Biophilic Design

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Bri Dazio Advanced Research Design ITDS 5114

04 What is Biophilia? 06 What is Biomimicry? 10 The Importance of Water 12 Approaches to Biomimicry 14 14 Patterns of Biomimicry 16 Neuroscience and Architecture 18 Healthcare and Biomimicry 20 Restorative Design 22 The WELL Building Standard 24 Children and the Outdoors 26 Nature in the Built Environment 30 Sketches

What is Biophilia? In 1984, American biologist, researcher and theorist, E.O. Wilson popularized the idea of biophilia in his book, “The Biophilia Hypothesis.” In his book, Wilson defined biophilia as “the connections that human beings subconsciously seek with the rest of life.” In essence, biophilia is the theory that humans have an innate urge to gravitate towards the natural world. Wilson further described biophilia as “humans, as part of nature, want to be around nature,” ultimately meaning humans have an affinity for nature. Because of this relationship between the natural environment and humans, the concept of biophilic design emerges. Biophilic design is the use of nature as inspiration in design. Designers of all sorts, including, but not limited to interior designers, architects, industrial designers, and engineers, seek innovative ways to design spaces and products that utilize components and principles of nature.

Image Credit: Architect Gensler


Components of Biophilia +Environmental Factors: air, color, geology and landscape, plants, sunlight, water +Natural Shapes and Forms: animal motifs, stimulation of natural features, shells and spirals, as well as geomorphy and biomorphy +Geomorphy: integration of the landscape into the design +Biomorphy: new phenomena of utilizing organic forms to simulate nature through advanced technology +Natural Patterns and Processes: age, change and the patina of time, central focal point, integration of parts to whole +Light and Space: filtered light, light and shadow, spatial harmony, spatial variability +Place-Based Relationships: ecological connection to place, indigenous materials, landscape ecology +Evolved Human-Nature Relationships: attraction and beauty, curiosity and enticement, exploration and discovery, prospect and refuge, security and protection


What is Biomimicry?


Image Credit: Architect Mick Pearce

In her opinion, nature has the best solutions to almost any problem. Benyus sees nature as a true genius and wanders what can be learned from each organism. Taking this approach of biomimicry into the design world, designers are constantly creating products, buildings, and interiors inspired by nature. These imitations and inspirations can happen in a variety of ways- from mimicking the form, to mimicking the process, to mimicking a system. Some examples of products, specifically, include: +Humpback Whales: the creation of efficient wind turbines designed to move slower and be less dangerous to birds by mimicking the flipper of a whale

The root of the word, “biomimicry” comes from the Greek word, “bios” which means life and “mimesis” which means to imitate. In essence, biomimicry is the imitation of nature to find new ways to design. Popularized by biologist and author, Janine Benyus, biomimicry is “using blueprints of recipes from organisms.” In her book, “Innovation Inspired by Nature: Biomimicry” Benyus asks, “how would nature solve this?”

+Kingfisher Bird: redesign of the Chinese Bullet Train to improve sound and energy efficiency to have flow without turbulence +Lotus Leaf: production of a building finish that cleans itself modeled after the lotus leaf, which allows water to bead and roll around for selfcleaning purposes +Motors: designed to be more energy-efficient to flow without friction, as inspired by the logarithmic spiral +Termites: design of sustainable buildings to help variation of temperature in the interior, by looking at termites’ mounds in Africa +Trees and Bones: creation of products’ frameworks and building structures by examining the optimization of strength


As previously mentioned, E.O. Wilson is an American biologist, author, and researcher who popularized the idea of biophilia in his 1984 book. Wilson’s work stems from his interest and research studies of ants. From these studies, Wilson not only popularized the theory of biophilia, but also of consilience and epigenic rules. According to Wilson, consilience is the idea that everything is related and connected. Different disciplines need to work together to inform each other. Even with seemingly unrelated fields, independent sources can converge to form strong conclusions and solutions. In the realm of biomimicry and the design world, it is necessary for designers to understand how nature works in order to understand how to design. This unity of knowledge produces good design. Epigenic rules is another theory by Wilson. Wilson discusses social biology and its relation to evolutionary biology. Similar to his study with ants, Wilson theorize that how human beings have developed impacts certain ways in which they behave. For instance, Wilson believes humans are hard wired to naturally do things and have certain characteristics, such as be inherently altruistic, desire to expand territory, and have an innate sense of patriotism. Epigenic rules, in turn, connect to the theory of biophilia- in which humans have an affinity for nature. While Wilson’s theory relates to human’s natural tendency to gravitate towards nature, biologist and author Janine Benyus popularized biomimicry as a way to translate biophilia into actuality. In her books and presentations, Benyus stresses the importance of always being willing to ask, “how would nature solve this?” Throughout her work, Benyus discusses topics such as organic forms and structures, daylighting, ventilation, and nature’s wisdom. Nature is a system that solves problems everyday. Humans are not the first species to do the most basic things, such as build a home or protect themselves. By looking at nature and organisms, it is possible to find a way to live gracefully in the environment and survive. Further, biomimicry can provide solutions for agriculture, architecture, climate change, energy efficiency, medicine, industrial design, transportation, and more.


“Nature holds the key to our aesthetic, intellectual, cognitive and even spiritual satisfaction�

-E.O. Wilson


The Importance of Water Water is one of the most basic elements of the Earth and human beings. In fact, water covers approximately two-thirds of the Earth’s surface, having a ubiquitous presence in the landscape. Similarly, the human body consists of almost 75 percent of water. Water is key to our survival as humans, and as species who inhabit this planet. Water is more than a component of survival. Human beings have a natural love for water. While buildings are traditionally seen as places to keep water out, humans have long been designing ways to bring water into the built environment, through green roofs, recreational activities such as water skiing, interior pools and basins, exterior water gardens, and fountains. The introduction of water through these features is because water can have a positive emotional response for people- it helps reduce stress, increase feelings of tranquility, and lowers the heart rate and blood pressure, to name a few. Incorporating water into the built environment and design is a natural inclination.


Some examples of ways to incorporate water into the design include: waterfalls and cascades of water, the blurring of inside and outside, fountains, water as art, kinetic sculptures, and hydromimicry. Hydromimicry is an abstract way to incorporate water into design. It involves the emulation of water’s natural patterns, rhythms, and behaviors in design. Hydromimicry occurs not only through abstract, but also through practical means, such as on-site storm water runoff and the site scale and neighborhood scale of storm water.


Approaches to Biomimicry As authors Stephen Kellert and Elizabeth Calabrese mention in the “Bioguide: The Practice of Biophilic Design,” “the challenge of biophilic design is to address deficiencies of contemporary building and landscape practice by establishing a new framework for the satisfying experience of nature in the built environment.”

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Image Credit: Architect Grant Associates and Wilkinson Eyre

Yet before one can implement biomimicry in design, it is important to understand the root of the theory. As previously mentioned, biomimicry is defined as the “conscious emulation of nature’s genius.” Through this act of learning from nature, it possible to borrow design strategies that have, ultimately, existed for billions of years. Specifically in the world of architecture and interior design, biomimics comes into play as a way to utilize design principles from nature to create forms and spaces that focus on function and processes. In essence, biomimicry is all about emulation. In emulating nature, designers can take three approaches: to mimic the form, mimic the process, or mimic the system. Judith Heerwagen mentions, to “look for general characteristics of living organisms and life-like process that could form the basis for bio-inspired design” in the article, “Bio-Inspired Design: What Can We Learn from Nature.” However, it is not enough to simply emulate nature. Designers must interpret observations based on these inspirations through a four-step approach.

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The four step approach includes the following phases: scoping, creating, evaluating, and discovering. Firstly, scoping involves the basics- with definition of the context, identification of the problem, and understanding of the intended function. Secondly, creating means the brainstorming and generation of multiple bio-inspired ideas, options, and prototypes. Evaluating where it is determined if goals and metrics are being met. Lastly,

discovering is the inquisitive exploration of how nature might solve a problem, and then abstraction. Once these four steps have been explored, one can move to the elements of biomimicry. These elements include: ethos, emulate, and (re)connect. First of all, ethos involves the ethics, intentions and underlying philosophy. It involves a respect for, responsibility to, and gratitude for our fellow species and our home. In essence, ethos relates to being aware. Emulate corresponds to looking at nature as a model, mentor and mature to solve problems through bioinspiration, while minimizing negative impact. (Re)connect involves discovery of life’s genius, patterns and deep principles. With this element comes an understanding that we “are� nature and a discovery of our connection to nature as humans.

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Image Credit: Architect Frank Lloyd Wright

14 Patterns of Biomimicry “Study nature, love nature, stay close to nature. It will never fail you.” -Frank Lloyd Wright Biophilic design is known to reduce stress, enhance creativity, and improve well-being, and expedite healing. As a result, designers look for ways to incorporate biophilic design into projects. “14 Patterns of Biophilic Design: For Health and Well-Being in the Built Environment” articulates the relationship between humans, built environment, and nature.

The 14 Patterns of Biophilic Design are broken down into three categories: Nature in the Space Patterns: 1. Visual connection with nature: view to elements of nature 2. Non-visual connection with nature: positive sensory engagement to nature 3. Non-rhythmic sensory stimuli: random and brief encounters with nature 4. Thermal and airflow variability: subtle changes in air temperature and flow 5. Presence of water: see, hear, or touch water to enhance space 6. Dynamic and diffuse light: changing light and shadows to mimic those in nature 7. Connection with natural systems: seasonal and temporal changes Natural Analogues Patterns: 8. Biomorphic forms and patterns: arrangements and textures that exist in nature 9. Material connection with nature: materials that reflect local ecology for a sense of place 10. Complexity and order: mimic the spatial hierarchy encountered in nature Nature of Space Patterns: 11. Prospect: view over a distance 12. Refuge: place for withdrawal 13. Mystery: promise of more 14. Risk/Peril: perceived threat, coupled with a reliable safeguard


Neuroscience and Architecture Neuroscience is the study of the human brain when it is engaged in different activities. Combined with architecture, it is the consideration of how the design of spaces impacts the parts of the brain. In fact, certain parts of the brain are triggered by design elements. These ways, in which people perceive and react to buildings, play to a host of considerations regarding how design comes out of human nature. Human beings, however, are defined in three concepts: mechanical, biological and transcendental. Humans spend the majority of their time in the mechanical realm. In this realm, we live in a technologically advanced world. This world is separate from nature, especially with advances in technology, which allow humans to spend more and more time on electronic devices. In contrast, the biological human involves considering humans as a biological apparatus, that is, a set of five senses used to interpret the environment and the geometries of that said environment. In this realm, humans are more likely to connect with nature and interact with the environment in a natural way. Because of this, humans have become experts at looking for patterns. Christopher Alexander wrote “Pattern Language of Design,� in which he studied on patterns in vernacular design in which humans were attracted to. Ultimately, Alexander considered how to design effectively for what humans naturally look for. For instance, in his research, Alexander found that children often play under stairs, in small nooks and crannies. Throughout history of design and throughout the world, this remains a fact. By identifying this pattern and so many others, Alexander concluded how to design effectively for humans is based on looking at the patterns of the past. Image Credit: The Vatican Museum


The transcendental human being is concerned with the spiritual understanding. Intuitively, we understand that everything is connected and look for meaning in life. As a result, humans have the innate desire to help other species. This goes beyond the need to survive, but rather to the need to help. Taking these three into account, researchers and designers concluded that nature impacts not only the brain, but also the healing process. One of the ways humans receive neurological nourishment is through looking for essential geometric qualities that are typically found in nature. Because of this, the elements and principles of designs relate to ones humans respond to, such as symmetry, balance, and hierarchy. E.O. Wilson’s book, “Architecture from Human Nature,” advances the idea of the genetic structure of which humans respond to nature. Wilson explored how humans are neurologically engaged at a subconscious level with nature. Due to the strong connection between humans and nature, he argues the need for cooperation and collaboration across disciplines. Despite being a biologist, his work has influenced thousands of designers and the biophilic design movement. With this research regarding human’s connection to the environment, both natural and built, comes the question, “how can we create architecture that is more humane?” To answer this question, Nico Saligros and Kenneth Magden proposed 14 steps to humane architecture. The first being adapt to changing

conditions by celebrating diversity and embodying resilience. Second is to be locally attuned and responsive by using local materials. Third involves using life-friendly chemistry by being aware of what is in products and the impact they have on humans. Next is to be source efficient through material and energy, especially with recyclablity. Fifth, integrate development with growth by being self-organized and modular. Lastly is evolve to survive. This last step cycles back to biomimicry, in which

one should replicate strategies that work. Biomimicry is, in essence, creating life conditions conducive to life. By considering what makes life thrive, it is possible for humans to respond and take those strategies into the built environment. This idea pertains to a meme, which is an idea that propagates and spread rapidly through a population, similar to a highly adaptive gene. Ideally, if enough people start designing using the patterns of biomimicry, it will become the way of the future.


Healthcare and Biomimicry Accounting for almost 18 percent of the total GDP for the United States, healthcare is a major part of the economy today. Yet, in the past, healthcare facilities had been designed to maximize square footage, rather than maximize the patient, family, and staff ’s experiences. Within the recent decades, research regarding the connection between biophilic design and its relationship to the health of human beings has been on the rise. These studies have found a positive correlation between the two, even theorizing that the incorporation of elements of nature into healthcare design can contribute to faster patient recovery times and an overall better hospital experience for both patients and their families. Pioneered by Roger S. Urlich in 1984, the notion of evidence-based design in healthcare came about. Conducting 50 rigorous studies, Ulrich focused on the link between views of nature and healing process. Through these quantitative research studies, Ulrich proposed that if a person has a view of nature, then they will have a shorter stay in the hospital and heal faster. He went on to study how access to nature, gardens, art, and even daylight impact human health to lessen stress and pain. During his research, Ulrich focused on how four specific aspects related to evidence-based design for healthcare:


observable signs, satisfaction, safety, and economic. Through studying these four aspects, Ulrich ultimately concluded that views of nature impact stress. In the medical community, stress is defined as, “the process of responding to events, environmental features, or situations that are challenging, exceed coping resources, or threaten well-being.” With stress having a negative impact on health, stress in a healthcare setting is particularly detrimental, not only to patients, but also to families, visitors, and employees. As a result, it is important for design firms to understand and consider how the built environment impacts health. Since Ulrich’s initial studies, more evidence-based design research has opened up. In fact, his research has led to contributions in the clinical epidemiology field. Clinical epidemiology is the study of determinants of disease in the human population. An example of this is how smoking causes cancer. Translating the way the healthcare industry operates from a clinical point of view, evidence-based design concerns itself with looking at how the environment impacts human health.

Healthcare and Evidence-Based Design 1. Observable signs include any changes in pain medication levels, changes in blood pressure, any measurable data that could be observed 2. Satisfaction levels are reported from a mix of users- from the patients, to the families, to the staff. 3. Safety is not only concerned with infection rates, but also medical errors and falls in the hospital environment.

Image Credit: Architect HOK

4. Economics are important to consider. Healthcare makes up a good portion of the economy, thus the question concerning cost per patient care and how much turnover there is with the staff, makes a huge impact on the economics of the industry.


Restorative Design

Image Credit: Architect Hamzah & Yeang

Self Actualization






Restorative environmental design is important to consider as life becomes increasingly stressful. These theories relate to how designers can react and make a difference. Restorative design has three interwoven perspectives. The stress perspective relates to the heavy demands that undermine a person’s ability to adapt. This relates to the coping perspective, which people require resources to help cope with adaptation. This idea of coping moves further to restoration perspective. Periodically, humans require restoration, otherwise they are more likely to buckle under stress. From these perspectives, the Theory of Restorative Environments emerges. There are three elements to the Theory of Restorative Environments. The first portion relates to protective. This includes walls, roofs, windows, and doors to protect humans from the elements, as a basic need for shelter. Instorative goes beyond those basic needs and includes having heat and access to indoor water. While these elements are not necessary for survival, they are still part of daily life in modern society. The final portion of this theory relates to restorative, which is involves going beyond the basic needs to a level of restoration. In 1943, Abraham Maslow proposed his Hierarchy of Needs theory. Since then, psychcologists, researchers, and designers look to the pyramid to understand the basic drivers of human motivation. The first level of the pyramid is “Physiological.” This most basic need encompasses breathing, food, water, sleep, and homeostasis. The second level is “Safety.” This level not only includes security of body, but also of employment, resources, family, health and morality. The third level is “Love/Belonging” and involves the need for friendship, and family. The fourth level is “Esteem” and includes self-esteem, confidence, achievement, respect by others, and respect of others. The final level if “Self Actualization” in which humans crave

morality, creativity, spontaneity, problem-solving skills and a lack of prejudice. In understanding human needs, it is possible to understand ways to restore and meet these needs. Researchers and scientists have proposed several Psychological Theories of Restoration. In 1989, Kaplan and Kaplan proposed Attention Restoration Theory. This theory correlates to the need to restore fascination. If an environment is increasingly stressful, humans lose the ability to focus on a task at hand. To counteract this, Kaplan and Kaplan propose restoring attention by experiencing nature. Whether it be through walking around in nature or taking time to sit outdoors, this act replenishes the brain’s capacity and ability to focus. Psychoevolutionary theory relates to the stress reduction for beneficial change. Often this reduction is measurable through the body in ways such as heart rate and blood pressure. Taking these theories as well as basic human needs into understanding, there are elements of restorative design. These benign elements not only protect humans from danger, but also create more benefits. Through multiple restorative effects simultaneously occurring, it is possible to create a low impact environment. In contrast, if there are several conflicting actions, humans becoming increasingly stressed. Through views, art, lighting, fresh air and trickling water, it is possible to create a restorative environment. It is important to have spaces that are both restorative and engaging. This can be achieved through an indoor-outdoor relationship. For instance, windows connect building occupants to

the surrounding environment. Windows offer views of nature, daylight to help with Circadian Rhythm, passive heating and cooling, and connection to outdoor spaces and activities. However, there is still a challenge for designers to connect indoor and outdoor spaces. It is also important to incorporate a site’s unique climate, season’s textures, sounds, and landscape diversity. Despite the environment, humans still cycle between stress and regulation. These cycles are

regulated by routines, economic and technological concerns influence activity level, as well as gender and economic status. Activity cycles include the need for alone time versus social time. This carries through to the need for multiple settings and connections between the settings. While sometimes humans crave stimulation, other times there is a need for quiet. Having connections between these settings allow the environments to adapt between engaging and distracting a person.



Image Credit: Architect Gensler

WELL Building Standard A new trend in the design world is the WELL Building Standard. While LEED Green focuses on the building, WELL addresses the people and how buildings impact those people. Through the inclusion of biophilic elements, the standard provides a model for how to integrate human health features into the built environment. Air Water Nourishment Light Fitness Comfort Mind

The WELL Building Standard features seven concepts: 1. Air: create optimal indoor air quality to support the health and well-being of occupants 2. Water: promote safe and clean water through proper filtration and other methods and require the appropriate quality of water for various uses 3. Nourishment: require the availability of fresh, wholesome foods, limit unhealthy ingredients and encourage better eating habits and food culture 4. Light: provide illumination guidelines to minimize disruption to the body’s circadian system, enhance productivity, and provide appropriate visual acuity. Require specialized lighting systems designed to increase alertness, enhance experience, and promote sleep 5. Fitness: allow for the seamess integration of exercise and fitness into everyday life by providing the physical features and components to support an active and healthy lifestyle 6. Comfort: establish requirements to create a distraction-free, productive and comfortable indoor environment 7. Mind: require design, technology, and treatment strategies to provide a physical environment that optimizes cognitive and emotional health


Children and the


In today’s world, technology is becoming increasingly prevalent and often breeds a culture of spending time on electronics, rather than spending time outdoors in nature. In the book, “The Last Child in the Woods,” author Richard Louv describes the developmental effects nature has on children, “today’s children and families often have limited opportunities to connect with the natural environment.” Throughout the book, Louv chronicles the change in modern family life. Children spend an increasing number of hours watching television and playing games on the computer, rather than being physical active outside. These seeming mundane activities are actually threatening childhood lifestyles. Sedentary lifestyle is dangerous, as well as automobile traffic. Playing on electronics for hours pertains to the sedentary lifestyle, as well as an impact on cognitive development. In recent years, there has been a rise in Attention Deficiet Disorder (ADD) and its relationship to children’s ability to pay attention. Yet all of these can be traced back to a lack of nature in childhood. For the first time in history, the majority of children are living in cities. By growing up in practially concrete jungles, nature is one step removed. Research has shown that connecting with nature has scientific benefits, not only for adults, but also


for children. In 2002, Kahn and Kellert studied this exact relationship and discovered that health benefits of exposure to nature, specifically in children, include increased physical activity, improved immune system functioning, enhanced cognitive abilities, reduction of stress, improvement in academic performance, and an increased sense of play. Despite this study, there are still a variety of ways children can experience nature. The directness of the interaction with nature correlates with its health benefits. For instance, there are direct experiences in nature, such as collecting fireflies or playing in the grass. However, technology has begun to take over with experiences and relations to nature. Indirect experiences involve structure, such as taking children to a zoo. In contrast, vicarious experiences are symbolic through television shows and books. These are not substitutes for direct experience, which has the most health benefits. In order to reintroduce nature in childhood, there is a push to let children experience nature in a natural way, most typically through schools and school sites. By integrating nature into education, children can once again grow up with nature integrated into their lives.

Health Benefits of Nature 1. Increased physical activity 2. Improved immune system functioning 3. Enhanced cognitive abilities 4. Reduction of stress 5. Improvement in academic performance 6. Increased sense of play


Nature in the Built Environment Designers, architects, landscapers, and urban planners must think of ways to bring nature into the built environment. Many cities are creating inbetween spaces that take biophilic design and push it beyond the building envelope. Professor at the University of Virginia and author Timothy Beatley writes about biophilic urban design in his book, “Biophilic Cities: Integrating Nature into Urban Design and Planning.” Beatley explains that a bipohilic city is “a natural city. It puts nature at the core of its design and planning, not as an afterthought or an ornament. It’s key to everything that happens in the city.” Examples of these inclue parks, green spaces, public gardens, and fountains. New York is praised for its incorporatation of nature through Central Park and the High Line. In addition, ecocommunities have emerged. An ecocommunity exists with a goal to become more socially, economically, and ecologically sustainable. In 1976, Village Homes became the first fully solar powered housing development in the United States. Situated in California, this ecocommunity had houses facing green spaces, while parking was located in the back. To help with sustainability, the community became involved in food growing and harvesting. Ecocommunities contrast exocommunities, which are common in the United States. Exocommunities eliminate things that might be percieved as “dangerous” and as a result, prohibit expression and play. These


regulations include prohibiting tree houses and baseketball hoops, and chalk on sidewalks. In addition, exocommunities exemplify “Mean World Syndrome,� in which people perceive the world as dangerous. Today, nature is often reported in terms of disasters, such as floods, hurricanes, and tornadoes. Nature is shrinking around the world, not only literally, but also figuratively. The more humans become engaged with technology, the more everything shrinks, to the point of nature deficient disorder. Researchers, scientists, and designers are tasked with showcasing the healthy attributes to nature- most notably the nurturing relationship, a sense of wellbeing and improved cognitive function, in the world today.

Image Credit: Landscape Architect Frank Law Olmsted 27

While biomimicry is a common phrase in the design world, there are several similar, yet different, “bios” to be constantly aware of. Bio-utilization is the simplest, in which nature is used as something. An example of this is specifying wood flooring in the interior. Bio-assisted involves domesticating something to make it useful, such as turning yeast into beer. Bio-inspired involves using research for biological origins as inspiration. Bio-inspired is often confused with bio-mimicked, which is to become the system, form, or process by studying nature. Even with all of this research, biomimicry is still a new topic. While it is important to keep in mind for all, young professionals- both designers, architects, and researcherscan be at the forefront of this change. The planet is constantly evolving, as the weather continues to change rapidly, human beings are living on less, and diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Autism, and diabetes are increasing. The early humans utilized biomimicry strategies, through mimicking bird wings into boomerangs and rigging canoes based on floating seed pods, and to copying polar bears to catch seals based on breathing holes. Even the invention of Velcro came from biomimicry, specifically from burrs studied under a microscope. Looking to nature for the solutions to problems has been in existence for centuries. Yet now, more than ever, it is important to stop and listen to nature’s wisdom. Resources such as the Biophilic Design Institute, Ask Nature, and Terrapin Bright Green, provide some insight into nature’s genius. Nature is a closed loop system that recycles for survival. Yet human intervention has changed the planet and it is important to get back on track. Through designing for sustainable behavior and biomimicry, designers, architects, scientists, researchers, and everyday people have the ability to change for the better.


“Life creates conditions conducive to life.�

-Janine Benyus


Outdoor Nature Sketches In the article, “Get to Know Nature,” author Jena Ball describes techniques for sketching in nature. Among the many techniques, Ball describes how it is important to truly be part of nature, as “not only will [you] observe unique events, [you’ll] feel more alive- awake to the world around [you] and attuned to [your] connections to it.” While Ball lists off suggestions, such as visiting places regularly and attuning one’s senses to their environment, she also discuses the tools needed. For instance, books, field guides, and assortment of pens, pencils and watercolors, can be used. Most importantly, Ball mentions to keep “an open mind, a journal, and a commitment to spend time outdoors.” Spending time in nature as a designer is not only beneficial for well being, but can also help as inspiration. Yoseph Bar-Cohen writes, “nature’s capabilities are far superior in many areas to human capabilities,” in his article, “BiomimeticsUsing Nature to Inspire Human Innovation.” Nature has answers to the problems, humans just need to be willing to listen.









Works Cited


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