SON 636 – Sibelius, Orchesterwerke GA

Page 1


Complete Works

Sämtliche Werke


Complete Works

Published by

The National Library of Finland and The Sibelius Society of Finland

Sämtliche Werke

Series I Orchestral Works Volume 13

Herausgegeben von der Finnischen Nationalbibliothek und der Sibelius-Gesellschaft Finnland Serie I Orchesterwerke Band 13



Orchestral Works Orchesterwerke

Die Dryade Op. 45 No. 1 Musik zu einer Szene [Op. 45 No. 2/1904]

Tanz-Intermezzo Op. 45 No. 2 Pohjolas Tochter Op. 49 Pan und Echo Op. 53a edited by / herausgegeben von Timo Virtanen



Editorial Committee Redaktionskomitee

Gustav Djupsjöbacka Chair / Vorsitz

Kalevi Aho · Jaakko Ilves · Lauri Suurpää Eero Tarasti · Erik T. Tawaststjerna

Editorial Board Editionsleitung

Timo Virtanen Editor-in-Chief / Editionsleiter

Gräsbeck · Pekka Helasvuo · Kari Kilpeläinen · Veijo Murtomäki

The edition was made possible with the financial support of the Finnish Ministry of Education and of the following foundations:

Die Ausgabe wurde durch die Unterstützung des Finnischen Unterrichtsministeriums und der folgenden Stiftungen ermöglicht:

Alfred Kordelinin yleinen edistys- ja sivistysrahasto, Föreningen Konstsamfundet r. f., Jenny ja Antti Wihurin rahasto, Niilo Helanderin säätiö, Suomen Kulttuurirahasto, Svenska kulturfonden, The Legal Successors of Jean Sibelius

Bestellnummer: SON 636 ISMN 979-0-004-80391-2 Notengraphik: ARION, Baden-Baden Textsatz: Ansgar Krause, Krefeld Druck: Beltz, Bad Langensalza

© 2022 by Breitkopf & Härtel, Wiesbaden Printed in Germany

Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI Vorwort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII

Einleitung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XVI Facsimiles A–C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXIV

Die Dryade Op . 45 No .1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Musik zu einer Szene [Op . 45 No . 2/1904] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Tanz-Intermezzo Op 45 No 2 45

Pohjolas Tochter Op . 49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

Pan und Echo Op . 53a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

Appendix “Tanz-Intermezzo No . 1” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

Facsimiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

Critical Commentary 186

Contents /


In the critical edition Jean Sibelius Works (JSW) all the surviving works of Jean Sibelius, including early versions and his own arrangements, are published for the first time. Some of the earlier editions have run out of print, some works – even some of the central ones – have never been published, and many of the published editions are not entirely unquestionable or reliable. Thus, the aim of the present edition is to provide an overview of Sibelius’s œuvre in its entirety, through musical texts based on a thorough study of all known sources, and prepared in accordance with modern editorial and text critical principles. The edition serves to illuminate various aspects of the works’ sources and history, as well as Sibelius’s notational practices. It is intended for both scholarly use and performances.

The Jean Sibelius Works is divided into nine series:

Series I: Orchestral Works

Series II: Works for Violin (Cello) and Orchestra

Series III: Works for String Orchestra and Wind Orchestra

Series IV: Chamber Music

Series V: Works for Piano

Series VI: Works for the Stage and Melodramas

Series VII: Choral Works

Series VIII: Works for Solo Voice

Series IX: Varia

Each volume includes an introduction, which sheds light on the genesis, first performances, early reception, publication process and possible revisions of each work; it also offers other information on the works in their historical context. Significant references to the compositions in the biographical sources and the literature, such as those concerning dates of composition and revisions, as well as Sibelius’s statements concerning his works and performance issues, are examined and discussed on the basis of the original sources and in their original context.

In the Critical Commentary, all relevant sources are described and evaluated, and specific editorial principles and problems of the volume in relation to the source situation of each work are explained. The Critical Remarks illustrate the different readings between the sources and contain explanations of and justifications for editorial decisions and emendations.

A large body of Sibelius’s autograph musical manuscripts has survived. Because of the high number of sketches and drafts for certain works, however, it would not be possible to include all the materials in the JSW volumes. Those musical manuscripts – sketches, drafts, and composition fragments, as well as passages crossed out or otherwise deleted in autograph scores – which are relevant from the point of view of the edition, illustrate central features in the compositional process or open up new perspectives on the work, are included as facsimiles or appendices.

Sibelius’s published works typically were a result of a goal oriented process, where the printed score basically was intended as Fassung letzter Hand. However, the composer sometimes made, suggested, or planned alterations to his works after publication, and occasionally minor revisions were also included in the later printings. What also makes the question about Sibelius’s “final intention” vis-à-vis the printed editions complicated is that he obviously was not always a very willing, scrupulous or systematic proofreader of his works. As a result, the first editions, even though basically prepared under his supervision, very often contain

copyists’ and engravers’ errors, misinterpretations, inaccuracies and misleading generalizations, as well as changes made according to the standards of the publishing houses. In comparison with the autograph sources, the first editions may also include changes which the composer made during the publication process. The contemporary editions of Sibelius’s works normally correspond to the composer’s intentions in the main features, such as pitches, rhythms, and tempo indications, but they are far less reliable in details concerning dynamics, articulation, and the like. Thus, if several sources for a work have survived, a single source alone can seldom be regarded as reliable or decisive in every respect.

JSW aims to publish Sibelius’s works as thoroughly re examined musical texts, and to decipher ambiguous, questionable and con troversial readings in the primary sources. Those specifics which are regarded as copyists’ and engravers’ mistakes, as well as other unauthorized additions, omissions and changes, are amended. The musical texts are edited to conform to Sibelius’s – sometimes idiosyncratic – notation and intentions, which are best illustrated in his autographs. Although retaining the composer’s notational practice is the basic guideline in the JSW edition, some standardization of, for instance, stem directions and vertical placement of articulation marks is carried out in the JSW scores. If any standardization is judged as compromising or risking the intentions manifested in Sibelius’s autograph sources, the composer’s original notation is followed as closely as possible in the edition.

In the JSW the following principles are applied: Opus numbers and JS numbers of works without opus number, as well as work titles, basically conform to those given in Fabian Dahlström’s Jean Sibelius. Thematisch-bibliographisches Verzeichnis seiner Werke (Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Härtel, 2003). Instruments and vocal parts are designated by their Italian names. Repetitions indicated with the symbol [ and passages annotated with instructions such as col Violino I are written out.

Unpitched percussion instruments are notated on a single line each.

As a rule, only the text to which Sibelius composed or arranged a vocal work is printed in the score. Modern Swedish (as well as German) orthography was established during Sibelius’s lifetime, in the early twentieth century. Therefore, the general orthography of the texts is modernized, a decision that most profoundly affects the Swedish language (resulting in spellings such as vem, säv, or havet instead of hvem, säf, hafvet), but to some degree also texts in Finnish and German.

Other types of notational features and emendations are specified case by case in the Critical Commentary of each volume.

Editorial additions and emendations not directly based on primary sources are shown in the scores by square brackets, broken lines (in the case of ties and slurs), and/or footnotes. Since the editorial procedures are dependent on the source situation of each work, the specific editorial principles and questions are discussed in each volume.

Possible additions and corrections to the volumes will be reported on the JSW website.

Helsinki, Spring 2008



In der textkritischen Ausgabe Jean Sibelius Werke (JSW) werden erstmals alle überlieferten Kompositionen von Jean Sibelius, ein schließlich der Frühfassungen und eigener Bearbeitungen, veröffentlicht. Da einige ältere Ausgaben vergriffen sind, einige, darunter auch zentrale Werke, nie gedruckt wurden und viele Editionen nicht ganz unumstritten und zuverlässig sind, verfolgt die Ausgabe das Ziel, Sibelius’ Œuvre in seiner Gesamtheit vorzulegen – und dies mit einem Notentext, der auf einer sorgfältigen Auswertung aller bekannten Quellen basiert und auf der Grundlage moderner textkritischer Editionsprinzipien entstanden ist. Die Ausgabe geht dabei auf verschiedene Fragen zu Quellenlage, Werkgeschichte und zu Sibelius’ Notationspraxis ein. Sie soll gleich zeitig der Forschung wie der Musikpraxis dienen.

Die Ausgabe Jean Sibelius Werke gliedert sich in neun Serien:

Serie I Orchesterwerke

Serie II Werke für Violine (Violoncello) und Orchester

Serie III Werke für Streichorchester und Blasorchester

Serie IV Kammermusik

Serie V Klavierwerke

Serie VI Szenische Werke und Melodramen

Serie VII Chorwerke

Serie VIII Werke für Singstimme

Serie IX Varia

Jeder Band enthält eine Einleitung, die zu jedem Werk über Entstehung, erste Aufführungen und frühe Rezeption, Veröffentlichungsgeschichte und eventuelle Überarbeitungen berichtet. Darüber hinaus stellt die Einleitung die Werke in ihren historischen Kontext. Biographisches Material und weitere Literatur, die z. B. für die Datierung der Komposition und späterer Revisionen wesentlich ist, sowie Sibelius’ eigene Aussagen zu seinen Werken und zu den jeweiligen Aufführungen werden in der Einleitung auf der Grundlage der Originalquellen und in ihrem ursprünglichen Kontext geprüft und bewertet.

Der Critical Commentary beschreibt und bewertet alle wesentlichen Quellen. Er erläutert darüber hinaus besondere Editionsprinzipien und Fragestellungen des jeweiligen Bandes in Bezug auf die Quellenlage jedes Werks. Die Critical Remarks stellen die unterschiedlichen Lesarten der Quellen dar; sie enthalten Erklärungen und Begründungen der editorischen Entscheidungen und Eingriffe. Sibelius’ Notenhandschriften sind in großem Umfang erhalten. Weil die Zahl an Skizzen und Entwürfen für einige Werke hoch ist, ist die vollständige Aufnahme des gesamten Materials in die JSW Bände nicht möglich. Soweit es aus editorischer Sicht relevant erscheint, den Kompositionsprozess erläutert oder neue Einsichten in ein Werk vermittelt, werden Skizzen, Entwürfe, Fragmente sowie im Autograph gestrichene oder anderweitig verworfene Passagen als Faksimiles oder in den Anhang aufgenommen.

Sibelius’ veröffentlichte Werke waren üblicherweise das Ergebnis eines zielgerichteten Prozesses, bei dem die gedruckte Partitur grundsätzlich als Fassung letzter Hand gelten sollte. Dennoch änderte der Komponist bisweilen seine Werke nach der Drucklegung, regte Retuschen an oder plante diese, und gelegentlich wurden in späteren Auflagen auch kleinere Revisionen berücksichtigt. Die Frage, inwieweit die gedruckten Ausgaben Sibelius’ „endgültige Intention“ wie dergeben, ist nicht eindeutig zu klären, da Sibelius offensichtlich nicht immer ein bereitwilliger, gewissenhafter oder systematischer Korrekturleser seiner eigenen Werke war. Infolgedessen enthalten die Erstausgaben, wenngleich sie im Wesentlichen unter seiner Aufsicht entstanden, sehr oft Fehler, Missverständnisse, Ungenauigkeiten und

irreführende Vereinheitlichungen, die auf Kopisten und Stecher zurückgehen, sowie Abweichungen aufgrund der jeweiligen Verlagsgepflogenheiten. Im Vergleich mit den Autographen können die Erstausgaben auch Änderungen enthalten, die der Komponist erst während der Druckvorbereitungen vornahm. Die Editionen zu Sibelius’ Lebzeiten folgen in der Regel der Absicht des Komponisten, was Hauptmerkmale wie Tonhöhe, Rhythmus und Tempoangaben betrifft, bei Dynamik, Artikulation etc. sind sie jedoch in Details weitaus weniger zuverlässig. Folglich kann eine einzige Quelle selten als unter jedem Aspekt verlässlich oder ausschlaggebend gelten, wenn für ein Werk mehrere Quellen überliefert sind.

Die JSW zielt darauf ab, Sibelius’ Werke in gründlich geprüften Notentexten zu veröffentlichen und vieldeutige, fragliche und wider sprüchliche Lesarten der Primärquellen zu entschlüsseln. Fehler von Kopisten und Stechern, sowie andere nicht autorisierte Zusätze, Auslassungen und Änderungen werden berichtigt. Die Edition der Notentexte folgt der – manchmal eigentümlichen – Notation und Intention des Komponisten, so wie sie am unmittelbarsten aus seinen Autographen hervorgehen. Wenngleich die Notationspraxis des Komponisten die grundlegende Richtschnur der JSW ist, wird diese in einigen Punkten, zum Beispiel bei der Ausrichtung der Notenhälse und der Platzierung der Artikulationszeichen, vereinheitlicht. Wenn eine solche Standardisierung jedoch Sibelius’ Absicht zu widersprechen scheint, dann hält sich die Edition so eng wie möglich an die Notation des Komponisten. Für die Jean Sibelius Werke gelten folgende Richtlinien:

Die Opuszahlen und die JS Nummerierungen der Werke ohne Opuszahl sowie Werktitel entsprechen grundsätzlich den Angaben in Fabian Dahlströms Jean Sibelius. Thematisch-bibliographi sches Verzeichnis seiner Werke (Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Härtel, 2003). Instrumente und Vokalstimmen sind mit italienischen Namen bezeichnet.

Abbreviaturen mit dem Zeichen [ und Stellen mit Anweisungen wie col Violino I sind ausgeschrieben.

Schlaginstrumente ohne bestimmte Tonhöhe sind auf einer Notenlinie notiert.

In der Regel ist bei Vokalwerken nur der Text wiedergegeben, den Sibelius vertont bzw. bearbeitet hat. Die neue schwedische (ebenso wie die neuere deutsche) Orthographie wurde im frühen 20. Jahrhundert, also zu Sibelius’ Lebzeiten, eingeführt. Die Orthographie der Texte ist daher modernisiert. Diese Entscheidung betrifft vor allem die schwedische Sprache (Schreibweisen wie vem, säv oder havet statt hvem, säf, hafvet), sie wirkt sich aber zuweilen auch auf finnische oder deutsche Texte aus.

Andere Notationseigenheiten und Eingriffe sind von Fall zu Fall im Critical Commentary beschrieben.

Editorische Ergänzungen und Korrekturen, die nicht direkt auf Primärquellen zurückgehen, werden in den Partituren durch eckige Klammern, Strichelung (im Falle von Halte und Bindebögen) und/oder Fußnoten gekennzeichnet. Da das editorische Prozedere von der Quellensituation jedes einzelnen Werks abhängt, werden spezielle Editionsprinzipien und fragen in jedem Band eigens erörtert.

Mögliche Ergänzungen und Korrekturen der Bände werden auf der Website der JSW aufgeführt.

Helsinki, Frühling 2008



The present volume contains five orchestral works, which Sibelius composed in 1904–1910: Die Dryade (Op. 45 No. 1), Musik zu einer Szene [Op. 45 No. 2/1904], Tanz-Intermezzo (Op. 45 No. 2), Pohjolas Tochter (Op. 49), and Pan und Echo (Op. 53a). An early version of Tanz-Intermezzo (“Tanz-Intermezzo No. 1”) is included as an appen dix. In addition, an extensive fragment illustrating the unrealized plan of a symphonic poem entitled “Luonnotar”, which Sibelius reworked into Pohjolas Tochter, appears as a facsimile. Musik zu einer Szene is now published for the fi rst time. Except for Pohjolas Tochter, all the works were composed with a cho reographic purpose, (sub)titled or referred to as “dance intermezzos,” or related to opus 45.1

Works related to Op. 45

Literary sources do not offer very consistent or indubitable informati on about the chronology and opus numbering of the works included in or related to Op. 45.2 The following table illustrates the chronology based on dates of premieres, publication and (planned) opus numbers appearing in the manuscript sources or Sibelius’s correspondence. Ar rows indicate the fi liation from Musik zu einer Szene to Tanz-Inter mezzo (Op. 45 No. 2).

wrote to his publisher Lienau: “ Thus, Op. 53a . I will give you still an other Dance Intermezzo (in polonaise form) as ‘b’.”6 The “Dance In termezzo (in polonaise form),” which at this point Sibelius planned to be published as Op. 53b, was probably Cortège. 7 Die Dryade, which he completed and published years after Tanz-Intermezzo (Op. 45 No. 2) was given the opus number 45 No. 1.

Die Dryade Op. 45 No. 1

Genesis and publication

Not much is known about the compositional history of Die Dryade The surviving sketch material for the composition is very thin, and Si belius did not mention the work in his correspondence or in his diary before the day of its completion, 5 February 1910: “‘ The Dryad’ (the Dance Intermezzo) [is] complete. Yes – Yes!”8 The description “dance intermezzo” he mentioned in his diary entry connects the work closely to the dance intermezzos from the years 1904–1907. A choreographic context may also be in the background of Die Dryade, to which the composer nevertheless eventually gave the subtitle “tone piece for or chestra” (“Tonstück für Orchester”).

Title/(planned) subtitle Date of completion Opus number in Sibelius’s or premiere manuscripts or correspon dence (final number in bold)

Musik zu einer Szene 5 March 1904 (prem.) –

Tanz-Intermezzo (Pf.) spring –fall 1904 –

“Tanz-Intermezzo No. 1” 1904? 35a

Cortège 30 April 1905 (prem.) 35b (1905), 53b (1907) Tanz-Intermezzo(?)

Pan und Echo 24 March 1906 (prem.) 45a/c 53a

Tanz-Intermezzo No. 3

Tanz-Intermezzo fall 1906–January 1907 (rev.) 45 No. 2

Die Dryade 5 February 1910 45 No. 1 (“Dans intermezzo”)

Musik zu einer Szene, completed and fi rst performed in spring 1904, had no opus number, neither did the remodeled version of the music for piano, which was probably also completed in spring 1904 and pub lished in the fall with the title Tanz-Intermezzo (Piano-Arrangement.).

A manuscript of a version for orchestra, entitled “Tanz-Intermezzo No. 1,” corresponds closely to the version for piano. The date of “TanzIntermezzo No. 1” remains uncertain.3

The table illustrates a possible order based on the supposition that Sibelius remodeled “Tanz-Intermezzo No. 1” from the materials of Musik zu einer Szene at the same time as or not very long after the “piano arrangement.” Opus number 35a appearing in the manuscript of “Tanz-Intermezzo No. 1” version supports this date, the surviving materials for Cortège (JS 54), completed and fi rst performed in April 1905, having opus number 35b. Th is implies that Sibelius at some point planned to include “Tanz-Intermezzo No. 1” and Cortège within the same opus.4

The preliminary opus number for Pan und Echo (1907) in the manu script sources was 45a or 45c; eventually, it was published as Op. 53a and with the subtitle “Dance Intermezzo No. 3.”5 The opus number of Pan und Echo seems to have been fi xed in May 1907, when Sibelius

In the previous year, on 1 April 1909, Sibelius mentioned in his di ary that he had received a letter from Canadian dancer Maud Allan (1873–1956). Five days later, in another letter, Allan commissioned from Sibelius a ballet en titled “ The Sacri fice.”9 Sibelius’s response remains un known, but her name appeared in the composer’s diary again in September: “Maud Allan again! I probably have to write music for her.”10 He mentioned at the end of the year that he had begun to work on the ballet “seriously” (“på allvare”). However, he soon wrote: “[I] leave the ballet, because of too little profit for plenty of time.”11 Sibelius had several composition projects underway – including the Fourth Symphony – and he decided to abandon the ballet. Nevertheless, he com pleted the “dance intermezzo” Die Dryade a little more than a month later, in February 1910. To what extent he had composed music for the ballet and if he used some of the materials from it in Die Dryade remain unknown.

Sibelius had concluded a contract with the publishers Lienau in 1905, and although the contract expired in 1909, he still offered them Die Dryade fi rst. The answer was nega tive, and Sibelius turned to Breitkopf & Härtel, who accepted the work together with a piano arrangement. The composer sent the or chestral and piano scores to Breitkopf on 16 February 1910 – having completed the piano arrangement a day or two earlier.12 Whether the orchestral score was Sibelius’s autograph remains unknown. However, it seems likely given that the autograph fair copy score is currently lost. Sibelius read the proofs of Die Dryade and sent them back to Breitkopf in June.13 He wanted to have the printed materials of both Die Dryade and In memoriam (Op. 59) ready for his concert in Kristiania (Oslo) at the beginning of October: “Hopefully the complete materials will be ready by 10 September. I would then begin rehearsing for my con certs.”14 The publisher delivered the printed performance material to the composer in time: “We sent to you last night the performance material of the ‘Dryad,’ consisting of one score, one set of [woodwind, brass, and percussion] parts, seven fi rst violins, seven second violins, five violas, four cellos, and four double basses. We hope that you re ceive this delivery in time for the planned performance. If you like, you can use the proofs of the parts, which we will send to you today, as a possible instruction for the plate corrections.”15


Sibelius arrived in Kristiania on 2 October and rehearsed the orches tra – medicating his “nervousness” (“nervosité”) and “timidity” (“blö dighet”) with potassium bromide. He wrote to his patron and friend Axel Carpelan (1858–1919) on the day before the concert: “ The Dryad is a heck of a composition.”16

First performances and their reception

Die Dryade was premiered in Sibelius’s profi le concert in Gamle Lo gens Store Sal in Kristiania on 8 October 1910; the composer con ducted the orchestra of the Music Society (Musikforening). The other works in the program were Night Ride and Sunrise (Op. 55), the suite from the incidental music Svanevit (Op. 54), In memoriam, and Sym phony No. 2 (Op. 43); Valse triste (Op. 44 No. 1) was performed as an encore.

Die Dryade did not attract much attention in the newspaper reviews. On the day following the concert, Morgenbladet shrugged offthe work as “rather abstruse.”17 Dagbladet was more sympathetic to the “small pieces” – including Die Dryade – than to the symphony, whereas Af tenposten was rather negative towards the entire program.18

Die Dryade was heard for the fi rst time in Finland in Sibelius’s profi le concert in the University of Helsinki Festival Hall on 3 April 1911. Otherwise, the program was the same as in Kristiania, with two ex ceptions: Symphony No. 2 was replaced by the premiere of Symphony No. 4 (Op. 63), and the Svanevit Suite was replaced by Canzonetta Op. 62a . The concert was played again on 5 April.

The Symphony was given the most column inches in the newspaper reviews, but also Die Dryade – which was repeated in the concert – was discussed in more detail than in the reviews of the fi rst performance in Kristiania. In Uusi Suometar, Evert Katila wrote very positively about the work and its choreographic potential: “ Th is masterwork, written with the utmost coloring skill and in high spirits, immediately pro vokes the thought that it should be performed on stage. Apparently, experiments in that direction have already been carried out abroad.”19 Katila was probably referring to the performance of Die Dryade in London on 9 February 1911, when Maud Allan used the music in her dance performance. Sibelius commented on the news about Al lan’s performance in a letter to his wife: “Maud Allan will dance ‘the Dryad’ in London on Friday!! Isn’t that funny?”20

Musik zu einer Szene [Op. 45 No. 2/1904]

References to Heinrich Heine’s (1797–1856) poem Ein Fichtenbaum steht einsam (from Lyrisches Intermezzo, 1823) appeared in Sibelius’s compositional plans from the late 1890s on. An example of such a plan are the early sketches (from ca. 1897–1898) for Symphony No. 1 (Op. 39): he planned to use the words “Nordens fura drömmer om söderns palm” (“ The north’s fi r dreams about the palm of the south”) as a motto for Movement II of the planned symphony.21 Whether the completed Movement II reflects Heine’s poem in any way remains open for discussion, but the connection to the literary background is explicit in Musik zu einer Szene : Sibelius composed the music for a dance scene entitled Kuvaelma / Scène Motto: Ein Fichten baum – – – träumt von einer Palme (Heine), performed at a charity lot tery in support of the Philharmonic Society Orchestra in March 1904. Whether the composer suggested Heine’s poem as the subject of the dance scene or whether it was the arranger of the event, who suggested it remains unknown, however.

The compositional history of Musik zu einer Szene is not documented in the literary sources or in Sibelius’s sketches.22 Given that the fi rst performance of the work was at the beginning of March 1904, less than a month after Sibelius’s profi le concert on 8 February in which three works were premiered, it seems probable that he composed Musik zu einer Szene after that date, or more likely he compiled it from previously written musical material.23

The Philharmonic Society Orchestra gave the fi rst performance of Musik zu einer Szene under the composer’s baton at the charity lottery in the Society House in Helsinki on 5 March 1904.24 The solo dancer was Ingrid Maria Wetzer (1875–1956), accompanied by seven other female dancers. The following day, Helsingfors-Posten described the performance as follows: “After the orchestra performed the overture to Wagner’s ‘Lohengrin,’ Act III, Sibelius stepped onto the conductor’s podium, and the highlight of the evening was presented to the audi ence: a scene with music composed by Sibelius to words written by Heine, ‘Ein Fichtenbaum – – – träumt von einer Palme.’ In undulat ing, at times whispering, at times surging progressions, the wind pass es through the forest, outlined in the shapes of young ladies against the beautiful background – the young, slender spruces sway in the wind. The forest lives, breathes. But the wind turns into a powerfully rhythmical dance, and the next instant, a supple fairy dressed in forest green glides over the stage. Her soft shape twirls around in time with the wondrous music, intoxicated and intoxicating – and disappears in an instant.”25 The newspaper Suomen Kansa reported that the per formance was very successful and that it was repeated immediately.26 Not much is known about any later performances of Musik zu einer Szene. Sibelius reworked the music for piano in the spring of 1904, and this version was published in the fall by R. E. Westerlund under the title Tanz-Intermezzo. Although there was now a new and largely di fferent version for piano based on the material of Musik zu einer Szene, the original orchestral version also seems to have been played at concerts: at the beginning of 1905, “ The North’s Fir Dreams about the Palm of the South” still appeared in Sibelius’s concert plans. In Janu ary, Aino Sibelius wrote to her husband, who was traveling in Ger many: “Listen, about the scores. You talked about taking something to Vyborg, but you probably did not remember to do that. Yesterday came a postcard from Jalmari Finne, asking us to send the Fir and the Palm to Leino’s address. I found everything ready on your desk and sent it. Was there something else to be sent to Vyborg?”27 Accord ing to newspapers published on 14, 19 and 20 January 1905, a work by Sibelius entitled “Auringonsäteen tanssi” (“Dance of a Sunbeam”) and advertised as new, was performed in Vyborg.28 Whether this was Musik zu einer Szene retitled is uncertain, but given the mention in Aino Sibelius’s letter and that the performances included a part for a solo dancer, it appears likely. The whereabouts of the autograph score of Musik zu einer Szene re mains unknown. The premiere was played probably from parts copied by Ernst Röllig. A scribal score copy made by Toni (Anton) Kanzler and signed by him on 18 March 1905 in Vyborg, as well as orchestral parts – containing players’ markings – by the same copyist, reveal that the work was indeed played in that town. Kanzler’s copy is now the only contemporary source of the work in the form of a score.29 It ap pears from the additional copies of orchestral parts clearly written later than 1905, perhaps as late as in the 1930s, that Musik zu einer Szene remained in concert programs in Vyborg for many years.30

Tanz-Intermezzo Op. 45 No. 2

Following the performances of Musik zu einer Szene in March 1904, Sibelius revised the music rather thoroughly. Helsingfors Nya Musikhandel published a revised version for piano in the fall, entitled Tanz-Intermezzo. (Piano-Arrangement.) 31 The National Library of Finland houses a manuscript of an orchestral version, closely corre sponding to the published version for piano, entitled “Tanz-Intermez zo No. 1” and with opus number 35a (HUL 0158, see the Appendix). An orchestral work entitled “Tanz-Intermezzo” was mentioned in Si belius’s and Breitkopf’s correspondence for the fi rst time in March 1906. The publishers wrote: “ The representative of Helsingfors Nya Musikhandel […] told us that he had talked with you about the still missing score of Song of the Athenians and Tanz-Intermezzo. […]


Nya Musikhandel further informed us that the score of Tanz-Inter mezzo is still stored by you and that you want to revise it. Because we hope to publish the score by the fall, we kindly ask you to send the revised manuscript to us in the near future, so that we can begin the engraving.”32 Breitkopf’s letter implies that by March 1906, Sibelius had made an orchestral version of “Tanz-Intermezzo.” Breitkopf still asked about the score in the summer and fall.33

The “Tanz-Intermezzo No. 1” version is dated 1906 or 1907 in the literary sources (see Works related to Op. 45 above). The supposed date for its completion was probably based on a letter that Sibelius wrote to Breitkopf in October 1906: “ The score of Tanz-Intermezzo is not yet ready. The original form for orchestra is far too long and does not correspond to the arrangement for piano, which I sold to Mr. Fazer [Finnish publisher Konrad Georg Fazer]. I shall of course do my best to send you the score at soonest.”34 The implication in Sibelius’s let ter is that he began the revision of the orchestral version in the fall of 1906, but at that time he probably only made further revisions to an existing orchestral score.

The manuscript of “Tanz-Intermezzo No. 1” closely corresponds with the published version for piano (for di fferences in performance instruc tions, see the Critical Commentary). The fi rst pages of the manuscript give the strong impression of a fair copy score, but Sibelius’s notation is less polished on the last pages. There are penciled changes – possibly made in the fall of 1906 – for further revision, and the instrumenta tion di ffers from the published Tanz-Intermezzo; for instance, “TanzIntermezzo No. 1” includes pairs of both oboes and bassoons, and trumpets and trombones in the brass section, whereas the published Tanz-Intermezzo includes single oboe and bassoon, cornets instead of trumpets, and no trombones.

The changes in the score of “Tanz-Intermezzo No. 1” mean that Si belius must have written a new fair copy, which he probably sent to Breitkopf fi rst in January 1907.35 At that time, Sibelius and Breitkopf planned to publish it together with another work – possibly Cortège –as dance intermezzos I and II, as the publisher’s letter reveals: “Many thanks for sending the score of Dance Intermezzo I, we are pleased also to be able to publish this composition now. Is the orchestration of Dance Intermezzo II already completed? It would be nice if we could publish it simultaneously with Dance Intermezzo I […]”36 Tanz-Intermezzo seems still to have been entitled “Tanz-Intermezzo I” in March 1907. The publisher, who had already engraved the TanzIntermezzo score, wrote: “We have the honor to send you today the score of your Dance Intermezzo I for your kind revision. As soon as we receive the proofs back, we will have the parts engraved, which we make ready for print here as is your wish.”37 Sibelius thus read the proofs in spring. The fi rst edition of the score and the orchestral parts were published in June. There is no defi nite information about any performances of TanzIntermezzo before 1912. Pan und Echo (Op. 53a) was also referred to as “Dance Intermezzo” (Tanssi-intermezzo, Dans-intermezzo) with no more precise title, in Finnish- and Swedish-language newspapers in 1908 and after, which makes identi fication of the two works compli cated. In 1909, Hufvudstadsbladet and Nya Pressen mentioned “Dansintermezzo” in connection with a ballet performance of “ The Four Seasons” (De fyra årstiderna) arranged in the festival hall of the So ciety House (Seurahuone) in Helsinki on 26 September:38 “Dans-in termezzo” was the fi rst scene, “Fall”.39 The Philharmonic Society Or chestra was conducted by its concert master Anton Sitt (1847–1929), with Lilli Fohström (1884–1955) as the dancer throughout the ballet performance. Whether this “Dance Intermezzo” was Op. 45 No. 2 rather than Pan und Echo is not certain, although it is likely, given that neither the title nor the two characters connected to the latter work are mentioned in connection with the performance. Neither Sibelius’s diary nor his correspondence sheds any light on the matter.

The fi rst unequivocal performance of Tanz-Intermezzo took place in Vaasa (Vasa) on 11 April 1912. Vasabladet advertised a performance of the work on the same day, defi ning it with the opus number (45 No. 2) and mentioning it as new.40 Sibelius did not conduct this performance, either; the conductor’s name was not mentioned in the newspaper, but it was probably Ferdinand Neisser (1864–1928). No reviews of the Helsinki ballet performance (“ The Four Seasons”) or the performance in Vaasa were published in the newspapers.

Pohjolas Tochter Op. 49

Earliest sketches, “Marjatta,” and “Luonnotar”

The surviving manuscript material related to Pohjolas Tochter is ex tensive, including sketches and drafts of various types from the years 1901–1906. The sketches appear in connection with or by the side of material that found its way into several works completed in 1904–1912 (see the Critical Commentary, List of Sketches). Sibelius wrote the earliest known sketches featuring musical ideas, which eventually appeared in Pohjolas Tochter during his sojourn in Italy in early spring 1901. Exceptionally, some of them have a date: a thematic idea related to the passage appearing in bb. 28ff. is dated Rome, 20 March 1901 (HUL 1548, p. [1], see Facsimile A).

Ideas and materials appearing in Pohjolas Tochter in the following years were placed alongside several other works that were evolving. Sketches reveal that one of these works was the Violin Concerto (Op. 47, sketches probably from 1902–1903; HUL 1580, p. [2], see JSW II/1, Facsimile C). Others included Cassazione (Op. 6, sketches before 1904), the Th ird Symphony (Op. 52, sketches probably from 1904–1905), In memoriam (Op. 59, completed in 1909), and Min nelied (movement II) from Scènes historiques II (Op. 66, completed in 1912).41

During 1905, Sibelius and writer Jalmari Finne (1874–1938) were planning an oratorio based on the Finnish national epic, the Kale vala, and other Kalevalaic paraphrases reflecting the biblical legend of Mary and the child Jesus (the Kalevala, canto 50, and the Kanteletar, book 3, poem 6). The oratorio entitled “Marjatta” or “Marjatta ja Kie sus” (“Mary and Jesus”) did not materialize, but some of the musical materials planned for it eventually surfaced in Pohjolas Tochter 42 Th most revealing sketch is HUL 0222, in which Sibelius notated the passage that appears at the beginning of Pohjolas Tochter – in F k mi nor – with references to the opening word and a later point in Finne’s libretto sketch, “Marjatta” and “kaiken” (“all” or “all the [time];” see Facsimile B, staves 7–8 and 9–10). Another sketch – in E minor – in the sketchbook HUL 0225, pp. [8–9], the opening material of which includes words from Finne’s libretto, also supports the “Marjatta” con nection with the Pohjolas Tochter opening. It is not known how much material Sibelius wrote for “Marjatta” apart from the two sketches mentioned above. He seems to have abandoned the oratorio idea by the fall of 1905, although Finne still expected him to continue their cooperation.

Another compositional plan supplanted the oratorio at the end of the year 1905, and also appropriated its musical ideas: this was a sym phonic poem related to the Kalevala legend of Luonnotar (the Ka levala, canto 1). Sibelius wrote to Lienau at the beginning of April 1906: “ The new symphonic poem ‘Luonnotar’ is ready. Only I have to make the fair copy myself, which I have not yet been able to because of illness.”43 Interrupted by his preparation of the cantata Vapautettu kuningatar (“ The Captive Queen,” Op. 48) for University of Helsinki festivities on 12 May, Sibelius informed Lienau: “Luonnotar waits!!”44 Sibelius was probably still working on “Luonnotar” in June. Manu script HUL 0163 was apparently intended as the fair copy (see Fac simile IV). Pages 1–8 and 11–18 even contain the markings in lead by the copyist (possibly Ernst Röllig), who had probably begun copying the orchestral parts even though the score was not complete. Although


“Luonnotar” was planned as an orchestral work without a vocal part, still at the end of June 1906, Aino Sibelius mentioned in a letter to her husband a “Luonnotar translation,” apparently into German, to be agreed with Georg Boldemann.45 She probably referred to a pro gram text to be attached to the score. However, it is likely that Sibelius had already abandoned “Luonnotar” and decided instead to revise the score, which did not take long.46 In its revised form, the work was eventually known as Pohjolas Tochter.

Title, program text, and publication

The autograph score of the completed version of Pohjolas Tochter only has the title Eine sinfonische Fantasie | frei nach dem finnischen Na tional Epos Kalevala. Deciding on the fi nal title was a delicate mat ter. Having received the score and probably a provisory text describ ing the programmatic idea of the work adapted from canto 8 of the Kalevala, Lienau wrote to Sibelius at the beginning of July: “One can quite well understand the content from your translation. However, I will still abbreviate it and revise it into something more poetic. I am also in favor of giving the work a certain title. Does the daughter of Pohjola have no name? Perhaps we could use it.”47 Sibelius answered: “I totally agree that the symphonic poem must have a title. I believe that ‘Wäinämöinen’ would be the best.”48 The publisher did not agree, however. Apparently wishing to keep Väinämöinen, the Kalevala hero, in the spotlight in the title, Sibelius made a new suggestion: “L’aventure d’un héros.”49 The publisher’s reaction was again negative: “As a matter of fact, the title ‘L’aventure d’un héros’ suggested by you does not please me either. Th at is because in the German meaning, the word héros implies above all the mighty and the powerful, and in this sense your Symphonic Poem is not heroic after all. But why not ‘Pohjolas Tochter,’ really?”50 Consensus was reached at the beginning of September: “So, ‘Pohjolas Tochter.’ I will perform the symphonic poem on 29 December in St. Petersburg with the court orchestra.”51

Once Lienau and Sibelius had agreed on the title, the composer sent his draft of the program text – in German and in verse – to the pub lisher, who then made revisions (see the Critical Commentary). Th draft is undated, and the possible covering letter and the envelope are lost. It is not known why Sibelius still referred to sending the “text of Pohjolas Tochter” to Lienau at the end of October; perhaps some revisions had been time-consuming.52 The last mention of it in the correspondence between the composer and the publisher was at the beginning of November: “I am pleased that the text to ‘Pohjolas Toch ter’ becomes good.”53 The work was published with a programmatic text in the form of Kalevalaic verse, printed in German in the fi rst edition on the page preceding the score.

Sibelius’s autograph score (source A) served as the Stichvorlage for the fi rst edition. Not much is known about the publication process, but Sibelius probably received the proofs in September or October 1906 and sent them to the publisher at the beginning of November.54 Lienau sent the printed score and parts to the publishers Jurgenson in Moscow in mid-December, with a request to forward the materials further to St. Petersburg, where the fi rst performance was about to take place.55

First performance

Sibelius conducted the fi rst performance of Pohjolas Tochter in the Mariinsky Theater in St. Petersburg on 29 December 1906, in a con cert organized by pianist and conductor Alexander Siloti (1863–1945). Sibelius also conducted his Lemminkäinen palaa kotitienoille (“Lem minkäinen’s Return,” Op. 22 No. 4).56

The review in the newspaper Rus’ (Русь) was rather favorable, but the critiques of Rech’ (Речь) and St. Petersburg Zeitung were less so, even negative.

The lengthy article in Russkaia muzykal’naia gazeta presented Sibelius as the composer of The Swan of Tuonela and En saga, explained the

Kalevalaic legend of the program text and welcomed certain charac teristics of Pohjolas Tochter : “ The complexity of the program, as well as the presence of onomatopoeic elements (the sound of the horse’s hooves, the weaving shuttle, and so on), are inevitably reflected in a certain opulence and vagueness in the general outline of the poem, yet the originality of its music, the distinctiveness of its coloring, its poetic mood, and the beauty of the musical contrasts associated with the poem’s characters nonetheless creates a positive impression.”57

Russkaia muzykal’naia gazeta also wrote about some stylistic references of Pohjolas Tochter : “Of contemporary musicians, Sibelius stands clos est as a composer, in taste, inclination and style, to Rimsky-Korsakov. They have the same interest in musical nationalism, an interest that is natural, unfeigned and free, the same inclination for painting pic tures in sound, the same feeling for the world of fairy tales and for the spirit of the ancients, and what is most characteristic, the same sense of imagination and boldness of orchestral colors. As far as form is concerned, then naturally, the young Sibelius is more varied and in novative in this regard. Con fi rming to Liszt’s practice, most Russian programmatic poems are in their development akin to a picture made up of cubes. Here, Sibelius is closer to Strauss and his musical tales are akin to threads rolled into a single ball.”58

According to Russkaia muzykal’naia gazeta, the audience welcomed Pohjolas Tochter much more warmly than “Lemminkäinen’s Return”: “After the fi rst work [“Lemminkäinen’s Return”], they applauded ‘respectfully;’ after the second [Pohjolas Tochter] – passionately and with cries of ‘encore.’ Indeed, last season, after the performance of the ‘Saga’ [En saga, Op. 9] – which is no less bright, colorful and indi vidual in its music than the fi rst work, and – at times – the second too, the audience reacted to Sibelius’s work with nothing more than some modest rounds of applause and even some genteel hissing in return.”59

Later reception

Soon after its premiere in St. Petersburg, in February 1907, Sibelius’s brother-in-law Armas Järnefelt (1869–1958) conducted Pohjolas Toch ter in Stockholm.60 Sibelius presented the work to the Finnish audi ence as the opening number of his profi le concert in Helsinki on 25 September 1907. The Philharmonic Society Orchestra also gave the fi rst performances of the orchestral suite from the incidental music to Hjalmar Procopé’s (1868–1927) play Belsazars gästabud (“Belshazzar’s Feast,” Op. 51), and Symphony No. 3. The program was repeated two days later.

On the day of the fi rst concert in Helsinki, Hufvudstadsbladet pub lished an article by “Bis.” (Karl Fredrik Wasenius, 1850–1920) dedi cated to Pohjolas Tochter. His attitude towards narrative quality of the music is clear from the fi rst sentences on: “Strictly speaking, Pohjola’s Daughter, a symphonic fantasy by Jean Sibelius, cannot be included in the field of program music. The content of the cited episode from Kalevala has inspired Sibelius to give a musical outpouring based on it, not to slavishly following the text’s content in its tones. It [the text] has merely given a reason for the composition, in which Sibelius, by force of his inspiration and characteristic courage, has created music that accumulates from depiction to depiction in captivating grandeur and height.” However, later in his article Bis. stated that “the music is like a vivid reverberation of the Kalevala depiction” and described the thematic content vis-à-vis the two main characters of the Kalevala poem, Väinämöinen and Pohjola’s maiden.61 As a whole, the main focus in the newspaper reviews following the two concerts was on the new symphony, and only few words were spared for Pohjolas Tochter 62 Pohjolas Tochter soon established its position in Sibelius’s repertoire. The composer included the work in his concert programs up to 28 May 1921. Robert Kajanus (1856–1933) conducted it several times between 3 October 1907 and 5 October 1924, and he also conducted the or chestra for the fi rst sound recording of the work made in London in 1932.


Many critics writing reviews of the fi rst performances in Finnish news papers explained the programmatic idea of Pohjolas Tochter, but also emphasized the independence of the music from narrative description. Sibelius seems to have later distanced himself from the program text. Conductor Simon Pergament-Parmet (1897–1969) asked him about it in 1936: “Apropos ‘Pohjola’s Daughter’ I would be glad to know who wrote the poem in German.” Sibelius penciled his answer next to the question: “Have no idea.”63 He also gave his ambivalent position on the programmatic idea of the work in a discussion with his sonin-law, conductor Jussi Jalas (1908–1985), in 1943: “A request came from Sweden to use the title ‘Nordens kvinna’ [‘Lady of the North’]. I said that one must not do that, because the subject is from the Kale vala (actually Maiden of Pohja). Th is is di fficult for anyone who does not know the subject to understand. Perhaps there should be a small program note, although it [the work] is, as a matter of fact, absolute music.”64

Pan und Echo Op. 53a

Genesis and the first performance

Sibelius composed Pan und Echo for a dance performance in a char ity lottery for the benefit of a planned new concert hall in Helsinki, probably over a short period of time in early 1906.65 As in the cases of Die Dryade, Musik zu einer Szene, and Tanz-Intermezzo, neither the surviving sketches nor the literary sources reveal much about the compositional history of the work. The earliest sketches probably date from the very beginning of the 1900s, or even before the turn of the century, and one of the thematic ideas is notated in connection with musical materials appearing in Cassazione (Op. 6), thus dating from 1904 or before (HUL 0472, p. [4]; see Facsimile C).66

Sibelius referred to the circumstances in which Pan und Echo was composed in his letter to Axel Carpelan in March 1906: “[…] my time has gone to business, social duties, that is, the lottery piece [Pan und Echo] among other things, and as I now have two weeks free, I have to throw myself into my main work with all my energy.”67 Th “main work” was the orchestral work “Luonnotar,” which neverthe less remained unrealized (see Pohjolas Tochter Op. 49, Earliest sketches, “Marjatta,” and “Luonnotar” above).

Pan und Echo was premiered on 24 March 1906 in the Society House as one of three “tableaus.” The program consisted of works by various composers, as well as tableau music by contemporary Finnish com posers Erkki Melartin (1875–1937), Selim Palmgren (1878–1951), and Oskar Merikanto (1868–1924).68 Robert Kajanus conducted the Philharmonic Society Orchestra, except for the works of Merikanto and Sibelius, which were conducted by the respective composers. The scenery for Pan und Echo was planned by painter Albert Gebhard (1869–1937), and the performance featured two solo dancers, “Mr J. Silén” (Pan) and “Ms Siri Winter” (Echo), and nine female dancers.69 Whether the initiative of adapting a subject from antiquity to dance originated from Sibelius, the organizers of the charity lottery, or per haps Gebhard, remains unknown.

Karl Ekman of Nya Pressen was the only newspaper critic to devote a few sentences to Sibelius’s music: “ The composer had created the tableau ‘Pan and Echo,’ with a dance of nymphs, a lovely musical il lustration with a brief but atmospheric prelude, to which the light, rapturous, and highly original dance composition with its inlay in the three-four waltz meter and the wild, intoxicating concluding stretto were seamlessly tied. As a piece of music, Mr. Sibelius’s latest compo sition will increase the number of characteristic concert pieces with which he has already enriched the repertoire in a worthy manner.” 70

Publication and later reception

Over half a year after the fi rst performance of Pan und Echo, in Octo ber 1906, Breitkopf asked Sibelius about the “ballet music” (“Ballett

musik”). Sibelius decided to publish the composition through Lienau, however, who enquired about the work in November 1906: “Perhaps some day you could send me ‘Pan and Echo’ and also the stage mu sic to ‘Belshazzar.’ The dances will certainly be well utilized.” 71 Sibe lius sent the score to Lienau at the beginning of February 1907.72 Th printed score and parts appeared in the same year.73

Ekman predicted a bright future for Pan und Echo in his very favor able critique after its fi rst performance in March 1906. The work ap peared rather often in the orchestral repertoire in Finland, and most critics welcomed it very warmly. Sibelius did not conduct it, nor did he include it in his own concert-program plans: he did not seem to include the piece among the core of his orchestral production. As he wrote in his diary in January 1915, “[Conductor Georg] Schnéevoigt performed ‘Pan and Echo’ as a snack between meals (in Stockholm). The critique is ridiculous. Th is tiny bagatelle is in flated and inspected through a loupe. Microscoped.” 74

I owe my special thanks to my colleagues Janne Kivistö, Kai Lind berg, Anna Pulkkis, Tuija Wicklund, and Sakari Ylivuori for sharing their valuable opinions and suggestions. I would also like to thank Joanna Rinne, Pertti Kuusi, and Turo Rautaoja for their meticulous and skilled proofreading, and Joan Nordlund for revising the English texts. Philip Ross Bullock gave me his generous and expert help with the Russian texts.

The following people gave me invaluable assistance when I was re searching the various sources: Minna Cederkvist and Henrik Sorvoja (music library of Helsinki Philharmonic Orchestra), Sebastian Djup sjöbacka (music library of YLE), Sanna Linjama-Mannermaa (Sibelius Museum, Turku), Matthias Otto (archives of Breitkopf & Härtel), Judith Picard (archives of Publishers Lienau), Matti Rantanen (music library of Lahti Conservatory); Tarja Lehtinen, Inka Myyry, and Petri Tuovinen (National Library of Finland); and the staffof the National Archives of Finland. I owe my gratitude to them all.

I dedicate this volume to the memory of Markku Hartikainen (1941–2019), whose diligent and invaluable research on Sibelius’s correspon dence and other literary documentation led to decisive discoveries re garding “Marjatta” and “Luonnotar.”

Helsinki, Spring 2022

1 In the present volume, the titles are given as in the manuscript sources or fi rst editions of the works (in German), see also Fabian Dahlström, Jean Sibelius. Thematisch-bibliographisches Verzeichnis seiner Werke (Wies baden: Breitkopf & Härtel, 2003 [= SibWV]).

2 See Erik Tawaststjerna, Jean Sibelius III. (Helsinki: Otava, 1971) [= Tawaststjerna 1971]; Kari Kilpeläinen, The Jean Sibelius Musical Manuscripts at the Helsinki University Library (Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1991) [= Kilpeläinen 1991]; Kari Kilpeläinen, Tutkielmia Jean Sibeliuksen käsikirjoituksista. Studia musicologica Universitatis Helsin giensis 3 (Helsinki: Helsingin yliopiston musiikkitieteen laitos, 1992) [= Kilpeläinen 1992]; and SibWV. See also SibWV, p. 683, for plans for opus number(s) 45, and the chapter on Pan und Echo Op. 53a in the present Introduction.

3 According to literary sources, “Tanz-Intermezzo No. 1” would chrono logically immediately precede Tanz-Intermezzo (Op. 45 No. 2) that was published in 1907. In SibWV, p. 208, Tanz-Intermezzo (Op. 45 No. 2) is labeled an orchestrated version of the version for piano (“Klavierfassung instrumentiert”), for which the “Tanz-Intermezzo No. 1” version dating from 1906 served as a draft (“Entwurf”). Kilpeläinen 1991, p. 36, speci fied the manuscript as a “fair copy” for Tanz-Intermezzo (Op. 45 No. 2). According to Kilpeläinen 1992, p. 174, and SibWV, p. 683, Sibelius fi rst added opus number 35a to “Tanz-Intermezzo No. 1” in 1907.

14 According to literary sources originating from Erik Tawaststjerna, Sibe lius planned Cortège as “Dance Intermezzo No. 2.” Tawaststjerna 1971, p. 56: “Pan and Echo, whose subtitle is Dance Intermezzo No. 3 (the


other two: Cortège and Dance Intermezzo Op. 45 b [sic]) […].” (“Pan ja kaiku, jonka alaotsikko on Tanssi-intermezzo n:o 3 [kaksi muuta: Cor tège ja Tanssi-intermezzo op. 45 b] […]”). See also Kilpeläinen 1992, p. 175, and SibWV, p. 522. Tawaststjerna did not mention any source behind the idea of presenting Cortège as “Dance Intermezzo No. 2,” and the information only appeared in the Finnish-language edition of the biography. SibWV, p. 522, dates the opus number 35b planned for Cortège at “around 1907” (“um 1907”), and Kilpeläinen 1992, p. 175, at “around 1908–1909” (“1908–09 tienoilla”), i.e., only at the time of or after the publication of Tanz-Intermezzo Op. 45 No. 2 in summer 1907. Eventually, in 1909, Sibelius gave opus number 35 to the songs Jubal and Teodora (Op. 35 Nos. 1 and 2).

15 Opus number 45a appears in Sibelius’s autograph manuscript of his arrangement for piano and 45c in a scribal copy of the version for piano (both manuscripts in HUL Ö. 124. 2). Because opus 45 was without “No. 1,” Cortège may have been a possible “dance intermezzo” to be included in opus number 45 as No. 1 in 1907. See also SibWV, p. 683, for plans for opus number(s) 45.

16 Sibelius’s letter to Lienau, dated 26 May 1907 (private archive of Rolando Pieraccini, Helsinki [=RPA]): “Also op. 53 a. Ich werde Ihnen noch ein Tanz-intermezzo (in Polonaise’n Form) geben als ‘b’.”

17 Eventually Sibelius gave no opus number to Cortège, and the work remained unpublished during his lifetime.

18 Diary, 5 February 1910: “‘Dryaden’ (Dans intermezzot) färdig. Ja – Ja!” Sibelius’s diary from 1909 and 1910 is preserved in the National Archives of Finland, Sibelius Family Archive [= NA, SFA], fi le box 37, and pub lished in Fabian Dahlström (ed.), Jean Sibelius. Dagbok 1909–1944 (Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland and Bokförlaget Atlantis: Helsinki and Stockholm, 2005). For the sketches, see the Critical Commentary.

19 Maud Allan’s letter to Sibelius, dated 6 April 1909 (the National Library of Finland [= NL], Coll. 206.01). The manager of the London Palace Theatre, Alfred Butt (1878–1962), also mentioned the ballet plan in his letter to Sibelius dated 16 April 1909 (NL, Coll. 206.06). Allan attached a type-written “scenery” of the ballet to her letter (NL, Coll. 206.01).

10 Diary, 23 September 1909: “Maud Allan åter! Måste väl skrifva åt henne musik.”

11 Diary, 21 and 26 December 1909: “Lämnar baletten på grund af för liten förtjänst för mycket tid.”

12 Lienau’s letter to Sibelius, dated 9 February 1910 (NL, Coll. 206.48); Sibelius’s diary, 14, 15, and 16 February 1910.

13 Diary, 12 June 1910; Sibelius’s letter to Breitkopf & Härtel [= B&H], dated 14 June 1910 (archives of B&H, Wiesbaden).

14 Sibelius’s letter to B&H, dated 24 August 1910 (archives of B&H, Wies baden): “Hoffentlich sind die vollständige Materiale fertig bis 10ten Sep tember. Ich fänge dann an zu repetieren für meine Conzerte.”

15 B&H’s letter to Sibelius, dated 3 September (photocopy in archives of B&H, Wiesbaden): “Wir sandten Ihnen gestern Abend das Au ff ührungs material der ‘Dryade’, bestehend aus 1 Partitur, 1 Orchesterstimmen, 7 Violinen I, 7 Violinen II, 5 Viola, 4 Violoncelle und 4 Bässen. Wir hoffen, dass Sie diese Sendung rechtzeitig für die geplante Au ff ührung erhalten werden. Den Ihnen heute zugehenden Stimmen-Abzug belieben Sie zur etwaigen Angabe der Platten-Korrektur zu benutzen.” No infor mation about the possible corrections to the parts is available.

16 Diary, 2–8 October 1910; Sibelius’s letter to Carpelan, dated 7 October 1910 (NA, SFA , fi le box 120): “‘Dryaden’ är en tusan till composition.”

17 Pseudonym + in Morgenbladet on 9 October 1910: “noksaa utilgjængelig.”

18 Pseudonym R. M. in Dagbladet, Otto Winter-Hjelm in Aftenposten, both on 9 October 1910.

19 E.[vert] K.[atila] in Uusi Suometar on 11 April 1911: “Tämä huippuuntu neella wäritystaidolla ja suurella huumorilla kirjoitettu mestariteos saat taa wälittömästi siihen ajatukseen, etä [sic] se olisi hawainnollistettawa näyttämöllä. Kokeita siihen suuntaan lienee jo ulkomailla tehtykin.”

20 Sibelius’s letter to Aino Sibelius, dated 6 February 1911 (NA, SFA, fi le box 96): “Maud Allan dansar om fredag ‘dryaden’ i London!! Eikö koomillista?” Sibelius also mentioned the performance in his diary (5 February) and in a letter to Carpelan (6 February; NA, SFA, fi le box 120).

21 On the references to Heine’s poem in connection with the sketches for Symphony No. 1, see JSW I/2, Introduction

22 Only two thematic sketches and two drafts showing more extensive pas sages survive, the earliest dated before 1904; see the Critical Commen tary.

23 The works premiered on 8 February 1904 were Cassazione (Op. 6, for full orchestra), Har du mod? (Op. 31 No. 2, the fi rst version), and the Violin Concerto (Op. 47, early version).

24 The other music numbers in the event were Hector Berlioz’s “[Rákóczi] March from [ The Damnation of] Faust”, Edvard Grieg’s Foran Sydens Kloster (Op. 20), Benjamin Louis Paul Godard’s “Gypsy Dance,” Franz Liszt’s Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2, and Richard Wagner’s overture to Lohengrin, Act III. The conductor of these numbers was not mentioned in the newspapers.

25 Pseudonym Reporter in Helsingfors-Posten, 6 March 1904: “Sedan orkestern utfört förspelet till Wagners ‘Lohengrin’ akt III, bestiger Sibe lius anförarpodiet och aftonens clou presenteras för publiken: ett sceneri med musik komponerad af Sibelius till ord af Heine ‘Ein Fichtenbaum – – – träumt von einer Palme.’ I böljande, än hviskande, än brusande tongångar rör sig vinden genom skogen som i unga kvinnors gestalter aftecknar sig mot den vackra bakgrunden – de unga smärta furorna svaja för vinden. Skogen lefver, andas. Men vinden öfvergår till en rytmstark dansmelodi och i nästa ögonblick sväfvar en smidig genie i skogsgrönt öfver scenen. Den mjuka gestalten vrider sig i takt med den fantastiska musiken, berusas och berusar och – är i nästa ögonblick försvunnen.”

26 Anonymous critic in Suomen kansa , 7 March 1904.

27 Aino Sibelius’s letter to Jean Sibelius, dated 8 January 1905 (NA, SFA, fi le box 27): “Kuulepas niistä nuoteista. Sinä puhelit jotakin vieväsi Vii puriin, vaan et tainnutkaan muistaa. Eilen tuli kortti Jalmari Finneltä, jossa hän pyytää lähettämään Leinon osoitteella sen Furan och palmen. Minä löysin kaikki sinun pöydältäsi valmiina, ja lähetin. Pitikö Viipu riin jotain muutakin lähettää?” Jalmari Finne (1874–1938) was a writer and theater director; “Leino” mentioned in the letter was probably writer and journalist Kasimir Leino (1866–1919).

28 Wiipurin Sanomat, Karjala , and Wiipuri, 14, 19, and 20 January 1905, respectively. The performances were arranged by Vyborg Students’ Asso ciation. The conductor of Viipurin musiikinystäväin orkesteri (Orchestra of Vyborg Friends of Music) is unknown. Having returned to Finland in March, Sibelius conducted some of his works in Vyborg on 15 April, but no work that could be identi fied as Musik zu einer Szene was mentioned in the newspapers.

29 Toni (Anton) Kanzler (dates of birth and death unknown) was a musi cian who was active in Vyborg. A set of orchestral parts for Musik zu einer Szene by Ernst Röllig (source A) survives in the Sibelius Museum (Turku). The date of the parts is unknown, but they were probably from 1904 or 1905. The Archives of Finnish Broadcasting Company (YLE, Helsinki) houses a score copy by an unidenti fied scribe, copied from the Röllig parts and clearly dating from a later time; see the Critical Com mentary.

30 Nowadays the music library of the Orchestra of Vyborg Friends of Music, including its materials for Musik zu einer Szene, is located in the music library of Lahti Conservatory.

31 Sibelius mentioned working on the “piano arrangement” in his letter to Carpelan as early as on 8 March 1904, i.e., only three days after the fi rst performance of Musik zu einer Szene (NA, SFA, fi le box 120). Whether this version for piano corresponded to the published version remains unknown.

32 B&H’s letter to Sibelius, dated 9 March 1906 (NA, SFA, fi le box 42): “Der Vertreter der Helsingfors Nya Musikhandel […] teilte uns mit, dass er mit Ihnen über die noch fehlende Partitur vom Athener-Gesang und das Tanz-Intermezzo gesprochen habe. […] Ferner teilte uns die Nya Musikhandel mit, dass die Partitur zum Tanz-Intermezzo noch bei Ihnen lagere, dass Sie dieselbe aber einer Durchsicht unterziehen woll ten. Da es uns daran liegt, diese Partitur noch vor Herbst zu veröffentli chen, so bitten wir Sie freundlichst, uns das revidierte Manuskript in der nächsten Zeit zukommen zu lassen, damit wir mit dem Stich beginnen können.”

33 B&H’s letters to Sibelius, dated 1 August and 16 October 1906 (NA, SFA , fi le box 42).

34 Sibelius’s letter to B&H, dated 27 October 1906 (archives of B&H, Wiesbaden): “Die Partitur vom Tanz-Intermezzo ist noch nicht fertig.


Die ursprüngliche Form für Orchester ist viel zu lang und gar nicht übereinstimmend mit d. Klavierauszug, den ich Herrn Fazer verkaufte. Ich werde natürlich alles thun um Ihnen die Partitur baldigst senden zu können.” The publishing rights of Tanz-Intermezzo for piano, together with the rights of many other works by Sibelius, were transferred to Breit kopf & Härtel in July 1905. Strangely enough, the “far too long” original form mentioned in the letter probably refers to the original Musik zu einer Szene, which in total, including the repeated section (bb. 72–169), contains 322 bars; each of the “Tanz-Intermezzo” versions contains 150 bars.

35 The whereabouts of the autograph score, which also served as the Stich vorlage, remain unknown.

36 B&H’s letter to Sibelius, dated 16 January 1907 (NA, SFA, fi le box 42): “Für die Übersendung der Partitur zum Tanz-Intermezzo I besten Dank, wir freuen uns, nunmehr auch diese Komposition veröffentlichen zu können. Ist das Tanz-Intermezzo II bereits fertig instrumentiert? Es wäre uns lieb, wenn wir dasselbe gleich mit dem Tanz-Intermezzo I veröffent lichen könnten […].” If the “Tanz-Intermezzo II” mentioned in the let ter was based on Cortège, Sibelius obviously planned to revise the work before sending it to B&H. However he also seems to have offered it to Lienau in May 1907 (see Works related to Op. 45, endnote 6).

37 B&H’s letter to Sibelius, dated 2 March 1907 (NA, SFA, fi le box 42): “Wir beehren uns heute die Partitur Ihres Tanz-Intermezzos I zur ge fl. Revision zu übersenden. Sobald wir diesen Abzug zurückerhalten haben, lassen wir die Stimmen stechen, die auf Wunsch hier druckfertig erledigt werden.”

38 Hufvudstadsbladet and Nya Pressen, 27 September 1909.

39 The music in the other three scenes was chosen from Torsten Petre (1863–1928, Vid vinterbrasan, [“By the Winter Fireside”]), Selim Palmgren (1872–1951, Entr’acte from Tuhkimo, [“Cinderella”]), and Emil Wald teufel (1837–1915, Tout Paris).

40 Vasabladet, 11 April 1912. Pan und Echo and Movement III from the String Quartet Voces intimae were also performed in the concert. The other works in the program were Marino Mancinelli’s “Marche triom fale” (Marcia trionfale), Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy’s Violin Concerto in E minor, and two movements from Camille Saint-Saëns’s Suite algéri enne

41 For a sketch (HUL 1585 ) connecting ideas from Pohjolas Tochter, Cas sazione, and In memoriam, see Timo Virtanen, “At a Crossing of Com positions: Sibelius’s Manuscripts for Cassazione Op. 6,” in Timothy L. Jackson and Veijo Murtomäki (eds.), Sibelius Reconsidered (online publi cation, 2018).

42 Finne’s sketches for the libretto are preserved in the archives of the Finn ish Literature Society (Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura), Finne archive. Sibelius and Carpelan discussed the oratorio plan in their correspon dence in 1905. See also Timo Virtanen, “Pohjola’s Daughter – ‘L’aventure d’un héros’” in Timothy L. Jackson and Veijo Murtomäki (eds.), Sibelius Studies (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), pp. 154–164.

43 Sibelius’s letter to Lienau, dated 6 April 1906 (RPA): “– ‘Luonnotar’ die neue sinfonische Dichtung ist fertig. Nur muss ich die selbst reinschrei ben was ich noch nicht wegen Krankheit gekonnt habe.”

44 Sibelius’s letter to Lienau, dated 7 May 1906 (RPA): “Und Luonnotar wartet!!”

45 Aino Sibelius’s letter to Jean Sibelius, dated 30 June 1906 (NA, SFA, fi le box 27). Georg Boldemann (1865–1946) was a German businessman and Jean Sibelius’s friend.

46 Sibelius used materials from HUL 0163 later in Symphony No. 3 Op. 52 (1907; Movement II, bb. 84–89) and in Movement II, Minnelied , of Scènes historiques II Op. 66 (1912; bb. 3ff.); see Facsimile IV, HUL 0163, pp. 10–11 and 11[a]–13.

47 Lienau’s letter to Sibelius, dated 4 July 1906 (NA, SFA, fi le box 46): “Die Inhaltsangabe kann man aus Ihrer Übersetzung ganz gut verstehen. Ich werde sie aber noch kürzen und etwas poetischer gestalten. Ich bin auch dafür, dem Werke einen bestimmten Titel zu geben. Hat die Tochter von Pojala [sic] keinen Namen? Den könnte man vielleicht verwenden.”

48 Sibelius’s letter to Lienau, dated 18 July 1906 (RPA): “Ich bin ganz Ihrer Meinung dass die sinfonische Dichtung einen Namen haben muss. Ich glaube das ‘Wäinämöinen’ wäre das beste.”

49 Lienau’s letter to Sibelius, dated 22 July 1906 (NA, SFA, fi le box 46); Sibelius’s letter to Lienau, undated, dated at the publishers on 30 August 1906 (photocopy, NL, Coll. 206.48).

50 Lienau’s letter to Sibelius, dated 30 August 1906 (NA, SFA, fi le box 46): “Der von Ihnen vorgeschlagene Titel ‘L’aventure d’un héros’ gefällt mir eigentlich auch nicht. Denn das Wort héros schliesst durch die deutsche Bedeutung vor allem den Begriffdes Mächtigen, Gewaltigen in sich, und in diesem Sinne ist Ihre sinfonische Dichtung doch eigentlich nicht heroisch. Aber warum eigentlich nicht ‘Pohjolas Tochter’?”

51 Sibelius’s letter to Lienau, dated 6 September 1906 (RPA): “Also ‘Pohjo las Tochter.’ Ich werde die sinf. Dicht. am 29 December i Petersburg mit dem Hoforkester au ff ühren.”

52 Sibelius’s letter to Lienau, dated 28 October 1906 (RPA). Sibelius’s draft of the program text has the title Pohjola’s Tochter and contains the pub lisher’s editorial annotations and revisions (see the Critical Commen tary).

53 Sibelius’s letter to Lienau, dated 7 November 1906 (RPA): “Es freut mich, dass der Text zu ‘Pohjola’s Tochter’ gut wird.” According to Tawastst jerna, the last strophe of the poem was added by the publisher, and Sibe lius opined that it was “slightly sentimental” (“en smula sentimental”). As the source, Tawaststjerna refers to Sibelius’s letter to Lienau, dated 12 October 1906. Th is letter has not been found, however. See Erik Tawast stjerna, Jean Sibelius. Åren 1904–1914. Helsingfors: Söderström & C:o Förlags AB, 1991, pp. 63 and 365.

54 Sibelius’s letter to Christian Sibelius, dated 1 October 1906 (NA, SFA, fi le box 130); Sibelius’s letter to Lienau, dated 7 November 1906 (RPA): “Warmest thanks for your letter and the proofs [?]. I will send the proofs still today. There are still some ‘bad’ [errors].” (“Besten Dank für Ihren Brief und d. Corek. Ich sende d. Correktur noch heute. Da sind noch einige ‘arge’.” Sibelius did not mention Pohjolas Tochter by name in his letter, but in all probability he referred to the proofs of that work.

55 Lienau’s letter to Sibelius dated 15 December 1906 (RPA).

56 Alexander Glazunov’s “Solemn Overture” (Op. 73) was also included in the concert program. The Mariinsky orchestra was large compared to orchestras in Finland: the string section consisted of 16 fi rst and 16 second violins, 12 violas, ten cellos, and eight double basses.

57 Anonymous reviewer in Russkaia muzykal’naia gazeta (РУССКАЯ МУЗЫКАЛЬНАЯ ГАЗЕТА), Vol. 1, January 1907: “сложность программы, как и наличность звуко-изобразительных деталей (топот коня, ткацкий челнок и пр.), не могли не отразится некоторой пестротою и расплывчатостью в общем складе поэмы, тем не менее поэма оставляет хорошее впечатление, как оригинальным характером своей музыки, самобытностью ее колорита, ее поэтической настроенностью, так и красотой музыкальных контрастов, вызванных образом программы.” 58 Ibid.: “Из современных художников, Сибелиус, как композитор, ближе всех стоит по своему вкусу, склонностям и направлению, к Римскому-Корсакову. Это та же народность в музыке, естественная, непреднамеренная, свободная, та же склонность к звуковой живописи, то же проникновение в мире сказочного, в духе древнего, и, что особенно характерно, та же фантастика и смелость в оркестровых красках. Что касается формы, то молодой Сибелиус естественно является в этом отношении разнообразнее и новее. Придерживаясь листианской формой, бóльшая часть русских программных поэм являются в своем развитии как бы картиною, сложенною из кубиков. Здесь Сибелиус ближе к Штраусу, его музыкальные рассказы – как вы нити, завиваемые один моток.” 59 Ibid.: “После первой аплодировали «с уважением», после второй – горячо и даже со прикриками «bis». Между тем, в прошлом сезоне, после исполнения «Саги», которая не уступает по яркости, красочности, своеобразности своей музыке первой и, в отдельных моментах – второй, несколькими робкаими аплодисментами и легкими ответным шиканьем ограничилась концертная оттенка творчества Сибелиуса.”

60 Sibelius wrote a list of detailed performance instructions in a letter to Järnefelt, which are included in the Critical Commentary. The reviews of Pohjolas Tochter in the Stockholm newspapers were very positive.


61 Bis. in Hufvudstadsbladet, 25 September 1907: “Pohjolas dotter, sin fonisk fantasi, af Jean Sibelius, är icke att strängt taget hänföras till programmusikens område. Innehållet af den citerade episode ur Kale vala har inspirerat Sibelius till en musikalisk utgjutelse däröfver, ej till någon slafvisk beledsagning i toner af textens innehåll. Det har snarare blott gifvit anledning till komposisionen, där Sibelius med makten af sin ingifvelse skapat en music, i hvilken han med känd djärfhet tornar upp skildring på skildring till en medryckande storhet och höjd. […] Musiken är som en lefvande återklang af Kalevalaskildringen.”

62 The critics were like-minded in praising the Symphonic Fantasy, par ticularly its imaginativeness and orchestral colorism; see, for instance, Helsingin Sanomat and Hufvudstadsbladet, 26 September 1907.

63 Pergament-Parmet’s letter to Sibelius, dated 4 February 1936 (NL, Coll. 206.28): “Ifråga om ‘Pohjolas dotter’ ville jag gärna veta, vem som skrivit den tyska dikten. [Sibelius, in lead:] Har ingen aning.”

64 Jalas’s note on his discussion with Sibelius dated 31 December 1943 (NA, SFA, fi le box 1): “Ruotsista kysyttiin, saako Pohjolan tytärtä [verb missing] nimellä ‘Nordens kvinna.’ Sanoin, ettei sitä saa tehdä, koska aihe on Kalevalasta (oik. Pohjan Neito)[.] Tätä on vaikea ymmärtää sel laisen, joka ei tunne aihetta. Pitäisi ehkä olla pieni ohjelma painettuna vaikka se itse asiassa onkin absoluuttista musiikkia.”

65 The concert hall would have been built in a planned “palace of the arts,” an enterprise that did not materialize.

66 For the sketches, see the Critical Commentary.

67 Sibelius’s letter to Carpelan, dated 26 March 1906 (NA, SFA, fi le box 120): “[…] min tid har gått till a ff ärer, sociala plikter d.v.s. lotterikom position m.m. och då jag nu har tvenne veckor ledigt måste jag med all min energi störta mig på mitt hufvudverk.”

68 The works in the program were (in order of performance and as announced in the newspapers): Richard Wagner’s “March” from Tann häuser, Ludwig van Beethoven’s Choral Fantasy Op. 80, Georges Bizet’s “Carmen Suite,” “A movement from a cello sonata” by Camille SaintSaëns’s and, as the closing number, Emmanuel Chabrier’s operetta Une éducation manquée, with the Finnish and Swedish titles Vastanaineet and Nygifta (“Newlyweds”). Melartin and Palmgren composed music for

the tableau “Wäinämöinen laittaa kanneltaan” (“Väinämöinen builds his kantele”), and Merikanto for the tableau “Daavid tanssii” (“David Dances”). The program also included “French and Swedish songs.” The entire soirée was repeated on the following day, 25 March.

69 Nya Pressen, 25 March 1906. According to Uusi Suometar (25 March 1906), the dancer in Pan’s role was “Ms Saurén.”

70 K.[arl Ekman] in Nya Pressen, 26 March 1906: “Till tablån ‘Pan och Eko’ med nymfernas dans hade tonsättaren skapat en förtjusande musi kalisk illustration med ett kort, men stämningsfullt förspel, till hvilket den luftiga, yra och högst egendomliga danskompositionen med dess inlägg i tre fjärdedels valstakt och vilda, rusande slutstretto omedelbart anslöt sig. Såsom ett tonstycke för sig skall hr Sibelius’ nyaste komposi tion värdigt föröka det antal av karaktäristiska konsertpjeser, med hvilka han redan riktat repertoaren.”

71 Lienau’s letter to Sibelius, dated 3 November 1906 (NA, SFA, fi le box 46): “Vielleicht schicken Sie mir einmal ‘Pan und Echo’ und auch die Bühnenmusik zu ‘Belsazar.’ Die Tänze werden sich gewiss gut verwerten lassen.”

72 Lienau’s letter to Sibelius, dated 6 February 1907 (RPA): “Indeed, I received the score of ‘Pan und Echo’ yesterday. It seems to be a cute little piece.” (“Die Partitur des ‘Pan und Echo’ habe ich gestern richtig erhalten. Es scheint ein hübsches kleines Stück zu sein.”) Whether Sibe lius sent the publisher an autograph score or a scribal copy of the work remains unknown.

73 For a discussion about opus number 53a, see Works related to Op. 45 above.

74 Diary, 26 January 1915: “Schnéevoigt uppfört som mellanrätt ‘Pan och eko’ (i Stockholm). Kritiken löjlig. Denna lilla bagatelle blåses upp och synas med loupen. Mikroskoperas.” Georg Schnéevoigt (1872–1947) conducted Pan und Echo in Stockholm on 17 January as the only Sibe lius number in the concert, the other works being Goldmark’s Ländliche Hochzeit and Smetana’s overture to The Bartered Bride. Sibelius probably referred to Wilhelm Peterson-Berger’s (1867–1942) critique in Dagens Nyheter on 18 January 1915.



Der vorliegende Band enthält fünf Orchesterwerke, die Sibelius zwi schen 1904 und 1910 komponierte: Die Dryade op. 45 Nr. 1, Musik zu einer Szene [op. 45 Nr. 2/1904], Tanz-Intermezzo op. 45 Nr. 2, Pohjolas Tochter op. 49 und Pan und Echo op. 53a. Eine Frühfassung des TanzIntermezzos („Tanz-Intermezzo Nr. 1“) ist in den Anhang aufgenom men. Darüber hinaus wird als Faksimile ein Fragment veröffentlicht. Es belegt den nicht realisierten Plan einer symphonischen Dichtung mit dem Titel „Luonnotar“, die Sibelius zu Pohjolas Tochter umarbeitete. Musik zu einer Szene wird hier erstmals veröffentlicht. Mit Ausnahme von Pohjolas Tochter entstanden alle Werke mit Blick auf eine choreographische Verwendung, darauf verweisen die (Unter-) Titel „Tanz-Intermezzo“ bzw. der Bezug zu Opus 45.1

Werke in Verbindung mit Opus 45

Über Chronologie und Opuszählung der Werke, die zu Opus 45 gehören oder mit diesem in Beziehung stehen, liefern die Textquellen keine sehr verlässlichen oder zweifelsfreien Informationen.2 Die fol gende Tabelle veranschaulicht den Ablauf anhand der Urau ff ührun gen und der Veröffentlichung mit den (geplanten) Opuszahlen, die bei Sibelius in den handschriftlichen Quellen und der Korrespondenz auftauchen. Aus den Pfeilen lässt sich die Abfolge von Musik zu einer Szene zum Tanz-Intermezzo op. 45 Nr. 2 ablesen.

Pan und Echo (1907) trug in den handschriftlichen Quellen die vorläu fige Opuszahl 45a bzw. 45c; letztlich wurde es als Opus 53a und mit dem Untertitel „Tanz-Intermezzo Nr. 3“ veröffentlicht.5 Die Opuszahl für Pan und Echo wurde anscheinend im Mai 1907 festgelegt, als Si belius seinem Verleger Lienau schrieb: „Also op. 53 a. Ich werde Ihnen noch ein Tanz-intermezzo (in Polonaise’n Form) geben als ,b‘.“6 Das „Tanz-intermezzo (in Polonaise’n Form)“, dessen Veröffentlichung als Opus 53b Sibelius zu diesem Zeitpunkt plante, war wohl der Cortège. 7 Die Dryade, die er Jahre nach dem Tanz-Intermezzo op. 45 Nr. 2 ab schloss und veröffentlichte, erhielt die Opuszahl 45 Nr. 1.

Die Dryade op. 45 Nr. 1 Entstehung und Veröffentlichung

Titlel / Datum der Opuszahl in Sibelius’ (geplanter) Untertitel Fertigstellung bzw. Manuskripten bzw. in seiner Uraufführung Korrespondenz (endgültige Zahl in fett)

Musik zu einer Szene 5. März 1904 (Urau ff.) –

Tanz-Intermezzo (Klav.) Frühjahr–Herbst 1904 –„Tanz-Intermezzo Nr. 1“ 1904? 35a

Cortège 30. April 1905 (Urau ff.) 35b (1905), 53b (1907) Tanz-Intermezzo(?)

Pan und Echo 24 March 1906 (Urau ff.) 45a/c 53a Tanz-Intermezzo Nr. 3

Tanz-Intermezzo Herbst 1906–Januar 1907 (rev.) 45 Nr. 2

Die Dryade 5, Februar 1910 45 Nr. 1 („Dans intermezzo“)

Musik zu einer Szene, im Frühjahr 1904 vollendet und uraufgeführt, hat keine Opuszahl, ebensowenig die bearbeitete Fassung dieser Musik für Klavier, die wahrscheinlich auch im Frühjahr 1904 abgeschlossen wurde und im Herbst unter dem Titel Tanz-Intermezzo | (Piano-Ar rangement.) erschien. Ein Manuskript der vollständigen Orchesterfas sung mit dem Titel „Tanz-Intermezzo Nr. 1“ entspricht weitgehend der Klavierfassung. Das Entstehungsdatum des „Tanz-Intermezzos Nr. 1“ ist nicht bekannt.3

Die Tabelle zeigt eine mögliche Reihenfolge ausgehend von der Vermu tung, dass Sibelius das „Tanz-Intermezzo Nr. 1“ aus den Materialien der Musik zu einer Szene zur gleichen Zeit wie die Klavierbearbeitung oder nicht lange nach ihr neu gestaltete. Die Opuszahl 35a auf dem Manuskript des „Tanz-Intermezzos Nr. 1“ unterstützt diese Datierung, denn die erhaltenen Materiale zum Cortège JS 54, das im April 1905 vollendet und uraufgeführt wurde, tragen die Opuszahl 35b. Dies legt nahe, dass Sibelius irgendwann plante, das „Tanz-Intermezzo Nr. 1“ und den Cortège unter derselben Opuszahl zusammenzufassen.4

Über die Entstehungsgeschichte der Dryade ist nicht viel bekannt. Es ist nur sehr wenig Skizzenmaterial zu dieser Komposition überliefert, und Sibelius erwähnte es in seiner Korrespondenz und in seinem Ta gebuch nicht vor dem 5. Februar 1910, dem Tag der Vollendung: „,Die Dryade‘ (Tanz-Intermezzo) fertig. Ja – Ja!“8 Die Bezeichnung „TanzIntermezzo“, die er in seinem Tagebucheintrag verwendete, verbindet das Werk eng mit den Tanz-Intermezzi aus den Jahren 1904–1907. Auch ein choreographischer Zusammenhang könnte im Hintergrund der Dryade stehen, der der Komponist jedoch letztlich den Untertitel „Tonstück für Orchester“ gab. Im Jahr zuvor, am 1. April 1909, hatte Sibelius in sei nem Tagebuch notiert, er habe von der kanadischen Tänzerin Maud Allan (1873–1956) einen Brief erhal ten. Fünf Tage später bestellte Allan bei Sibelius in einem weiteren Brief ein Ballett mit dem Titel „Das Opfer“ („The Sacri fice“).9 Sibelius’ Antwort ist nicht bekannt, aber Allans Name erschien im Tagebuch wieder im September: „Wieder Maud Allan! Ich muss wohl Musik für sie schreiben.“10 Am Ende des Jahres erwähnte er, er habe damit angefangen, „ernsthaft“ („på allvare“) an dem Ballett zu arbeiten. Dennoch schrieb er bald: „[Ich] verlasse das Ballett wegen zu we nig Ertrag für die viele Zeit.“11 Bei Sibelius liefen einige Kompositionsprojekte parallel – unter anderem die 4. Symphonie –, und er entschied sich, das Ballett aufzu geben. Dennoch vollendete er das „Tanz-Intermezzo“ Die Dryade im Februar 1910, also einen guten Monat später. Unbekannt bleibt, wieviel Musik er für das Bal lett komponiert hatte und ob er aus dem dafür vorhan denen Material etwas für Die Dryade verwendete. 1905 hatte Sibelius einen Vertrag mit dem Verlag Lienau abgeschlos sen, und obwohl dieser Vertrag 1909 ausgelaufen war, bot Sibelius Die Dryade zunächst noch Lienau an. Die Antwort war abschlägig, und Sibelius wandte sich an den Verlag Breitkopf & Härtel, der das Werk in Verbindung mit einer Bearbeitung für Klavier annahm. Am 16. Februar 1910 schickte der Komponist die Orchester- und die Klavier partitur an Breitkopf, nachdem er die Klavierbearbeitung einen oder zwei Tage zuvor abgeschlossen hatte.12 Ob diese Orchesterpartitur von Sibelius selbst geschrieben wurde, ist unklar; Sibelius’ autographe Partitur (Reinschrift) ist derzeit verschollen. Sibelius las die Korrekturfahnen zur Dryade und schickte sie im Juni an Breitkopf zurück.13 Er bat den Verlag darum, die gedruckten Mate riale sowohl zur Dryade als auch zu In memoriam op. 59 für sein Kon zert Anfang Oktober in Kristiania (Oslo) fertigzustellen: „Hoffentlich sind die vollständige Materiale fertig bis 10ten September. Ich fänge dann an zu repetieren für meine Conzerte.“14 Der Verlag lieferte dem Komponisten rechtzeitig das gedruckte Au ff ührungsmaterial: „Wir


и новее. Придерживаясь листианской формой, бóльшая часть русских программных поэм являются в своем развитии как бы картиною, сложенною из кубиков. Здесь Сибелиус ближе к Штраусу, его музыкальные рассказы – как вы нити, завиваемые один

“ 59 Ebd.: „ После первой аплодировали «с уважением», после второй – горячо и даже со прикриками «bis». Между тем, в прошлом сезоне, после исполнения «Саги», которая не уступает по яркости, красочности, своеобразности своей музыке первой и, в отдельных моментах – второй, несколькими робкаими аплодисментами и легкими ответным шиканьем ограничилась концертная оттенка творчества Сибелиуса.“

60 Sibelius verfasste in einem Brief an Järnefelt eine Liste mit detaillierten Au ff ührungshinweisen, die in den Critical Commentary aufgenommen sind. Die Besprechungen zu Pohjolas Tochter in den Stockholmer Zeitun gen waren sehr positiv.

61 Bis. im Hufvudstadsbladet vom 25. September 1907: „Pohjolas dotter, sinfonisk fantasi, af Jean Sibelius, är icke att strängt taget hänföras till programmusikens område. Innehållet af den citerade episode ur Kalev ala har inspirerat Sibelius till en musikalisk utgjutelse däröfver, ej till någon slafvisk beledsagning i toner af textens innehåll. Det har snarare blott gifvit anledning till komposisionen, där Sibelius med makten af sin ingifvelse skapat en music, i hvilken han med känd djärfhet tornar upp skildring på skildring till en medryckande storhet och höjd. […] Musi ken är som en lefvande återklang af Kalevalaskildringen.“

62 Die Kritiker lobten einhellig die symphonische Phantasie, vor allem ihren Er fi ndungsreichtum und ihre Orchesterfarben; siehe beispielsweise Helsingin Sanomat und das Hufvudstadsbladet, jeweils vom 26. Septem ber 1907.

63 Pergament-Parmet an Sibelius am 4. Februar 1936 (NL, Coll. 206.28): „Ifråga om ,Pohjolas dotter‘ ville jag gärna veta, vem som skrivit den tyska dikten. [Sibelius, in Bleistift:] Har ingen aning.”

64 Jalas’ Niederschrift des Gedankenaustauschs mit Sibelius am 31. Dezem ber 1943 (NA, SFA, Kasten 1): „Ruotsista kysyttiin, saako Pohjolan tytärtä [ein Wort fehlt] nimellä ,Nordens kvinna‘. Sanoin, ettei sitä saa tehdä, koska aihe on Kalevalasta (oik. Pohjan Neito)[.] Tätä on vaikea ymmärtää sellaisen, joka ei tunne aihetta. Pitäisi ehkä olla pieni ohjelma painettuna vaikka se itse asiassa onkin absoluuttista musiikkia.“

65 Der Konzertsaal sollte in einem geplanten „Kunstpalast“ errichtet wer den – ein Unterfangen, das nicht zustande kam.

66 Zu den Skizzen siehe den Critical Commentary.

67 Sibelius an Carpelan am 26. März 1906 (NA, SFA, Kasten 120): „[…] min tid har gått till a ff ärer, sociala plikter d.v.s. lotterikomposition m.m. och då jag nu har tvenne veckor ledigt måste jag med all min energi störta mig på mitt hufvudverk.“

68 Die Werke im Programm waren (in der Reihenfolge der Au ff ührung bzw. der Ankündigungen in den Zeitungen): Richard Wagners Tann häuser -Marsch, Ludwig van Beethovens Chorfantasie op. 80, Georges Bizets „Carmen -Suite“, „Ein Satz aus einer Cellosonate“ von Camille Saint-Saëns und als Schluss Emmanuel Chabriers Operette Une édu cation manquée unter dem fi nnischen bzw. schwedischen Titel Vasta naineet und Nygifta („Die Frischvermählten“). Melartin und Palmgren komponierten Musik für das Tableau „Wäinämöinen laittaa kanneltaan“ („Wäinämöinen baut seine Kantele“), und Merikanto schrieb für das Tableau „Daavid tanssii“ („David tanzt“). Das Programm enthielt auch „Französische und schwedische Lieder“. Die ganze Soirée wurde am fol genden Tag, dem 25. März, wiederholt.

69 Nya Pressen vom 25. März 1906. Uusi Suometar vom 25. März 1906 zufolge war „Ms Saurén“ die Tänzerin der Pan-Rolle.

70 K.[arl Ekman] in der Nya Pressen vom 26. März 1906: „Till tablån ,Pan och Eko‘ med nymfernas dans hade tonsättaren skapat en förtjusande musikalisk illustration med ett kort, men stämningsfullt förspel, till hvil ket den luftiga, yra och högst egendomliga danskompositionen med dess inlägg i tre fjärdedels valstakt och vilda, rusande slutstretto omedelbart anslöt sig. Såsom ett tonstycke för sig skall hr Sibelius’ nyaste komposi tion värdigt föröka det antal av karaktäristiska konsertpjeser, med hvilka han redan riktat repertoaren.“

71 Lienau an Sibelius am 3. November 1906 (NA, SFA, Kasten 46).

72 Lienau an Sibelius am 6. Februar 1907 (RPA): „Die Partitur des ,Pan und Echo‘ habe ich gestern richtig erhalten. Es scheint ein hübsches klei nes Stück zu sein.“ Ob Sibelius dem Verleger eine autographe Partitur oder die Abschrift eines Schreibers schickte, ist nicht bekannt.

73 Zur Diskussion über die Opuszahl 53a siehe oben Werke in Beziehung zu op. 45

74 Tagebuch, 26. Januar 1915: „Schnéevoigt uppfört som mellanrätt ,Pan och eko‘ (i Stockholm). Kritiken löjlig. Denna lilla bagatelle blåses upp och synas med loupen. Mikroskoperas.“ Georg Schnéevoigt (1872–1947) dirigierte in diesem Konzert vom 17. Januar in Stockholm Pan und Echo als einziges Sibelius-Werk; die anderen Stücke waren Goldmarks Länd liche Hochzeit und Smetanas Ouvertüre zu Die Verkaufte Braut. Wahr scheinlich bezog sich Sibelius auf Wilhelm Peterson-Bergers (1867–1942) Kritik in den Dagens Nyheter vom 18. Januar 1915.


Facsimile A

Early sketch for Pohjolas Tochter Op. 49 (staff 7 The ational Library of Finland (HUL 1548, p. [1])


Facsimile B

Draft for “Marjatta” (Pohjolas Tochter Op. 49) The ational Library of Finland (HUL 0222, p. [1])


Facsimile C

Sketches including material for Cassazione Op. 6 and Pan und Echo Op. 53a (staves 7 and 9–12)

The ational Library of Finland (HUL 0472, p. [4])


Die Dryade

Tonstück für Orchester Op. 45 No. 1


Piccolo Flauto I, II Oboe I, II Clarinetto (Bj) I, II Clarinetto basso (Bj) Fagotto I, II Corno (F) I, II, III, IV Tromba (Bj) I, II, III Trombone I, II, III Tuba Tamburino Castagnette Tamburo Gran cassa Violino I, II Viola Violoncello Contrabbasso

Die Dryade

Tonstück für Orchester

Piccolo Lento

Flauto II I

Oboe II I

Clarinetto in B II I

basso in B Clarinetto

Fagotto II I


Corno in F IV III


Tromba in B III


Trombone III





Gran cassa *

I Lento poco

Violino II




* Con bacchette di Timpani.

Op. 45 No. 1 div.


Revised edition 2022 by Breitkopf & Härtel, Wiesbaden 1910 by Breitkopf & Härtel, Leipzig ©

3 3
Cb. [unis.] cresc. poco Vc. Va.
3 cresc. pizz. arco Vl. II I 3 3 Meno lento sul G cresc. pizz. arco Gr. c. Tb. Tbn. III II I Tr. (B) III II I Cor. (F) IV III II I Fg. II I Cl. b. (B) Cl. (B) II I 3 a 2 Ob. II I a 2 3 Fl. II I a 2 3 Picc.
9 Meno lento 3
[unis.] cresc. poco
sul G cresc. pizz. arco
Cb. 3 Vc. pizz. arco Va. 3 pizz. arco Vl. II 3 pizz. arco I 3 Poco stretto pizz. a tempo arco Gr. c. Tb. Tbn. III II I Tr. (B) III II I Cor. (F) IV III II I Fg. II I a 2 3 Cl. b. (B) Cl. (B) II I 3 6 Ob. II I 3 6 Fl. II I 3 6 Picc. 18 Poco stretto a tempo 5 Leseprobe Sample page
Cb. Vc. pizz. con sord. arco Va. pizz. arco trem. Vl. II 3 pizz. trem. I 3 pizz. Un pochettino con moto trem. dim. molto Gr. c. Tamb. Tb. Tbn. III II I a 2 Tr. (B) III II a 2 I Cor. (F) IV III II I dim. un pochett. cresc. Fg. II I (a 2) Cl. b. (B) Cl. (B) II I Ob. II 3 3 I Fl. II I 3 3 Picc. 6 24 Un pochettino con moto B con sord. con sord. arco arco Leseprobe Sample page
Cb. pizz. Vc. saltato [ ] saltato Va. saltato nat. 3 [ ] saltato Vl. II saltato nat. 3 [ ] saltato I con sord. allargando 3 a tempo saltato Gr. c. Tamb. Tb. Tbn. III II I Tr. (B) III II I Cor. (F) IV III II I Fg. II I Cl. b. (B) Cl. (B) II I 3 Ob. II 3 3 I 3 Fl. II I 3 I Solo poco mezzo 3 Picc. 33 allargando a tempo 7 [ ] [ ] nat. Leseprobe Sample page
Cb. (pizz.) div. [unis.] arco Vc. Tutti (arco) saltato nat. Va. saltato nat. Vl. II saltato pizz. I Tutti Un pochettino con moto saltato allarg. nat. 3 pizz. Cor. (F) IV III IV un pochett. cresc. II I II un pochett. cresc. Ob. II 3 3 3 I Fl. II 3 3 3 I Solo poco 49 C Un pochettino con moto allarg. nat. Cb. Vc. 1 Solo pizz. Va. Vl. II Vl. I 4 Soli 8 41 Lento assai I [nat.] [nat.] [nat.] [nat.] [ ] [ ] [nat.] Leseprobe Sample page
Cb. Vc. saltato Va. saltato senza sord. trem. poco Vl. II arco saltato senza sord. trem. poco I a tempo arco saltato Un poco lento senza sord. trem. poco Poco stretto Tamb. Tbrino Tb. Tbn. III II I Tr. (B) III II I Cor. (F) IV III II I Fg. II I Cl. b. (B) Cl. (B) II I 3 Ob. II 3 I I Solo dolce cresc. cresc. molto Fl. II I (I Solo) mezzo 3 Picc. 55 a tempo D Un poco lento Poco stretto 9 Leseprobe Sample page
Cb. Vc. Va. 3 poco 3 Vl. II 3 poco 3 I 3 Poco lento poco Poco stretto 3 Tamb. Tbrino Tb. Tbn. III II I Tr. (B) III II I Cor. (F) IV III II I Fg. II I Cl. b. (B) Cl. (B) II I 3 [ ] Ob. II 3 I cresc. molto [ ] Fl. II I Picc. 10 64 Poco lento Poco stretto [ ] [ ] * See the Critical Remarks. * * Leseprobe Sample page
Cb. Vc. nat. Va. nat. 0 Vl. II nat. I Commodo nat. dolce ed espress. poco Cast. Cor. (F) IV III un pochettino cresc. II I 79 un pochettino cresc. Commodo Cb. Vc. [senza sord.] poco saltato Va. poco saltato Vl. II saltato I Stretto assai () saltato Cast. Fg. II I Cl. b. (B) Cl. (B) II I Ob. II I Fl. II I Picc. 11 E 71 Stretto assai () poco poco Leseprobe Sample page
Cb. Vc. Va. Vl. II I dim. Gr. c. Tb. Tbn. III II I Tr. III II I Cor. (F) IV III al II I Fg. II 3 I 3 Cl. b. (B) 3 Cl. (B) II 3 3 I 3 3 Ob. II 3 3 3 I 3 Fl. II 3 3 3 3 I 3 Picc. 12 87 3 F al (B) 3 Leseprobe Sample page
Cb. marcato più Vc. Va. Vl. II I dolce poco dim. Gr. c. Tb. Tbn. III II I Tr. (B) III II I Cor. (F) IV III poco crescendo II I Fg. II I poco crescendo Cl. b. (B) Cl. (B) II I II Ob. II I Fl. II I II Picc. 93 13 poco crescendo Leseprobe Sample page
Cb. * See the Critical Remarks. Vc. poco dim. Va. poco dim. 3 Vl. II poco dim. I Poco a poco stringendo * 3 Gr. c. Tb. Tbn. III II I Tr. (B) III II I Cor. (F) IV III II I Fg. II I 3 Cl. b. (B) Cl. (B) II I 3 [ [ ] ] a 2 3 Ob. II I 3 3 Fl. II I Picc. 14 101 G Poco a poco stringendo * 3 Leseprobe Sample page
Cb. pizz. Vc. pizz. Va. pizz. Vl. II pizz. I pizz. Vivace Gr. c. Tb. Tbn. III II I Tr. (B) III II I Cor. (F) IV III dim. molto II I Fg. II I Cl. b. (B) Cl. (B) II I I Ob. II I Fl. II I Picc. 15 107 Vivace dim. molto [] [] Leseprobe Sample page
Cb. Vc. Va. 3 arco 3 Vl. II I 3 arco 3 Cl. (B) II I (I) 3 3 3 a 2 3 Ob. II I a 2 3 Fl. II I a 2 3 123 3 arco 3 [] Cb. Vc. Va. Vl. II I Fg. II I Cl. b. (B) Cl. (B) II I (I) I Ob. II I Fl. II I Picc. 16 115 H Leseprobe Sample page

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