, accountant, and students seeking internship opportunities. • Team will have a fresh new appeal and the interns will bring a new and fresh perspective to the field and project.

PRODUCT TESTING • Test in businesses with a creative environments that also support collaboration. • Test in all non-creative businesses. • Review test results for discrepancies and areas that need to be improved prior to integration.

PLANNING / ANALYSIS

DESIGN STRATEGY

• Review research and fill in gaps.

• Ideation sessions.

• Plan ways of implementing into realworld situations.

• Finalize components of the digital designs prior to implementing for print and webpage development.

• Review experts in the field.

INTEGRATION • Rework components after product testing in order to develop a finalized concept to integrate into select businesses in order to further test the overall effectiveness.

• Review for errors and finalize for product testing in design and business companies.

EVALUATION • Evaluate trial test for discrepancies. • Evaluate trial for all positive results. • Evaluate trial for all negative results. • Calculate all results and edit one final time before finalizing content to be sent to all design and business-based companies.

FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET 83


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET RISK ANALYSIS This SWOT analysis identifies the risks associate with the incorporation of office space arrangement and pets into a professional environment to reduce stress, which in turn eliminates creative and collaboration barriers.

• Reduces stress • Increases self-efficacy and wellbeing (health) of employees • Improves work ethic and productivity • Willingness to work longer hours • Increase communication amongst all employees

• Employees that don't bring pets or don't have pets won't get as much stress relief as those with pets • Office does not provide efficient space to bring pets • Away from office too often to bring pets with them • Pet is not well-behaved and would therefore be the distraction

S

W

STRENGTHS

84 FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET

WEAKNESSES

• Reduce creative barriers • Increase collaboration and communication among employees • Elevate moods of professionals • Reduce absenteeism • Reduce turnovers • Encourages breaks for brief walks or just stepping outside away from tasks

O

OPPORTUNITIES

• Allergies (eliminates pets) • Not enough space to rearrange the office for a more positive environment • Management won't accept changes • No money in the budget even for a low-cost alternative • Clashes against current company policy

T

THREATS

Figure 34. SWOT analysis. Author’s image.


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET CONCLUSION The researcher began this project with a strong focus on the reduction of creative barriers in work environments through the incorporation of design management methods and increased employee collaboration. Through extensive research it became apparent that the focus should not initially start with the incorporation of design management methods, as most jobs already included some method of ideation, but rather on the factor that lead to creative barriers existing to start with, stress. Stress not only affects the well-being, health, and productivity of one person but what affects one person also affects the team. If there is one person unable to be creative on a team because they feel overwhelmed or overloaded, then the team can not function at its maximum and other members will then begin feeling the effects of creative blocks. In conclusion, tackling stress, the most common barrier found through interviews and surveys, is the best way to handle the incorporation of design management methods. It is the first step to developing a successful work environment that has strong collaboration.

the idea of designing a positive space and incorporating well-behaved pets as a means to not cost a lot upfront to companies and in turn reduce stress. It was proven through research and observation that having a more open arrangement and pets present relieved stress, increase collaboration, increased productivity, and enhanced the overall well-being of not only the user but all persons within the working environment. The design criteria for this project was met ideally as the result was low-cost to the user/business, easy to access since it included the incorporation of existing components such as office furniture and pet owners, it did relieve stress and increase collaboration and productivity, the information regarding this stress-relief method was included in a website and brochure prototype, and the entire workforce was included as it changed the overall presence and atmosphere for the better. Reducing the stress also reduces absenteeism, work turnovers, and other negative issues that arise in professional work environments as barriers to efficiency.

The rearranging of the office space and inclusion of well-behaved pets proved to be the best option because it is low-cost and can be carried out by all companies, even those with very little budget to invest. It just involves bringing positivity the environment which reduces creative barriers. In summary, the research question was answered in a different format that originally desired. When beginning this research project, the researcher desired to incorporate design management methods by first understanding how creative barriers exist and then discovering a method of incorporating design management methods so they were easily taught. After conducting many interviews, surveys, and observations it became apparent that brainstorming, and other simplistic methods of design management, were being addresses and the underlying factor was not the collaboration itself but the underlying factors surrounding the creative barriers. Due to this evidence, it was apparent to begin focusing on the leading cause of creative block, which the researcher uncovered as stress from survey results. It was not the only component but the most dominant component. Further research introduced the researcher to stress animals and rearrangement of the work environment, this led to

FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET 85


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET RECOMMENDATIONS This research is meant to benefit all professional working in creative environments that promote productivity and team collaboration in order to develop innovative ideas. Further exploration is necessary in order to understand what components will benefit professionals and what components need slight modification. It is recommended for this project to undergo many months of user testing to see what is affected in both positive and negative manners, even though there is already a lot of research indicating how well-behaved pets relieve stress alongside reorganizing a space to provide a more user friendly and organized environment. This research is also recommended for implementation on a test trial basis before it is turned away as proof of beneficial and showing examples of how it has worked in positive ways is how one would convince companies to adopt these components in order to promote positive employee interaction, health, and productivity. The beneficiary of this research is not only the individual with the pet, but the entire work environment, which includes managers, employees, directors, CEOs, and other individuals who regularly collaborate and work in the same space. The intended users are creatives working in marketing and communication departments, but is not limited to creative-only office spaces. This can be adapted in any office environment to make the space positive and more productive. The research and content is meant to benefit any professional working in a stressful environment that either struggles to be creative or needs additional assistance in making employees work together in a more efficient manner. The desired outcome would be to take the prototype information into businesses and explain to them the benefits of rearranging the space and allowing pets either all the time or sometime, then with the explanation of the benefits it would then be

86 FINAL DESIGN TO MARKET

necessary to bring the pets in to give a real-life example. Once the management team realizes the benefits of work productivity and overall well-being for the employees it will be easier to get more companies to adapt the idea of having pets and a more open space that supports more collaboration.


REFERENCES


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

REFERENCE A ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Akbari Chermahini, S., & Hommel, B. (2012). Creative mood swings: Divergent and convergent thinking affect mood in opposite ways. Psychological Research, 76(5), 634-640. doi:10.1007/s00426-011-0358-z This article was written as an aid to the understanding of how mood swings can affect cognitive processes and the involvement of creative thinking. Divergent thinking led to the development of positive mood swings, while convergent thinking had a negative impact. This source is a reference to understanding how mood swings can affect self-efficacy of creative professionals and any others involved in creative thinking processes. Barczak, G., Lassk, F., & Mulki, J. (2010). Antecedents of team creativity: An examination of team emotional intelligence, team trust and collaborative culture. Creativity and Innovation Management, 19(4), 332-345. doi:10.1111/ j.1467-8691.2010.00574.x The authors of this article indicated that creativity is important in a professional work environment as a method of solving problems and among divergent perspectives. Through research, it is understood that collaborative culture is the key for teams to interact effectively. Also, this work culture is directly related to creative-thinking. This article was a reference regarding different ways professionals collaborate, how trust is a key factor to success in teams, and the different ways creativity was tested in the study. Burkeman, O. (2016). You Don’t Need New Ideas, You Need a New Perspective: The unexpected creative benefits of a “beginner’s mind.” Retrieved Februrary 6, 2016, from http://99u.com/articles/52479/you-dont-need-new-ideasyou-need-a-new-perspective The author introduced the idea of looking at work and ideas differently by changing the perspective in which something

88 REFERENCES

is viewed. This was the central reference point as the content pertained to the idea of taking current knowledge and forcing the mind to observe with a different point-of-view.

discovered from the performances of professionals within each company. Not only does the author reference innovation within a company, but also why self-efficacy is important.

This article was used as a reference to understanding how to view and approach research content in a new format.

This article was a reference point to the correlation between creativity, team work, and self-efficacy in a professional work environment and how it related to sustaining a positive and strong work ethic.

Chiocchio, F., Forgues, D., Paradis, D., & Iordanova, I. (2011). Teamwork in integrated design projects: Understanding the effects of trust, conflict, and collaboration on performance. Project Management Journal, 42(6), 78-91. doi:10.1002/pmj.20268 The authors of this article integrated the component of design into an environment where trust, collaboration, and conflict existed and caused change. This change was noted due to its effects on performance. The data obtained by the researchers showed that if collaboration did not exist then trust and conflict did not have an effect on performance, but if collaboration did exist, trust and conflict developed. This study was used as a reference to understanding how collaboration affected the people involved and the components that were or weren’t affected in the process. The results were a set of theoretical developments involving the existence of trust and conflict and its affects on performance. The knowledge obtained from this study aided the understanding of positive and negative outcomes of team collaboration in professional work environments. Chong, E., & Ma, X. (2010). The influence of individual factors, supervision and work environment on creative selfefficacy: INDIVIDUAL FACTORS, SUPERVISION AND WORK ENVIRONMENT. Creativity and Innovation Management, 19(3), 233-247. doi:10.1111/j.14678691.2010.00557.x This article was written as a reference about why creativity is important for different companies that distinguished themselves through the development of innovative solutions based on consumer needs. This creative output was

Ciotti, G. (2013). The 5 Most Dangerous Creativity Killers: The “what the hell!” effect and other ways we can short circuit our creativity. Retrieved February 6, 2016, from http://99u. com/articles/14599/the-5-most-dangerous-creativitykillers This author indicated the understanding of creativity killers was crucial in conducting creative work. Creativity was referenced as being stifled by low work ethic and poor ideation methods. The article was a reference of different ways creativity was reduced amongst professionals. The article was a set of guidelines that aided the understanding of the causes of creativity loss in professionals and what needed to be avoided to maintain creativity levels. Ciotti, G. (2013). 7 Ways to Boost Your Creativity: How love fuels creativity and 6 other ways to free your mind to do its best work. Retrieved February 6, 2016, from http://99u. com/articles/16136/7-ways-to-boost-your-creativity The author noted how important creative thinking is and why it is the vital component that enhanced the natural talents of creative professionals. This article listed the ways to approach creative output from a mental and environmental standpoint. The list of steps to enhance creativity was used as a reference to understand what already existed in combating creativity loss and why that was, and still is, important for professionals. Creative Market. (2016, March 24). Why Creatives Need Alone Time to Thrive. Retrieved April 30, 2016, from https://

creativemarket.com/blog/2016/03/24/why-creatives-needalone-time-to-thrive/?utm_source=ownedsocial An article with a list of situations where working alone is beneficial for creatives, in certain situations. This blog is a reference for those times when team collaboration is not present and professionals work developing content. Understanding both collaborative and individual based work environments is important in recognizing the necessity of employee interaction in job environments. Davis-Laack, P. (2013, June 24). 7 Strategies to Prevent Burnout. Retrieved February 6, 2016, from https://www. psychologytoday.com/blog/pressure-proof/201306/7strategies-prevent-burnout The author depicted how burnout can be prevented in a work environment and how important it is for employees to maintain a strong self-efficacy and work ethic. This information was a background to understanding what has caused worker burnout and how it was managed or experienced. DeGraff, J. (2015, April 27). The Good, the Bad, and the Future of Creative Collaboration. Retrieved February 6, 2016, from http://www.inc.com/jeff-degraff/collaborativeinnovation-the-good-the-bad-and-the-future.html The author addressed the idea that innovation is the key to success and collaboration emerged as a creative characteristic for growth in the industry. The positive and negative components were also addressed regarding collaboration in work environments. This reference is used to understand the benefits of collaborative work environments as well as the drawbacks.


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REFERENCE A ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Erichsen, P. G., & Christensen, P. R. (2013). The evolution of the design management field: journal perspective. Creativity and Innovation Management, 22(2), 107-120. doi:10.1111/ caim.12025

Goldhill, O. (2016, April 10). Research backs up the instinct that walking improves creativity. Retrieved April 30, 2016, from http://qz.com/658725/research-backs-up-theinstinct-that-walking-improves-creativity/

This article was a reference to a survey that aimed to understand and analyze the development of design management, a cross-disciplinary research field.

The author notated how lifestyles have become more sedentary and how a walk is an important component for a person's physiology and results in improved creative thinking.

Design management is addressed and the article has a new perspective. Design management was/is a background component to all research being conducted.

This was a reference to understanding how creative block was alleviated in a professional work environment.

Girard, P., & Robin, V. (2006). Analysis of collaboration for project management. Computers in Industry, 57(Collaborative Environments for Concurrent Engineering Special Issue), 817-826. doi:10.1016/j. compind.2006.04.016 The article was an analysis on the appropriate ways to manage design environments by understanding how collaboration makes it successful. Also, facilitation of various design tasks was explained regarding the involvement with teams. This document is a reference of how successful collaboration leads to successful management, and how bad collaboration leads to poor management qualities. Glei, J. K. (2010). The Cure for Creative Blocks? Leave Your Desk. Retrieved February 6, 2016, from http://99u.com/ articles/6650/the-cure-for-creative-blocks-leave-your-desk This online entry was a reference of professionals who faced episodes of creative block and how they halted its effects. This is a create explanation of how leaving your desk, or a change of location, can be a drastic improvement to work-flow. This is a reference that contained background information for interview questions relating to creative block.

Goman, C. K. (2016, February 21). Seven Ways To Inspire Your Team To Collaborate. Retrieved April 30, 2016, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/ carolkinseygoman/2016/02/21/seven-ways-to-inspireyour-team-to-collaborate/#4e93046f4c03 The author compared collaboration to two basic components of human nature, sharing and hoarding. These references are connected to the emotional connection humans hold in relation to collaboration. This reference had information that related to an emotional connection with collaboration. This aided in understanding how human-nature itself affects collaboration methods. Gupta, B. (2009). Understanding the Preferences of Creative & Non-creative Employees. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 45(2), 289–301. Retrieved from http://0-www. jstor.org.library.scad.edu/stable/20788267 An article which represented how creative individuals motivated other employees and it is important to retain creative-minded people for a functional atmosphere. The reason was to compare how creative professionals differ from non-creative professionals. This source is a reference to understand how to establish a positive work environment and successful methods for collaboration. This was a set of guidelines that explained how

to approach professionals and obtain research. Gruber, M., de Leon, N., George, G., & Thompson, P. (2015). Managing by design. Academy of Management Journal, 58(1), 1-7. doi:105465/amj.2015.4001 This journal is an explanation of the principles and aspects of being in a design management position. The paper is a reference for different environments and collaboration methods present, with components of how teams get along with management positions. The goal of this journal was to explain the guidelines to being an effective design manager. This is a reference to design management that contained information on ideal management strategies and work environment structures. Higgins, M., & Reeves, D. (2006). Creative thinking in planning: How do we climb outside the box? The Town Planning Review, 77(2), 221-244. doi:10.3828/tpr.77.2.6 This article is a reference to different ways that creative thinking can be applied to research projects for various purposes, including educational based research. This article was used to notate different ways creative thinking can be applied to research scenarios and how to think outside-the-box. Hughes, L. (2002). Overcoming creative blocks. Kansas City: American Business Women’s Association, 54(4), 37. This document was a list of ways to overcome creative block in a given workplace with explanations on how the listed facts are used by professionals. They are meant to alleviate moments where the generation of creative ideas is limited due to excess work conditions or creative barriers in the work atmosphere. This document was used as a reference to what causes creative block among creative professionals currently in the field.

IDEO. (2015). Design Kit: The Field Guide to Human-Centered Design. Retrieved April 30, 2016, from https://www.ideo. com/work/human-centered-design-toolkit/ This is a toolkit designed and developed by IDEO for people to create and conduct a successful case study with active field research in involvement. The toolkit is made up of examples of case studies conducted and contains a worksheets to use as a means of documenting findings. The field notes pages is a reference because it was used for active note taking documentation of on-site observation. Jarrett, C. (2013). How Switching Tasks Maximizes Creative Thinking. Retrieved February 6, 2016, from http://99u. com/articles/7270/how-switching-tasks-maximizescreative-thinking This article was a reference to the different ways that have alleviated creative block and maximized creative thinking abilities. The blog explained ways to creatively tackle creative problems and not sit idle, as ideas would not come to those that waited. This was a reference to gain insight on what was already being used and how effective it was at alleviating creative block in the work place. Jarrett, C. (2013). 9 Facts Every Creative Needs to Know About Collaborative Teams. Retrieved February 6, 2016, from http://99u.com/articles/16850/everything-youve-everwanted-to-know-about-teams This blog was a documentation of group collaboration, focusing on creativity being more beneficial than individualbased work ethic. This relayed information about how a group is more effective than one person and it listed factors that reference this statement. This was a reference to understand the different ways groups collaborate and to gain an understanding of how effective it

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REFERENCE A ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY was or could have been. This information was background research in order to learn things to avoid when approaching groups based on what had already been observed. Jerrard, R. N., & Norman, C. (2012). Design management education and work-based learning. Art, Design & Communication in Higher Education, 11(2), 155-166. doi:10.1386/adch.11.2.155_1 This paper was a reference on how gaining valuable design management skills through experience in work-based environments is important. This reference was important because it provided qualitative data that provided insight on how students and employees gain design management skills, either through experience or educational training. Kirkman, B., Li, N., Zheng, X., Harris, B., & Liu, X. (2016, March 14). Teamwork Works Best When Top Performers Are Rewarded. Retrieved April 30, 2016, from https://hbr. org/2016/03/teamwork-works-best-when-top-performersare-rewarded The article was a representation of how team-based collaboration with heavier workloads has shown more production success than individual rewarding. This a reference that aided in understanding components of pushing a company forward without excessively rewarding individuals and in the development of teams which could more effectively do the work and have stronger outputs. Klinge, K. G. (2016, March 21). Mapping Creativity in the Brain: New research sheds some light on the neuroscience of improvising. Retrieved April 30, 2016, from http://www. theatlantic.com/science/archive/2016/03/the-drivingprinciples-behind-creativity/474621/ This is a study of musicians where the brain activity was tested while performing and the researcher was able to make

90 REFERENCES

connections to emotions and creativity existing in each person's brain. This is a reference where creativity is focused in a different format and focuses on the creativity within each person. Kyle´n, S. F., & Shani, A. B. (2002). Triggering creativity in teams: An exploratory investigation. Creativity and Innovation Management, 11(1), 17-30. doi:10.1111/14678691.00233 This journal was a reference of team interaction patterns and how these patterns developed into creative thinking processes. However, without these interactions, creativity ceased to exist. This elaborated on the factors of collaboration and why it makes a team highly effective. This journal was a reference to understanding different components to both effective and non-effective professional collaborative teams. Lebowitz, S. (2016, January 10). Researchers say the ‘success syndrome’ could explain why your best employees are quitting. Retrieved January 18. 2016, from http://www. businessinsider.com/the-downsides-of-collaborationbetween-coworkers-2016-1 The success syndrome is a term coined by individuals who are overburdened in a workplace due to their talents. However, the article explained that this is caused by extreme burnout, creative block symptoms and emotional issues, as well a decrease in employees due to stress. This documentation was a focal point on the concept of higher performance leading to higher expectations and reduced work ethic. This is a reference to what happens within a company, or any work place, where employees are overburdened and/or burnt out on their current jobs or situations. This is a crucial component in understanding the components of creative block and how it affects employees.

Levison, M. H. (1998). Organizing genius: The secrets of creative collaboration. Concord: International Society for General Semantics.

Martin, R. L. (2009). The design of business: Why design thinking is the next competitive advantage. Boston, Mass: Harvard Business Press, 3, 57-78, 151-177.

The study depicted in this review consisted of the organization of talented individuals in such a way that they could work together to accomplish more than would have been feasible individually. This represented how creativity must be focused and explained how such perception is possible when working in groups.

This book was a reference of design and how design aesthetics are applied in business practices, even if business professionals do not believe the aesthetics are beneficial. The article was an incorporation of how design is everywhere and it takes thinking in order to produce products and/or services in the market.

This is a reference to the different methods of collaboration used by creative professionals.

A reference to understanding different ways to use design in a business atmosphere and how it is currently integrated.

Lockwood, T. (2010). Design thinking: Integrating innovation, customer experience and brand value [Kindle Edition]. This book is a reference to the explanation different types of design thinking, which aids the reader in gaining inspiration to follow new paths, with relevance to work in the contemporary culture. A reference to gain insight on different types of design thinking methods. Markman, A. (2013). The Value of Taking a Productive Pause. Retrieved February 6, 2016, from http://99u.com/ articles/7283/the-value-of-taking-a-productive-pause This entry was a detailed documentation of how a productive pause at work can combat creative block and reinvigorate creativity. The goal of professionals, and anyone facing issues with creative block, is to focus on ways to reset the cognitive though process and get creativity flowing again by getting out of the routine work situation that caused the issue. A reference to understand different ways professionals develop and cope with creative block.

Nielsen, S. L., & Christensen, P. R. (2014). The wicked problem of design management: Perspectives from the field of entrepreneurship. Design Journal, the, 17(4), 560-582. doi: 10.2752/175630614X14056185480113 This was a reference to the concept of design management in the entrepreneurship field, where it was used to promote unique design qualities and focused on Entrepreneurship as a means of dealing with the more complex components of design management. Also, it focused on the addressing of wicked problems in this type of environment. This paper was a reference to examples of design management in a professional work setting. Newman, J. L. (2009). Building a creative high-performance RD culture. Research-Technology Management, 52(5), 21-31. This journal was a reference to the internal meaning of the term creative and how it was applied to a research and development based work environment. This is a business-related article but a reference for understanding how collaboration was innovative in both business and design atmospheres.


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

REFERENCE A ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Prather, C. W. (2010). The Manager’s Guide to Fostering Innovation and Creativity in Teams (Briefcase Books Series) [Kindle Edition]. This book was a reference to understanding how a manager observers innovation and how it is fostered in a creative team. The book is an elaboration on what design management is and how it was applied in business and design affairs. This was a reference to understanding how to approach research as a design manager. Stanford Graduate School of Business. (2016). 4 Ways to Boost Your Creativity. Retrieved April 30, 2016, from http:// stanfordbusiness.tumblr.com/post/136640470374/4-waysto-boost-your-creativity This is a blog entry where the author listed different methods used to boost creativity based on the experience of the researchers/users. This is a reference of what has helped others creative individuals develop creativity when blocks exist. Taylor, D. W., Berry, P. C., & Block, C. H. (1958). Does Group Participation When Using Brainstorming Facilitate or Inhibit Creative Thinking? Administrative Science Quarterly, 3(1), 23-47. doi:10.2307/2390603 The research was focused on test group participation through various brainstorming activities. The study tested to see if brainstorming helped or harmed the facilitation of creative thinking. This source is a document addressing the components of brainstorming and facilitating activities among groups. This was crucial in understanding different ways that teams collaborate and interact.

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REFERENCE B ADDITIONAL SOURCES American Management Association. (2010, August 5). The Performance Paradox: When Less Is More. Retrieved May 26, 2016, from http://www.amanet.org/training/articles/ The-Performance-Paradox-When-Less-Is-More.aspx Areasq. (n.d.). What impact does the working environment have on productivity? Retrieved May 15, 2016, from http:// www.areasq.co.uk/news-knowledge/impact-workingenvironment-productivity Balanced Scorecard Institute. (n.d.). Module 4: Affinity Diagram. Retrieved May 7, 2016, from http://www. balancedscorecard.org/portals/0/pdf/affinity.pdf Blair, R. (2014, April 10). How Stress Assassinates Creativity. Retrieved May 26, 2016, from https://litreactor.com/ columns/how-stress-assassinates-creativity Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety. (2016). Workplace Stress - General, Retrieved May 26, 2016, from http://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/psychosocial/stress.html Catmull, E. (2008, September). How Pixar Fosters Collective Creativity. Retrieved April 20, 2016, from https://hbr. org/2008/09/how-pixar-fosters-collective-creativity Chandler, C. K., Fernando, D. M., Minton, C. B., & PortrieBethke, T. L. (2015). Eight Domains of Pet-Owner Wellness; Valuing the Owner_Pet Relationship in the Counseling Process. Journal Of Mental Health Counseling, 37(3), 268-282. CIPHR. (2015, June 4). How Does Office Design Affect Productivity? Retrieved May 21, 2016, from http:// www.ciphr.com/blog/how-does-office-design-affectproductivity/

directorsblog.nih.gov/2014/03/18/creative-minds-makingsense-of-stress-and-the-brain/ Color Psychology. (n.d.). Gray. Retrieved May 22, 2016, from http://www.colorpsychology.org/gray/ Contextual Feed. (2013). Stress and Its Impact on One's Creativity. Retrieved May 26, 2016, from http:// contextualfeed.com/stress-and-its-impact-on-onescreativity-288.html Dickens, L. (2015, March 04). How to Create a Productive Office Space - Bplans Blog. Retrieved May 21, 2016, from http:// articles.bplans.com/how-to-create-a-productive-officespace/ Digwal, P. (2015, September 3). [Free stock photo of man, person, suit.]. Retrieved May 8, 2016, from https://www. pexels.com/photo/press-conference-interview-manperson-32976/ Freepik. (n.d.). Flaticon, the largest database of free vector icons. Retrieved May 21, 2016, from http://www.flaticon.com/ Foremski, T. (2010, April 29). Apple’s strategy: Active curation creates value. Retrieved April 23, 2016, from http://www. zdnet.com/article/apples-strategy-active-curation-createsvalue/ Getty Images. (2016, March 29). [Bearded hipster wearing hat with upper lips piercing friendly laughing - iStock image.]. Retrieved May 11, 2016, from http://www.istockphoto. com/photo/bearded-hipster-wearing-hat-with-upper-lipspiercing-friendly-laughing-gm515321208-88495559

Citrix. (2016). Millions of businesses rely on GoToMeeting. Retrieved from https://www.gotomeeting.com.

Grantspace. (n.d.). What are the advantages/disadvantages of becoming a nonprofit organization? Retrieved May 21, 2016, from http://grantspace.org/tools/knowledge-base/ Nonprofit-Management/Establishment/pros-and-cons

Collins, F. (2014, March 18). Creative Minds: Making Sense of Stress and the Brain. Retrieved May 26, 2016, from https://

Govindarajan, S. (2012). Effects of Stress and Co-Rumination on Creativity and Performance (Master's thesis, San Jose State

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University, 2012) (pp. 1-47). San Jose: SJSU ScholarWorks.

creativity-competitive-edge/#221cde951500

Hager Executive Search. (2013, April 22). The 10 Strengths of the Advertising and Marketing Agency of the Future - Hager Executive Search. Retrieved May 21, 2016, from http:// www.hagerexecutivesearch.com/consulting-solutions/the10-strengths-of-the-advertising-and-marketing-agency-ofthe-future/

Merriam, S. B. (2009). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Hameed, A., & Amjad, S. (2009). Impact of Office Design on Employees' Productivity: A Case Study of Banking Organizations of Abbottabad, Pakistan. Journal of Public Affairs, Administration and Management, 3(1), 1-13. Retrieved May 21, 2016, from http://www. scientificjournals.org/journals2009/articles/1460.pdf

Misner, I. (2010, March 25). Greatest Strengths in Networking - Dr. Ivan Misner® | Business Networking. Retrieved May 21, 2016, from http://ivanmisner.com/greatest-strengthsin-networking/

Hightail. (2016). Retrieved April 20, 2016, from http://www. hightail.com/ IDEO, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, IDE, Heifer International, & ICRW. (2011). Human Centered Design: Toolkit (2nd ed.). Place of publication not identified: IDEO. Retrieved February 6, 2016, from http://www. namac.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/ideo_hcd_ toolkit_final_cc_superlr1.pdf IDEO. (2016). We are a global design company. We create impact through design. Retrieved April 24, 2016, from https://www.ideo.com/ Johnston, K., & Demand Media. (n.d.). SWOT Analysis for Advertising Agencies. Retrieved May 21, 2016, from http:// smallbusiness.chron.com/swot-analysis-advertisingagencies-54552.html Lait, J., & Wallace, J. E. (2002). Stress at Work. Relations Industrielles / Industrial Relations, 5(3), 463-487. Martin, J. (2012, September 5). Employee Brain on Stress Can Quash Creativity And Competitive Edge. Retrieved May 26, 2016, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/work-inprogress/2012/09/05/employee-brain-on-stress-can-quash-

Michie, S. (2002). Causes and Management of Stress at Work. Occupational & Environmental Medicine, 59(1), 67-72. doi:10.1136/oem.59.1.67/

Nash, D., & Demand Media. (n.d.). Advantages and Disadvantages of For-Profit Companies. Retrieved May 21, 2016, from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/advantagesdisadvantages-forprofit-companies-24293.html Naumann, S. (2015). Pets in the workplace: The impact of petfriendly policies on employee stress and the mediating role of perceived organizational support(Order No. 1589076). (1689898990). Nys, L. (2014, July 1). [Woman With Black Hair on Chain Swing Smiling.]. Retrieved May 8, 2016, from https://www.pexels. com/photo/woman-with-black-hair-on-chain-swingsmiling-57862/ O’Grady, J. V., & O’Grady, K. V. (2009). A Designer’s Research Manuel: Succeed in Design by Knowing Your Clients and What They Really Need (3rd ed., Design Field Guide). Gloucester, MA: Rockport. Phlheber, J., & Matchock, R. (2014). The presence of a dog attenuates cortisol and heart rate in the Trier Social Stress TEst compared to human friends. Journal Of Behavioral Medicine, 37(5), 860-867. Pixabay. (n.d.). [Digital image]. Retrieved June 1, 2016, from https://pixabay.com


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REFERENCE B ADDITIONAL SOURCES Pixar. (2016). Retrieved April 24, 2016, from http://www.pixar. com Poindexter, O. (2015, May 6). Study: Creativity Can Reduce Stress and Become A Habit. Retrieved May 26, 2016, from http://reset.me/study/study-creativity-can-reduce-stressand-become-a-habit PROPER. (2015, August 19). How Office Furniture Design Affects Productivity And Emotions. Retrieved May 21, 2016, from https://www.studioproper.com/blogs/properthoughts/47646149-how-office-furniture-design-affectsproductivity-and-emotions Rees, H. (n.d.). 15 Office Design Tricks That Will Increase Your Productivity at Work. Retrieved May 21, 2016, from http://www.lifehack.org/articles/productivity/15-officedesign-tricks-that-will-increase-your-productivity-work. html Riley, L. A. (2012, December 26). Effects of Stress On Creativity. Retrieved May 26, 2016, from http://designtaxi.com/ article/102008/Effects-of-stress-on-creativity/ Rodman, J. (2014, December 5). How To Design A Collaborative Environment Steve Jobs Would Approve Of. Retrieved April 20, 2016, from http://www. fastcompany.com/3039404/how-to-design-a-collaborativeenvironment-steve-jobs-would-approve-of

whiteboard-presentation-ideas-planning-7370 Steiner, G. (2009). The concept of open creativity: Collaborative creative problem solving for innovation generation - a systems approach. Journal of Business and Management, 15(1), 5-33. Strozzo, B., & Polldaddy.com. (2016). Collaboration and creative work environments. Hosted April 4-17, 2016, on http://polldaddy.com, and as a survey on http:// brilin88.polldaddy.com/s/collaboration-creative-workenvironments

Zabelina, D. L., & Robinson, M. D. (2010). Don’t be so hard on yourself: Self-compassion facilitates creative originality among self-judgmental individuals. Creativity Research Journal, 22(3), 288-293. doi:10.1080/10400419.2010.503 538

Survey Monkey, & Strozzo, B. (2013, May 21). Office Space Design & Productivity. Retrieved May 21, 2016, from https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/TSMMGWY The American Institute of Stress. (n.d.). Workplace Stress. Retrieved May 26, 2016, from http://www.stress.org/ workplace-stress/ TM Staff. (2014, August 05). Six Ways to Enhance Creativity in the Workplace. Retrieved May 21, 2016, from https:// www.tmprod.com/blog/2014/six-ways-enhance-creativityworkplace/ University of Cambridge. (2011, November 29). Effects of Work-Related Stress. Retrieved May 26, 2016, from http:// www.admin.cam.ac.uk/office/hr/policy/stress/effects.html

Salonen, E. (2012). Designing Collaboration | How to structure, design and understand collaboration. Retrieved February 11, 2016, from http://www.designingcollaboration.com/ Essi_Salonen_DesigningCollaboration.pdf

USC Dornisfe. (2015, March 25). Does Office Design Really Affect Productivity? [INFOGRAPHIC]. Retrieved May 21, 2016, from http://theundercoverrecruiter.com/officedesign-productivity/

Slack. (2016). Slack: Be less busy. Retrieved April 20, 2016, from http://www.slack.com/

Vong, K. (2012, August 3). 5 Ways to Boost Creativity in the Workplace. Retrieved May 21, 2016, from http:// www.trendreports.com/article/boost-creativity-in-theworkplace

Startup Stock Photos, Bailey, E., & Sculpt. (2015, February 13). [Free stock photo of man, person, working]. Retrieved May 8, 2016, from https://www.pexels.com/photo/

Women's Health Watch, 21(5), 3.

Why having a pet is good for your health. (2014). Harvard

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REFERENCE C TABLES Table 1. Opportunities design matrix Table 2. Concept testing for toolkit Table 3. Concept testing for creative block alleviation game Table 4. Concept testing for negativity removal Table 5. Business model canvas Table 6. Timeline & milestones Table 7. Research questions matrix

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REFERENCE D FIGURES Figure 1. Collaborator Analysis: Hightail. Author’s Image.

Figure 25. SWOT analysis. Author’s Image.

Figure 2. Collaborator Analysis: Apple. Author’s Image.

Figure 26. SWOT analysis. Author’s Image.

Figure 3. Collaborator Analysis: Pixar. Author’s Image.

Figure 27. SWOT analysis. Author’s Image.

Figure 4. Collaborator Analysis: IDEO. Author’s Image.

Figure 28. SWOT analysis. Author’s Image.

Figure 5. Collaborator Analysis: Slack. Author’s Image.

Figure 29. SWOT analysis. Author’s Image.

Figure 6. Collaborator Analysis: Citrix - Go To Meeting. Author’s Image.

Figure 30. SWOT analysis. Author’s Image.

Figure 7. Market Analysis: 2x2 Axis A. Author’s Image.

Figure 31. SWOT analysis. Author’s Image.

Figure 8. Market Analysis: 2x2 Axis B. Author’s Image.

Figure 32. Marketing segmentation. Author’s Image.

Figure 9. Market Analysis: 2x2 Axis C. Author’s Image.

Figure 33. Marketing implementation roadmap. Author’s Image.

Figure 10. Project Positioning: Zag Steps 1-10. Author’s Image.

Figure 34. SWOT analysis. Author’s Image.

Figure 11. Project Positioning: Zag Steps 11-17. Author’s Image. Figure 12. Research Space. Author’s Image. Figure 13. Research Synthesis: Word Cloud. Author’s Image. Figure 14. Research Synthesis: Affinity Diagram. Author’s Image. Figure 15. Research Synthesis: Data Mapping. Author’s Image. Figure 16. Research Synthesis: SWOT Analysis. Author’s Image. Figure 17. Persona comparisons. Author’s Image. Figure 18. Persona comparisons. Author’s Image. Figure 19. Persona comparisons. Author’s Image. Figure 20. Map of research findings. Author’s Image. Figure 21. Opportunities for design map. Author’s Image. Figure 22. Prototype ideation. Author’s Image. Figure 23. SWOT analysis. Author’s Image. Figure 24. SWOT analysis. Author’s Image.

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REFERENCE E IMAGES Image 1. Free stock photo of woman with black hair on chain swing smiling (Nya, L., 2014).

Image 25. Secondary Research: Working Wall. Author’s Image.

Image 2. Bearded hipster wearing hat with upper lips piercing friendly laughing - iStock image (Getty Images, 2016).

Image 26. Primary Research Responses: Working Wall. Author’s Image.

Image 3. Free stock photo of man, person, suit (Digwal, P., 2015).

Image 27. Primary Research Responses: Affinity Working Wall. Author’s Image.

Image 4. Prototype ideation. Author’s Image.

Image 28. Primary Research Responses: Affinity Working Wall. Author’s Image.

Image 5. Toolkit prototype idea sketch. Author’s Image.

Image 29. Primary Research Responses: Affinity Working Wall. Author’s Image.

Image 6. Toolkit prototype idea sketch. Author’s Image.

Image 30. Primary Research Responses: Affinity Working Wall. Author’s Image.

Image 7. Creative block game prototype idea sketch. Author’s Image.

Image 31. Primary Research Responses: Affinity Working Wall. Author’s Image.

Image 8. Negativity removal prototype idea sketch. Author’s Image.

Image 32. Primary Research Responses: Affinity Working Wall. Author’s Image.

Image 9. Digital image of dog and cat, (Pixabay, n.d.).

Image 33. Observation notes. Author’s Image.

Image 10. Negativity removal prototype idea sketch. Author’s Image. Image 11. Prototype idea sketch. Author’s image. Image 12. Icons (Freepik, n.d.). Image 13. Pet observation. Author's image. Image 14. Pet observation. Author's image. Image 15. Pet observation. Author's image. Image 16. Pet observation. Author's image. Image 17. Pet observation. Author's image. Image 18. Pet observation. Author's image. Image 19. Pet observation. Author's image.

Image 20. Website development. Author’s Image. Image 21. Website development. Author’s Image. Image 22. Booklet of office spaces development. Author’s Image. Image 23. Secondary Research: Working Wall. Author’s Image. Image 24. Secondary Research: Working Wall. Author’s Image.

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APPENDICES


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

APPENDIX A TIMELINE & MILESTONES Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit 3

Unit 4

Unit 5

Unit 6

Unit 7

Unit 8

Unit 9

Unit 10

1. PROJECT PLANNING Refine Proposal Primary Research Documents Secondary Research

2. PRIMARY RESEARCH Interviews Surveys

3. MARKET ANALYSIS Project Positioning ZAG Value Proposition

4. RESEARCH SYNTHESIS Research Gaps Personas Opportunities Design Criteria

5. MIDTERM PROCESS BOOK

DRAFT DUE

6. CONCEPT EXPLORATION ZAG Steps 12-14 Concept Testing

7. ASSESS AND VALIDATE Concept Assessment Gaps Prototyping

FINAL DUE

8. IMPLEMENTATION PLAN Business Canvas Model

9. DELIVERABLES Final Process Book

FINAL DUE

10. WORKING WALL

98 APPENDICES

Table 6. Timeline & Milestones. Author’s Image.


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

APPENDIX B RESEARCH QUESTIONS MATRIX What data is needed?

Why is this data needed?

What type of data is needed?

Where can this data be found?

What type of data collection methods?

Who is contacted for this data?

1) What is a collaborative creative team?

Understand fundamentals of a creative collaborative team and who is involved

In order to figure out how a team with varying talents deals with creative block

Mixed (Qualitative & Quantitative), Primary & Secondary Research

Journals, Articles, Internet, Conversation, Books

Observation, Interview, Survey, Research

Experts in creative marketing and communications (i.e. designers, managers, developers, writers, etc.)

What can collaborative creative teams learn from the application of design management methods?

Understand how design management methods can benefit creative collaborative teams

To help team members facilitate innovative methods to work collaboratively

Mixed (Qualitative & Quantitative), Primary & Secondary Research

Journals, Articles, Internet, Conversation

Observation, Interview, Survey, Research

Designers, Managers, Creative Directors, Developers

How are collaborative creative teams established?

Knowledge of the person that establishes the creative team and how skills are properly aligned

To better understand the components of a creative team in today’s industry

Mixed (Qualitative & Quantitative), Primary & Secondary Research

Journals, Articles, Internet, Conversation, Books

Research, Interview, Survey

Managers, Directors

What affect does team collaboration have on creative block?

Information on how collaboration affects creative block and what causes it

To understand current team work environments that will lead to a solution for creative block

Qualitative, Primary & Secondary Research

Journals, Articles, Internet, Conversations

Research, Interview

Experts in creative marketing and communications (i.e. designers, managers, developers, writers, etc.)

What are the common goals of a collaborative creative group?

Determine work and project development objectives

To develop ways to alleviate/distribute tasks at hand to reduce overburdening

Mixed (Qualitative & Quantitative), Primary & Secondary Research

Journals, Articles, Internet, Conversations

Interview Survey, Research

Experts in creative marketing and communications (i.e. designers, managers, developers)

When does this data need to be collected?

What is the takeaway? What is there to learn?

What is missing? How might it be wrong?

Units 1 - 3

Fully understand what a creative collaborative team is in order to effectively build and/or facilitate

Answers to the phrase “creative” can be different which may lead to subjective answers

Units 2 & 3

To effectively facilitate design management methods for collaboration and ideation

People have to understand what design management methods were to know if they would be useful

Units 1 - 3

To learn how these teams are established and understand how these components function together

There are many possible answers that would lead to subjective answers

Units 2 & 3

To gain knowledge of all of the effects creative block can have on individuals, teams, and the work environment

There may be issues in conceiving how creative block could affect a team versus just an individual

Units 2 & 3

To discover the common goals of all collaborative creatives and why specific goals are present

Professional teams may lack proper team collaboration or may not have goals

Table 7. Research Questions Matrix. Author’s Image.

APPENDICES 99


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

APPENDIX B RESEARCH QUESTIONS MATRIX What data is needed?

Why is this data needed?

What type of data is needed?

Where can this data be found?

What type of data collection methods?

Who is contacted for this data?

2) What are design management methods?

Full understanding of all design management methods relating to team facilitation

To facilitate tasks which reduce creative block, or negative mindsets, in creative teams

Mixed (Qualitative & Quantitative), Primary & Secondary Research

Journals, Articles, Internet, Books

Research, Survey

Research, Survey

How can design management methods be utilized to stimulate creative teams?

Uncover how creative teams are stimulated in thinking creatively & working collaboratively in today’s industry

Know how creative collaborative teams are influenced and/or stimulated in todays industry

Mixed (Qualitative & Quantitative), Primary & Secondary Research

Journals, Articles, Articles, Conversation

Interview, Survey, Research, Observation

Experts in creative marketing and communications (i.e. designers, managers, developers, writers, etc.)

What design management methods can be applied to reduce the effects of creative block?

Identify possible ways creative block is currently dealt with in creative team work environments

To bring to life new innovative ways for professionals to work around situations where creative block arises

Qualitative, Primary & Secondary Research

Journals, Articles, Internet, Conversation

Interview, Research

Experts in creative marketing and communications (i.e. designers, managers, developers, writers, etc.)

What impact will the facilitation of design management methods have on teams with creative block?

Repercussions to individual(s) experiencing creative block at work and impact of current facilitation

Understanding these issues is necessary to improve creative thinking, collaboration, and work environment

Qualitative, Primary & Secondary Research

Journals, Articles, Internet, Conversation

Interview, Research, Observation

Experts in creative marketing and communications (i.e. designers, managers, developers, writers, etc.)

Table 7. Research Questions Matrix. Author’s Image.

100 APPENDICES

When does this data need to be collected?

What is the takeaway? What is there to learn?

What is missing? How might it be wrong?

Unit 1

Learn what creatives currently know about design management and what may need explanation/teaching

Many creatives may not be aware of what design management methods really are

Units 2 & 3

Finding out how current creatives believe design management could improve their work environments

There may be rejection of the concept due to lack of extra team development time or disbelief/hesitation

Units 2 & 3

Understanding of how some design management methods can develop and implement creativity among creatives

Any type of issues or oppositions within the group may reduce the strength of the results

Units 3 & 4

Understand the benefits of the facilitation of design management methods in a collaborative creative setting

Facilitation may already be understood, or the impact may not be as strong as desired


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

APPENDIX B RESEARCH QUESTIONS MATRIX What data is needed?

Why is this data needed?

What type of data is needed?

Where can this data be found?

What type of data collection methods?

Who is contacted for this data?

3) How is creative block defined?

Discover the meaning of creative block and how it affects individuals and groups of creatives

To uncover innovative ways to counter negative effects with creative thinking strategies

Mixed (Qualitative & Quantitative), Primary & Secondary Research

Journals, Articles, Internet, Conversation, Books

Interview, Survey, Research

How does creative block affect a creative team’s productivity and wellbeing?

Psychology behind the affects creative block has on the productivity and wellbeing of team members

To positively facilitate design management methods that enhance creative team productivity and wellbeing

Qualitative, Primary & Secondary Research

Journals, Articles, Internet, Conversation

How does communication, and the presence of others, boost performance and morale for creatives?

Identify and analyze current communication and team interactivity methods that influence creative productivity

To understand the positive affects/influences of communication and collaboration have on creative teams

What are current methods used to combat creative block?

Identify all methods currently applied to avoid succumbing to the effects of creative block

Why do creative individuals in a team environment develop creative block?

Determine the source of creative block for creative individuals in team environments

When does this data need to be collected?

What is the takeaway? What is there to learn?

What is missing? How might it be wrong?

Experts in creative marketing and communications (i.e. designers, managers, developers, writers, etc.)

Units 1 - 3

Discovering definition from individual experience and through research to know what is affecting creativity

Too many results may lead an overload in data which means results would need analysis to narrow down

Interview, Survey, Research

Experts in creative marketing and communications (i.e. designers, developers, writers, etc.)

Units 3 & 4

Know exactly how each component is affected by creative block

Answers could vary and be subjective

Qualitative, Primary & Secondary Research

Journals, Articles, Internet, Conversation

Interview, Survey, Research, Observation

Experts in creative marketing and communications (i.e. designers, developers, managers)

Units 2 & 3

Learn how team environments helps provide a positive atmosphere even if direct collaboration isn't always present

Answers could be subjective due to subgroups existing or dislike of specific employees in an organization (separation present)

Having knowledge of current coping methods will provide information for possible solutions

Mixed (Qualitative & Quantitative), Primary & Secondary Research

Journals, Articles, Internet, Conversation

Interview, Survey, Research

Experts in creative marketing and communications (i.e. designers, developers, managers, writers, etc.)

Units 1 & 2

Find ways that are already used to help individuals spark creativity to see their effectiveness overall

Methods may be unique for different creative types or environments and unable to be utilized universally

To incorporate innovative approaches to enhancing creative thinking processes

Mixed (Qualitative & Quantitative), Primary & Secondary Research

Journals, Articles, Internet, Conversation

Interview, Survey, Research

Experts in creative marketing and communications (i.e. designers, developers, managers, writers, etc.)

Units 2 & 3

Understand the creative struggles and work pressures in the industry today

Creative blocks can be presented in many different forms and people may not be aware of the causes

Table 7. Research Questions Matrix. Author’s Image.

APPENDICES 101


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

APPENDIX C WORKING WALL

Image 23. Secondary research: working wall. Author’s image.

Image 24. Secondary research: working wall. Author’s image.

Grouping of secondary research into categories in order to draw connections on what was needed for research and what questions were ideal in asking during interviews and surveys. Collaboration

(from surveys/interviews)

102 APPENDICES

Design Management Methods (from surveys/interviews)

Creative Block

(from surveys/interviews)

Image 25. Secondary research: working wall. Author’s image.


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

APPENDIX C WORKING WALL Compilation of primary research obtained through interview and survey responses. This was how information was gathered and grouped to understand what responses were gaining results and what responses still needed information. A ideal component used in reworking my interviews in the beginning.

Image 26. Primary research responses: working wall. Author’s image.

Collaboration

(from surveys/interviews)

Design Management Methods (from surveys/interviews)

Creative Block

(from surveys/interviews)

APPENDICES 103


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APPENDIX C WORKING WALL

Image 30. Primary research: affinity working wall. Author’s image. Author’s Image.

Image 27. Primary research: affinity working wall. Author’s image. Image 28. Primary research: affinity working Wall. Author’s image.

Image 29. Primary research: affinity working wall. Author’s image. Image 31. Primary research: affinity working wall. Author’s image. Author’s Image.

Affinitization of data* in order to narrow down the research scope and understand the connections made from interview and survey responses. *Note: there was no specific color diagramming here as all components were pulled from their sections and combined in an affinity diagramming process.

104 APPENDICES

Image 33. Primary research: affinity working wall. Author’s image. Author’s Image.


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

APPENDIX D SIGNED CONSENT FORMS Informed Consent Form

I voluntarily agree to participate in an interview/inquiry performed by students at the Savannah College of Art and Design. I understand that this interview/inquiry is being conducted by Brittany Strozzo, in order to identify the following opportunities for design:

Discover how collaborative creative teams use design management methods to cultivate innovative thinking processes and reduce symptomes of creative block.

I understand that the evaluation methods may include:

1. recorded (audio, video and/or photography) observations 2. my completion of an evaluation questionnaire(s) and/or 3. my participation in a 30–60 minute interview

I grant permission for the interview/inquiry to be recorded and transcribed, and to be used only by Brittany Strozzo for analysis of interview data. I grant permission for this data— generated from the above methods—to be used in an educational setting.

I understand that any identifiable information in regard to my name and/or company name will be removed from any material that is made available to those not directly involved in this study.

Adrianna Wilder _________________________________ _________________________________ Printed Name Signature April 7, 2016 _________________________________ Date

Informed Consent Form

APPENDICES 105


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APPENDIX E TRANSCRIBED INTERVIEWS

106 APPENDICES


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

APPENDIX E-1 INTERVIEW QUESTIONS INTERVIEW QUESTIONS: MARKETING & COMMUNICATIONS - CREATIVES 1. What is your profession? Experience? Job responsibilities?

7. How is the communication in the work environment structured?

2. What does collaboration mean to you?

8. Do you feel communication affects teams and/or individuals in the work place? Why or why not?

3. Is there collaboration of any type at your current position? Why or why not?

9. What are your thoughts on individual productivity versus team-based productivity? Why?

a. If yes, what are the common goals? 4. What does the term “creative block” mean to you? How do you define it? a. How do you believe creative blocks affect well-being? Work ethic? Work environment? b. Why do you think creative block exists in creatives? c. How do you currently alleviate creative block symptoms? Does your job, co-workers and/or management address the possibility of creative blocks? 5. Have you ever heard of the term “creative thinking?” a. If yes, explain in what context and what it means to you? 6. Are there meetings for group ideation and/or brainstorming? a. If yes, how often?

a. Do you have more experience with teams or individual based work? 10. What are your thoughts on how successful or non-successful team-collaboration is in comparison to working individually? a. How do you feel team collaboration affects creative block? b. How do you feel individual workloads affect creative block? 11. What activities currently exist to stimulate team activity, development and ideation? a. What do you think could make this team stimulation better? What could be added or taken away? b. What types of activities have you participated in previously? (i.e. meetings, conferences, or any other type of group team-building activities) c. How could current or new team building activities reduce creative block?

b. What do these meetings often entail?

APPENDICES 107


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

APPENDIX E-2 INTERVIEW QUESTIONS INTERVIEW QUESTIONS: MARKETING & COMMUNICATIONS - MANAGEMENT 1. Please tell me about your role as a manager? 2. How would you describe your management style? 3. What strategies do you utilize when proposing a new product to your creative team? a. What types of skill sets are present in your creative team? (i.e. web, design, writers, etc.) 4. What are some of the biggest challenges you have faced with managing a team? a. How did you overcome these challenges? 5. What challenges do you face when hiring employees? What are the top qualities you look for? 6. How do you address creative block issues when they arise in your employees? a. What do you believe causes this? b. What methods do you promote to help them alleviate these issues? 7. Do your team members collaborate? What methods do you promote? a. If not, what is the reasons why and would it be something your open to try? 8. How to you address times when work-loads are heavier? How do you choose how the projects are distributed and why? 9. Do you prefer team collaboration or would you rather everyone work individually? Why?

108 APPENDICES

10. What advice would you gives others in regards to management? a. What components do you feel are most important? 11. What activities currently exist to stimulate team activity, development and ideation? a. What do you think could make this team stimulation better? What could be added or taken away? b. What types of activities have you participated in previously? (i.e. meetings, conferences, or any other type of group team-building activities) c. How could current or new team building activities reduce creative block?


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

APPENDIX F SURVEY RESULTS SURVEY RESULTS: COLLABORATION & CREATIVE WORK ENVIRONMENTS 4/18/2016

'Collaboration and creative wor' Result Details | Polldaddy.com

Collaboration and creative wor… Result Details Question

How would you deᑈne the term "collaboration" in a work environment? (Mandatory)

09

06

1

working with other members on a team in which each person has unique skills and experiences that combine to create something greater than the sum of its parts.

1

graphic design

bfa in graphic design

19

1

1

Answers

Skips

working together to accomplish tasks. 21%

1

100%

0%

5

79%

12

FREQUENCY

working together

4

2

1

journalism

1

Result Details

How can collaboration among team members strengthen productivity and wellbeing? How can it harm it? (Mandatory)

international development

1

interior design

1

ANSWER

illustration & design management

1

human communication

1

Šne art

1

to all come together to help get the job done.

multiple individuals working together, using their varied skills, to achieve a goal.

1

computer science w/ mathematics minor

1

communications

1

bfa graphic design and ma design management

1

bfa (industrial design, mat (educational technology)

1

when all the di�erent consultants work together, 1 each one is pro�cient at their own speciality; so one can be almost sure of the site to come up well. having said that, due to involvement of many experts in one place (site) can cause di�erence of opinions leading to delay of work thus disturbing schedule . 1

well, together you can make progress much faster. however too many creative ideas could ruin a project. minimum of two people working towards the same goal on a task, assignment or project. these two (or more) people either compliment each other while splitting parts to work towards the same goal or simply divide the work evenly for tasks. many times 1 the saying "two heads are better than one" means things you wouldn't have thought of another person might. some people bring each collaborator brings his/her own strengths and weaknesses to the job. more variety of ideas to the table. working together can help achieve solutions to di�cult problems. it can do harm when someone isn't being a team player and actively tries to sabotage collaboration by their ideas or even attitude. some people can 1 environments and fall into the lazy role of never thinking for themselves. it can listening to others being open to all ideas brainstorming also become complacent in overly collaborative also put undue stress on an environment meant to have certain individual projects by constantly working too close with people.

https://polldaddy.com/surveys/2276881/report/results/7062831?view=popular

collaboration comes about through the utilization of a team or group's talents to better serve a client or to solve a problem. for

1

1

1

0%

24

0

FREQUENCY

yes. i am able to provide design solutions to clients almost every time within the deadline.

1

yes, in this ‰‰eld it's necessary to always be creative even when you don't feel like it you have to ‰‰nd creativity to make a living

1

team. i've done the one man ordeal, there's always something you despise more than anything else in this world. for me it's coding and my team knows it. they trade my coding needs for things like creating the high ‰‰delity prototypes we have to do. i enjoy making them and i know some of them either lack the skills or they simply don't want to do it.

1

no, productively speaking the group han nothing to do with the amount accomplished - but does e㰊浔ect the quality of work produced.

1

little bit of both

1

it varies. i need both in order to excel in my creative process.

1

it depends on the project. for the most part, my projects are easily accomplished through individual e㰊浔ort, but some projects are just too big for one worker.

1

1

1

individually.... sometimes team work slows things down. it really depends on the group dynamics.

1

individually. sometimes in a team we get sidetracked and if we can split the duties then work individually we're all more productive in the end.

1

individually. because if i get behind then nothing gets printed.

1

individually. i always try to beat my own goals that are typically more productive than team members'. when i work on a team, i tend to slack o㰊浔 because if one person's handling 200 units and i usually handle 400, i will think, oh, they only deal with 200, so i don't have to work as hard.

1

individual. my work is my own. i've always be able to ask for help and take criticism well but i prefer to solve most creative problems in my own way.

1

in a team. it makes things more fun and easier to get things accomplished.

1

1

1

1

1/2

it helps build teamwork and shows that you're able to count on your coworkers. it can be harmful because you may get too dependent on your coworkers.

it can strengthen the group bonding through listening and feeling one is being respected whether or not your idea is chosen but it can harm if someone feels neglected

1/2

Skips

100%

1 like i said, it helps with the load each person has to deal with. it hinders because there are alot of worthless meetings i'm in. i've been answering these questions during one of these meetings i'm talking about. i'm completely tuned out and i can honestly still do my entire job without listening or even being in this meeting.

1

Answers

1

1 shared awareness, improving design ideas are helpful. harmful are those who don't don't how to properly critique.

everyone is unhappy

bachelor's: art; master's: education

Do you feel more productive on a regular basis working individually or in a team? Why or why not? (Mandatory)

ANSWER

1

1

strengthen by combining everyone's best qualities together. harm it by having negative members on the team. getting a second pair of eyes. fresh eyes see things i usually cant

https://polldaddy.com/surveys/2276881/report/results/7062836?view=popular

18

1 when collaboration is built on respect and empathy great results are more than likely. assumptions and negativity kill good shared experience in collaboration 1

having two separate entities (de ned by separate objectives, goals or disciplines) share a common process. english

Question

0

FREQUENCY

1

working with others can spark new design ideas that may not have come to fruition without the input of others. if people can't

sharing designs and getting feedback

24

1

work may create barriers for collaboration two or more parties (typically from di erent elds or di erent areas of work or expertise) coming together totogether problemitsolve 1 and/or to create or form a new idea.

songwriting. when there is more than one writer it's a collaboration of our ideas into one song.

'Collaboration and creative wor' Result Details | Polldaddy.com

Collaboration and creative wor…

when you don't work together it makes it harder to work. when you do it makes it �ow better product design

4/18/2016

working together with other skilled professionals, not necessarily always in the same eld as you, in order to achieve one desired outcome

working together for the best possible outcome. ANSWER

'Collaboration and creative wor' Result Details | Polldaddy.com

working together to promote the things that each individual is best at in order to best ful ll the needs in a work environment Skips Question

Result Details

Answers

If you answered number 5 with a college degree, what was your major?

1

Collaboration and creative wor…

Result Details Question

0

working with others either in the department or outside of the department, working for the greater good of the client

4/18/2016

Collaboration and creative wor…

0%

FREQUENCY

working with others on a shared goal

'Collaboration and creative wor' Result Details | Polldaddy.com

Skips

100%

24

ANSWER

4/18/2016

Answers

1

1

helping strengthen creativity when each discipline's can both excel and contribute a unique skills whilst elevating mutual goal. harm it when the balance and structure between di�erent disciplines is imbalanced, unde�ned and not streamlined.

1

fresh eyes never hurt. we need to put out the best product we can. i think the only thing that could hurt it is if egos are involved and nothing gets done

i'm okay with either.

1

1

i work better alone, however a team criticism is necessary for me.

1

everyone's handling what they're best at or what they enjoy the most, which causes greater productivity.

1

i tend to be more productive in a team, but there are always times when i need to hide in my o′㘲ce and get some work done alone.

1

either it will improve the song or it will totally clash against it.

1

collaboration works when everyone knows what their role is, and then carries out their assignments to the best of their ability.

https://polldaddy.com/surveys/2276881/report/results/7062868?view=popular

1/2

i need both, but prefer to work alone to at least generate lots of ideas that can be shared to get feedback and i iterate from there

1

i feel more productive working on a team because i feel like i am contributing to the successes of others as well as my own.

1

https://polldaddy.com/surveys/2276881/report/results/7062871?view=popular

1/2

APPENDICES 109


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

APPENDIX F-1 SURVEY QUESTIONS SURVEY QUESTIONS: COLLABORATION & CREATIVE WORK ENVIRONMENTS 1. Gender? • Female • Male 2. What is your job title, responsibilities, and what type of company do you work for? 3. What is your age? • 18-24 years old • 25-34 years old • 35-44 years old • 45-54 years old • 55-64 years old • 65-74 years old • 75 years or older 4. Ethnicity? • White • Hispanic or Latino • Asian/Pacific Islander • Black of African American • Native American or African Indian • Other 5. What is your highest level of education completed? • High school graduate, diploma or the equivalent (ex. GED) • Some college credit, no degree • Associate degree • Bachelor's degree

110 APPENDICES

• • • • •

Master's degree Doctorate degree Professional degree Trade/technical/vocational training Some high school, no diploma

6. If you answered number 5 with a college degree, what was your major? 7. Where are you located? 8. Do you consider yourself a creative professional? Yes or No? 9. How would you define the term "collaboration" in a work environment? 10. Does your current position promote team collaboration? 11. If you answered yes to number 10, what types of collaboration are present? Yes or No? 12. How can collaboration among team members strengthen productivity and well-being? How can it harm it? 13. Is there open communication in your job? Yes or No? 14. Have you ever heard of the term "creative block?" Yes or No? 15. What causes you to have creative block? 16. Does creative block affect productivity for you or other employees at your job? 17. Is the productivity and well-being of you or other co-workers affected in any way by your job environment? Please explain. 18. Do you feel more productive on a regular basis working individually or in a team? Why or why not?


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

APPENDIX G FIELD OBSERVATION NOTES Observations that were made during a staff meeting at Stetson University. The findings include how the Marketing Department works to brainstorm topics, give status updates and other information important for the department to come together, understand what is in progress and make sure everyone is up to date on all processes for all different departments within Marketing.

Image 33. Observation notes. Author’s image.

APPENDICES 111


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

APPENDIX H SURVEY RESULTS SURVEY RESULTS: OFFICE SPACE DESIGN & PRODUCTIVITY (SURVEY MONKEY)

Survey Monkey, & Strozzo, B. (2013).

112 APPENDICES


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

APPENDIX H-1 SURVEY QUESTIONS SURVEY QUESTIONS: OFFICE SPACE DESIGN & PRODUCTIVITY (SURVEY MONKEY) 1. Do you work in an office environment that is more open and spacious or more closed-in and private? Open office space or Closed office space

10. Would you support a redesign of your office space? Would you accept if it cost money or would you rather it be a reorganization of what already exists?

2. What color palette is most dominate in your office space? Green, red, white, off-white, gray, brown, blue, pink 3. What type of window are present? Large, small, none 4. What type of lighting is more prevalent in your office space? Natural, internal lighting, both natural and internal lighting 5. How do the following factors affect your current work productivity levels? Noise levels, lighting, temperature, scents or smells, coloration of walls/work space, clutter, pictures on walls, spatial arrangements, furniture 6. What size is the business in which you work for? Small business, large business, work from home 7. What is your current happiness level at work? Very happy, moderately happy, little to no happiness 8. How do you brainstorm ideas? In meetings, individually, in small groups or teams 9. Check all that apply about your office space... Innovative environment, creative environment, playful, business oriented, strict, not strict, diverse, small office, large office, organized, disorganized, cubicle, office, regular breaks, private management offices, management and team members are in the same area

APPENDICES 113


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APPENDIX I SURVEY RESULTS SURVEY QUESTIONS: STRESS FREQUENCY - YES OR NO

114 RESEARCH


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

APPENDIX I-2 SURVEY QUESTIONS SURVEY QUESTIONS: STRESS FREQUENCY - YES OR NO DO YOU FREQUENTLY?

(YES OR NO)

19. Put things off until later?

1. Neglect your diet?

20. Think there is only one right way to do something?

2. Try to do everything yourself?

21. Fail to build relaxation time into your day?

3. Blow up easily?

22. Gossip?

4. Seek unrealistic goals?

23. Race through the day?

5. Fail to see the humor in situations others find funny?

24. Spend a lot of time complaining about the past?

6. Act rude?

25. Fail to get a break from the noise and crowds?

7. Make a 'big deal' of everything? 8. Look to other people to make things happen? 9. Have difficulty making decisions? 10. Complain you are disorganized? 11. Avoid people whose ideas are different from your own? 12. Keep everything inside? 13. Neglect exercise? 14. Have few supportive relationships? 15. Use sleeping pills and tranquilizers without a doctor's approval? 16. Get too little rest? 17. Get angry when you are kept waiting? 18. Ignore stress symptoms? Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety. (2016).

APPENDICES 115


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

APPENDIX J SURVEY QUESTIONS INTERVIEW QUESTIONS - BRINGING YOUR PET TO WORK 1. What are your thoughts on being able to bring your pet to work? (If you don't own a pet, answer in regards to association with other people's pets, etc.). 2. Do you feel that it would relieve stress? 3. How do your pets help you relieve stress at home? 4. What type of stressors affect you most? 5. What do you like most about the idea of having your pet at work to relieves stress? 6. What do you dislike about the idea? 7. Why do you feel it could be a nice addition to the office at Stetson? Why would it not? 8. How would you handle allergy issues at work if pets were allowed? 9. How would you handle what types of animals are allowed based on breed, socialization skills, etc.?

116 APPENDICES


M.A. FINAL PROJECT

APPENDIX K PMI INTERVIEW PMI TRANSCRIBED INTERVIEWS Person #1 (anonymous) What do you find interesting about the idea? •

(Concept #1) Using the toolkit scenario - kits have building mechanism.

(Concept #2) Creative block happens no matter the industry - creativity affects every aspect of the work environment.

(Concept #3) Way of the future - more companies needed to focus on work environment rather than isolating everyone - circular versus cut off in cubes - more interpersonal relationship among a team which will allow an open mind - open heart - create amiable workspace.

What do you like most about the idea? •

(Concept #1) Working in a team and team building exercise which would bond them together.

(Concept #2) Likes cards idea to give scenario and work to solve not just come up with your own.

(Concept #3) Circular and open concept.

works individually. Open environments where people can work together and help each other but in cubicles you feel isolated and no one interacts and you feel like you don't want to be a team player.

What do you like most about the idea? •

(Concept #1) The storyboarding part because it will tell a story about the topic. Come up with a way to make other employees understand. For example, changing to a new card system.

(Concept #2) Being able to work in a group, because with ideation like to have several inputs from several people. Group component to help each other out versus one person trying to figure out everything to be more creative.

(Concept #3) Team interaction.

What do you dislike about the idea? •

(Concept #1) Having to refer back to the guide as a reference because it would be hard to memorize it to teach it to your team.

(Concept #2) You are working in a group and that sometimes when you work in a group you have people that don't put in any input or those that participate, but have to keep it interesting enough to keep them interactive and not lose their attention unless you have something hands-on or exciting.

(Concept #3) dislike that it can be too open and negative people can have a stronger impact by overly socializing and not getting their jobs done. Gossiping and spreading untrue facts is another negative component.

What do you dislike about the idea? •

(Concept #1) A lot of components involved for one group - smaller scale. Clearer focus - smaller scale for class versus entire industry.

(Concept #2) Multiple scenarios - should be one scenario group, should be able to figure out different ways to solve.

(Concept #3) Isolating work space being cut off from co-workers/boss-anyone vital to collaborative process - cut off makes negative mindset because you feel along and not part of a team.

Person #3 (Nelson Linares) What do you find interesting about the idea? •

(Concept #1) Like the collaboration because a lot of companies work this way - encourages individual input, celebrates everyone's ideas, decision is not just the managers the entire team contributes. As a whole, teams input is important.

(Concept #2) Creative approach to getting people to think about what they need instead of sitting there mulling it over. People tend to relax more when it's a game.

(Concept #3) Like the collaboration and it encourages familiarity, comradery, people to contact each other rather than phone calls and instant message. More personalization.

Person #2 (Pam Linares) What do you find interesting about the idea? •

(Concept #1) Yes the collaboration component.

(Concept #2) Interesting because your doing it in a group to get other people's ideas and in a group you can all come up with different solutions. Someone's ideas may inspire you to come up with another idea.

(Concept #3) Like the open environment of the office because the closed environment doesn't help. The open environment is helpful and they can see each other and get together to help each other and in the cubicles in the back no one helps and everyone

What do you like most about the idea? •

(Concept #1) The fact that it's not just the single persons decision it's the whole team.

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APPENDIX K PMI INTERVIEW PMI TRANSCRIBED INTERVIEWS •

(Concept #2) People are more comfortable if you take complex situations and make it into a game. They can let their guard down without ridicule and think about things more clearly.

(Concept #3) Levels the playing field, managers are now less fearful and they are part of the team just like you and in the same space. The communication to management is then more open.

What do you dislike about the idea? •

(Concept #1) Two things, anything in a manual is difficult to learn and master because different people learn at different rates and attain in different ways. This would have to be accessible to everyone. Second, anytime you have collaborations, especially with a large team, decisions take longer to make and sometimes you don't have that time with deadlines.

(Concept #2) The only drawback it can take some of the seriousness or criticality out of the discussion even though they should. Leads to some loss of professionalism and lose focus on why you are currently doing this exercise.

(Concept #3) The fact that people can forget because they get too familiar with managers and lose respect. The managers are at a higher level, the open setup allows everyone to get to know each other, but it can blur the lines in the hierarchy and people lose respect. Also reduces the ability to have delicate conversations which need a private space. This is why higher level managers will have an office for private conversations.

Person #4 (anonymous) What do you find interesting about the idea? •

(Concept #1) Sounds intellectual and well thought out.

What do you like most about the idea? •

(Concept #2) The fact that people can take a break away from the office by giving them team activities to expand the imagination and activate different parts of the brain not clouded by boredom.

(Concept #3) Stay organized and collaborate in an area that is neat and professional.

What do you dislike about the idea? •

(Concept #2) The fact that you may still be confined in an uncomfortable work space.

(Concept #3) Personal privacy throughout the day.

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APPENDIX L OFFICE PET OBSERVATION • more break time taking dog for a potty break • more focus on work • more socialization with co-workers • happier mood, not as depressed or dreading the among of time life (time appears to go by faster) • less stressed and worry less • less focus on other items (i.e. cellphone) • co-workers take the time to just come pet or socialize about the dog (a way to take a break from the desk) • more getting up and moving around • my dogs lack proper socialization skill so there are some instances where they bark but having a dog that is fully socialized is key to no disruptions or distractions from actual work, untrained dogs can pose minor to major disruptions/distractions • throughout the day people would regular stop in to pet the dog and it made everyone smile and very happy to have something cute in the room that was full of positive energy and willing to love everyone

APPENDICES 119

Creative Roadblocks  

The subject of study was to understand how creative barriers develop in professional work environments and how to help creative teams effect...

Creative Roadblocks  

The subject of study was to understand how creative barriers develop in professional work environments and how to help creative teams effect...

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