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4

low e r l e v e l / L i s t e n i n g

Listening PART ONE You will hear people talking in five different situations. For questions 1–5, choose the correct picture: A, B or C.

1

2

3

What time will the flight to Buenos Aires leave? A) B) C)

What made the woman angry? A) B) C)

What should the student do with the key? A) B) C)

Help Uslyšíte pět krátkých poslechových nahrávek. Naždou nahrávku uslyšíte dvakrát, ale čas mezi nahrávkami je jen tak dlouhý, kolik je nezbytné pro krátké promyšlení odpovědi a její zapsání. Je velmi důležité, abyste se s otázkou a obrázky seznámili před prvním poslechem. Přečtěte si pozorně otázku a přemýšlejte o tom, na co se máte soustředit. Pak si prohlédněte obrázky. Soustřeďte se na to, v čem se obrázky shodují a v čem liší. Odpovědi, nebo alespoň své poznámky ve formě značek si zaznamenávejte již během poslechu přímo k alternativám, respektive obrázkům. Pokud jste si svou odpovědí již po prvním poslechu jisti, označte správný obrázek ü. Pokud si nejte úplně jisti, udělejte si u něj nějakou značku, např.: (?) nebo (Ÿ), ale je to samozřejmě na vás. Zkuste během poslechu také eliminovat alternativy / obrázky, u kterých rozhodně víte, že nejsou správnými odpověďmi (). Při vhodném značení alternativ se budete při druhém poslechu moci soustředit jen na to, co vám chybí nebo kde si nejste jisti. Můžete postupovat např. takto: U první úlohy si nejprve přečtěte otázku. Prohlédněte si letmo obrázky, respektive časy, které alternativy nabízejí. V otázce si podtrhněte klíčové výrazy: 1 What time will the flight to Buenos Aires leave?

4

What is the man going to do this weekend? A) B) C)

V tomto případě není podtrženo What time, protože to je z obrázků jasné. Během poslechu se musíte soustředit na to, kdy odlétá letadlo do Buenost Aires. Nezajímají vás letadla do a z jiných destinací apod. Během poslechu je vaším úkolem zachytit hlavní body, to znamená, že máte posoudit různé časy nebo informace o časech a máte pochopit, který z nich je ten správný. Například u úlohy 3 si v otázce podtrhněte tato klíčová slova: 3 What should the student do with the key? Z obrázků zjistíme: Má si klíč dát do tašky? Nebo ho má položit vedle počítače? Nebo ho má pověsit mezi ostatní klíče?

5

How will the man travel to Vienna? A) B) C)

Zajímá vás, jestli to student má / nemá udělat a také to, zda na toto místo má dát klíč student nebo někdo jiný.

2012 | January–February | BRIDGE


low e r l e v e l / L i s t e n i n g

Help

PART TWO You will hear a conversation between a man and a woman about taking pictures. For questions 6–14, decide if each statement is true (T) or false (F).

T F

6 James wants to take a picture of Lisa in front of the castle.

 

7 There are some people with a dog standing in front of the castle.

 

8 It took James and Lisa two hours to drive to the castle.

 

9 Lisa’s dog is called Andy.

 

Před vyslechnutím nahrávky máte čas na seznámení se s úlohami. Využijte tento čas nejen k přečtení úloh, ale i k promyšlení toho, na co se máte v poslechu soustředit. Zkuste odhadnout, které výrazy / části tvrzení jsou klíčové, a tyto si podtrhněte. V tvrzení k úloze 6 chce James něco / někoho vyfotit. Bude to Lisa, nebo někdo jiný / něco jiného? A bude-li to Lisa, bude stát před hradem, nebo jinde? 6 James wants to take a picture of Lisa in front of the castle.

10 Lisa’s best friend lives in London.

 

11 James took a picture of Lisa and her dog.

 

12 James is afraid his camera might break.

 

Najít klíčový výraz (na co se máme během poslechu soustředit) v tvrzení úlohy 9 je snadné. Bude se pes jmenovat Andy, nebo má jiné jméno? Andy také nemusí být nutně jméno psa (může se tak jmenovat např. Lisina kočka nebo kamarád, ale není to pravděpodobné). V nahrávce patrně uslyšíte více jmen.

13 James got the camera for his birthday.

 

9 Lisa’s dog is called Andy.

14 James is instructing Lisa how to operate the camera.

 

let ’s pr ac tise COMPARING PICTURES / GIVING INSTRUCTIONS A

Look at pictures A and B and compare them, using the following expressions: but, both, however, as well, whereas, the same. A

B

Useful camera phrases

B Imagine your friend has borrowed your camera and wants to take some pictures. However, he/ she does not know how to operate it. Give him/ her instructions using the phrases in the column on the right.

BRIDGE | January–February | 2012

to take a picture / photo to shoot a scene / a person / a landscape (fotografovat, natáčet) to look through the viewfinder (dívat se do hledáčku) to zoom in / zoom out (přiblížit / oddálit) to focus / get something into focus (zaostřit) to be blurry (být rozmazaný, neostrý) to press the shutter (stisknout spoušť) snapshot (momentka) lens (objektiv) tripod (stativ) flash (blesk) to have the flash on / off (mít zapnutý / vypnutý blesk) SLR camera (zrcadlovka)

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8

l o w e r l e v e l / R e ad i n g

Reading Part One Read the following five shorts texts. For questions 1–5, choose the best answer: A, B, C or D.

The post office has long been a core part of almost every community in America, yet the future looks bleak for the United States Postal Service. To cut its $10bn deficit, the USPS is considering cutting 120,000 jobs and shutting more than 3,500 post offices. Evan Kalish, a 25-year-old graduate student, is trying to visit as many as possible before they are closed down. So far he has collected postmarks at more than 2,700 post offices across the US. Crisscrossing the country, even going as far as Hawaii, Evan is chronicling the slow death of an institution originally founded in 1775.

1

What is the best heading for this news item? A) Death of a student in a post office B) A student wants to save American post offices C) Disappearing American post offices D) Searching for the oldest American post office

Dylan,

2

I won’t have time to go to the restaurant to confirm our reservations for this evening. Can you call the restaurant and confirm the reservations before you leave the house? Let me know what time we should meet.

What should Dylan do? A) Contact Brenda after calling the restaurant. B) Go to the restaurant to confirm their reservation. C) Call Brenda after he arrives at the restaurant. D) Phone the restaurant on his way to meet Brenda.

Brenda

2012 | January–February | BRIDGE


l o w e r l e v e l / r e ad i n g

3

What is said about the book Of Mice and Men in the text? A) The book is Michael Gove’s favourite. B) The book is popular because of its length. C) Michael Gore wants all students to read the book. D) The theme of the book is not suitable for students.

ALICE was beginning to get very tired of sitting by her sister on the bank and of having nothing to do: once or twice she had peeped into the book her sister was reading, but it had no pictures or conversations in it, "and what is the use of a book," thought Alice, "without pictures or conversations?' So she was considering, in her own mind (as well as she could, for the hot day made her feel very sleepy and stupid), whether the pleasure of making a daisy‑chain would be worth the trouble of getting up and picking the daisies, when suddenly a White Rabbit with pink eyes ran close by her. (Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, by Lewis Carroll)

UK Secretary of State for Education Michael Gove says students should read more books. He says that some students only read two books in the academic year, and that a departmental survey in England suggested that “over 90% of schools teach Of Mice and Men to their GCSE students”. Gove announced plans to restructure the curriculum and wants works such as Of Mice and Men to lose their regular position on reading lists. But why does a novella written in 1937 about displaced ranch workers during the Great Depression hold such popularity in schools? It is because this Steinbeck classic is short, comprising only six chapters, and its theme of bullying continues to be relevant to 21st century society.

5

Which of the following sentences is true? A) No one is allowed to park here. B) You can park here if you have a permit. C) You can only park here in an emergency. D) Only certain types of transportation may park here. BRIDGE | January–February | 2012

4

How was Alice feeling in the extract? A) She was bored. B) She was excited. C) She was troubled. D) She was enjoying herself.

PARKING IS PROHIBITED EMERGENCY VEHICLES ONLY

Help Než začnete číst text, přečtěte si vždy nejprve otázku – z otázky zjistíte, proč budete text číst a na co se máte soustředit. Otázka vám také může pomoci zvolit vhodnou strategii čtení. Např. v úloze 1 je z otázky zřejmé, že vás zajímá text jako celek, potřebujete pochopit hlavní myšlenku. Pokud některý výraz v textu neznáte, nebude pro pochopení hlavní myšlenky textu důležitý. Soustřeďte se na text jako celek. V alternativách si podtrhněte klíčové výrazy, na které se máte zaměřit. Pomůže vám to soustředit se na důležité informace. O čem je text? O smrti (death) studenta? O tom, že chce student něco zachránit (save)? O tom, že něco mizí (disappearing)? O hledání (searching) nejstarší (the oldest) pošty? Proč budete číst úlohu 2? Abyste zjistili co má Dylan udělat (What should Dylan do?) Budou vás tedy zajímat konkrétní informace. Ke komu se informace vztahují (k Brendě / Dylanovi)? Jaký je sled událostí? Má Dylan kontaktovat Brendu? A pokud ano, pak kdy? Před zavoláním do restaurace, anebo po něm? Najděte v textu důležité informace. Podtrhněte si je. Co chce Brenda po Dylanovi? … Can YOU call the restaurant and confirm the reservations… Postupujte obdobně i u ostatních úloh. Podtrhávejte si v úlohách i v textu, nikoli však bezmyšlenkovitě.

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l o w e r l e v e l / R e ad i n g

Help

Part Two Read the website information about the Kakadu National Park and some of the walking tours there. For questions 6–14, decide if each statement is true (T) or false (F).

T F

6 Australia’s Northern Territory was called Gaagudju by the Aboriginal people.

 

7 I can get to Gunlom in the Kakadu National Park only with a tour operator.

 

8 I can stay in the park overnight only with a tour group.

 

9 The best time to take the Barrk Sandstone Walk track is before 10 am.

 

10 I will have the opportunity to see the wallaroo from the Barrk Sandstone Walk track.   11 The last part of the Barrk Sandstone Walk is less difficult than the first part.

 

12 I will not see any posts or orange arrows on the Motor Car Creek Walk.

 

13 The Bardedjilidji Walk is shorter during the wet season than in the summer season.

 

14 I will not be able to enjoy a swim on any of the walks.

 

Úlohy jsou umístěny před textem záměrně – potřebujete vědět, co máte hledat. Nejprve se letmo seznamte s textem, rychle a zběžně ho projděte, abyste získali představu o tématu / obsahu a organizaci textu. Něčtěte text podrobně (ztratíte důležitý čas). Letmo projděte úlohy a pak s nimi začněte pracovat. Pořadí úloh odpovídá pořadí informací v textu. U některých úloh však budete muset porovnávat informace z více částí textu! Podtrhávejte si klíčové výrazy v textu i úloze, např.: 23 I can get to Gunlom in the Kakadu National Park only with a tour operator.

2012 | January–February | BRIDGE


l o w e r l e v e l / R e ad i n g

BUSHWALKING IN THE KAKADU NATIONAL PARK The Kakadu National Park, in Australia’s Northern Territory, is one of only a handful of UNESCO world heritage sites listed for both their natural and cultural values. Kakadu’s dramatic landscape, Aboriginal cultural significance and diverse wildlife are what visitors are drawn to. The name Kakadu comes from the incorrect pronunciation of ‘Gaagudju’, which is the name of an Aboriginal language formerly spoken in the northern part of the park. The Kakadu National Park is only three hours from Darwin. The easiest way to get to the park is by coach tour or by hiring a car, and travelling from Darwin or Katherine. Visitors can experience the Kakadu National Park with a recognised tour operator or they can drive themselves. Many of the park’s sites are accessible by standard two‑wheel‑drive vehicles, but areas like Twin and Jim Jim Falls and Gunlom require four‑wheel‑drive vehicles. Access to most tracks is best from May to October during the dry season. The walks in Kakadu can range from a short half‑hour walk to an overnight hike. Overnight or longer walks require permits and local knowledge so joining a tour group is necessary. All the walks start and finish at the car park. The short walks are marked with either yellow‑topped posts or orange arrows on rocks. Tracks longer than 10 kilometers are not marked.

BRIDGE | January–February | 2012

Barrk Sandstone Walk

is a 12-kilometre trek through the sandstone country of Nourlangie Rock. The first section of the walk is the most challenging, taking in a steep walk to the top of Burrungui / Nourlangie Rock. This part is a difficult grade and you should allow two to three hours to complete it. Start early in the morning, no later that 10 am. Walk slowly and rest often. Barrk is the Bininj name for the male black wallaroo, a dark‑coloured member of the kangaroo family. They live well hidden from the eyes of tourists in the remote and inaccessible stone country of Kakadu. The powerful and swift Barrk is completely adapted to its environment and is one of the least‑sighted members of the kangaroo family.

Gunlom Lookout Walk

There are some great natural sandstone formations that you can climb to get to a natural waterfall and a series of pools. These are great swimming holes, as they are cool, clear and croc‑free water. A steep climb to the top of the waterfall provides sweeping views of the southernmost parts of Kakadu National Park while you enjoy a relaxing dip in the crystal clear pools. Enter the water at your own risk.

The Yurmikmik Walks

is a series of interconnected walking tracks that are particularly enjoyable in the wet season. Notice the contrast as you walk from the cool creeks and monsoon forests to the heat of the open woodlands, and from the trees in the woodland valley to the stunted rocky ridge and plateau vegetation.

Bardedjilidji Walk Motor Car Creek Walk

This 11-kilometre return walk follows the Motor Car Creek downstream to a series of lower waterfalls. The adventurous may continue along the creek to the South Alligator River. Estuarine (saltwater) crocodiles live in the river so do not swim there! Return the way you came. This walk is most enjoyable in the wet season. Carry a topographic map and compass, or a GPS on this track.

Through woodlands and wetlands alongside the East Alligator River, this is one of Kakadu’s most interesting short walks, which starts at a small car park 500 metres from the upstream boat ramp on the East Alligator River. Allow two hours for this easy to moderate 2.5‑kilometre walk. Estuarine (saltwater) crocodiles inhabit the waters here. Do not enter the water under any circumstances. This walk is open in the dry season. Part of it is open during the wet season.

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l o w e r l e v e l / r e ad i n g

Part Five Read the article about the film War Horse. For questions 26–39, choose the correct answer: A, B or C.

War Horse War Horse, the story of a young English boy and his horse, (26) __________ one of the most popular British plays ever staged. Last year, Stephen Spielberg (27) __________ it into a film. The film has been nominated for an Oscar for Best Picture. However, we will (28) __________ wait until February 2012 to see if the film (29) __________ any of the 2012 Academy Awards. The film, set in rural* England and Europe (30) __________ the First World War, begins with the remarkable friendship (31) __________ a horse named Joey and a young man called Albert. When his father sells the horse to the army for service in World War One, Albert (32) __________ to join the army and find Joey. The film then follows the extraordinary journey of the horse as it moves through (33) __________ war, changing and inspiring the lives of (34) __________ those it meets. You will probably be hearing a lot more about the actor (35) __________ plays Albert, Jeremy Irvine (born Jeremy Smith). The role of Jeremy is not only Irvine’s biggest film role to date – it’s his only role. However, if you like Irvine in War Horse, there (36) __________ some more opportunities to see him in (37) __________ . According to Jeremy Irvine’s Facebook page, he

(38) __________ just finished filming the film Now is Good, which stars Dakota Fanning, and he is now working on (39) __________ adaptation of Charles Dickens’ Great Expectations. In 2013, he will be in a film called The Railway Man, based on a true story from World War II. *rural ["rU@r(@)l] – venkovský

26 A) becomes

B) became

C) has become

27 A) made

B) was made

C) has made

28 A) must

B) have to

C) need

Speaking about relationships / friendship

29 A) wins

B) will win

C) would win

Try to answer the following questions:

30 A) during

B) while

C) meanwhile

31 A) among

B) from

C) between

32 A) decides

B) decided

C) will decide

33 A) --

B) a

C) the

34 A) all

B) every

C) each

35 A) which

B) who

C) what

36 A) were

B) will be

C) would be

37 A) act

B) role

C) action

38 A) has

B) --

C) was

39 A) a

B) an

C) --

let ’s pr ac tise

What comes to mind when you hear the word friendship? What do you expect from a good friend?

Help Přečtěte si pozorně text v okolí úlohy (před i za úlohou). Pokud má být odpovědí slovesný čas, soustřeďte se na to, zda je v textu uvedeno, kdy se událost stala. Jaké výrazy vám to pomohou zjistit? Neváhejte si je podtrhnout. Např. v úloze 1 máte dosadit sloveso become. Rozhodujete se mezi přítomným prostým, minulým prostým a předpřítomným časem. Pomohlo by vám podtrhnout si výraz ever? A co v úloze 2? Kterou alternativu vyberete, když se se událost odehrála last year?

2012 | January–February | BRIDGE


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low e r l e v e l / W r i t i n g

Writing Part One You have just returned from a study abroad programme. Now you want to write a letter to your host family, Mr & Mrs Peabody. Write your letter using 120–150 words. In your letter you should: • thank them for the stay • say what you enjoyed most • mention that you left something behind and say what they should do with that item • ask if you can return and stay with them next summer

let ’s pr ac tise Read the following sample letter written by Jiří. There are two versions: the original one (not corrected) and a corrected one. Michael’s comments are below.

Original version

Corrected version

Dear Mr and Mrs Peabody,

Dear Mr and Mrs Peabody,

I am writing to thank you for letting me to stay at your house last summer. I am back in Czech Republic now, and I think that my English improved a lot because of staying with you. So I thank you for this too. I enjoyed taking your nice dog Phillip to the park each morning. Also, London is great and beautiful city. I am happy I could spend time there . I think I forgot my Czech‑English dictionary in your house . If you find it you can keep it for now, because I would like to ask that I might come back and visit you next year if is it ok? Also, maybe you want to know some words of Czech language if you want to visit here . Sincerely, Jiři (George) Sedlaček

This is a great letter. There are only a few mistakes and the student managed to complete all the points / tasks. Definitely a high passing mark.

I am writing to thank you for letting me to stay at your house last summer. I am back in the Czech Republic now, and I think that my English improved a lot because of staying with you. So I thank you for this too. I enjoyed taking your nice dog Phillip to the park each morning. Also, London is a great and beautiful city. I am happy that I could got to spend time there . I think I forgot my Czech–English dictionary in your house . If you find it you can keep it for now, because I would like to ask that if I might can/could come back and visit you next year if is it is ok? Also, maybe you want to know some Czech words of Czech language if you want to visit here . Sincerely, Jiři (George) Sedlaček

MICHAEL'S COmmENTS

2012 | January–February | BRIDGE


low e r l e v e l / W r i t i n g

Part Two You and your flatmate Martha are going to a party at XXXXX. The party starts at 8 pm, but Martha has to work until 9 pm and has asked you to leave a note with instructions on how to get to the party from your flat. Use the map and write a note to your flatmate using 60–70 words. Also, remind Martha to stop and buy a bottle of wine.

let ’s pr ac tise A There are five (5) spelling mistakes in the sample answer. Find them and correct them. B John’s note is too long (about 161 words). Use the existing information in the note, but shorten it to fit the limit (60–70 words). Rewrite the note using 60–70 words. C Now try to write a note 60–70 words using the map below. There is no bus going to the party so you will have to walk.

Hi Martha, You can either take a bus or walk to the party. If you want to take the bus, go to the stop at the corner of High and 4th streets. You can take either bus number 1 or 5. If you take number 1, get off at the stop on the corner of Oak and 2nd streets, by the post office . Go straight down 2nd Street, past the post office and turn left on White Street. It is the first door, number 85. If you take bus number 5, you’ll need to get off oposite the library. Than , walk straight for one block to the party, at 85 White Street. If you want to walk , heed straight into the park , towards the lake in the midle . Go around it and use the park exit to Oak Street. Turn right and then left on 3rd St. The first street will be White Street; turn right, the bilding is on the corner, 85 White Street. See you, John

BRIDGE | January–February | 2012

Solution to task A on p. 3

Help Vzkaz musí obsahovat všechny klíčové informace, aby se Martha dostala z bodu A do bodu B. Musíte jí nejprve říct, zda má jít pěšky nebo jet autobusem. Marha musí vědět, kde má nastoupit / vystoupit a kudy má jít, tudíž musíte správně použít výrazy pro vystoupit / nastoupit (get off / on), názvy míst (např. corner, street) a samozřejmě výrazy pro vyjádření směru (např. turn left). Po napsání vzkazu si projděte vámi napsaný text s mapkou. Sledujte na mapce trasu, kterou jste popsali. Dojdete z bodu A do bodu B? Na nic jste nezapomněli?

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20

l o w e r l e v e l / S peak i n g

Speaking PART one

Education

2.5 mins.

Student’s Task Sheet The examiner is going to ask you some questions about education. Please answer the questions in as much detail as possible. If you don’t understand a question, please ask the examiner to repeat it.

Interlocutor‘s Task Sheet I am going to ask you some questions about education. Please give detailed answers. If you don’t understand the question, please ask me to repeat it. Are you ready? 1 Is your classroom a nice place to study? Why? / Why not? 2 How important is it for you to learn foreign languages? Why? 3 Do you think school uniforms are a good idea? Why? Why not? 4 Did you enjoy (going to) primary school? Why? / Why not? 5 Are you planning to study at university? Why / Why not? 6 Why do you think that some children / teenagers don’t like school?

NOTE: The examiner is going to ask you 3–5 questions from the six questions above.

Help Přestože neznáte otázky předem, snažte se na potítku vybavit si slovní zásobu k tématu. Vaším úkolem je poskytnout hodnotitelům dostatek jazyka k hodnocení. Vyvarujte se proto velmi krátkých odpovědí. Všimněte si, že za většinou otázek následuje doplňující otázka Why? Why not? nebo pokyn Tell me (something) about it. Otázky jsou řazeny od konkrétních / osobních po obecné a obsahují rozmanité gramatické struktury (např.: Do you like... ?; What did you change... ? Would you prefer... ?) i různé okruhy slovní zásoby (např.: room, house / apartment, city / countryside, pets). Nerozumíte-li otázce, požádejte o zopakování, např.: Could you repeat the question, please?

let ’s pr ac tise Read the following authentic student answers (A–E) to five questions about education. Try to match the answers A–E with five of the questions (1–6). Which question was the student not asked? Student: A) “I learn it because when I go to abroad then when someone speak, for example, little English or Spanish and I don’t know Spanish then I can speak with them so English or German.” B) “Hmm... I think the methods are for some... some students so boring or the teachers are boring and they had... they have no interest in maths. Or when they like Czech or literature then they don’t like maths or science.” C) “Yes, I enjoyed it because our teacher was a good woman and I was in some... in some... some... sometimes when we were better in math or Czech and she made for us extra homeworks and so.” D) “So, I don’t think so. It is not a good place to study or nice place because there are no pictures and there are too old chairs and tables.” E) “Yeah, I am planning because for job which I like to do I need it so for medicine I need it.” • Did the student give a short or detailed answer? (Mark  or ) • Was there anything that made the understanding of the answers difficult? (Underline) • Are the answers grammatically correct? If not, can you correct or improve the answers? • Did the student use appropriate / correct vocabulary? If not, can you correct or improve the answers? • Try to give your own answers to questions 1–6. NOTE: The answers are a transcript of a student’s authentic answers. No mistakes were corrected.

2012 | January–February | BRIDGE


l o w e r l e v e l / speak i n g

PART TWO

Education

4 mins.

Part Two consists of three tasks.

Task One (1.5 mins.)

2A

Look at pictures 2A and 2B. The pictures show two different classrooms. Choose one

of the pictures and describe it.

Task Two (1 min.) Look at both pictures once more and compare them.

Task Three (1.5 mins.) Talk about your school. The following ideas may help you:

• Type of school / Branch of study • Location • The building from outside

2B

• Facilities • Subjects • Other

let ’s pr ac tise Describing a photo / a scene A Define positions of objects and people in photos / your classroom. The following expressions may help you describe where objects and people are located and where actions are taking place. Think of other expressions. • In the background / foreground • Up here / Down here • On the left / right • In the middle • Down / Up in the right‑hand / left‑hand corner B You can easily imagine your classroom. Describe it using the ideas in Task One / Two or using a fixed framework:

WHO? WHAT? WHERE? WHEN? WHY? BRIDGE | January–February | 2012

Help Při popisování i porovnávání postupujte vždy od obecného ke konkrétnímu a od důležitého k méně důležitému – podívejte se nejprve na fotografii jako celek (Kde a kdy byla fotografie pořízena? Kdo jsou lidé na fotografii /-ích?). Využijte bezezbytku čas na potítku. Nejprve aktivujte již osvojenou slovní zásobu. Využijte nějaký grafický organizér, např. mentální mapu. Ukazujte si objekty / činnosti na fotografii – umíte je anglicky pojmenovat? Neznáte-li výraz pro nějaký důležitý objekt nebo činnost, použijte slovník. Se slovníkem pracujte obezřetně. Využijte body osnovy – i když nejsou povinné, pomohou vám vhodně

zorganizovat promluvu. Vyvarujete se tak nahodilému přeskakování z jedné oblasti k druhé. Na potítku si k bodům osnovy udělejte poznámky a v duchu / písemně zformulujte věty. Nezapomeňte na vazbu There is / There are, např. There is a textbook on the table. (2A). In the background there is a door. (2B). Ukažte, že umíte používat ve větě přítomný čas průběhový a vhodné výrazy pro vyjádření polohy / umístění věcí / osob, např. The man / teacher in front of the class is asking something. (2B) Pokud si nejte něčím jisti, začněte např.: In my opinion, …; For me, …; I think (that)...

21


24

high e r l e v e l / l i s t e n i n g

Listening PART ONE You will hear people talking in five different situations. For questions 1–5, choose the correct answer: A, B, C or D.

1 You will hear a reporter talking

about a polluted river. According to the reporter, where does the pollution come from?

4 You will hear a woman speaking on

the radio about lying. According to the speaker, what do people do when they are lying?

A) from the village

A) They look away to the left.

B) from the factory

B) They act differently from normal.

C) from the dairy farm

C) They are afraid to look right into your eyes.

D) from the power plant

D) They try to make you talk about something else.

2 You will hear a chef being

interviewed on the radio. Why did he decide to become a chef?

5 You will hear a man and a woman

B) to develop his natural talent

talking about the influence of television on teenagers. What is the man’s opinion on this issue?

C) to become a television cooking‑show star

A) Images of violence on television change the values of viewers.

D) to earn money to support his family

B) The negative influence of television on young people is exaggerated.

3 You will hear a speaker talking about

C) Television has more influence on teenagers than any other media.

A) to follow a family tradition

social media (Facebook, Twitter, etc.). What is the speaker’s opinion about social media? A) It leads to poor writing skills. B) It isn’t taken very seriously.

D) Television is important for the social development of teenagers.

C) It helps speed up political change.

let ’s pr ac tise Giving your opinion Read questions 3 and 5 and try to give your opinion on the same issues.

D) It helps parents communicate with their children.

What is your opinion on social media? What is your opinion on the influence of TV on teenagers / children / people?

Help Měli byste využít každé vteřiny před poslechem nahrávky, během něj a po něm. Musíte se naučit rychle zorientovat v textu (otázka, alternativy) a pracovat efektivně. V pauze před nahrávkou si pozorně přečtěte otázku i alternativy a zamyslete se nad tím, proč máte nahrávku poslouchat. Máte pochopit názor mluvčího (opinion) nebo důvod něčeho (reason / why)? Máte postihnout hlavní body v nahrávce (main points) nebo se soustředit na postihnutí nějaké (detailní) informace? Podtrhejte si klíčová slova. Dáváte tak svému mozku důležité podněty. Přemýšlejte při tom, na

co byste se v nahrávce měli soustředit. V úloze 1 to bude místo znečištění (Where does the pollution come from? A) village, B) factory, C) dairy farm, D) power plant). V nahrávce uslyšíte všechna místa (hlavní body), musíte tedy postihnout, které místo je to správné a vyloučit ta ostatní. U delších otázek a alternativ je vytvoření systému pro rychlou orientaci v textu nebo podtrhávání klíčových výrazů velmi důležité. Z otázky 5 např. zjistíte, že půjde o rozhovor mezi mužem a ženou. Vás ale zajímá, jaký názor má muž. Podtrhněte si tedy slovo ‘man’. Co znamená v otázce ‘this

issue’? Podtrhněte si tedy část věty ‘the influence of television’ (on teenagers). Klíčová slova v alternativě A) pak mohou být např.: A) violence, change, values. Během poslechu nahrávky nebo bezprostředně po něm si označte odpověď, která je podle vašeho názoru správná. Při druhém poslechu se soustřeďte i na to, že můžete zbývající dvě odpovědi s jistotou vyloučit. Můžete si vymyslet jednotný systém značek, např. (?) nebo (Ÿ) kde si nejste jistí.

2012 | January–February | BRIDGE


high e r l e v e l / l i s t e n i n g

PART TWO You will hear a man and a woman talking in a library about mobile phones and e-books. For questions 6–15, decide which of the statements are true (T) and which are false (F).

Help T

F

6 Peter went to Taiwan for a month.

 

7 Jill has failed her final exams.

 

8 Jill’s roommate distracts her from studying.

 

9 Jill was annoyed by somebody’s behaviour in the study room.

 

10 Peter thinks that those who display their mobile phones do it to show they are rich.   11 Jill has met Peter’s wife before.

 

12 Peter complains that his wife keeps buying too many books.

 

13 Jill says using e-books is economical for her.

 

14 Jill has stopped buying traditional printed books.

 

15 Peter prefers printed books to e-books.

 

Využijte čas před prvním vyslechnutím nahrávky efektivně. Přemýšlejte u každého tvrzení, na co se budete muset v nahrávce soustředit. Klíčové výrazy si neváhejte podtrhnout. Například v úloze 6 potřebujete z nahrávky zjistit, zda jel Petr na Tchaj-wan (Taiwan) nebo někam jinam a zda to bylo na měsíc nebo na jinou dobu (Peter went to Taiwan for a month.). Zkuste si podtrhnout klíčové výrazy v úlohách 6–15. Úlohy dichotomické (True / False) jsou uspořádány tak, aby co možná nejlépe kopírovaly sled informací v nahrávce. Během poslechu tedy postupujte od jedné úlohy k druhé. Pokud jste si odpovědí jisti, označte ji (F) nebo nějakou značkou, např. (P). Pokud si nejste zcela jisti, udělejte si u značky nějaké znaménko, např. (?) nebo (Ÿ). Během druhého poslechu se soustřeďte na tyto úlohy (a samozřejmě na úlohy, kde jste odpověď nezachytili vůbec).

let ’s pr ac tise

Comparing things / Expressing preferences A) Compare traditional paper books and e-books. Give advantages and disadvantages of both. Consider: • costs • comfort • accessability • environmental impact You can use a Venn diagram to make notes.

BRIDGE | January–February | 2012

B) What are your preferences? Why? Ideas and useful phrases:

VENN DIAGRAM

A

B

BOTH A + B

• I prefer traditional paper books to / over e-books because… • E-books are much / far better than traditional paper books because… • With e-books you don’t get the… that you get with traditional paper books.

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30

high e r l e v e l / R e ad i n g

Part Two Read the article about a dog which became the Hoover Dam mascot. Seven sentences have been removed from the article. For questions 6–12, choose from the sentences A–I the one that fits each gap. There are two extra sentences that you will not use.

Dog on a Catwalk The Hoover Dam, built between 1931 and 1935, was and continues to be the premier engineering marvel of the Southwest. During the height of the Great Depression, thousands of people worked around the clock to bring the project to completion almost two years ahead of schedule. (6) __________________________ However, there was one unique “worker” who did his job and received no money. His duty was to make the days of the workers more enjoyable. He had no assigned housing, and no set time schedule. (7) __________________________ He was a little black dog who took his job of being the project mascot very seriously. On the canyon wall, just across from the escalator leading to the new Tour Center at Hoover Dam, is a plaque dedicated to this dog. Puzzled visitors often ask the guides and guards why the plaque is there. (8) __________________________ The Hoover Dam’s mascot was born under one of the newly constructed dam offices in Boulder City. The dog’s rough black puppy fur did not smooth out entirely as he matured and he never quite grew into to his oversized paws. (9) __________________________ Gradually, the pup became a favorite of many of the men working at the dam who were far from their homes and friends.

When the dog first saw the dam, he knew that was where he belonged. (10) __________________________ He belonged to the dam and everyone connected with it, and they all belonged to him. Down on the dam he’d come up to you and want you to pet* him and off he’d go – on to the next worker. (11) __________________________ Before long he could be seen riding the large employee transports, the government buses, the trains that delivered materials to the site, and even the skips up the front of the dam. If he decided to work overtime at his favorite job of chasing the ring-tailed cats that infested the tunnels, he hitched a ride back to town in the first Bureau of Reclamation or Six Companies car, truck or transport that happened along. No one ever remembers him accepting a ride from anyone not connected with the dam. (12) __________________________ During construction, and for years thereafter, this dog worked at and protected the dam. A plaque above his grave today states, “On February 21, 1941, the life of this devoted animal came to an end when a truck under which he was sleeping rolled over him. The grave below was completed by workers later that same day.” * to pet – pohladit

A) They all regreted this decision. B) The dog not only loved the dam, he also discovered that he loved to ride on things. C) They came from all over the country looking for the opportunity of a steady paycheck. D) It became the only life he ever knew or wanted. E) It could have been these odd characteristics that helped to endear him to the workers. F) He came and went as he pleased. G) Their answers help keep alive the saga of the first and only Hoover Dam mascot. H) That was not their first attempt to tame the dog. I) How he could differentiate between dam workers and casual visitors no one could figure out.

2012 | January–February | BRIDGE


high e r l e v e l / R e ad i n g

The new Mike O’Callaghan-Pat Tillman Memorial Bridge spans the Colorado River below the Hoover Dam on Highway U.S. 93. The bridge is America’s newest wonder. It is a great tourist attraction, while also providing a quicker, safer drive between Phoenix and Las Vegas.

let ’s pr ac tise Reading for detail / main idea Two sentences have been removed from the text. Can you match the sentences with the correct gaps in the text? There is one sentence you will not use.

The plaque above the Hoover Dam mascot’s grave One thing that cannot be found at this memorial is the name of the Hoover Dam mascot. It cannot be found at the gravesite, or in the museum display commemorating the dog’s life. (1) _________________ It appears this wonderful companion to the masses had a name that is not “politically correct”. This dog, a friend to all workers, was named “Little Nig”. For years, the original plaque over his grave displayed his name. (2) _________________ He made it his mission to have the name removed from the plaque. A) However, in the late 1970s, a tourist read the plaque during a visit, found it offensive, and considered the name a racial slur. B) However, his name is written on the plaque above his grave. C) However, it can be found in a book entitled Building Hoover Dam: An Oral History of the Great Depression, and on the internet. Solution on page 3

Help Budete číst text, z něhož byly vyňaty věty. Nejprve je důležité pochopit, o čem v textu jde, proto si jej pročtěte. Teprve pak řešte úlohy. Hledejte souvislosti obsahové, časové, logické i referenční. Hledejte referenční výrazy, které odkazují k předchozímu nebo následujícímu textu, např. slova jako ‘it’, ‘this’ nebo časová určení. Řešení tohoto typu úloh není snadné a je proto potřeba si na něj ponechat dostatek času. Po dosazení všech vět si celý text přečtěte znovu! Dává text ve všech částech smysl?

BRIDGE | January–February | 2012

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38

high e r l e v e l / W r i t i n g

Writing Part One Your English teacher has asked you to write a review of a book, film or CD for the school English magazine. Write a review 210–240 words in the appropriate style and format.

let ’s pr ac tise Writing a review Remember that: • a review should contain an introductory paragraph, body paragraphs and a conclusion. It must contain the reviewer’s opinion. The opinion should be delivered in a clear, concise (stručný, výstižný, zhuštěný) manner. • as a reviewer, you must have a strong opinion supported with details and examples. As a reviewer, you should also use a voice, tone and personal style that make the review interesting. Read the following review written by a student (not corrected) and decide if it includes / covers the points mentioned above.

“What Happened in Nowhere?” When I watched the movie , I was absolutely disappointed how can a director of this importance make such a bad movie . I was so bored that I almost fell asleep. At the beginning of the movie it didn’t seem so bad , because Chuck Norris was almost beaten by Helmut the Nose Ring. But he won again , so it started to be pretty boring. We even didn’t understand the main plot and why Paris Hilton was there . Chuck Norris was acting as always, nothing special but still good . And Paris Hilton’s character was absolutely unnecessary. Anyone who has already saw her in the Internet knows how she cannot act. But who surprised was Helmut. The new talent from Madagascar. There were much memorable scenes, but my favorite , and the most funny was the ending of movie , when main three characters went to a yoga class together. Helmut again shown his talents. I was surprised how flexible Helmut is. I couldn’t recognise where the film was set. Everywhere bushes and deserts and even other people didn’t appear there . It seemed to me as middle of nowhere . Special effects during Chuck Norris’ fight were very lame . As I said at the beginning the movie was disappointing, but on the other hand I would recommend it to people who likes stupid comedies or just have money to spend on nothing.

In general, the author uses an appropriate style and format for a review. However, the review is not divided into paragraphs! It is clear, though, that it contains information which would be found in an introduction, body and COmmENTS a conclusion. The introduction is missing relevant information about the film (year, genre, director, etc.). Remember, the reader may not know anything about the film. Generally, the body paragraphs should contain a synopsis or summary of the plot and the summary should make sense to a reader who does not know the movie. In this case, the author states that the plot was unclear, which is fine, but the reviewer misses the opportunity to show that he/she knows how to structure a plot. The author makes use of proper vocabulary, such as main actor, plot, scene, part, acting, action, role, special effects, set (... where the film was set). Generally, the range of vocabulary and phrases used is appropriate (e.g. importance, flexible, memorable, lame). The range of grammatical structures used is wide, but there are a few mistakes a higher level student should avoid (e.g. Chuck has won, Anyone who has already seen her in on the Internet knows how (that) she cannot act.; much many memorable scenes; the most funny funniest; when the three main characters; Helmut again shown showed...; Everywhere were bushes and deserts, ... / There were bushes everywhere, ...). Some of the sentences could be reformulated or linked together in a better way (e.g. Chuck Norris’ was acting as always was his usual.; Helmut., Tthe new talent from Madagascar.; how flexible Helmut he is / was.) Also, the author obviously made this movie up, rather than writing about a real movie – I don’t see this as a problem, because the author followed the proper format for a review, but it is always better to write a review about something you know and that your reader can relate to. (In general, the factual information in a review should be correct). Lastly, I would suggest some changes in the choice of words in the conclusion. The review should get a passing mark, albeit barely.

MICHAEL'S

2012 | January–February | BRIDGE


high e r l e v e l / S peak i n g

42

PART three

The United States of America

5 mins.

In Part Three you should speak on your own about the United States of America. Use the map on your Task Sheet and pictures 3A–3D to illustrate your speech. The following ideas may help you: • Location • Government / Political system • Symbols • Geography (landscape, weather, people, cities, economy) • Places of interest • Culture • Other 3A

3B

3C

3D

Help Využijte maximálně čas na potítku. U bodů osnovy si udělejte heslovitě poznámky. Vhodnou formou poznámek je také vytvoření mentální mapy. V duchu / Na papíře si zkuste spojit poznámky do vět. Pokud se soustředíte u zkoušení pouze na jeden / dva body osnovy, buďte si jisti, že se vás zkoušející zeptá i na další body.

Promluvu si vhodně zorganizujte již na potítku. O čem budete mluvit nejdříve? Co bude následovat? Neskákejte nahodile mezi oblastmi. Zorientujte se na mapě již na potítku. U zkoušky vše, o čem hovoříte, ukazujte. Zkuste namísto “Here” uvést kde místo leží, např.: on the west coast / in the Rocky Mountains / in the Pacific Ocean.

Popis obrázků si nenechávejte na konec promluvy. Ukažte, že je umíte vhodně začlenit do promluvy, např.: The capital city is Washington, D.C. We can see one of the most important buildings, the White House, in picture 3A. The White house is… Other important cities in the USA are… / American football (point at the picture) is one of the most popular sports in the USA. Other popular sports are…

2012 | January–February | BRIDGE


Maturita Special