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BRAZIL UPDATE WEEKLY Distribuidor Exclusive da Rede Globo Adquira a sua assinatura pelo telefone:

(212) 819-9078 Brazil Update, trazendo o Brasil ate voce! 37 West 43rd Street NEWS from BRAZIL路 MARCH 1995


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139 Brighton Ave. Allston, MA 02134 NEWS from BRAZIL- MARCH 1995

National Product. . Brazilians don't remember hav­

are big lines of people waiting. Feel

Listen to the people on the streets.

the air. There is a current of excite­

They talk about faith and the pride of

ment made up with a World Cup cham­

being Brazilian. Listen to the factories'

pionship victory, a new government, a

ing a sunnier summer than this. Look

machines buzzing along as never be­

sense that corruption in public life is being adequately dealt with. Touch

at the beaches. The little sand terri­

fore, many times running at full capac­

tory left is being disputed by three,

ity. Listen to the bustle at the malls.

our pride. Right now, we even have an

four newcoming colorful parasols.

They are crowded. People might not be

author who is France's number one

The hotels are full, the roads are

rich overnight, but they are spending

best -seller.

jammed. Look at the numbers: an

more freely.

What about misery, injustice, un­

1.5% monthly rate of inflation down

Smell the fresh fruit on the street

equal distribution of wealth? We will

from 50% just a few months ago, a

comers and the hot food just being

take care of this tomorrow. Today we

continuous 5% growth of our Gross

prepared in the restaurants where there

celebrate hope.




Coyer 1001 reasons to be happy

Nine by Fernando Sabino




New president is no

Nelson Pereira dos Santos for export

popularity champion

18 What now, Lula?

20 Under the tequila effect

23 Winchell's mission in Rio

36 Cover by Aylan Francesco


Should pot be legal?


Rapidinhas 14 Letters 45 Brazilian Notas

Travel A land of dinosaurs and cangaceiros



The Cultural Pulse 47


The Jews from Rio

Por ai 49 Classifieds 50

U.S.A. Calendar 52

That's 6xente music

54 What black power?

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MARCH 1995


RRPIDINHRS When Patria Minha

(Country ofMine), Globo TV network's prime-time nove/a (soap足 opera), started some few months ago, it seemed like a sure-fire hit. It had unscrupulous rich people, virtuous poor, conniving social climb足 ers and plenty of sex. And it was written by Gilberto Braga the darling of the new wave of the nove/a genre. The story, however, didn't work, rates went down, star Vera Fisher and her real-life husband were fired for insubordination, and their characters were dispatched in a hotel fire, as witches were burned during the Inquisition. Rates sank even lower. For Globo now, the sooner all of this ends the better. They have already found the country's savior. His name is Sflvio de Abreu, another soap-opera luminary. His novela starts March 13. It's called A Proxima Vitima

(/'he Next Victim). Hoping it is not Abreu himself. In order to make their crime more humane, some of Rio's kidnappers are now giving their prospective victims a chance to pay their ransom before being abducted. That's what happened to psychiatrist Domingos Elpidio Russo, who owns a $500,000 apartment in Ipanema. His would-be abductors called him with an ultimatum: sell the flat and give us $300,000 if you want to


avoid being kidnapped. They had thought through everything and had even placed an apartment for-sale ad in the newspapers. It was Russo's property, naturally If Justice Minister Nelson Jobim had been a little more patient he could have been spared some embarrassment. He rushed to thank a group of Krikati Indians when they finished their song & dance number. Then came the translation: the Indians were furious with the government, and their show was an expression of protest. California prosecutor Dan Lungren is bringing suit against World Rio Corp, a San Diego company that distributes the Rio Hair Naturalizer System. The product is a hair softener that prom足 ises smooth and lustrous hair with a touch of Amazon magic. More than 15,000 people have already joined in the suit, alleging everything from green hair to baldness after using the product. Some swear they will never again use anything from Brazil. March 10, Brazilians get a new network TV. It is the Rede Vida (Life Network) owned by the Catholic church. Ini足 tially, only people in Brasilia. Belo Horizonte, Curitiba, Florian6polis and Porto Alegre, as well as the 2 million Brazil


ians with a satellite dish, will be able to tune in. There are plans to invest $20 million in the system until the end of the year and cover all the states in three years. The new network already has its nove/a: Irma Catarina (Sister Catarina). Editora Brasiliense is preparing the release of

Dossie dos Mortos e Desaparecidos (Dossier of the Dead and Disap­ peared) for this May.

The document is a recounting of the people that were killed and vanished during the 20 years of military dictatorship. According to new information, 156 were killed and 152 disappeared during that period. The families of all of those persecuted intend to file a lawsuit against the government asking for indemnifica­ tion. A strong candidate to win a $6-billion contract with the Pentagon for 712 training planes is the Super Tucano EMB312 H, manufactured by Brazil's Embraer in cooperation with American Northrop. Brazil has chosen the US as the supplier for the equipment needed for the Amazon Surveil­ lance System (SIVAM), and for the Brazilian authorities the right thing to do now would be to reciprocate the confidence. Brazil still hasn't been banned from the international film festival circuit. Sergio


Rezende's Lamarca is being shown at the Istanbul Festival in

Mareh and Cad

Diegues's eJa Esta Canr;iio is commg to the Washington Festival,


which will take place from April 26 to May 7. Between March 4 and 6, the Riofilme will be strutting iW stuff at the Location Export. 95, part of Hollywood's Ameri­ can Film Market. President Fernando Henrique Cardoso will be in Washington on April 20 and 21. There

are all kinds of signs that he will be received as a most valuable player by Bil l Clinton, with honors such as a parade, a stroll through the White House garden and the right to make a speech. Cardoso will begin his trip in New York, where he will visit the United Nations.

People is readying a long

article on LUcia Flecha de Lima, the wife of the' Brazilian ambassador in Washington. It will not be the first time de Lima has appeared in the pgtes of People. It happens every time princess Diana visits the capital and stays with the Brazilian couple. This time, however, a Lima is the cover story. Brazilians all over the world are helping their country maintain a strong currency. It's estimated that this year Brazilians living over­ seas will send $3 billion to Brazil. In 1993, they sent $1.9 billion and increased this amount to 2.4 billion in 1994.


Nobody can wipe that smile or that laugh off a Brazilian's face. Brazil hasn't ddenly umped from hird to first world citizenshi uti at th n the it sometimes seems like that's what has really happened. Beaches are crowded, factories are buzzing, people have money, the sun is brighter. And it's no dream. It's Brazil, model95.


organized crime. Most of the bicheiros(bosses of the illegal num­ bers' game known asjogo do bicho) are in jail. ummer world capital- Rio is expecting 1.5 million tourists

this summer- a season that ends later this month - 20% more than last year. Six hundred thousand will be foreign­ ers who have started to go back to what for decades had been their favorite Brazilian destination. If

the estimates of the European Union

are on target, the contribution of

According to him. many of the changes are due to the psychological effect of the mili­

Tile Carioca, who invented footvolley and beach soccer in the

is much more than psychology in action here. The new statistics are in and they are encouraging. According to the Coroner's

and innovative sports such as beach basket and kayak-polo, which are

tary presence. It seems, however, that there

Office, the average number of murders has fallen from 18 to 11 a day, a toll no worse

than in any other big city in the world. Police have also announced a 15% decrease in rob­ beries, except for bank holdups. Rio's summer has always set the pace for other summers in Brazil or overseas. The tanga and the flo dental (dental floss) were created there. It was no different this year. Clothes and swimwear with big-flower prints

are out. This year, Rio has decreed that bikinis have to have lacinhos (little bows),

tourism to the Brazilian GNP will soon rise to 21% ($60 billion). Sergio Nogueira, president of ABA V, is predicting, "This will be

beach hats must be Australian, and the coolest arrangement for your hair is the trancinha indiana (Hindu braid) And the latest beach craze is the "banana boat," an inflatable

of 1987." According to the presi­ dent of the Association of Tourism Hotels, Alvaro Bezerra de Mello,

water while. being dragged by a speedy boat.

our best season since the summer

"the Carioca spirit is more ignited than ever" and what is happening is

just the beginning of a process of

past, this year came up with new

being introduced to the world dur­

ing the Festival Olimpico d<fVerao (Summer Olympic Festival), a huge

gathering in Copacabana beach where 22 different sport competi­ tions are being held with 800 par­ ticipants from 17 countries. The Paulista (from Sao Paulo) has also made his contribution to lhe world of sports by installing in Guaruja the first Brazilian court for trybol,

a spicy volleyball played with three nets that form a Y, in which three

players of three teams have as the ultimate goal making the ball touch the sand.

The Bahianos

are also at it

banana that jumps hallucinatedly over the

again. It seems the party never stops

Even in the musical arena, just recently taken over by the Bahianos (from Bahia

on any given day, you can see doz­ ens, sometimes hundreds of people

gue. The rage among nightclubs is Circus, a

dance m a n i a f rom Bahia, the /ambaer6tica, as the name implies,

state) and their rhythms, Rio is back at the top with Brazilian flavored salsa and meren­

there either. Anytime, day or night,

on the beach practicing the latest

revival for the city. Ruben Cesar Fernandes, the man behind Viva Rio, a movement for

house that on Sundays rewards its young clients with a foam bath while they swing to the sounds of rap. The amount of foamy

a lambada with a stronger dose of eroticism than the original one. The new addition here is the amount of

population feels that the principle

of the liquid contained in a full olympic-size

the dance requires. Enthusiastic about tourism's effervescence,

revitalizing the city, suggests, "The of authority has been restored." 10

water thrown at the dancers is the equivalent

swimming pool.

mutual esfregar;iio (rubbing) that


Paulo Gaudenzzi, Bahia's Secre­ tary of Culture and Tourism ex­ claims, "This summer, Brazil is exorci 10 of crises." �-� ... ,mg back the

-The south of Brazil had become the choice spot for v ac a t i o n i n g m i d d le-c l a s s Argentineans. With their currency worth more than Brazilian money, Brazil's neighbors to the south had been invading Rio Grande do Sui and Santa Catarina every summer. This didn't help the old rivalry between the two countries, and many Brazilians had been com­ plaining that Argentineans had in­ flated the prices of hotels and other amenities, leaving only the worse and cheapest accommodations for the domestic tourist. The situation has now reversed. The super real (real is the new Brazilian currency) has been 15% stronger than the dollar for some time now. So, when at end of last year 40% of the

perated their share of the market, which had eroded with the invasion of cheaper, no­ name softdrink. Coca is back to 41% of the softdrink market, while Pepsi recuperated its meager 6%. On another front, big screen TVs have doubled their percentage in the

institutions, Brazil will have a yearly 5% growth for the next five years, taking the country's GNP to $700 billion. Frigidaire and Chrys­ ler, companies that had left the country during bad times, are re­

market to the detriment of smaller sets. Brazil's GNP (Gross National Product) experienced a growth of almost 5% in 1993 and 1994. A survey among Brazilian execu­ tives by Arthur Andersen, a US consulting firm, shows that 98% are very optimistic about 1995 and confident that the GNP will increase 4.5% this year as projected by the government. Not without reason. During the

turning full of plans All sectors seem to have good news. Computer companies grew 20% in 1994 and are expected to increase another 30% this year. The auto industry that celebrated a record 1994, selling 14% more cars than the previous year, should in­ crease another 10% in 1995. TV set manufacturers are having a hard

18th Salao do Autom6vel (Auto Fair) at the end of 1994, there were 600 thousand visi­ tors. Not looky loos, either. They snapped up thousands and thousands of vehicles, includ­ ing 7,500 imports. There were also plenty of buyers at the 13th Bienal do Livro (Book Fair), where $66 million in books were sold -this in a country where the per capita consumption of books has been $6 a year (it's $89 in the US). A consumerism fever- Economists are talking about a ''new cycle of development." Some analyst are even dusting off a word that had been buried at f er the 70s: miracle.

time meeting the demand, after having sold 7.5 million units in 1994, a 15% increase compared to the year before. Bicycle manufac­ turers sold 4.2 million units last year, surpassing the most optimis­ tic forecasts. Many Brazilian industries are


The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and

working at almost full capacity. Automobile, steel and paper pro­ ducers, for example, are above 90% of their capacity. Less than two years ago, the average was 56%. Lupo, the biggest sock producer in

Gaucho and Catarinense hotels were canceled, the scare was a brief one. Soon, Brazilians them­ selves took all the empty

the World Bank are betting on the best of times. According to a joint study by both

the country, had to suspend all new orders last November because they



were not able to meet the de­ mand, despite the fact that the machines were working full steam, 24 hours a day. In an­

rooms. Last year, 40% of ho­ tels guests in Florian6polis (Santa Catarina capital) were Brazilian. This summer, Bra­ zilians represent 70% of all

other show of economic vital­ ity, today, Brazil is behind only the US and Japan in its number

customers. The economists have an ex­

50,000 new ones opened from

pression to describe the pro­

1988 to 1993.

cess Brazilians are going through-they are just living the rewards of the "small plea­

To keep the momentum from losing steam, Brazilian

sures industry." They still don't have the money to buy that car

keep inflation below 30% a

they have been coveting for year, much less a house, but they can ·afford the luxury of

ginning of '94 it was running 40%a month. Foreigners seem to believe that this goal will be

going to a movie, a restaurant, and the beach.

reached. According to Ernst & Young, a consulting firm, Bra­

In contrast with their coun­ terparts in other industrialized countries, the Brazilian con­ sumers for years were more interested in low prices than in

zil today ranks 5th place in the best nations for investment. At the beginning of the year, Brazil's embassy in Washing­ ton already had more than $20

the brand or even the quality of the product. With more in

application to the country from


f ranchises.



money authorities intend to year (remember that at the be­

billion in pledges for direct

their pockets, however, they are again listening to advertisers. Put in economic jargon, Brazilians are in a time of

In 1994, foreign investment in Brazil didn't exceed $2 bil­

"uptrading." Coca Cola and

sis. the Brazilian stock market

Pepsi, for example, have recuNEWS from BRAZIL· MARCH 1995

American private companies.

lion. Despite the Mexican cri­ Lan


Jornal do Brastl

continues to be one of the most 11

profitable in the world.

was the world champion

Companies in gen­

in the acq_uisition of ISO

eral have increased pro­

9000s, the quality stamp

duction to 79%. After a record year with 76 mil­

Organization for Standard­

lion tons of products, the

ization to only the best

given by the International

agricultural sector pro­

companies of any indus­

mises at least a repeat

trial sector that meet the

performance for 1995.

exacting criteria of the

Multinational compa­

ISO. Only four years ago

nies are investing in new

the grand total of Brazil­

equipment and expan­

ian companies with ISO


9000s was 17. At the end



Ford, after ending its

of 1994 this number had

alliance with Volks­

skyrocketed to 460. It's



true that the US has 4.500

spend $2 million a day

firms with the guarantee

in production; Kodak,

seal, and Japan, 4000. But

which has reserved $20

neighboring Argentina, a


million for moderniza­

closer match to Brazil's



economy, has 30 times

wants to apply the same

fewer of these interna­

amount to buy new ma­

tional certificates.


chinery; and French cos­

In the newly founded

metic giant L'Oreal,

Mercosul, the South Ame­

which plans on building

rica common market, Bra­

its second factory in the

zil is the locomotive, rep­

country, at a cost of $22

resenting almost 80% of


territory, population and

Does Brazil have a

commercial activity of the

chance to do things right

alliance uniting the coun­

this time, after so many

try to Argentina, U ruguay

failed economic plans?

and Paraguay. But North

Yes, says Stephen Ka­

America also seems inter­

nitz, an economics pro­

ested in taking part in the

fessor at USP (U niver­

new Brasil of opportuni­

sity of Sao Paulo), who

ties. In January, 310 Ca­


nadian authorities and ex­

has just released

ecutives visited the coun­

Brasil que Da Certo, o Novo Cicio de Cres­ cimento (The Brazi I that Makes it, a New Cycle of Development), a book about the new accomplishments of the country. According to Kanitz, the situation to­ day is very different from the eco­

last year. At the end of November,

To be honest, the scenery isn't rosy

nomic miracle of the 70's. While at

97% of the population were fastening

all over. The chasm between they very

try with a special stop in Rio, where they intend to invest $350 million in min­ pulsory use of the seat belt. The law

ing, energy and telecommunications.

requiring drivers from Sao Paulo to

They were implementing a project

use the equipment was passed only

called "Canada comes to Rio".

that time the policy was to produce for

their seat belts. Compare this to the

rich and the very poor continues to

the top 10% of the population, today

US. Here less than 65% comply with

widen and the statistics are frighten­

the main thrust of the new industrial­

the law.

ing. While in the industrialized coun­

ization are popular products.


Good news can be seen around every comer. In 1994, Brazil eradi­


tries the population difference between


the richest 20% and the poorest 20% is

i t h

around 6%, in Brazil the discrepancy


cated polio. During that same year,


Brazilians smoked 20% fewer ciga­


still live in fave/as



around the big cities, occupying 1.6


million euphemistically termed "non­

rettes than the previous year, that is, 77.5 billion units instead of 96.9 bil­




is 21 times. Almost 7 million people (slums), mostly

lion, or 484 cigarettes a year per capita

Brazil too. The Japanese Union of

compared to 605 in 1993. Despite their

Scientists Engineers has placed the

But this article is intended to show

bad reputation in matters of law and

Brazilian industry in second place,

the long way Brazilians and their in­ dustries have come in the last few

conventional residencies."

order, Brazilians have shown they can

behind Japan, thanks to the quality

be more civilized than the so-called

revolution that products made in Bra­

years. Sometimes Brazilians them­

First World. An example is the com-

zil have experienced. In 1994, Brazil

selves have a hard time believing the


. NEWS from BRAZIL· MARCH 1995

facts. Do you know, for example, and

the world. N ow, Fo/ha de Siio Paulo,

do yo"u believe that the second most

a slick daily, has been advertising its

popular imported wine in the US is

supremacy vis-a-vis the United States

made in Brazil? Marcus James, a wine from Bento Gon9alves, state of Rio

and American newspapers. In one ad, the copy reads, "United States: 100


Grande do Sui, outsells such house-

million more readers. A GNP

hold names as Italian Bolla and Cella and Portuguese Matheus, losing only

bigger and only two newspapers big­ ger than Folha." After an intelligent

($6 million) market­

to Italian Riunite. The feat is a mar-

and millionaire

keting and ingenuity coup f r o m

ing campaign that week after week, in

Vinicola Aurora, which has tailored the product to satisfy the American

the Sunday edition of the paper, Folha

taste (with low alcoholic content and a

de Siio Paulo boosted its circulation to

fruity flavor) and pocketbook (it costs


sections, inserted a whole Atlas into

more than

1,400,000 copies. Only The

New York Times and the Los Angeles

In another show of the First World

Times surpass Folha in the States. The

bowing to Brazil, Cointreau, the fa-

Pau/ista pa per has now adopted the

logo "The biggest newspaper in the mous French liqueur, seems to have - · �ws ��from an ill fu��B hemi� here" ;ra D � s �� � ���� � lowly caipirinha (a sugar-

���i ;._


rita). Sales of France's dar­ ling alcoholic infusion had been falling dramatically in Cointreau's manufacturers decided to take drastic action through a multinational ad campaign that sang the vir­ cai pi­

rinha "(inPortuguese to boot) in which the Brazilian con­ tribution is acknowledged. The campaign immediately gave Cointreau back

40% of


mist), a book written, you


guessed, by a Brazilian. The


their lost imbibers. The national pride has no limits, and it seems to extend to all fields. Right now the number one best-seller in France, the land of Pascal, Stendhal, Proust and Sartre � L 'Alchimiste (The Alche­

author of that particular feat is an ex-rock composer and sor cerer

namedPaulo Coelho. The fact that Coelho - for years on

(213) 613-0943 (310) 641-4894 (714) 668-1175 (714) 668-0515 - Espanol

the last f e w years until

tues of "Cointreau



cane-liquor-based marga­


Mt.t.MMSTA 0 f \Li� LVN/'....R ...






$539 $485 $649 $649 $530 $449 $459 .-





$676 $676 $722

Brazil's best-selling lists - has constantly been massacred by Brazilian critics fails to tar­ nish the luster of this triumph.


Brazil, the eighth largest world economy, is already


the land of the fourth largest TV network, Globo, sur­ passed only by her American sisters. The country also has Veja, with its more than one million copies a week, the fifth largest newsweekly in NEWS from BRAZIL- MARCH 1995



West Baker St. - Suite Costa Mesa, CA 92626


3 13


are p ty o available, good­ looking young men. Why would we want to go out with any of you? Money maybe? We can make our own, thank you. Youn� women are sick of being ogled by men old enough to be our fathers. We are not prizes or accessories. We w ant partners who look at us as more than a body. We want respect, equal partnership and unconditional love, which, obvwusly, you are not mature enough to give.. That IS why, until you all get your slut to­ gether, you won't f ind a good woman to share your life with. Fortunately there are many men who look behind the surface. Those have no shortaoe of women and do not have to place "'ads. Face it, boys, you are not God's gif t to women Debora Jackson + Giselle S eleneUo Alexandria, Virginia

:I#I:J�-scur!111:1:t; In Letters (News from Brazil

- Janu­

Joao Gianvito enquired about the way to find Glauber Rocha's films and videos. One option would be to call Joao Rocha M. VIanna, tel.: (021) 2276068, in Rio.

ary 1995)

Joilo M. Viamra Long Beach, Califomia


I have eame aout your pubhcatwn


t1e InternatiOnal Child Resource Institute (ICRI) Brazil Project, we would like to address the contro­ versy generated by the January 1995 issue which covered the situation of underage girls sexually exploited in Brazil. We agree that mainstream med1a tend to highlight the more notorious problems of Brazil -- and indeed of other developing countries. As an orga­ nization however, we promote mterna­ tional a�areness of the situation of street children and seek to identify local grassroots organizations working to provide street children with better op­ portunities in life. We are encouraged by recent devel­ opment in Brazil. New Jaws des1gned to protect street children and the emer­ gence of many street children advocate groups show that Brazil is ready to counteract the attitude of denial, wl1ich allowed the situation of poor children and other marginal groups to deterio­ rate so far. We hope News from Brazil will continue to cover important social issues, contributing to ilie bettennent of Brazilian society at large. Caius Brandilo I Chuck P}ISter Berkeley, Califomia


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Danger zone That was a very short honeymoon. It took the new Brazilian President less than four weeks to drop 34o/o in the popularity thermometer. His disastrous predecessor took three months to reach this mark. And even President Bill Clinton hasn't fallen that much after a two-year self-destructive presidency.

EMERSON LU[S Despite his European charm, his captivating smile, his sociologi­ cal studies and diplomas, his ease in talking to students and scientists all over the world, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, the Brazilian Presi­ dent, is no Mr. Congeniality and is far from being a crowd-pleaser. With his cool demeanor, he seems like a wiser version of George Bush. He was ushered to the highest post in the land on the coattails of the Plano Real, his brainchild during his term as Finance Minister in the previous administration. The plan is working, and thanks to it, inflation has fallen from 40% a month to 1.5%. But as precipitously as inflation falls, so does the popularity of Cardoso, dropping more than 30% in less than 30 days in office (from 70% to 36%). according to Datafolha, a polling firm from newspaper Folha de Siio Paulo. If he could, the President would probably erase his first month in the Palacio do Planalto. The blunders and misunderstandings started during the inauguration ceremonies on January 1. Due to the inauguration's date, only 10 chiefs of state went to Brasilia. But even without the international leaders to pay attention to, Cardoso, accord­ ing to many of his Brazilian guests, wasn't overly courteous to governors and other authorities who were present at the ceremonies. During the dinner reception at Itamaraty (the Foreign Relation Ministry), the President stayed isolated in a room most of the time. His evasiveness was attributed to back pains (he has undergone acupuncture and massages in the past to alleviate the problem). His cabinet would soon get into trouble. Sergio Motta, Commu­ nications Minister, took office with an inflammatory speech, accus­ ing those who preceded him in the post during the '80s of using it for their own political advantage. All-powerful Antonio Carlos MagalMes, former Bahia governor. ex-Minister of Communications and close ally of Cardoso, felt offended. And the President had to intervene personally to appease the parties. That same day, Health Minister Adib Jatene and Federal Admin­ istration Secretary Bresser Pereira entered into a public fight over job security for public workers. While Pereira defended the end of guaranteed employment, Jatene wanted to preserve it. Once again Cardoso had to light the peace pipe himself. Another faux pas from the President occurred when he gathered his political counsel for the first time and failed to invite to the meeting the leaders of the PTB (Brazilian Laborite Party), PL 16


(Liberal Party) and the PP, all of them new "Neither the President nor his cabi­ punishment too severe for the net are circus acrobats who do pirou­ allies. The bungle provoked immediate pro­ crime." He criticized those tests. Soon afterward, a small group of sena­ ettes, get applause, and disappear back­ whom he classified as propo­ tors - some at the end of their mandates stage," concluded Cardoso. Fernando nents of "failuremania," the defied the President by delaying the confir­ Henrique, even before being inaugu­ same people, acc.ording t9 him, rated, had asked people to be patient mation of Persio Arida, the presidential choice who characterized thereal plan and not to expect the surprises and for the Central Bank presidency. The move as an electoral plot and now miracle plans presented in previous profoundly irritated Cardoso, who sent a stern "try to scare the country with administrations. response, "I don't accept pressures the same the ghost of the Mexican cri­ way I don't like to apply pressure." Commenting on the President's sis." As for the minimum wage, own impatience with the population, All of this happened in the first week of he argued that such an increase the new administration, provoking this com­ newsweekly Veja wrote at the begin­ would ruin the nation's wel­ ment from Gaucho (from Rio Grande do Sui) fare system, causing a $6-bi1ning of February, "Any politician genuinely willing to deal with the Bra­ senator Pedro Simon, "Fernando Henrique is lion hole in the budget. Trying to assuage spirits, FHC has also lucky that these incidents occurred now, be­ zilian problems will have to face un­ popularity for a prolonged time. In cause it will allow him to take control of the announced that Cardoso and situation." Fernando Henrique's case, the trouble his ministers would take a vol­ is that the administration has barely Only two days after the release of the untary cut of 2 5% in their sala­ begun and people are already doubt­ Datafolha survey showing his low standing ries until the minimum wage ing his willingness to fight." reaches the $115 level. with the population, Cardoso, worried about • his image, went on national television and radio to ex­ plain the two main topics at the root of his unpopularity: the planned sanction of an amnesty project for Hum­ berto Lucena, a senator who had been impeached by the 81. Supreme Electoral Court for having illegally used the Fax Senate's printing facilities, and the planned veto to a legislation raising the mini­ mum wage to $115. To complicate the situa­ tion, the president's own sal­ ary and those of the members of Congress had been raised 2 20% to a level of $13,000 a month for the President and almost $12,000 for the legis­ lators. With the new salaries announced, it was impossible to avoid a scandal. While in legislators make $120,000 annually in the US, half of this in France, and one quar­ ter that amount in Switzer­ land, Brazilian congressmen will be receiving $140,000, 42 times the salary of a leg­ islator in India, a country much closer to Brazil in eco­ nomic makeup than the first­ ..CERTAIN RESTRICTIONS APPLY! .. world nations cited above. In his 11 -minute address, Representing: VASP, VARIG, AMERICAN, the President told Brazilians LADECO, LAN CHILE, LACSA, that he had received hundreds AEROLINEAS ARGENTINAS, AERO PERU of letters asking him to veto the amnesty to Lucena, but AND UNITED AIRLINES. that despite public sentiment he had opted to do otherwise in order to avoid "a grave conflict between powers the Justice which had forbidden a senator from running for reelection and the Con gress which considered the .� --------'


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Identity •

CriSIS The PT celebrated its 15th anniversary February 10. A mix of leftist workers, intellectuals and Catholics formed to fight the military regime, the Workers' Party is on a crossroads. Although one of the biggest parties in the Congress, its members don't talk the same language anymore. KATHERYN GALLANT Formed fifteen years ago in the industrial Silo Paulo suburb of Silo Bernardo do Campo by a coalition of trade union activists, intellectuals, and other leftists, the Work­ ers' Party (PT) now finds itself at the turning point. Their leader, the former metalworker Luiz Imicio Lula da Silva, has lost two presidential elections in a row. However, the PT has enlarged its delegations in both houses of Congress. It has also, for the first time, sent two of its members to live

in the governor's mansions in Brasilia and in Vit6ria, Espirito Santo. But a conflict about electoral tactics that contributed to the two gubernatorial victories may end up splitting the party. A construction firm, Norberto Odebrecht, gave a total of close to $300,000 to the successful gubernatorial campaigns of Cristovam Buarque (PT -- Distrito Federal) and Vitor Buaiz (PT --­ Espirito Santo). Odebrecht is in charge of building the Brasilia subway system, which came under suspicion during the administration of the previous governor, Joaquim Roriz (PP -- Distrito Federal). Although the PT decided to return Odebrecht's contribution, some Brazilians are now wondering whether the PT has chosen to become more like other political parties in ,order to win. In an interview with Elio Gaspari for the Porto Alegre newspaper Zero Hora, Lula has stated that despite the crisis in PT ranks caused by the Odebrecht affair, he would accept money from businesses in future elections. Says Lula, "I think that there was a political foolhardiness in that matter, since the denunciation didn't come from our opponents, but from within the PT itself. It was the impression of wrongdoing, when we acted within the most complete legality. We need to open other ways of fundraising." "From the viewpoint of the activists' enthusi­ asm, it's obvious that it was a mistake," Governor Buarque said about the Odebrecht affair in an interview published in the newspaper Folha de Silo 18


Paulo. "The PT is a party where the

activists demand not only ethical be­ havior, but purity. Receiving money from businesses shattered the purity." Some PT activists view the Odebre­ cht affair as a portent that their party is selling out on its principles. At best, the P'I'woul<l f'md it much harder to take the moral high ground, and at worst, it could become as much a gang of thieves as those it has historically opposed. There are even rumors that there could be a schism within the PT, but all is calm� so far. PT members will now have a mag­ netic card, similar. to an ATM card, in order to prove membership and pay dues. This may sound strange to US voters, wliO can join a political party merelyby checking a box on the voter re�stration form. Lula adlnits, "We were asharil.ed to ask for financial help from our poorest members, but Bishop Edir Macedo [the head of the Univer­ sal Church of the Kingdom of God, which demands tithes from even the most im�verished faithful] has shown that's pure nonsense.'' The mQnthly dues, however, will be on a sliding scale. Lula would like to have members who earn up to five times the minim'@} wage (around $70) to pay $12 a montll. Those who earn betwec�n five to ten titnes the minimum wage contnbute $25 a month, while more au•uo;;;,m members would liave to pay at least monthly In another break with tradition, the tional headquarters of the PT will be ferred fr�lJ! S!Jo Paulo to Brasilia. Says L "We have to reduce the space between elected congressional delegation and the lated management which sometimes acts tesponds only by arrangement. We're a lo bigger than that." Despite liis defeat in the presidential tions last October. Lula is upbeat. Reversing his posjtion during the campaign, Lula now says tfiat the real i s "good mo.ney.''"But an economic plan is much more than that," he adds. He advocates rais­ ing the minimum wage to$120a month,aswell as preserving retire­ .ment pensio.ns. (Inci­ dentally, LUia believes that women, who usu­ ally end up working double shifts at home and in the workplace, should be allowed to .



retire after 30 years of being in the work force, while men should retire after the more usual 35 years.) He does not think that Brazil will have an economic crisis of the type that Mexico is currently suffering. "Inflation can­ not come back," Lula insists. ''We have to guarantee economic stabil­ ity." Lula even has some kind words about President Fernando Henrique Cardoso: "He's better than his prede­ cessors. His political history is better than those of Samey, Collor, or I tamar. Also, he has a great intellectual foun­ dation. He has a long history of friend­ ship spread throughout Brazil. He has an unprecedented opportu­ nity, but he shouldn't fool himself about the success of Itamar Franco, a nitwit for whom things turned out OK. Fernando Henrique has a big respon­ sibility, because he united the country at a moment of extraordinary opportu­ nity. He has all the trump cards in his hand." However, Lula also has some res­ ervations about Fernando Henrique. "I'm afraid that he's made political agreements which he won't easily get out of. Those agreements are going to be a pebble in his shoe when he deals with the social question. I also think he won't be able to govern like a professor, as if Brazilian society were a <:lass at the University of S:to Paulo." Lula is suspicious of the "unnecessary concessions" that Cardoso made when se­ lecting Cabinet ministers. He even disap­ proves of PelC's new job, Extraordinary Minister of Sports. "Fernando Henrique Cardoso has headed for the road of selling images. The choice of Pele is an echo of Collor. Pele is a great athlete and a great celebrity, but his position in the govern­ ment is that of a superpersonality in a mini department. His ministry is nonexistent" The tum to the right in the PT may continue to attract voters. For every disgruntled leftist who contemplates leaving the party, at least two more centrists are more will­ ing to vote for PT candi­ dates, even if the voters show no interest in beco­ ming PT members. Lula seems to be betting on this strategy. Acting as Cardoso's loyal oppo­ sition may get the results which continual grum­ bling was unable to at­ tain. • 19

Ch1co Caruso


0 Globo

The day after The Mexican economic fiasco seems to be a blessing to the Brazilian economy, even though it almost became a catastrophe. Brazil is relieved and grateful for the hard fesson. CARLOS E DA FONSECA BARRETO


Brazil is not Mexico. That, at least, was the message the Brazilian Central Bank was trying to send to the international business community soon after the eruption of the Mexican financial crisis. Since then, the Central Bank has been showing that its exchange and monetary policies are primarily intended to reduce tlie deficit of Brazil's trade bal­ ance. If Brazil is not Mexico, it's not an island either. In the vivid image of Jo�o Sayad, former Planning Minister, "As in a slapstick, we all had our faces dirtied with cake and Clinton got a Kleenex to clean them, but he didn't do a thorough job." To another former Minister, Delfim Neto, Brazil got lucky this time for having Mexico taking the fall. "Brazil didn't have the time to do the same stupidity," he said. The crisis in Mexico s financial market has shaken •

every emerging economy in Latin America.In Brazil, the stock market fell to record levels since the adop­ tion in June '94 of the real plan. The "tequila hang­ over," as it has been called, caused the Sao Paulo stock exchange to drop 11% and the Brazilian debt bond to fall 27.7%. The record lows made the Eco­ nomic Ministry stafftake a closer look at the real plan and adjust its current route for the following years.


According to Carlos Langoni, former president of the Central Bank, "Every international market will be looking at Brazil's foreign reserves and its trade bal­ ance." A trade deficit is a consequence of an accelerated growth that causes increased imports backed by an over valued curr�ncy. In Brazil, the imports have been the vital price anchor of the real plan and the Ministry of Economy is preparing to slow down the economic growth by keeping the interest rates high, containing the de­ mand. The chaos in Mexico started when Financial Minis­ ter Jaime Serra Puche, in an attempt to contain the massive outflow of international capital, adopted on December 20 a 15% increase in the fluctuation of the peso against the dollar. In practice, the measure im­ posed a maxi-devaluation of the Mexican currency, the first in seven years. "We want to give the Central Bank a greater flexibility to cope with the uncertainties," justified Puche. When the measure was announced all Latin Ameri­ can bond debts started to fall and the same occurred with the stock markets. The American investors that bought $ 70 billion worth of Mexican stocks, started to compute the losses and to cover up for them, withdraw­ ing money from other global markets. T he problem was aggra­ vated and the govern­ ment was not convinced that a 15% devaluation was sufficient to avoid the outflow of capital. The government then adopted another mea­ sure, increasing the in­ terest rate to 30% per year. Moreover, they an­ nounced a free ex­ change rate between the two currencies and the peso disastrously accu­ mulated a 32% fall in three days. There was no turning point for Mexico's economy which has lost over$ 10 billion in foreign re­ serves, more than half of its total, trying to avoid an increasing trade deficit. Mr. Puche, used as an escape goat for Mexico's financial collapse, ended up loosing his government position. Although Mexico and Brazil are emerging nations, no one is comparing the two markets. Brazilian stock exchange valuation was 80% in 1994 with a collective patrimony of $ 189 billion, making it the largest Latin American stock market. An important factor in Brazil's stock exchange fall was the domestic investor. Brazilian investors, betting on the massive influx of foreign capi­ tal after the presidential election of Fernando Henrique Cardoso, filled their portfolios with stocks that they intended to sell later to international investors at a much NEWS from BRAZIL· MARCH 1995

higher price. The Mexican debacle provoked a crisis and local investors ran to sell their stocks, causing a major chaos at the stock exchange floor. The difference between major stock markets in the world and the BrazilianBo/sa is that in Brazil there is a great deal of speculative capital which scares away the traditional investor look­ ing for gains over a long period of time. United States' Congress battled over loan guarantees showing how hard it is for America to conduct a rescue mission on its own. A $ 50-billion US aid package more than what collected after a decade of exporting­ was offered to stabilize the Mexican currency. Part of the deal was an emergency loan of $ 7,8 billion offered by the IMF (International Monetary Fund) and help from other countries including Brazil who together with Argentina, Chile and Colombia are pitching in with $ 1 billion, $300 million being from Brazil. Brazilians weren't very happy with having to help their hermanos to the North. More than 56% of them said they were against such help. These efforts paid off for Brazil. Investors seemed reassured enough to go back to the stock market, driving up Rio's and Sao Paulo's balsas with the same speed that t h e y h a d fallen. I n Brazil's stock exchange there are 546 companies listed, which shows the potential of the economy in a country with vast resources and a GNP (Growth National Product) of $ 475 billion. Brazil has a very strong export industry, registering in 1994 a trade surplus of 1.24% of its GNP while Mexico had a trade deficit of 10% of its GNP. In Argentina, the trade deficit is 3.5% of its GNP

and its international reserves figures are around $ 13 bil­ lion with an economy grow­ ing steadily at 5% per year. Mexico's foreign reserves after the crisis dropped to below $8 billion level while Brazil's reserves are over$41 billion. There are people who be­ lieve that the Mexican crisis will benefit Brazil in the long run with an increasing influx of foreign capital looking for a strong developing market. President Fernando Henrique Cardoso has no fear of the Mexican scenario been repeated in his country. "There is not a chance that the situation in Mexico can be reproduced in Brazil," he declared. However, his Economic Minister, Pedro Malan, isn't that adamant. "If we don't want Brazil to experience something like Mexico and assure stability," he said, "the government will have to adopt measures to keep the interest rate high, widen or end the range of the real value against the dollar, and keep the economic growth reduced." 21

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Rio's secret The most famous US gossip columnist of all time became a special envoy to Brazil during World War II. His mission: to find out where Brazil was heading and to make sure they would follow the US lead. lrlllche/1-




and the

by Neal Gabler. Alfred A. Knopf.

Culture of'<'elehnty $.10 pp.

HARRIET ROBBINS In Winchell- Gossip, Power and the Culture of Celebrity, Neal Gabler makes a perceptive and thorough study of the man who was called the "Bard of Broadway" in his early years. Walter Winchell was a household name in the US for three decades. During his heyday, 2000 newspapers published his syndicated column. He boasted 50 million listeners after adapting his newspaper format to a Sunday night radio-program in 1932. His impact on society during a period of dynamic social change was immense. His gossip column, which initially dealt only with entertain足 ment, grew to include political personalities. Of special appeal to those interested in Brazil is Walter Winchell's little-known visit to Rio, Sao Paulo, and Recife (state of Pernambuco) during the early years of World War II. His assignment was to visit Brazil on a fact-finding mission for the State and Navy departments, mainly to find out what Brazilians thought of Americans. On orders from Vice Admiral Jonas H. Ingram, the commander of the allied forces in the South Atlantic, Walter began his journey through Brazil, crisscrossing the country, talking to authorities and ordinary citi足 zens. There were reports that the first people he met were American, former chorus girls who had mar足 ried wealthy Brazilians. In Sao Paulo, he spoke to factory workers about the war effort and expressed his political views on the new fifty-thousand-watt government-owned radio station. Winchell had to counter Nazi broadcasts coming from Spain, propaganda aimed at separating Brazil from the US. During a salute to his Brazilian host at a press conference in Rio de Janeiro, Winchell pronounced the now famous toast: "Never above you, never beneath you, always beside you." These words, thought at the time to be an original statement, were actually from an old movie dialogue. Nevertheless, the statement was widely quoted and became a symbol of Brazilian-American good relations. His mission accomplished, Walter Winchell, just before leaving Brazil, declared, "I daily bless the moment in which I was chosen to carry out the mission confided to me by the naval authorities of my country."



Green 1gn •

for grass The idea of decriminalizing drugs in Brazil is not new. The big novelty this time is that the person willing to discuss this proposal is the Justice Minister himself. More than 75°/o of Brazilians, however, are against. CARLOS RAVELO In Brazil, it seems, drugs were never so plentiful and so readily avail­ able. Marijuana, for example, is com­ monly bought and passed from hand to hand from the beaches in Guarda do Embau (Santa Catarina) in the South, to Porto Seguro (Bahia) in the North, passing by Maresias, in Sao Paulo, and Ipanema. In Rio, it is as easy to get a baseado (a marijuana cigarette) on the

beach, as it is to buy a sandwich, and maybe from the same person. Stu­ dents, professors, bus boys and life­ guards might join the circle, and smoke the so-called cachimbo da paz (peace pipe). The police even when see some­ thing going on prefer to ignore it. At least once a week, five million Brazil­ ians consume cocaine. crack or mari24



to keep their jobs by opposing decriminal­

Gabriel Garcia Marquez,

Brazil seems ready to find

ization of drugs, such a proposal would prob­

whose opinions carry· weight

alternative ways to deal with

ably hit a brick wall. But US pressure upon

not only in Colombia itself,

the drug problem since pure

countries such as Colombia, Peru, Bolivia

but in the whole South

repression isn't working. A

and Brazil has always been strong.

American continent, Central

movement is under way

The DEA (Drug Enforcement Agency)

within the social, political

has carried out joint ventures to repress the

and intellectual elite to try

production and transport of drugs, most no­

Likewise Peruviart writer

and decriminalize the use of

tably in Colombia and Peru. But questions of

and ex-presidential candi­

marijuana. In a country in

sovereignty and national pride forced Co­

date Mario Vargas Llosa also

which the Army has milita­

lombia to decriminalize, and now it seems to

backs decriminalization. On

rized most of the favelas in

be Brazil's tum as well. Says Gary Becker,

the other end of the spec­

Rio, where the Amazon

Nobel Prize laureate in economics in 1992,

trum, the US has a mixed

serves as a stepping stone

"The war on drugs has failed; legalization

bag of anti-drug laws. Fed­

for flights laden with tons of

must be considered as the solution." Becker

eral statutes are severe in

cocaine exported to Europe

feels that decriminalizing drugs seems to be

another38 States, while more

and the US, and where the

the most pragmatic solution to the problem.

moderate on 12. However,

sale, transfer, and produc­

Former President Ronald Reagan vehe­

the laws are never as lax as

tion of illegal narcotics nur­

mently opposed decriminalization. In fact,

ture and provide profits for

even the idea is an apostasy to Republicans

Currently, Brazil is cov­

enough people to fill a siz­

in general. Although most major nations

ered under Law Number

able city, such a proposition

have entered into international agreements

America, Mexico and be­ yond.

in Europe.

6368, passed in 1976. Drug users can get from six months up to two years in jail for simple possession, while pushers can get prison sen­ tences�from three to 15 years. But the severest punishments are meted out in Turkey, Philippines, Singapore and Indonesia. The best scenario in some of these countries can put you in jail for life; the worst would bring ... death. Jobi

eaks out --

PresidentFernando Henrique Cardoso has admitted to hav­ ing smoked (and swallowed) marijuana when a student and is in favor of the de­ criminalization of the so­ seems to be a bold one, to

relating to the trafficking of narcotics, many

called light d r u g s.

say the least.

have taken a more tolerant view as to per­

Nelson Jobim, Brazil's new


The war on drugs, her­

sonal consumption. For example, Holland

Minister of Justice, will be

alded first and foremost by

allows small amounts for personal use; only

in charge of opening the dis­

President Bush, and kept up

illegal trafficking is actually suppressed. In

cussion on the matter. Jobim

by Clinton, has been lost,

Switzerland, certain "drug havens" (mostly

indicated just prior to being

this in the country where the

in public parks) are allowed, and exchange

sworn in that he backed de­

founders of the nation Geor­

of needles is actively promoted. Spain al­

criminalization. He pro­

ge Washington and Thomas

lows personal use as well, mainly at home or

posed a different type of pro­

Jefferson cultivated mari­

licensed locals.

cedure to deal with drug us­ ers and drug pushers. "Users

juana in their farms. The

And lately, Colombia's Supreme Court

problem is that only the US

decriminalized the use of coke, hashish and


refuses to admit this. In a

marijuana, effectively copping out on the

jailed," states Jobim. This

country where over 70% of

war on drugs American style. Colombia's

newly proposed official

all criminal arrests are drug

sudden change in course - after years of

policy has actually been in

related, and where law en­

fruitless struggle against the drug lords -

existence, unofficially, for

forcement officials and cor­

was due in most part to a pressing campaign

the longest of time.

rections officers are fighting

in the media by Colombian Nobel laureate



be treat ed,


Jobim's proposal towards 25

an open discussion on this

session, to just a minimum of three months to one

mainly because only one ap­

matter is almost a 180 de­

year. However, it would increase sentences for

proach - repression - has

gree tum on the subject, in

major dealers to over thirty years in prison. He

been used on a large scale up

comparison to previous gov­

also would add an intermediate sentencing struc­

until now. And it has not

ernments, according to jour­

ture for "middle-men" - those who buy whole­

worked. Due in part to this, and in part to the social and


sale and supply resalers -of two to eight years in

Fernando Gabeira, who rep­

prison. Community service, much used here in the

political clout of many who

resents the Partido Verde

US, would also become mandatory.

propose an alternative, those

(Green Party) o f Rio de

Legalization, argue some, also might bring in

who promote decriminaliza­

Janeiro. He is favor of the

another social problem: overcrowded medical fa­

tion now have the word. They

measure, but warns, "We

cilities, due to an increase of addicts. According to

divide the problem into two

also must also discuss the

psychiatrist Sergio de Paula Ramos, legalization

separate parts.

issue of prevention, what

would bring about an increase in consumption of

One deals with the health

drugs, since it would re­

hazards to drug users and

type of recovery to ex­ pectfrom users, whether

move whatever minimal

society; the other with drugs

there will be legaliza-

Justice Minister

amount of social pres­

and criminality. According

Jobim indicated

sure there exists to curb

to them, backers of the "re­

its use.

tion or just suppressing trafficking, but allow-

that he backed

ing consumption." Gabeira is studying a bill submitted by De­ puty



Eduardo Jorge (PT -

pressive theory" have failed

On the other hand,

in both aspects.Legalization,

Luis Paulo Paim dos

they say, will at least solve

Santos, a toxicologist,

one of the problems.

of light drugs

points out that a positive

But behind all of these

such as

aspect to this legaliza­

issues there looms a greater

marijuana. He

tion would be the elimi­

one as well. Economics. The

Paulo, relating to pre­

nation of the semi-clan­

drug market is probably the

vention and improper

proposed a

destine world where the

world's biggest business. It

drug addict lives today.

is estimated that it hovers

"The better you know

around $500 billion a month,

what reality is, the easier

but many

it is to change it," Ramos

this to be a conservative sum.


From the plantation to the

Labor Party) from Sao

use of narcotics. Said bill would repeal article #16 ofLaw 6368, which

imposes punishment for simple use and posses­

different type of procedure to deal with drug

sion. One section pun­

users and drug

ishes foreigners with the

pushers. "Users

loss of their residency papers if convicted for

have to be

possession of illegal

treated, not

drugs. Gabeira is fully

jailed," he says.

convinced that the ex­

people believe

And now what?­

street, coke prices increase

Renowned Peruvian au­

more than 200 times. Noth­

thor Vargas Llosa be­

ing else in the world has that

lieves to have an answer

type of profit margin, not

to the problem of drugs:

even rare diamonds. And part

"The solution must be

of the profits are for risks

that both, drug-export-

taken by the cartels. Unable

ing as well as drug-im­

to suppress d r u g s c o m ­

countries such as Holland are

porting countries should legalize light drugs. The

pletely, partial repression

sufficient evidence that le­

majority of those resources currently employed in

only serves to increase street

galization does not neces­

repressing them, could be used, in part, in an

prices artificially. Further­

sarily imply an increase in

educational policy, for example, such as is cur­

more, it incites many to run


rently used to combat marijuana. The rest of those

a risk to get rich quick no

periences derived from

However, there are op­

resources would be utilized in eradicating "heavy"


ponents. Deputy Elias Murad

drugs." In other words, Vargas Llosa deems that


(PSDB - Party of the Bra­

current resources are being improperly used.




Sitting on top of these

zilian Social Democracy)

Gabriel Garcia Marquez, on the other hand,

from Minas Gerais is one of

basically believes that current methods have failed.

buy judges, hit men, politi­

them. "The logic is that such

"The first step towards a realistic solution to the

cians, the best weapons and

huge profits, drug cartels can

a law does increase consump­

drug problem is to recognize the failure of those

electronic equipment and

tion," he argues. "And if

methods employed to try to eradicate the prob­

have an endless supply of

there is an increase in de­

lem," says the author of One Hundred Years of

men and women willing to

mand, there will also be an

Solitude. "These same methods are to blame -

replace those who have gone

increase in supply," he adds.

more than drugs-for the complications and other

to the wayside in the war.

Murad's proposal - stalled

major mishaps suffered by importing, as well as

That's whathappened inRio,

in Congress for over two

exporting countries."

where war tanks have been

years now - would reduce

Brazilians have been listening to all these

jail time from the current six

voices. What is the proper strategy for the war on

(slums) the main focuses of

months to two years for pos-

drugs? No one in the country seems to know;

the problem.



to the

favelas •




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The department chief had left for the day. The next day, after making him wait for more than half an hour, the chief told him that he should write a letter explaining the facts and including the money. - Since you insist so much on returning it. -Absolutely. - I praise your integrity. - But our friend on that window told me that all I had to do was to give it to you he. sighed. - Who aid that? -A man earing glasses on that department across the hallway. A ccounts re足 ceivable, it seems. -Araujo. He said that, hasn't he? Listen: go back there and tell him to stop getting on my nerves. You can tell him that I said that. Araujo...Aiways giving himself airs of knowing it all.



Ara!1jo para dizer-lhe que deixasse de ser besta. o honesto cidadao dirigiu-se ao guichc onde recebcra o dinheiro. fez da nota de ccm cruzeiros uma bolinha. ati� rou-a Ia dentro por cima do vidro c foi-se cmbora.

Cm11pa111leira di J lugem Original title:

From A

Cern Cruzeiros a Mais.

NAK�D LADY Eu estava num centro comercial de Copacabana c era sabado, pouco dcpois de mcio-dia. As tantas comccei a ouvir uma martcla<;iio de ensurdecer. 0 dono de uma lojinha de sapatos para scnhora chegou-se a porta c. me interpclou. assustado: - Que sera isso? E saiu pelo eorredor a innstigar. CaminM,·amos na mesma dire<;iio e logo descobrimos que o ruido vinha de uma S;,Ila fcchada, um curso de ginastica. Batiam dcscsperadamente na porta. Ia dcntro - com um haltcrcs. no minimo. -Que csta acontecendo? - o sapateiro gritou do !ado de ca. Uma voz chorosa de mulhcr explicou que a porta estava trancada. cia nao po..: dia sair. - Quedc a chave? berrou o homem. - 0 professor levou rcspondcu a \'OZ. - Que professor? - 0 professor de ginastica. - Espcra. que eu vou chamar o zclador- arrema­ tou o homcm. solicito. E se voltoupara mim: - 0 senhor podia fazcr o fm·or de procurar o zelador para soltar a mulher? Niio posso abandonar minha loja scm ningucm. Assim. ele ia tirar a castanha com a mao do gato. Nao tive outro jeito scnao sair a procura do zelador. Encontrei-o a porta do prcdio chupando uma tangc­ rina. Era um pau-de-arara dclicado c solicito. mas infelizmcntc nao podia fazcr nada: niio tinha a cha,·e da sala. Voltei ao corredor. ven­ cendo a tenta<;iio de cair fora de uma \'CZ. dcixar que a mulher sc arranjasse. A ·




batc<;iio rccomc<;ara. cia parccia disposta a botar a porta abaixo: - Abrc essa porta! Pelo amor de Deus! - Calma. minha senhora - berrei do !ado de ca: - Vamos ver se a gentc da um jcito. No corredor ia-sc JUntando gcntc. c varias sugcstocs cram aventadas: abrir um buraco na parcde, chamar o Corpo de Bombciros. retira-la pcla jancla. - Dcvc scr uma mulher forte pra chuchu. - Eu sc fosse cia aprovcitava c qucbrava tudo Ia dcntro. Pensci em transfcrir a algucm mais a tarcfa que o sapatciro me confiara. niio cncontrci ningucm que parcccssc disposto a accitar a responsabilidadc: todos se_limitavam a fazer comentarios jocosos. cstavam c se di,·crtindo com o incidentc De si1bito me ocorreu perguntar a mulher o numcro do tclcfone do Professor. Foi um custo fazc-la cantar de l:i a resposta. algarismo por algarismo. Sai para a rua a procura de um telefonc - tive de andar um quarteiriio intciro ate uma farmacia, onde fiquci aguardando na fila. Chegou afinal a minha vcz. Atendeu-me uma voz de crian<;a - ccrtamente filha do professor. Que ainda niio havia chcgado em casa. pelo que pude cntcnder: - Escuta. mcu benzinho. diga para o papai que tem uma mulhcr trancada na sala Ia do curso dele. esta me cntcndcndo? Repete comigo: uma mulher trancada... Niio havendo mais nada a fazer. resolvi tomar o caminho de casa-mas a curiosidadc me arrastou mais uma vez ate o centro comercial, para uma ultima olhada scm compromisso. 0 i nteresse conquistava todo o andar, espalhava-sc aos demms, ganhava a rua: gcnte sc acotovelava diantc do prcdio. agora era uma multidiio de verdade que acompanhava os aconte­ cimentos. - Por que nao arrombam a porta de uma vcz? -0 que c que a mulher esta fazendo Ia dentro? - Dizem que cia esta nua. A palavra magica correu logo entre a multidao: nua. uma mulher nua! e cada vez juntava mais .gente, amea<;ando interromper o trafego: - Mulher nua. Mulher nua! - gritavam os moleques. Dois soldados da policia militar passaram corrcndo, cassctcte em ristc. scm saber para onde sc dirigir. A multidao se abriu. precavtdamente. Um homem de ar decidido pcdia licen�a e ia entrando pelo centro comcrctal a dentro. como quem vai resolver o problema. Dcvia ser algum comissario de policia. Era o professor. que comparccia com a chave, nao sci se merce do mcu rccado. Em pouco a porta do curso de ginastica se abriu e a mulhcr saiu, ressabiada-completamente vestida. Era baixinha c mcio gorda, estava mesmo prccisando de ginas­ tica. From


Original title:

A Mulher Vestida.

MARIA. OP�N TW� DOOR! Ao acordar, disse para a mulhcr: - Escuta, minha filha: hoje e dia de pagar a presta<;iio da televisao, vem ai o sujeito com a conta, na certa. Mas acontece que ontem eu nao trouxe dinheiro da cidade. estou a nenhum. - Explique isso ao homem - ponderou a

mulher. - Nao gosto dessas coisas. Da um ar de vigaricc. gosto de cumprir ngoro­ samcnte as minhas obriga­ <;ocs. Escuta: quando cle vier a gcnte fica quieto aqui dentro. nao faz barulho. para cle pensar q ue n a o tem ninguem. Deixa clc bater ate cansar - amanhii cu pago. Pouco dcpois. tendo des­ pido o pijama. dirigiu-sc ao banhciro para tomar u m banho. mas a mulher j a se trancara Ia dentro. Enquanto espcrava. rcsolvcu fazcr um cafe . Pos a agua a fcrver e abriu a porta de scrvi<;o para apanhar o pao. Como csti\·es­ se completamcntc nu. olhou com cautela para um !ado c para outro antes de arriscar­ se a dar dois passos ate o cmbrulhinho dcixado pelo padciro sobre o marmorc do parapcito. Ainda era muito ccdo. niio podcria aparcccr ninguem. Mal scus dcdos. porcm. tocavam o pao, a porta atras de si fcchou-se com estrondo, impulsionada pclo vcnto. Atcrrorizado. prccipitou­ se ate a campainha c. dcpois "' de toca-la. ficou a cspera. olhando ansiosament e ao redor. Ouviu Ia dcntro o ruido da agua do chuveiro inter­ romper-sc de subito. mas ningucm veio abrir. Na ccrta a mulher pcnsava que ja era o sujeito da televisiio. Batcu com o n6 dos dcdos: -Maria! Abre ai, Maria. Sou eu - chamou, em voz baixa. Quanto mais batia. mais silcncio fazia Ia dentro. Enquanto isso. ouviu Ia embaixo a porta do elevador fcchar-se. viu o p o n teiro subir lcntamcnte os anda­ rcs... Dcsta vez. era o homem da telcvisiio! Niio era. Refugiado no Ian�o de cscada entre os andares, esperou q u e o clcvador passassc. e voltou para a porta de scu aparta­ mento, scmprc a scgurar nas miios nervosas o embrulho de piio: - Maria. por favor! Sou eu! Desta vez nao teve tempo de insistir: ouviu passos na escada. lentos. regularcs. vindos la de baixo... Tomado de panico. olhou ao redor. fazendo uma piructa. e assim despido, embrulho na mao. parecia executar um ballet grotcsco e mal-cnsaiado. Os passos na cscada se aproxiNEWS from BRAZIL - MARCH 1995





(800) LAX To RIO oR sAo PAULO aparurde





(Su1e•to a restnt;O�s ou mudane;as sem av•so pr�vio)







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Nao deixe de viajar por falta de dinheiro... Use o jeitinho bras1"Ierro . ....I 1.

Na·o perca tempo procurando! Seja sua viagem

Com o jeitinho brasileiro as passagens sempre custom menos!

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ll!£1i"€"1·M 36


the building that houses the He­

gather here regularly, are celebrating two

spoke different languages was over­

brew ·Club. The two World Wars

birthdays today. Their voices trill and they

come by much smiling, hugging and curiosity on both sides, with

were responsible for a minor ex­

flutter about the room like species of rare

plosion in the Jewish population of

birds in an ornamental cage. They wear

Anita interpreting like a sports­

Brazil, who found it easier to gain

designer dresses by Gloria Pires Rebillo,

caster officiating at a sports event.

admittance there than in America.

jewelry by H. Stern and faces by Ivo Pitanguy,

Despite the you've-seen-it-all-be­ fore anti-Semitism, Jews freely

the world-famous Jewish plastic surgeon.

mix and intermarry with the local

of Rio's leading politicians and business

Across from me sat Stela Lepeyrie,

population. While I was there, the

men." She points out the wife of a huge

a stunning brunette, is a whirlwind

son of Hans Stern, an elderly and

cocoa plantation owner and introduces me to

of raucous laughter and impish

gracious gentleman who is a Holo­ caust survivor and who founded

a stunning woman who comes over to say hello and chat. When she leaves, Anita con­

charm. She is also the wife of ·Claude Lepeyrie, executive cl}ef at

the H. Stern jewelry dynasty, with

fides. "I know it's hard to believe, but she's

Rio's hottest disco, Hippopotamus.

outlets at every airport and hotel.

around 70." It is impossible to believe.

Explains Anita, "These women are the wives

There was Ovadia Saadia, a hand­

some and charming bachelor, w ho

is a journalist on the Jewish paper.

It took great will power to re­

wedded his Brazilian bride at the

The Amazon - Believe it or not, even in

beautiful Villa Rosa, an old estate

the jungles of Brazil, there is a Jewish com­

fly back to Rio the next day so he

now used for private parties and

munity, although out of the more than 120,

could cook for us. Stela's father sat


000 Brazilian Jews, fewer than 100 live in

on my left. He is the silver-haired,

sist her enthusiastic invitation to

Jrhe women come up to be in­

Manaus. The Sao Joao Batista cemetery lies

handsome and virile Jece Valadao,

troduced. There is Rosa (no rela­

outside of town, not far from the airport. It is

a filmmaker and prize-winning ac­

tion to the Villa Rosa), who writes

the burial place of Rabbi Moyal of Jerusa­

tor. who had just finished a run as

the Rosa do Rio society column for

lem. whose tomb

has given rise to an ob­

one of the leads in a production of

the Jewish paper - there is also a

scure Roman Catholic cult. The rabbi, who

La Cage aux Foiles. His young

bimonthly Jewish magazine and a

died in 1910. came here to serve the tiny

wife. Katia Valadao, is a model

Jewish newsletter. Her black hair

Jewish settlement of lumber, cacao and rub­

whose uninhibited beauty was ap­

is pulled back, setting off her proud

ber merchants. When the local population

parent even witltout a touch of

and handsome features. She wears

saw the pebbles that, following Jewish reli­


a black and crimson flowing caftan

gious custom, had been placed atop the

and chunky matching bracelets

rabbi's gravestone. they ascribed them to the


jangle at her wrists. Her mouth is

miraculous powers of the dead rabbi. As the

Jews, who are more often middle

stained the same shade of red and it is smiling.

fascinating result,

his grave has become a

class than well to do, and have to

shrine, decorated with candles, coins and

scramble for the comforts of life.

I meet the tiny


600 sugar cookies for

today's gathering. I meet Linda Rubin, the president of the organization. a strai­ ghtforward, obvious­ ly dedicated woman, simply dressed and wearing no makeup. She fills me in on the group's many social projects, describing their informal begin­ nings. "We were just a bunch of


mammelas who went

down to the docks to greet the new arriv­ als, who mostly ar­ rived here with just the clothes on their backs. Today there are WIZO groups, Ort

ADDREss BooK Anita Bernstein. A\'cnida Nieme­ yer. 805. 22450-221 If you need a business contact or a personal guide. Anita can show you the ropes Socicdadc Bcncficcntc das Damas Israclitas do Rio de Janeiro. Rua Afonso Pcna. 171. 226-9275. Dclicas. A\'Cnida Hcnriquc Du­ mont. ncar Rua Viscondc de Piraja. They scr\'c all the fa,·oritcs. from po­ tato knish to herring. but. alas. no bagels. Satiricon (Rua Banio da Torre. In (lpancma). 5 21-0627). The Jewish owner gets ra,·cs for the freshest Ital­ ian-style fish and caipirinhas. a po­ tent local drink. Caesar Park Hotel. A\'cnida Vieira Souto. 460 (lpancma). 287-1122.

Paulista (from Silo Paulo)

On the way to our hotel, after din­

rosary beads.

lady who baked over

Ovadia and Anita are typical of

Sao Paulo

ner, Ovadia, acting as unofficial

- As our plane

tour guide, drove us through the

landed in Sao

quaint. but now grimy and deserted

Paulo. I heard

old Jewish quarter, where he grew

my name pa­


ged. followed

A few of the buildings house

by a message

schmatta factories that continue to


operate - some even had lights

Bernstein, the

burning in those pre-dawn hours.



We couldn't tell if they were start­

woman whom

ing early or ending late. In its hey­

we had met in

day. this was a close-knit immi­

Rio. It said,

grant enclave. Most of its hard­



working inhabitants have since

luggage and

moved on, and some have moved

meet me right

up. Today, boarded up buildings

away at Boi

are a common sight. Still. like a

Preto Churras­

stubborn weed, it clings to life.

caria. I'm with

Like the Jewish people.

a group of peo­

Since our plane left at 1 am, and

ple you'll en­

I was still nursing a bug I'd brought

joy meeting."

wit-h me from home. we anticipated

We grabbed a

we'd return as wrecks. Not so.


Varig, the airline company, not

quarter hour

knowing I was a writer, but know­

Albert Sabin Hospital, as well as a

later were seated in the lounge of the Boi

.ing I wasn't feeling well, gave us

home for the aged and a recovery

Preto, where we began a memorable experi­

the four center seats so I could



stretch out. We arrived back as

By the time we were seated. we had been .. introduced to "the crowd . The fact that we

cane liquor margarita).

Had assah and t he

The Carioca (from Rio) society matrons, like Zuzu Angel. who NEWS from BRAZIL· MARCH 1995



zippy as two


(sugar • 37

1nd cleaner bea-........ seaside, includi shore in the No and Rio Gran LcYL.:::� are also teemin �'-'I pre-history. The f cangaceiro (ba fqotprints- of din




PARAiBA Joao Pessoa Founded in 1585, the coastal city of Joao Pessoa is the capital of Paraiba. It lies 120 km north of Recife, 688 km south ofFortaleza and 185 km south of Natal. Tlie city derives its name from Joao Pessoa, the governor of Paraiba who formed an alliance with Getulio Vargas to run for the presidency of Brazil in 1929. In response to advances from other political parties attempt­

ing to gain his support, Joao Pessoa uttered a pithy nego (I refuse) which is now given prominence in all Brazilian history books... and in bold letters on the state flag ofParaiba. Joao Pessoa's aspirations to the vice-pres­ idency were short-lived: in July 1930 he was assassinated by Joao Dantas, an event which sparked a revolutionary backlash that even­ tually swept Getlilio Vargas to power (with ample help from the military) in October 1930. Information - Tourist Offices PBTUR (226-7078) at Avenida Almirante Tamandare, 100, in Tambau, provides maps and leaflets. It's inside the shopping arcade, diagonally opposite Tambau Hotel. There are also tourist information stands at the rodoviaria (appears to be defunct) and the airport. -

Dangers and Annoyances The mu­ nicipality is clearly cutting costs when it -

comes to street maintenance: watch your step. Whilst looking for street names in the dark, one of the authors actually fell down a broken telephone access hole. And just at that moment a cuckoo character with a space­ ship agenda arrived to chat, whilst the au­ thor, cussing loudly. tried to get out of the depths! Joao Pessoa has many 'noisemobiles,' vehicles converted to carry as many loud­ speakers as possible, which cruise the streets deafening everyone with advertisements for underwear at amazing prices or airing polit­ ical grievances at noise levels that make it impossible to understand the problem. Al­ though the standard noisemobile is outfitted with a dozen or so loudspeakers, we saw a bus here which had been converted into a 'sound war monster' with no less than 96

styles. Portuguese tiled walls lead up to the church's carved jacar­ anda-wood doors. The church is currently under­ going renovation, but ac­ cording to local optimists, should reopen soon . Museu F ot ognifico Walfredo Rodrigues The Walfredo Rodrigues Photographic Museum in


the old Casa da P61vora (Powder House) onLadei­ ra de Sao Francisco has some interesting pictures of the old city. It's open daily from 7 A.M. to noon and from 1 to 5.30 P.M .. Beach e s Aside from the rusty remains of battles against the French and Dutch, the beaches are clean. Praia de Tam­ bali, seven km directly east of the center, is rather built up, but nice. There are bars, restaurants, co­ conut palms and fig trees along Avenida Joao Mau­ ricio (north) and Avenida Almirante Tamandare (south). South of Tambau is Praia Cabo Branco. From here it's a glorious 15-km walk along Praia da Penha - a beautiful stretch of sand, surf, palm groves and creeks - to Ponta de Seixas, the easternmost tip of South America. The -

combination of extremely clear water and coral make it a good spot for

place. Praia Cabedelo has restaurants, bars and boats to Ilha de Areia Vermelha, an island of red sand which emerges from the Atlantic at low tide. Camping is possible on many of these beaches. If you fancy camping at the easternmost tip of Brazil, there's a campground, Camping-PB-01, run by Camping Clube do Brasil at Praia de Seixas, which is about 16 km from the center of Joao Pessoa. Things to buy - Avenida Rui Carneiro on Praia de Tambau has ceramic, wicker, straw and leather goods for sale. On week­ ends, a food fair is held in front of Hotel Tropical Tambau. In the city center, Casa do Artesilo Paraibano at Rua Maciel Pinheiro, 670, also has craft work for sale. South of Joio Pessoa Jacumi and Praia do Sol Forty km south of Joao Pessoa, Praia Jacumil is a long -

thin strip of sand featuring colored sand bars, natural pools, potable mineral water springs, a shady grove of palms andbarracas (open for business on weekends). There are several campsites and a hotel with aparta­ mentos. Halfway between Jacuma and Joao Pessoa is Praia do Sol which is similar to Jacuma and an equally good place to relax - sway­ ing in a hammock and sipping coconut milk in the shade. Welcome to the tropics. The Buraquinho Forest Reserve operated by IBAMA is 10 km before Joilo Pessoa on BR-230. Tambaba - About nine km south of Jacuma is Praia de Tambaba the only official nudist beach in the Northeast. This superb beach, rated by Brazilians as among the top 10 in Brazil is divided into two parts: one section is reserved exclusively for nudists and the other is open to clothed bathers. To prevent problems, the nude section has two public relations officers who explain the rules to bathers. When the be.ach is crowded, men are not allowed in the nude section unles.s accompanied by a woman. The Associa9iio dos Amtgos da Praia de Tambaba (Assoc iation of Fne nds of Tambaba); (290-1037 evenings only) can provide more information. There's an orga­ nized campground with facilities but fires

considered to be one of Brazil's finest churches. Construction was interrupted by successive battles with the Dutch andFrench, resulting in a beautiful but architecturally

diving. Immediately north of Tambau. there are good urban beaches: Manaira, Praia do Bessa I and II, Praia do Macaco (the surf­ ers' beach) and Praia do Po9o. Twenty km north of Tambau are Forte Santa Catarina, Costinha and Camboinha beaches. July to November is whale-hunting season in Costinha, so unless you particularly want to see

confused complex built over three centuries. The fa9ade, church towers and monastery

whales being dismem­ bered, those months are a

a fortress in their wake. Sousa - Sousa, 420 km west of Joilo

(of Santo Antonio) display a hodgepodge of

good time to avoid the

Pessoa, is known for an offbeat tourist at-

speakers. Brazil may be the world's most musical country, but it's definitely at the top of the league for noise pollution. lgreja Sao Francisco - The principal tourist attraction is the lgreja Sao Francisco,


MARCH 1995

are not allowed and you should bring a stove. Baia da Trai�io- Despite the peaceful reef-sheltered waters, coconut palms and gentle breezes, Baia da Trai9ilo has a bloody past. Here in 1501, the first Portuguese ex­ ploratory expedition was slaughtered by the Tabajara Indians. In 1625 the Portuguese had it out with the Dutch, claimed victory and left �orne rusty cannons and the ruins of


traction: dinosaur tracks. The tracks were

The beaches further south

ing the bus bumping along a goat trail. Aside

discovered in 1920 by a geologist who was

of town are sweeping

researching drought - a major preoccupa­

empty and spectacular.

from the red coastal road, a stone road a few hundred meters inland, and the occasional

tion in the sertao. Later discoveries of tracks

Surfing is possible.

surfer, there's nothing here but small waves

at over 13 sites along the Rio do Peixe showed that the whole region had once been a Vale dos Dinossauros (Valley of Dino­

Senador Georgino Alvino to Buzios- This

crashing against the coast, white dunes, co­ conut palms, uncut jungle and pretty little

stretch of coast has some of the best beaches in Rio

farms. The place is idyllic. Get here before

Grande do Norte, a state


town at Passagem das Pedras da Fazenda

which has so many great

Ilha, on the banks of the Rio do Peixe, where

Pirangi do Sui and Pirangi do Norte­ Fourteen km north of Buzios, the twin beach

saurs). There are at least three sites in the proximity of Sousa. The best is four krn from

the road is finished and the devek>pers move

at least 50 prints have been left by dinosaurs

beaches it's difficult to find one that's not worth

which, judging by the depth and size of the


towns ofPirangi do Sui and Pirangi do Norte . are split by a river which courses through

imprints, weighed between three and four tons.

Buzios is a lovely beach town 3 5 km south

palm-crested dunes on its way to the ocean. It's a quiet area where wealthy folk from

of Natal. A couple of ho­

Natal have put up their beach bungalows.


tels here cater to week­ enders.

There are a few hotels and restaurants too. Nearby is the world's largest cashew tree­ its rambling sprawl of bt:anches is over half a km in circumference and still growing!

Baia Formosa -The fishing village of

Resist the temptation

Bafa Formosa has super beaches, a cheap pousada and practically no tourism.

to get o ff the bus at Buzios. After Buzios the

Backed by dunes, Baia Formosa curves

road is reduced to a rug­

Natal is Barreira do Inferno (Hell's Gate),

from the end of the village (on the southern part of the bay) to an isolated point to the

ged dirt track, then de­ generates into two gro­

the Brazilian air force (FAB) rocket base. The base is open to visitors on Wednesdays

north. Parts of the beach have dark volcanic

oves. It crosses a stream

from l to 3 P.M.

rocks eroded into curious forms by the surf.

and looses a groove, leav-

includes a 30-minute talk with slides and

Barreira do Inferno-Twenty krn from


The tour of the base

films. Intending visitors must call 222-1638, extension 202, at least one day in advance to reserve a place on the tour. Ponta Negra - Ponta Negra is 14 km south of Natal. The beach is nearly three km in length and full of hotels, pousadas, restau­ rants, barracas and sailboats -- at weekends the place really jumps. The water is very calm and safe for weak swimmers. At the far end of the beach is a monstrous sand dune. Its face is inclined at 50° and drops straight into the sea. Bordered by jungle green, the slope is perfect for sand skiing. A good exercise for snow skiers is running down the hill. A good exercise for masochists is run­ ning up the hill. Evening activities consist of beer drink­ ing or snacking at the barracas, browsing at the restaurants, and gazing for shooting stars and straying rockets. NATAL

Natal, the capital of Rio Grande do Norte, is a clean, bright city which is being devel­ oped at top speed into the beach capital of the Northeast. There is very little to see of cultural or historical interest: the main at­ tractions are beaches, buggy rides, and night life. History- In 1535, aPortuguese armada left Recife for the falls of the Rio Ceara Mirim (12 km north of present-day Natal) where it met strong opposition from the French and their Indian allies. For the next 60 years the territories remained abandoned until the French (recently expelled from

Paraiba) began to use it as a base for attacks on the south. The Portuguese organized a huge flotilla from Paraiba and Pernambuco which met at the mouth of the RioPotenji, on Christmas Day 1597, to battle the French.

paranoia, but you should take the usual precau­ tions. Things to see The principal non-beach at­ tractions of Natal are the pentagonal Forte dos Reis Magos (open from 7 A.M. to 5P.M. Tuesday to Sun­ day) at the tip of the pen­ insula and the Museu Camara Cascudo at Ave­ nida Hermes da Fonseca, 1400. This museum of folklore and anthropology features a collection of Amazon Indian artifacts. It's open from 8 to 11:30 A.M. and from 2 to 5P.M. Tuesday to Friday; and from 8 to 11:30 A.M. on Saturday. The Museu Cafe Filho at Rua da Concei�ao. 630, will probably only appeal to history buffs. This mu­ seum is housed in the mansion that once be­ longed to Joao Cafe Filho and now displays his per­ sonal effects. It's open from 8 A.M. to 6 P.M. Tuesday to Friday; and from 8 A.M. to 5 P.M. on Saturday and Sunday. In 1954 the military presented President Getu­ lio Vargas with an ulti­ matum to resign from the presidency, whereupon Vargas left a patriotic note and then shot himself -

On 6 January, the day of Os Reis Magos

through the heart. Cafe

(The Three Wise Kings), the Portuguese began to work on the fortress, which they used as their base in the war against the French. The Brazilian coastline was hotly contested, and in 1633 the fortress was taken

Filho who had been vice­ president assumed the presidency and muddled through political crises until he suffered a major heart attack in 1955 and

by the Dutch, who rebuilt it in stone but retained the five-point star shape. First un­ der Dutch and thereafter Portuguese occupa­ tion, Natal grew from the fortress, which was named the Forte dos Reis Magos. With the construction of a railway and a port, Natal continued to develop as a small and relatively unimportant city until WW II. Recognizing Natal 's strategic location on the eastern bulge of Brazil, Getulio Vargas and Franklin D. Roosevelt decided to turn the sleepy city into the Allied military base for operations in North Africa. Dangers and annoyances The dra­ matic increase in visitors to the beaches has -

attracted petty thieves. There's no cause for NEWS from BRAZIL· MARCH 1995

gave way to Carlos Luz. Although Cafe Filho re­ covered quickly and tried hard to be reinstated he'd missed his turn on the political carousel and had to be content with his brief moment of fame as the first person from the state of Rio Grande do Norte to become a president. Beaches - Natal's city beaches -- Praia do Meio, Praia dos Artistas, Praia da Areia Freta,Praia

doPinto, and Praia Mae Luiza -- stretch well over nine km from the fort to the Farol de Mae Luiza lighthouse. These are mostly city beaches with bars, night life, and big surf. The ones closest to the fort are rocky and closed in by an offshore reef. Rio Grande do Norte boasts a few _good brands of cacha�a. Try a shot ofOlho D 'Agua, Murim or Caranguejo with a bite of cashew fruit. Mossoro - To break the trip between Natal and Fortaleza (Ceara state), you might want to visit this town on the fringe of the sertao. About four km out of town there are hot springs at Hotel Termas de Mossoro -­ which is expensive, but you may be able to pay a small fee just to use the springs. In town there's the Mercado Municipal, an interesting market where all kinds of artesanato (especially leatherwork and ce­ ramics) and daily necessities for life in the sertao are sold. The Museu Hist6rico atPra�a Antonio Gomes, 514, has all sorts of per­ sonal effects, weapons, and documents con­ nected with LampHio and his bandit col­ leagues, who attacked Mossor6 in 1924. It's open from 8 A.M. to 8 P.M., Tuesday to Friday; from 8 A.M. to 4 P.M. on Saturday; and from 8 to 11 A.M. on Sunday. For more details about Lampiao. Tibau - Tibau, 25 km from BR-304, is a bustling resort beach on the border be­ tween Ceara and Rio Grande do Norte. Truck caravans roll past the surf into Ceara, saving a few km and giving the place a frontier-town flavor. Locals sell bottles filled with sand in many different colors collected from the beach. Four km west on the coast you come to a river and a friendly outdoor bar. The river's current is swift; nevertheless it's a popular bathing spot. Two men pull you and your vehicle across on a low-tech car ferry - a wooden platform and a piece of rope pegged to both banks -for $1. Between ferry duty, the float serves as a diving platform for the bathers. Follow the caravan of trucks. The coast from Tibau (Rio Grande do Norte) to lbicuitaba (Ceara) can be negotiated at low tide. From lbicuitaba the road is paved again. Excerpts from !Jra;;II



have/ ,\,'wTiml J.:it -

2nd edition. by Andrew Draffen. Deanna Swaney and Robert Strauss. For more information call Lonely Planet: (800) 2758555. Copyright ttJ92 Lonely Planet Publications. Used by permission.








is a northeastern plant similar to the cress, whicli has medicinal properties. When mixed with milk (Ieite in Portuguese) it can do wonders for bronchitis and fatigue. Mastruz com Leite is the name of a northeastern band, the most oooular. of a number of musical groups playing a rhythm that has been taking the so­ .,. · v�... called Brazilian maravilha (marvelous South) by storm after having conquered the North in the last four years. The new craze comes from Fortaleza, capital of the state of Ceara, in the same region that gave the world the lambada, the m u c a sertaneja, and ax.e music. Since their first LP, Arroxa o No (Tight the Knot), the Mastruz gang has made it big. They sold 400,000 copies of the first album. Although not a record when compared to a Maria Bethania, who sold 800,000 LPs singing Roberto Carlos, it's more than 300 copies sold by MPB (Brazilian 1n,u::.1·�-'' ·��lci:ll Chico Buarque with his latest

,,., music,




release,Paratodos. Three albums later (


- Our Thing; So pro Xamegar - Just Rock do Sertilo - Back/and's Rock), the

even stronger, with plenty of radio airtime­ thing they didn't have at the beginning of career - and a full agenda that keeps Le e on the road taking from town to town in a hectic tour of the country. The oxente music (oxente is the way people o, genie - hi, folks -, in the Northeast and expression has a connotation of disapproval o r prise) i s a close cousin o f the lambada a s a the way it makes bodies intertwine with On an even more sensual level than that of Iaruo<:tU<L,i: it maintains the dancers' bodies more tightly wrao1oetL� 1• by waist and crotch while the beat moves on rhythm, oxente music is a legitimate child of a corrupted pronunciation of the English according to some linguists. The new forro or forrock, as the oxente


Mastruz com



MARCH 1995



also ·called, keeps the old taste of forr6, adding world music spice. The songs are played with the traditional accordion, zabumba (bass drum) and triangle, to which are added synthesizers, electric guitars, drum-and-per­ cussion and even saxophone. Where the old forr6 talked about hunger, drought and unrequited love, the new generation is more interested in spreading joy and happi­ ness. A typical live show of Mastruz com Leite is an .uninterrupted five-hour spectacle in which the 13 members of the band take turns, never letting the sound go dead. "We have noticed that the public would cool down and then would take a long time to warm again when the band stopped. That's \VhY we decided to take turns among the musicians," explained Emanuel Gurgel, the cre­ ator of the new sound and the owner of Sornzoom, the label that records ·Mastruz. "We also have to be careful not to stop the petting when it's get­ ting hotter. We are going to triple the sale of rubbers," he concludes. Gurgel is a strange species of manager who owns a recording company, a publishing house, and a radio station. His Somzoom has already released more than 50 different titles. He employs more than 100 musicians and has ten buses to carry them. In addition to Mastruz com Leite, he has formed another seven forro bands. They are Aquarius, Ba/aio de Gato (Cat Hamper), Calango Aceso (Glowing Lizard), Cavalo de Pau (Wood Horse), Mel com Terra (Honey with Earth), Rabo de Saia (literally Skirt Tail, but Little Devil in Ceara and Woman in the rest of the country), and Som do Norte (Northern Sound). All musicians are salaried and paid per show accord­ ing to their success. The ones from Mastruz, for example, get $120 for each show. Musicians just starting don't make more than $30. Gurgel has complete control of the groups. Their album covers, including those for Mastruz, don't show the faces of the band members, which allows Gurgel to change musicians, present the band at the same time in different states, and demote to smaller groups musicians who are not good enough or who create any kind of problem, including complaining about the money they receive. The five-hour shows promoted by Mastruz com Leite, for example, never draw less than 4,000 people. The money that goes to Gurgel's bank account from each of these shows varies from $7,000 to $25,000. Another successful promoter of forrock is Francisco Possidonio, who is also from Fortaleza. He sees nothing wrong in the way bands are paid. "We are the owners of the patent, the sound system, the instruments, the buses, we provide all the conditions for these musicians to work. It's natural that we get a bigger piece of the pie," says the owner of the bands Forr6 Maior, Forr6 Legal (Cool Forr6), Agitadores do Forro (Forr6's Rabble Rousers), Gatoes do Forr6 (Forr6's Big Cats), and Cafe Cuado (Percolated Coffee). In the past Possidonio has been involved with famous northeastern musicians such as Luiz Gonzaga, Dominguinhos, and Zeze di Camargo. Some being benefited by this resurgence of forr6 are


the veteran players and singers of that rhythm. People like Fagner, who after a time romancing Mexican sounds to survive, was able to return to his roots and releaseCaboclo Sonh ador (Dreaming Frontiersman), a record with xotes, a forro 's close relative. Even Luiz Gonzaga, the greatest sanfoneiro (harmonica player) the Northeast ever had and who died in 1989, was the recipient of a recent tribute with his classical hits being inter­ preted by some of the best Brazil­ ian musicians such as Sivuca C hico and Buarque, and re­ lem;ed in Viva Gonzagiio by BMG. It was after "Meu Vaqueiro, Meu Peao" ("My Cowboy, My Roughrider") be­ came a top hit in Rio that Mastruz and their music became famous all over Brazil. The forrock has been invading the most hip disco­ theques in Sao Paulo as well as spots that until recently presented samba and ethnic music. Now, they've already had a chance to show their stuff in two of the temples of the most sophisticated music in the country: Sao Paulo's Olimpia and Rio's Canecao-. The big recording companies have been testing the waters to be sure that 6xente music will bring the next big mother lode of successes for them. PolyGram has recorded So Forr6 (Only Forr6) with Amelinha, a veteran of this sound, and now has scouts trying to find new talent in Fortaleza. Bene, guitarist and singer of Forro Maior, is enthusiastic about the success of the 6xente music. He hopes the new sound will be accepted by a great portion of the population. "For us it is excellent that modern forr6 is getting popular down there in the South. In the old days, things would come here from there, but would never go there from here. Now, in Ceara alone there are more than 170 bands playing forro, and 60 of them have already released success­ ful records. The repertoire in the shows is almost always the same, and you play everything in the forr6 rhythm, from samba to rock'n'roll." Not everybody is excited with the new forr6. Traditional forrozeiros such as Dominguinhos and Eliane, known as forro's queen, look at the move­ ment with mixed feelings. They accuse the oxente music of distorting the real forr6. "I just hope this doesn't become too much of a success down there," says Dominguinhos, "because in Brazil, everything that becomes a hit ends up very soon." And he adds, "These bands think they are playing forro , but I call what they doforro-lamba, a mix ofjorroandlambada. But in the end it is a good thing, since they talk about forro, remember Luiz Gonzaga and make Ceara well known." Dorninguinhos has another reason to be grateful to the new groups. Thanks to them, he has been across the country for the last two years and a half, doing an average of four shows a week. •




"Horizontes" wit h



Friday 2 - 3 PM - KUT FM 90.5, Austin, Texas


"Raices" with Samia Panni,

Brian Lottis,. Nilsa Lessa

Saturday 2-4 PM- KBCS FM 9l.J Bellview, Washington


"The Brazilian

antasy" with

Cenir Arruda

This month we'll take a break from the CDs, albums and tapes of our Brazilian favorites to showcase those who showcase the music for us, each week in cities throughout the country. These radio DJs work with a true love of Brazilia11 music to entertaill, edu­ cate and enlighten us wi tJt t eir own individual personality andpr o­ gt_2mming;.st)tle.- Q wheUter yo r favorite Brazilian mpsic is samba, forro choro, MPB (Brazilian Popu­ lar Music), bossa nova o smooth Brazilian jazz, feel free to l4,SC thts guide to find th tation neare re to tell your you, and friend in her parts of the country ne n too! t

Sunday 4 -6 PM

Denver, Colorado

UVO FM 89.3

.. _.....-


!JJ,r pdian

Cool Jazz"

Sunday 3 - 8 PM - Tropical Moon FM 88.9, Panama City,

The Sounds of Brazil!" with Scott Adams

Saturday 10 PM - midnight - WNUA FM 95.5, Chicago, Illinois Sunday 10 AM - Noon WOTB FM 103.1 Providence, Rhode Island Sunday 11 PM - 1 AM KSSJ FM 101.9 Sacramento, California Sunday Midnight - WNWV FM 107.3 Cleveland, Ohio Monday 7- 9 PM - Tropical Moon FM 88.9, Panama City, Panama

If you're a subscriber to America Online, you should

"Cora�ao Brasileiro" with Dennis Miller

Sunday - Noon - 2 PM WMBR FM 88.1 Boston, Mas­ sachusetts "Brasil com "S"" with Judith King Saturday 9 PM - Midnight WGBO FM 88.3, Newark, New Jersey

Join Romero Lubambo, Nilson Matta and Duduka Da Fonseca- with special guests Herbie Mann, Claudio Roditi. Nana Vasconcelos, Cyro Baptista and Maucha Adnetin an encore celebration of


Black Orpheus,

Brasilian music forever.

"Brasilian Tropicale"with Alvon Griffin

W ednesday 1 - 2 PM W MNF FM 88.5, T ampa, Florida "Brazilian Love Jazz" with Gina Martell NEWS from BRAZIL

MARCH 1995

an event that

changed the character of




Distributed exclusively in the USA by Distribution North America

know about the Brazilian Music Forum, located in the Arts and Entertainment section, under the heading"World Beat." It's a great way to meet new friends who enjoy the music as much as you do, and to learn more about the latest news and events. And don't forget: You can ·receive a free subscription to The Brazilian Music Review by sim­ ply calling The Brazilian Music Review Listener Line a


292-4545. It's America's only

publication that covers Brazilian music releases available in this country. The Listener Line also allows you to sample selected new Brazilian albums before you buy. Check it out! Next month we'll return with review of the hottest new Brazilian music. Ate logo! • 45




Capital Estrangeiro- Allegory


written bySilvio de Abreu and directed byCecil Thirt�. InRio A Comedia dos Erros - An adaptation of Shakespeare by Caca Rosset. With Cristiane Tricerri and Maria Alice Vergueiro. In Sao Paulo. A Gaiolu dus Loucas- Twenty

1. Nat/a Dura para Sempre Sidney Sheldon (Record) 2. Na Margem do Rio Piedra Eu Sentei e Chorei Paulo Coelho (Rocco) 3. Do Amor e Outros Demo­ nios-GabrielGarciaMarquez (Record) 4. A Profecia Celestina James Radfield (Objetiva) 5. 0 Alquimista PauloCoelho (Rocco) 6. Violetas nu Jane/a Vera Lucia Marinzeck d e Carvalho (Rocco) 7. Entrevistu com o Vampiro AnneRice (Rocco) 8. Joias DanielleSteel (Record) 9. Comet/ius da Vida Pri vm/a 101 CrfmicusEscolhidus-Luis FernandoVerissimo (L & PM) 10. Laros Eternos Zibia M. Gasparetto (Espa­ c;oV . ida e Consciencia)

about contemporary Brazil,

years later, Rio's Cage aux Folies is back with the same duo who starred in it two de­ cades ago, Jorge Doria and Carvalhinho. Jorge Fernando directs the new mise-en-scene. Louro, Alto, Solteiro, Procu­ - Miguel Falabella, who wrote the text, plays all17 char­ acters of this comical mono­ logue. InRio. 0 Medico e o Monstro- In this


Georg Osterman'a comedy, a physician creates a potion that changes him into a monster. In Sao Paulo. Nus Ruius du Loucuru - Name

inspired by interpreterClaudia Raia.Lyrics bySilvio de Abreu and directed by ze Rodrix. A Nova California -Based on short story by Lima Barreto. Man changes bones in gold. Directed by Jose MariaRodri­ gues. InRio Porca Miseria - Four Italian brothers struggle to survive in Sao Paulo. Director: Gianni

Ratto. InSao Paulo Querida Mumiie -Maria Ade­ laide Amaral play about a touchy mother-daughter rela­ tionship. InRio. Tangos e Trugetlius Humor­ ists Hique Gomez and Nico Nicolaiewski have been pack­ -

ingthe Palladium. inSao Paulo, for 10 years. Truir e Corur E So Comerar A loony maid makes life miser­

able for her bosses. In Sao Paulo. 46

Movies American films just released: Only You (So Voce), Blank Check (Cheque em Branco), Amateur (Amateur), Lassie (Lassie), Dis­ closure (Assedio Sexual), The River Wild (0 Rio Selvagem), Alary Shelley's Franken­ stein (Frankenstein de Alary Shelley), Corrina, Corrina (Carina. uma B aba Pe1feita) The Adventures of Priscilla, Queen of the Desert (Priscilla, a Rainha do Deserto) Australia (1994)- There drag queens cross Australia aboard a bus called Priscilla. Carlotu Jouquinu - Princesu do Brazil Brazil- (1994)- Directed byCarlaCamura­ ti, it tells the story . of the wife of Dom Joiio VI. El Amante Bilingue (0 Amante Bilingue) Spain - (1994) -Romantic obsessive tragi­ comedy from director Vicente Aranda Ryaba My Chicken (0 Ouro dos Toulos) France/Russia - (1994) - Director Andrei Konchalovsky, who has worked in Holly­ wood. shows today' s Russia through the eyes of an old lady. Comedy. Veja Estu Canrao -Brazil - (1993) -Four episodes inspired by four songs: ''Pisada de Elefante" (Ben Jor), "Drao" (Gil). "Samba do Grande Amor" (Chico Buarque), and "Voce e Linda" (Caetano Veloso). Caca directs. D -


Nonfiction 1. Maktub Paulo Coelho (Rocco) 2. Anjos Cubu/isticos MonicaBuonfiglio- (Berkana) 3. Cuminho das Borboletus Meus .J05 Dias ao Lado de Senna Adriane Galisteu (Caras) 4. Auto Estima LairRibeiro (Objetiva) 5. Chato, o Rei do Brasil Fernando Morais (C ompanhia dasLetras) 6. Minutos de Subedoriu Carlos Torres Pastorino (Vozes) 7. Danuza Todo Dia Danuza Leao (Siciliano) 8. 0 Brasil Vue Da Certo Stephen Km1itz ( Makron Books) 9. 0 Sucesso Niio Ocorre por Acaso Lair Ribeiro (Objetiva) 10. 0 0/ho Magico N. E. Thing (MartinsFontes) -


GALliNG ALL COMPOSERS Fot those with a ready-for-prime­ time song in their heads but who haven't Yt(t had their chance to sing it to a crowd, here's your big chance. Registration for the First International Festival of the Brazilian Popular Mu­ sic MPB-USA 95 is open till March 3 I. l'lle competition, organized by Smart Productions, is for Brazilian composers, but even if you are not a Brazilian you can enter the contest as long as you have a partner from Bra­ zil. You can submit a maximum of three compositions and you can use any musical style you choose. A jury wlll select 48 songs in the first phase. New York Miami, Boston and Los Angeles will hold qualifYing contests. The announcement of the winner, at­ tended by Brazilian and American TV stations, will take place in Miami, May 1�. The number to call is (305) •




Luso CALIFORNIA Did you know that more than

50% of California's milk is produced

Oilce againNewYork's Amanaka'a Amazon Network is busy preparing its annual Amazon Week, scheduled for May 1-7. Version number 6 of the event will include an Amazon E.lq>o with �usic, typical goods, and a fare­ well picnic in Central Park. As in other years, tbe i ntention of the Week is to educate Americans about the Amazon forest and its inhabitants. After opening at the UN, the VI Ama­ zon Week will present a series of cul­ tural events all over New York. Vol­ unteers are being sought to help with the organization of the events. For moreinformation call (212) 925-5299.

in farms owned by Portuguese and Portuguese-American farmers? Or that there are close to one million Portuguese and their descendants living in California? These and a plethora of other data about the Por­ tuguese imprint on the American West are revealed in A Rota da Saudade (Far Away), a one-hour video shot by Brazilian videomaker Sergio do Lago. The work, which took one year to complete, is filled with historic tidbits and presents a portrait of Luso-Americans in the West, showing their celebrations, culture, religious traditions and businesses. There are two versions: one in English and one in Portu­ guese. Interested? Call (714) 372-

Tom Jobim' s last concert appearance is now part of a posthumous homage to Bossa Nova's co-founder and lead­ ing composer. On Antonio Carlos Jobim: an All-Star Tribute, you will hear the likes of Shirley Hom, Jon Hendricks and Gal Costa interpreting some of Jobim's standards, such as "Agua de Beber," "Chega de San­ dade" ("N o More B l ues"), "A Felicidade," "Se Todos Fossem lguais a Voce," "Wave", and the "Girl from Ipanema". Produced in Brazil by New York based V.I.E.W. Video, this one­ hour tape features Herbie Hancock as a musician and the show emcee. The video costs $19.98. Call (800) 8439843 to find out where to get it.




Modern Center


Registration always open



CoJ'\vidam a fodos para J sabo.-eat"em os famosos SAL�DOS D.E D.TEREZINHA -' ( PASTEIS,RISOLIS E EMPADAS l �

Study Portuguese in Rio. June 23 to July 22, 1995 Portuguese, Spanish, English (ESL), French. Italian







(818) 592-0402

lnstrudiorVTronslatiorllnterpretotion Smoll groups and individual tutoring

(800} 595-595-7 (213} 739-1900


(310) 839-8427

3255 WILSHIRE BLVD. #1 032 LOS ANGELES, CA 90010


��mu� ro�� ��mD INmiDR ���.


101 N. Wacker Dr.# CM-285 ChicaUo. IL 60606 USA

(312) 276-6683 tax: (312) 252-3729


Elis AND Jobim








FALA-SE PORTUGUES 1 0850 Wilshire Blvd., # 750 Los Angeles, CA 90024

(31 0) 475-4779

cwGta�n RAZI


) lJ


Cinertllllai/VA/fiiA fiM llnlce AIII'IIJIUII REGENT MORTGAGE CO.

(818) 441-5464

280 8. Like Ave. #129 -PISIBJa, CA91101


Stereo Audiocassette U.S.-$1 3.95 incl. S&H Inti. -$1 5_95 incl. S&H Check \money order to: Edwin Hersch PO. Box 1074 Mill Valley, CA 94942 2-Week Delivery



(916) 361-9549


(800) 3�4·49�3

FoR Ao, 48

Her Story and Her Music

60-minute radio special


213 255-8062 NEWS from BRAZIL- MARCH 1995


BooKs Livros brasi leiros. Comprepelo

Correio. Literatura, best-sellers, dicionfuios, livros tecnicos. Pe�a catalogo gratuito. Luso Brazil­ ian Books - P.O. Box 170286NFB - Brooklyn, NY 11217 Info: (718) 624-4000 - Only for orders: (800) 727-LUSO. Know-How - In�les para Brasi­ leiros - Livro pratico de lngles­ Portugucs gravado em tres fitas K7. Pron(mcia americana $40 total. Envie cheque ou money orderpara: Graham Books - P.O. Box 291453 - Port Orange, FL 32129.Tel: (407) 351-0254. CLASSES

Brazilian Music - Group meet­

ings to listen to, translate, un­ derstand and enjoy songs. For Brazilian song ·hvers not for music professionals. (415) 771-

9474 Computer classes- Groups and private classes. (81 8) 507-1521 Enjoy the pleasures of life:

learn to fly helicop ter (in En­ �_lish or Portu �uese)! Call now' rhone/Fax: (1105) 297-3691 Pager: (310) 785-7188 Portuguese classes- Individual & small groups. Relaxed, fun, but very efficient and personal­ ized lessons. I'm a native Bra­ zilian instructor with an univer­ SitY. degree in languages.Try a free lesson. (41 5) 771-9474 Portuguese lessons - Desioned for all levels, m an inronnaf run atmosphere. The instructor IS a native speaker with Master De­ �;ee/teachin� experience in the uS. (415) 3113-8859 Studv Portuguese with creden­ tialed instructors. Small �oups and individual tutorin!L Kegis­ _ also tration always open. we otTer courses in Rio de Janeiro. (310) 839-8427

ENTERTAINMENT Exotic samba dancers, tratli­

tional music anf:l dance of Bra­ zil For clubs, celebrations, etc. Video available. (408)464-2234

MAGAZINES & NEWSPAPERS e re, istas do BrasiL · Recebemos jomais diarios a !em · de todas as principais revistas. incluindo masculmas e femi­ ninas, alcm de gibis, palavras cruzadas e livros de bolso Tel. & fax: (617) 787-0758 Jornais

MUSIC Brazilian Music 111 Its totahtv. Samba, bossa nova, jazz, choii­ nho, lambada, baiao; frevo, axe, m1d more. COs andTapes. Mail delivery available. Merchant Express - (800) 589-588-l NEVVS from BRAZIL· MARCH 1995

Guitars Di Giorgio for sale -

Order now with lO free lessons on tapes. Audio visual method by Mma. Also video tapes avail­ able. Play from first lesson. More details call Las Vegas (702) 3692129

NEWS ewspaper­


page summary of the : press from Agencia Estado. We cover all ti1e main Brazilian pa­ pers. Fax your request for a one week free trial to (800) 2378236 or (305) 285-6980. OPPORTUNITY Ganhe diariamentc S200, S500

ou mms mostrando calculaclora e rel6g10 de pulso que realmente falam resultados e horas em In� lcs e Espanhol, sendo aJanna gmo que canta por um mmuto. Realmente fora de serie. 0 povo praticamente o arrebata das miios. Amostra com Ara(Ijo. Drawer 66 - Mountam Vie\\. CA 94042 Prepaid domestic & interna­ tional phone cards! Call any­

where lrom any touch phone for half ti1e price of the big 3. No need for coins or expensive col­ lect calls. Send these prepaid cards to Brazil so \'our family can call von here for 70% less ti1an wluit it costs there. Cards cost $20 and can be renewed with .your credit card. Trv one. Om:e vou've seen the dilTerence m price, you'll never use anv other card' Call Junior at ( -115)



has 1ived m vour countrv and loves vour people, music·, & dance. Desires fncndship/ronumce with Brasileira between 22-30 years. Interests include yoga, licalth food, nature. Please write R.B. ll 06 2nd St #268. Encinitas, CA 9202-l American Jewish man, 36, sin­ cere, deep, fun, active. doctor, seeks Jewish ladv under 35 with bTO\\ n e� es and "long dark hmr, in Los Angeles area. ( 310) 271316 !1 Amcricano, 37 anus, delgado, olhos aZlns, professor de Ingles. Fala Frances. Espanhol.ltaliano, Portugues. Deseja encontrar brasileira. 18-30 anos. Escreva para Wilham, l-131 Ocean A;e., 111106, Santa Monica, CA, American businessman

90-101. American, 52, has travelled to

Bran!. desires correspondence with\ oung, open-minded Brnsi­ lcira 1Iving in the US. to explore compatibility and romance.

FEIRA LIVRE RATES: 50¢ a won.!. Phoneft one word.

DISCOUNTS: For 3 times deduct 5%, for 6 times deduct 10%, for 12 times deduct 15%. POLICY: All ads to be prepaid. Ads are accepted at our discretion. Sorrv, no credit card at this time. Your canceled check Is your receipt Please, include address and phone numbt..'"f, ''hid! \\ill be kept confidential. DEADLINE: 'l1le 15th of ti1e month. Late material 1\ ill

he held lor the lollo\\ ing monti1 if appropriate. TO PLACE AD: Send ad" ith cheek or money order to News from Bralil P.O. Box 42536 Los Angeles, CA 90050-0536.

Write: M.F.K., P.O.B. 215, Redmond, WA 98073 Brasileiro, 40 anos, solteiro, residente, c urso supenor. Procura corresponder -se com brasileira, morena clara ou loira, entre 21 a 30 anos, boa apa­ rcncia e Hsico, com sa(Ide, para lllll compromisso serio levando a casamento. Escreva para 6601 Broadway St. - San Francisco, CA 94133." - On chame ( 4 I 5) 399-0787 (Apreciaria f oto-). F emando Carioca. French American guy looking for friendship with Brazilian men 35-55. ( 310) 659-3139 or write. Occupant, P.O. Box 16655, Beverly Hills, CA 90209 LA./Ph.D. -Loyal, funny and supporti\'C seeks smart, loyal and young Brazilian lady age 28 to 35 for love and compan­ ionship. Write letter with photo to Dr. G. Martin - 1107 Fair Oaks #18�- South Pasa­ dena, CA 91030 or call (213)


Open minded and fmmy guy \\·ants to meet garotinlw tmm­ hihitcd and open-minded, 18-30 for fun, friendship and exchange of thoughts. Write: P. R. c/o Box 42)36 - Los Angeles, CA 90050 Single American

male seeks 13razilian women, 18-35 vears old. I am :i4 vears old, healthy, attractive, r01iwntic. Please sei1d note & photo to: 244 0 16th St. # 179, San Francisco. CA 9-ll 03 Successful, wealthy, � ood­ Jooking marriage-mindea ro­ mantic Amencan comedj \\Titer, 30, speaks a little Portu­ guese, seeks slender, intelligent, educated, English-speaking, non-smokin � : non-religious Brasileira in L.A. area. Note & photo to: Occupant, P.O. Box 3757, Santa Monica, CA 90408

PsYCHOTHERAPY Emotional and psychological help. Elizabete Almeida MA .

MFCC intem otTers psycho­ tiJerapy in English/Portuguese. Reasonable rates. (310) 2817536

REAL ESTATE BUYING, SELLING, RENT­ ING- Let me assist you with all

yotlf Real Estate Iieeds. Any­ where in the U S. through Na­ tional Referral Services. CaJI Debora Jackson at (703) 5480700. McEneamev Associates · Inc. NATAL, BRAZIL- Let"s buy or build our own wmter-smn­ mer getaway pousada. Lookin � for partners. Call(813)774-74511 or write: 6067 Hollow Dr. Naples, FL 33962 RECIFE, BRAZIL - E c o­ logist's dream. Pousada inside 400-acre forest reserve. 40 miles north ofRecife. I 0 minutes from beaches. Earn income preserv­ ing nature. Infonnation: Phone of Fax 011-55-81-465-1383 RENTAL for single woman. Share kitchen/bati1 w1th Brazilian/ American family. W.LA $400. Utilities included. (31 0) 287-0905



SERVICE OFFERED With Master's Degree olfers service.(Substan­ tial knowledge of computers and software.) (818) 507-1521

Civil Engineer

TRAVEL Washington Tour & Travel -

Brasil Vigo - International MoneyTrm1snutter- Passagens aereas domesticas e interna­ cionms. Enviamos dinheiro para o Brasil em 24 horas.Traslados dos aeroportos em Washington D.C .. Tours em Washington D.C. -Tel. (703) 527-6977 49

WEDNESDAY 1 Zabumba has live music dail . See ad at a e 4 9:00 PM - Grupo Entre Nos at Bahia Cabana

THURSDAY 2 9:00 PM- CarUio at Nino's


...IIRQIII 8:30 PM - Brazil Carnaval '95 at U.S. Grant Hotel - 326 Broadway­

(619) 278-4839

SEDl'o'JRIIIBlfltMIM 8:00PM-Brasil/Brazil Show with Sonia Santos & Ana Gazzola at Dante's - 1611 S. Catalina Ave. -

(310) 792-1972


� 9:00 PM - Viva Brasil at Bahia Cabana


D�U!eW!UJ 2:00 PM - Ballet Folclorico do Brasil at South Broadway Cultural Center

TUESDAY 7. m""f M&.. "'"'�� ��·y�� "� ... 8:00PM- New Axe at Zabumba WEDNESDAY 8

S'41DBA'N�IS(!.ll 9:00 PM - Grupo Entre Nos at Bahia Cabana

THURSDAY 9 9:30 PM & 11:30 PM - Samba Reggae Extravaganza at S.O.B.s - 204 Varick St.- (212) 307-7171

��� lliii1\Q,��

9:30 PM - Carnaval Night with Ricardo Gehr & Band af Aldo's 22741- Lamber Rd. - (714) 472-



--S"&SI!EAAI'ilt:lS.�Q - -.· ·.



9:00PM- Viva Brasil at Bahia Cabana


�Q��� 10:00PM-Brazilian Carnaval Ball '95 at Tamayo Restaurant - 5300 E. Olympic Blvd - (213) 260-4700

sw� 9:00 PM - Bahia Band at Bahia Cabana

� 9:00PM-lvson & Grupo Gosto at Club Cocodrie- 1024 Kearny St.­

(415) 986-6678 SUNDAY 5

�JIIDJI 2:00 PM - 8:00 PM - Brazilian Folklore at 14 La Perla Restaurant, 1832 Columbia Rd. - (202) 723-

5854 fi;ydJ:�:, l#��,- 4';;-- .A-<"'- '--- ••- ..a I::Jl"'n�J!mBI'ri\'M

3:00PM- Domingo doPagode at World Music Cafe- 3430 E. Atlantic - (305) 941-2751 mm�tlll·c•� l loiA.ftSZf lliUI"'�'UJ!;.�S 8:00PM-Jam SessionatZabumba


6:00 PM � Marcos Santos at Foothill


� 9:00 PM-Carlao and guitar at Nino's

14 Below- 1348 14 th St., San.ta Monica- (310) 451-5040 Bokaos Club - 8689 Wilshire �everly Hills- (310) 659-1200 Cafe Danssa -11533 W. Pied Bl. WestL.A.- (310) 478-7866 Fais-Do-Do - 5257 W. A dams L.A.- (310) 842-6171 Foothill - 1992 Cherry Ave. Long Beach- (310) 983-9190 LaVe Lee- 12514 Ventura Bl.­ Studio City- (818) 980-8158 Le Cafe- 14633 Ventnra BL­ Sh. Oaks- (818) 986-2662 Mauro's - 8112 Melrose Ave. Los Angeles- (213) 653-2874 Saint Marks- 23 WindwardAve. Venice- (310) 452-2222 Tatou - 233 N. Beverly Dr.­ Beverly Hills - (310) 274-9955 Zabumba -10717 Venice Blvd Culver City- (310) 841-6525


SUNDAY12 2:00PM-8:00PM- Brazilian Folklore at 14 La Perla Restaurant, 1832 Colum­ bia Rd. - (202) 723-5854 2:00PM-Ballet Folcl6rico do Brasil at Carpenter Performing ArtsCenter- (31 0)


6:00 PM - Marcos Santos at Foothill

6:00PM- Marcos Santos at Foot­ hill 9:00 PM - Zeca do Trombone & OJ Papagaio at Pasand Lounge

TUESDAY21 S G E 8:00 PM - New Axe at Zabumba

8:00 PM - Jani Session at Zabumba

TUESDAY14 GE.:ES 8:00 PM - New Axe at Zabumba 8:30 PM - Andrea Marcelli at Le Cafe


WEDNESDAY22 AN'"FRJmClSCQ 9:00 PM - Grupo Entre N6s at Bahia Cabana

THURSDAY 23 J3ERKEI: 9:00 PM - Carlao at Nino's

THURSDAY16 9:00 PM- Carlao and guitar at Nino's

FRIDAY17 9:00 PM-Viva Brasil at Bahia Cabana

SATURDAY18 9:00PM- Bahia Band at Bahia Cabana

SUNDAY19 2:00PM-8:00PM- Brazilian Folklore

FRIDAY 24 SJrn F� crsco 9:00 PM - Viva Brasil at Bahia Cabana

SATURDAY 25 SAN FRANCISCO 9:00 PM - Bahia Band at Bahia Cabana

SUNDAY 26 WASAII"'GTON, 2:00 PM - 8:00 PM - Brazilian Folklore at 14 La Perla Restau­ rant, 1832 Columbia Rd. (202) -

723-5854 .[ONG BEACH. C�

6:00PM- Marcos Santos at Foot­ hill

OS �NGEt.E Alberto's - 736 W. Dana St., MtnView, (415) 968-3007 Aioli 469 Bush Street San Francisco- (415)2490900 Ashkenaz - 1317 San Pablo Ave.-Berkeley (510) 525-5054 Bahia - 41 Franklin St. - S. Francisco ( 415) 626-3306 Bahia Cabana 1600 Market St.- S. Fco. (415) 861-4202 Chambord - 152 Kearney St. S. Francisco (415) 434-3688 The Ferryboat -Embarcadero St, Pier 3, SF, (415) 788-8866 Nino's- 1916 Martin L. King Jr., Berkeley (510) 845-9303 Pasand Lounge - 2284 Shat­ tu ckAv.,Berk. (51 0) 848-0260 The Ramp- 855 China Basin­ San Franc1sco ( 415) 621-2378 Yoshi's -6030 ClaremontAve. Oakland (510) 652-9200 -


8:00 PM - J am Session Zabumba


TUESDAY28 l-OS ANGELES 8:00 PM - New Axe at Zabumba

WEDNESDAY29 SAN FRANCISCO 9:00 PM - Grupo Entre N6s at Bahia Cabana

THURSDAY30 WHllJlEftC 2:00 PM - Ballet Folcl6rico do BrasilatRioHondoCollege- (310)

908-3492 J3ERKEt: Y.

9:00 PM - Carlao and guitar at Nino's

FRIDAY 31 SAN FRA"NCISCO 9:00 PM - Viva Brasil at Bahia Cabana


MARCH 1995


Boston Area Books Uvraria Plenitude (800) 532-5809

Consulate Consulado G. do Brasil (617) 617-542-4000

Dentist Sylvlo P. Lessa (617) 924-1882


& Products

Aqul Brazil (617) 787-0758 Brasil Brasil (617) 561-6094 Jerry's Cacha�a (617) 666-5410

InstructiOn Braz. & A mer. Lg. Inst. (617) 787-7716

MUSIC Brazil CDs (617) 524-5030

Publications The Brazilian Monthly (617) 566-3651

Restaurants Cafe Brazil (617) 789-5980 Tropicillia (617) 567-4422 Pampas Churrascaria (617) 661-6613

Chicago Consulate Consulado.G. do Brasil (312) 464-0244

Translations Portuguese Lang. Ctr. (312) 276-6683

Los Angeles Area


Centro Cultural Gaucho (213) 256-6548 Clube Bras. da Calif. (714) 857-6764 MILA -Samba School (310) 391-6098 . SambaLii -Esc. de Samba (310) 983-9190


Henriques - Maintenance (818) 767-5153


Brazilian Consu la te (213) 651-2664


GilbertoHenr iques (213) 464-0524 Jose Carlos D. Polido (714) 642-0112


Brazilian Niles Prod. (818) 566-1111 Pegasus - Parties & Ent. (818) 549-0383 Ricardo Gehr (818) 831-0992 The Rio Thing (818) 753-4932


& Products

Brazilian M arket (310) 827-9139


Varig. (800) GO VARIG Vasp (310) 364-0160


Baknri Art Stud!<> (213) 938-0523 Folk Creations (310) 693-2844 Uniquely Brazil - Folk (818) 458-1474 Zebi Designs (310) 391-6530


Cosmo Auto P arts (213) 259-9818 Joiio Fontes

(310) 396-6690 Pit Stop- Olicina do Ita (310) 643-6666


Banco do Bras il (213) 688-2996


Joy's Catering (310) 438-3415 Remi Vila Real (818) 280-0061 Samba


(310) 983-9190 52

Miami Area Airlines Transbrasil (800) 872-3153 Varig (800) 468-2744 Vasp (800) 732-8277

Banks Banco do Brasil (305) 358-3586 Banco Nacional

Menage it Trois (310) 278-4430

W'""''''Ui3·'•''W Ilrazil "R" US (310) 607-9771


Brasil Brasil Cult. Ctr (310) 397-3667 Modern Lang. Center (310) 839-8427


Bossa Nova - Georgia (818) 891-0912 Braz. Jazz I All Occasions (310) 839-3788 Jazz -Richard Samuels (818) 798-5424

Physician Paulo Coharte (310) 285-9670 (310) 828-7454 Ingrid Rodi - Gynec. (310) 451-8144 Nilson A. S antos (213) 483-3430


News from Brazil

'(213) 255-4953


Bossa Nova (310) 657-5070 Brazilian T•·opical (714) 720-1522 By Brazil

(310) 787-7520 care Ilrasil (310) 837-8957 Copacabana

(213) 467-3415 Pan Handler (714) 970-5826 Rio Grande (81 8) 3 76-0202 Yolie's Brazilian Steak (714) 251-0722 Zabumba (310) 841-6525

WlfhfiflmmfiDm:JP Brazilian Int. Affain


(iji!WJZI!fii•'ift'''·"&i Brazilian Ch. of Com. (212) 575-9030 Brazilian Com. Bureau (212) 916-3200 Brazilian Trade Bur. (212) 224-6280


Brazilian Gen. Cons. (212) 757-3080


(201) 589-5884

(407) 354-5200 Cam. Com. Brasil- EUA

(305) 579-9030 ARARA -Amazon. As.

(813) 842-3161


Consulado do Brasil

(305) 285-6200


Arnnldo Souza

(305) 595-3238 Hedimo de Sa (305) 262-8212

'f:tmli1�1:1M9f'·U All Braz. I mp. & Exp.

(305) 523-8134 Via Brasil (305) 866-7718


Dr. Jorg e Macedo (305) 271-7311 Dr. Mario Sanches' (305) 541-7819 Dr. Neri Fran1.on (305) 772-4694

Brazilian Tropicana

(305) 781-1113 . Brazilian Delight (305) 374-0032 Br a zilia n Pie (305) 866-1001 Cheese Bread House (305) 443-5358 Gula Gula (305) 532-3636


AmazO ni a

Coisa Nos.'ia

(201) 578-2675 Merchant Express


Brazilian Voice

(201) 955-1137 News from B1·azil

(718) 746-0169


l\lonark Trani

Tocantins Communic.

(305) 374-5855




(212) 869-9200 Brazil 2000 (212) 877-7730

•rrna'''·N"rl"'t• Barb Tour Service

(201) 313-0996 I nt ernational Sandnv • (718) 699-2900 Mystical Destinations (718) 956-1630 N•tscente Travel (718) 545-0608 Ody ssea Travel Se1·vic e (212) 826-3019 Santos Dumont Int. (212) 764-5680


(415) 832-6219

Printmg l\IL C. Printing (510) 268-8967

Auto Repa1r


Nelson Auto Re pair (415) 673-6868 Matts Auto Body (415) 565-3560

Brazil Today (510) 223-5190 N ews from Brazil (415) 648-5966



Banco do Brasil (415) 398-4814

Beauty Salon Bibbo

(415) 421-BIBO Carmen's Intc•·national

(415) 433-9441 Dalven 1-lair Design (415) 433-7646 Ne yde 's (415) 681-5355


West Dike

(510) 845-9303 Taqueria Goyaz (415) 821--1600

Clubs B.A.S.O. (415) 661-2788


Bay Area Brasilian Club

(415) 334-0106

Translation Port. Lang. Services (415) 587-4990 Raimundo Franco (415) 285-8364

(415) 665-1994

Consulate Brazilian Consulate

Travel Agencies

(415) 981-8170

Dance Instruction Aquarela (510) 548-1310 Brazil Culture & Arts

(510) 215-8202 Ginga Brasil

(510) 428-0698 Escola Non de S amba (415) 661-4798 Samba do Cor a�iio (415) 826-2588 Samba, Swing & Suor (415) 282-7378

Dental Care


& Associations

Clube Ilras. San Diego

(619) 295-08-12 Sunday Night Cl. Brazil

(619) 222-6911



(202) 331-8913 Vasp

(202) 822-8277

California Produce


(415) 586-6200 HGC Imp. Wholesale

Wlrri•I·liQ¥Qei·liW Brazil Imports

(619) 234-3401

"i'immmnwfli'IA Yigo-Cn li fon1 ia

(619) 479-VIGO

Portuguese - A. Frame (510) 339-9289 Portuguese Lang. S en• . (415) 587-4990

Money Remittance (415) 673-0262 Vi go

(415) 863-0218 \\'est Brazil (415) 695-9258

Music Fogo



(510) 635-8406

ashington DC Area Transbrasil (202) 775-9180

(510) 451-8315

Via Brazil

Rio Roma (415) 921-3353 Santini Tours (510) 843-2363 Tuca nos Travel (415) 454-9961


Roberto Sales, DDS


(800) 314-4826

Sunset Soccer Supply (415) 753-2666

Computer Micronet

(408) 947-8511

Ivan Porto

Bahia Brazilian Rest. (415) 626-3306 Care do Brasil (415) 626-6432 Cafe Mardi Gras (415) 864-6788 Canto do Brasil (415) 626-8727 Little Rio (415) 441-3344 Michelangelo Cafe ·(415) 986-4058 Nino'§

(415) 241-9125

(415) 648-5966


Mus1cal lnstruments


Brazilian Coffee D is t.

San Diego

(415) 586-2276

Dr. Guilherme Salgado

Ralph Baker (510) 444-8100

Brazilian. Pavillion

(212) 758-8129 C ab ana Carioca (212) 581-8088 Indigo Blues (212) 221-0033 S.O.ll. (212) 243-49-10

Marcos Silva (510) 945-0138 Terra Sui (415) 752-9782 Viva Brazil (415) 342-8508 Voz do Brazil

Tamborim & Samba (415) 871-2201

Varig (415) 986-5737 Vasp (800) 732-VASP

Portug•li-Brasil New s

(212) 228-2958 The Drasilians (212) 382-1630


(800) 535-0942 Bn1zilinn \\'ave (305) 561-3788 BTB Tours (800) BRASIL-4 Disco\ er Brazil Tours (800) 524-3666 Euroamerica (305) 358-3003 International Toui'S (800) 822-1318 Luma Travel (305) 374-8635

San -Frariclsco ---Area---

Luso-Drazilian Books

(800) 727-LUSO


(310) 854-5881 (818) 343-4451

New York New Jersey

(718) 204-1521


Elizabeth Almeida M.A. (310) 281-7536

New Port Tours (305) 372-5007 Ven ture Travel (305) 379-7678 Via Brasil Travel (305) 866-7580

(305) 372-0100 Banco Real (305) 358-2433 Banespa (305) 358-9167 ABFC- As. Bn1s. da Flor.

Decio Rangel

Sheila Shanker (310) 836-3436


Around the World Trl. (800) 471-6333 Brazil Tours (818) 767-1200 Cheviot Hills Travel (310) 202-6264 F & H -Hotel Repres. (800) 544-5503 Heliview -Helicopter (805)297-3691

Banco do Brasil

(202) 857-0320 Banco do Es t . de S. Paulo (202) 682-1 151


& Associations

Braz. Am. Cult. lust. (202) 362-8334 lnst. of Br azil. Business (202) 994-5205

Embassy Embaixada d o Brasil (202) 745-2700

Travel Agenc1es Intern. Di�count Travel (703) 750-0101 \Vashington Travel (703) 527-6977 NEVVS from BRAZIL· MARCH 1995



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ght decades abolition of Brazil for entists to ing and o,.·tllllirnJ:.:n idence of uality in the . Here's a contribution ill incipient -P

Orplzeu.'i uml Power, The Movi­ mento Negro of Rio de Janeiro am/ Siio Paulo, Brazil, 19./5-1988, Michael George Hanchard, Prince­ ton Unhcrsit� Press, 2041,1,·• 1994


The 1988 commemoration of abo­ lition in Brazil was the single most important event for the movimento negro in the post-World War II era, for two reasons. It was the first time that the manifold forms of racial in­ equality against Afro-Brazilians be­ came a principal theme in national debate. For Afro-Brazilians, the events of the abolition represented one of the few times in the postwar period when Afro-Brazilians undertook collective action against state practices, both discursive and nondiscursive, and commonsensical attitudes in civil society about the history and ongoing legacy of Afro-Brazilian oppression. Commemorative celebrations in multiracial societies are often contes­ tations over national identity; domi­ nant groups stretch the mythical can­ vas of "national unity" to include representations of subordinate groups; subordinate groups contest myths of national unity that the state presides over. The 1988 centennial celebra­ tion of abolition in Brazil contained these dynamics in the relations be­ tween representatives of the Brazil­ ian government and those of Afro­ Brazilian communities. ·The events of 1988 brought forth several contradictions of Brazilian racial politics. In micropolitical terms it exposed the Afro-Brazilian move­ ment's struggles to define itself in relation to Brazilian society, and ulti­ mately, in relation to its own history as a movement. At the macrolevel. tensions ex­ isted between white elite strategies to "manage" the tone and force of the commemorations and tactics em­ ployed by leaders of the movimento negro to disrupt the continuity of"na­ tional" memory in the events of o centenario. What became obvious after the yearlong events of 1988 is that national, collective memory is plural, full of internal contradictions, and often revealing what members of dominant and subordinate groups choose to forget as well as remember. What they remembered- and what they chose to publicly forget- was invariably bound up with their per­ ceived relation to Brazil's past, whether as descendants of Italian im­ migrants or the great-grandchildren of former slaves. This resulted in a third, discursive tension within Brazilian racial poli­ tics, between an eroding myth of ra­ cial democracy and the emergence of competing political discourses about race, inequality, and power in con­ temporary Brazil. While the myth of

racial democracy and the ideology of racial exceptionalism has been greatly eroded, it has not been yet supplanted by a new "common sense," as the recounting of the following events in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo make clear. The Centennial and The Harnessed March: A Commemoration of Subordination "The heart of Brazil would not be the same without the contribution of African culture, arts, and dances. Our ability to overcome adversity and our happiness undoubtedly comes from Africa." ' Former President Jose Sarney's comments mark the paradoxes inher­ ent in common and official construc­ tions of the African contribution to Brazilian culture. Afro-Brazilians have always fit neatly within Brazil­ ian social mythology as the "heart" of Brazil, filled with passion, emotion and sensuality. The work of the mind was someone else's responsibility. The excerpt from Sarney 's open­ ing speech touched upon the most important facets of the paternalistic. patron-client relations between whites and Afro-Brazilians. The adversity that Sarney refers to suggests black resistance to slavery and the now quasi-national hero Zumbi of the Palmares quilombo. Happiness trans­ lates the archetypical "happy negro" or negress, known for their exuber­ ance in most colonial and slaveholding societies in North and South America. Even in celebration, Sarney's com­ mentary is a synopsis of the hierarchi­ cal, cultural functionalism of Brazil­ ian racial hegemony. Ironically, the centennial com­ memoration signified a radical shift in the manner in which Brazilians discussed the topic of race. In the years preceding the centennial, the ideology of racial democracy, with its presumption of harmony between ra­ cial groups, discouraged the very type of racial discourse promoted in 1988. The tenor and complexity of po­ litical discourse in Brazil amplified with the return to civilian rule in 1986, and race was just one of several topics that were part of the process of political amplification. Racial preju­ dice and oppression were components of a more comprehensive national dia­ logue regarding cidadania or citizen­ ship. "How can Brazilians begin to talk to each other as citizens if there is no civil society?" was the question

underlying debates about racial in­ equality in Brazil. This emergent discourse was pre­ cipitated largely by a new generation of Brazilian as well as non-Brazilian historians and social scientists in the 1960s, who questioned the premises of racial democracy and previous as­ sumptions about the moral and cul­ tural economies of Brazilian slave systems. Brazilian activists, mostly black, also helped in the creation of this new perspective. Representative figures from both the activist and scholarly communities in Brazil were participants in the events of o centenario, as were private business organizations and institutions. From state and civilian-sponsored events alike, the centennial projected the image of the "great refusal" of tradi­ tional historiography on Brazilian ra­ cial politics. As I have noted in a cross-national assessment of the role of national commemorations in multiracial soci­ eties, celebrations of national life, which often seek to suspend racial antagonisms and inequalities for the sake of national harmony, often high­ light extant relations of inequality between dominant and subordinate racial groups. What distinguishes Bra­ zil from other racially heterogeneous societies is the relative infrequency of public debate regarding the nexus of racial-national identity. Its occurrence in 1988 exempli­ fied the multivalent conflicts over the meaning of racial discrimination in Brazil, as well as proof that however small, Afro-Brazilian resistance to prevailing interpretations of their his­ tory and identity in Brazil does exist. In general, the movimento negro's response to o centenitrio was a poli­ tics of confrontation, exposure, mak­ ing explicit what was once implicit. Also exposed, in an unprecedented manner, were three tensions in the movimento negro, present since the 1970s. The first is the relation be­ tween black elites and the cultural apparatuses of municipal and national governance. Afro-Brazilian protest in the late 1970s and early 1980s led to the creation of accessories and com­ mittees in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo to mediate relations between the state and black activists. During o centenario, black activists who as­ sumed positions in these adjunct organizations were confronted with the choice of either maintaining po­ litical space within the state on behalf of the black community or rejecting those spaces altogether. The latter

choice risked continued exclusion of demands made by Afro-Brazilians on policy agendas at a municipal, state, or federal level. This quandary reappeared in vari­ ous debates, panel discussions, marches, and countermarches during the commemoration of o centenario. Blacks who had recentlyassumed roles as state-appointed or elected repre­ sentatives were criticized by activists outside the state gambit for their at­ tempts to mediate events. The ebb and flow of state "mediators" and "authentic" black activists was the second major tension highlighted by the remembrance of abolition. The third tension concerns the "authentic" activists, those who con­ tested the motivations behind the na­ tional appropriation of Abolir;iio. Many of these activists chose not to partake in the official presentation of events, or did so only to subvert them. As a reading of several crucial events will show, the state was quite hostile to all forms of commemorative sub­ version. Attempts to reverse the order of the dominant-subordinate equation were met with verbal condemnation, and in some instances, physical re­ prisal. The three tensions help outline the course through which macrofocused activities of the state in the realm of "culture" were received and worked upon by diverse segments of the Afro-Brazilian community. The ten­ sions are also trace elements for ori­ gins of confrontation between state apparatuses and Afro Brazilian activ­ ists, and between activist tendencies within civil society. The centennial celebration of Abolir;iio and Zumbi were major cul­ tural events in both Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, as well as in other parts of Brazil. Both were public testaments to the significant contributions of Afro-Brazilians to national culture and economic development and served purposes that extended far beyond the objects of commemoration. Samba schools, nationally renowned politi­ cians and celebrities, sports figures, as well as local activists and commu­ nity groups took part in the activities related to the event. The abolishment of slavery in Bra­ zil on 13 May 1888 was considered a far more significant date in Afro­ Brazilian history than 20 November, which commemorates the death of Zumbi, the principal symbol of resis­ tance in Afro-Brazilian culture. "In 1987 the black movement decided to concentrate their forces on a critique

of the official day [of abolition] and program marches for 13 May in all capitals in Brazil. While 20 November signified na­ tional black consciousness day to most activists, 13 May represented the na­ tional day to combat racism. For most white and government officials, Schwarcz (1989) noted an ambience of guilt that pervaded their participa­ tion in many events. White participa­ tion in a comemora9i1o suggests a common memory shared between white and nonwhite Brazilians. Yet common memory, like Gramsci's no­ tion of common sense, is invariably plural. When infused with the dynam­ ics of power and inequality, the memo­ ries that constitute common (i.e., na­ tional) memory are related but dis­ tinct. Thus the central issue for an understanding of shared memory in the case of the centennial celebration is not the commonality between so­ cially distinct groups, but the ways in which their distinctive memories func­ tion in response to social inequalities past and present. "Shared" memory in multiracial or multiethnic politics is clearly a power-laden process. Simply put, one may share a loaf of bread with another and only relinquish one or two slices rather than half the loaf; sharing does not automatically mean equality of opportunity or access to distributed resources. Providing or "sharing" re­ sources is a power-laden facility. It places those who initiate a dialogue of sharing with the responsibility of distribution and allocation, of provid­ ing one interpretation of a historical moment and not another, and pre­ sumes a need or desire on the part of the recipient for this act of incorpora­ tion. The reasons for participation in the events of 13 May differed as widely as the participants themselves. Some took part in the events out of a sense of national duty. Others claimed that the commemorations were proof that Brazilians, regardless of racial differ­ ences, were coming together. Still others formed discussions and events to question the need for celebration, given the continuing plight of Brazil­ ian blacks. The overarching sentiment was a recognition of the past and present marginality of black Brazilian exist­ ence, best expressed in Veja, the Brazilian equivalent of Time maga­ zine in the United States: The Centennial of Abolition is, above all, an invitation to observe the

spectacle of the unresolved issue of labor in Brazil, its economic exploi­ tation and its political consequences. The centennial spectacle, embalmed within a history in which a very good princes s saved the blacks from senorial hell, will be feted this week in mummified ceremonies which run the risk of not knowing what occurred until 1888, in order to avoid the knowl­ edge of what is occurring today.

Supported by a panoply of statis­ tics, the Veja article was one of count­ less articles and presentations by com­ mercial mass mediums that took up the banner held by social activists and radical historians twenty years previ­ ously. The purpose of this, it seemed, was to denude conventional inter­ pretations of Abolition and slavery, which presented Abolition as the usher of a new era of racial and socioeco­ nomic relations and portrayed Brazil­ ian slavery as the least harsh in the New World. In another example of the use of the centennial as a vehicle for this new, official critique, an editorial in a Paulista Catholic church magazine Sem Fronteiras presents Aboliyiio as a juncture from which to view the past as well as the present: Upon completing the century with the symbolic gesture of Princess Isabel, nearly everyone prefers to wash their hands of the previous crimes. Few confess to their complic­ ity with the sins of the past, sins which exist todav. Whoever does not under­ · stand the links with the past will also not understand the slavery of today, shackling 60 million blacks, and not only blacks but the majority of Brazil­ ian people, condemned to live at the margin of social life due to the arro­ gance of today 's powe1jul, direct de­ scendants and continuers of the crimes of the men of yesterday.

The above quotes reflect the deci­ sive shift of positions and sensibili­ ties regarding "the social problem" in Brazil. Unlike any previous celebra­ tion of Aboliyiio, the centennial had a national character, with an expressed concern for the '·social" inequalities in Brazil. Yet absent from U1e above quotes, and from most events tied to the centennial. was a discussion of racial prejudice as an ongoing pro­ cess in the structuring of social in­ equalities. The quotes also expose the cul­ tural logic of the yearlong "celebra­ tion." The centennial provided a fo-

rum for white recognition of glaring social inequalities past and present, but with an overwhelming emphasis on the past. In keeping with the politi­ cal culture of racial dynamics in Bra­ zil, much of the commentary and dis­ cussion during the commemoration� focused on Afro-Brazilian culture, re­ sistance and oppression in the past tense. Afro-Brazilian activists had few forums to engage in debates about contemporary discrimination. Thus a duality emerged that held a congru­ ence between official and activjst versions of abolition in one sphere, and a relative silence on more recent asymmetries in another. In one of the most comprehensive analyses of the yearlong commemo­ ration, Catalogo: Centenario da Aboliyiio, a tabulation of events and issues points to similarities between state and civil-oriented emphases of the centennial. According to the data within the catalog, the largest event category was "black culture." Brazil­ ian social anthropologist Yvonne Maggie ( 1989) posits that this encom­ passed all events that pondered "the difference between 'blacks' and oth­ ers" in terms of dance, music, cloth­ ing, diet. and other consumptive or commodified rituals. Out of 1,702 tabulated events i n capital cities throughout the country in 1988, 500 were promoted and pre­ sented under this heading, the single largest segment of events. Of the 500, 224 were under federal, state and municipal auspices. Sixty-four were backed by the black movement. The second most popular r ub r i c was "blacks today" (295), colloquially understood to be "the marginalization of blacks," which was "the fruit of slavery." The third most operative category was "abolition," with 236 events in capital cities nationwide. In contrast, the category of race relations had the lowest total for any single category (38). Only the cat­ egory of "other" had less (36). Of the 38 under the race relations title, 5 were sponsored by the black move­ ment, 13 by federal, state, and mu­ nicipal authorities. Similarly, the poli­ tics category had only 72 events, the second lowest issue-category and the third lowest category overall, exceed­ ing only the ''race relations" and "oth­ ers" categories. Ironically, as Maggie notes, the race relations category "de­ notes the production of inequalities caused by the contemporary social system.·· Two interesting patterns can be culled from this data. First, the three

most employed categories (black cul­ ture, blacks today, and abolition) ad­ dress social inequalities for blacks that were putatively related to their prior conditions in slavery, and not present circumstances and mecha­ nisms that aided in the reproduction of inequalities. The categories that dealt with contemporary issues were least cited, and are not among the top three categorizations. Slavery is seen not only as the source of racial in­ equality but as a timeless explanation for contemporary racial dynamics. Secondly, among the first three issue-categories, there is a positive correlation between events sponsored by the movimento negro with those sponsored by federal, state, and mu­ nicipal governments in capital cities. The three categories most used by governmental entities, those noted above, are also the three most used by the black movement. The only sig­ nificant differences between govern­ mental and black movement spon­ sorship occur at the fourth and fifth positions. For the black movement, politics and discrimination occupy positions four and five. respectively, with no marked decrease in the num­ ber of events sponsored. The fourth most used category under governmen­ tal auspices is slavery; the fifth, dis­ crimination. The relatively large nu­ merical drop off between three and four, and four and five among govern­ mental categories, indicates much less state interest in promoting events out­ side the first four categories. Thus the duality, mentioned ear­ lier, was sustained through sponsor­ ship of events that addressed the pres­ ence of blacks in Brazil in various arenas, but rarely within the context of the twentieth century. It is even more ironic to note, as Maggie does, similarities between the state's em­ phasis on past events in Brazilian race relations and the revisionist positions of Florestan Fernandes and the Sao Paulo school of sociologists. Both looked toward the past. rather than the co ntinuous present. for ex­ planations ofBrazilian racial inequali­ ties- although, perhaps. with differ­ ent motivations. The movimento negro appears to have followed this path as well. In Sao Paulo, 13 May was a day for internal disputes between segments of the movimento negro, in addition to being a day of protest against racL ism. The march against the "farce" of abolition was "marked by a clear political dispute for i'lternal hegemony. More than a historical act. what was

No paradise lARA MORTON Like many other Brazilians I al­ ways thought of Brazil as a racial para­ dise, especially in comparison to America. In regard to blac!Cs, I always felt proud that we have never had any racial riots nor any type of commotion such as we often see m the States. Hav­ ing married an American and eventually coming to live in the United States, I started comprehending and detecting many racialtssues that exist here As an amateur "Social Psychologist" from UCI (University of Cahfornia, Irvine), I re­ cently made an analysis and comparison between Brazil and America in regard to prejudice, stereotyping and discnmina­ tion. The conclusions I reached, aided by the analysis of American social psychologist �lliot Aronson, ended up bemg a surpnse to myself. As it happens in the US, Brazil's J?Opulation is the result of immigration from all over the world. However, de­ spite the diversity of ethnicity, labels such as Gerrnan-Brazilians, Japanese­ Brazilians and the like, have never caught up nor have we ever had any serious friction between north ana south, whereas the fonner is heavily African and the latter European. In t11e largest cities we find Italians, Jews, Gerrnans, and the largest community of Japanese outside o( Japan, all. getting along very well and mtem1arrymg. I attribute that to the fact tl1at mas­ sive immigration has long since stopped, allowing all the different cultures to deeply assimilate the language and all aspects of Brazilian culture; whereas in America, immigration still continues to this day, makmg it more difficult to break the cycle of isolated ethnic sub­ groups being fom1ed. As Elliot Aronson states, "Famtliarity that comes witll pro­ longed interracial contact can poten­ tially reduce unfair stereotypin g and pave the way for recognition 01, indi­ vidual characteristics." In Brazil, we are not taught to hold our forei �n heritage in great esteem. We all came uom somewhere and we all, at a certain point, became Brazilians. Bra­ zil is a melting pot in which tlle ingredi­ ents do mix m a more homogeneous fashion than America. The diversity of ethnicity tl1e liai­ son between these groups, a fong with the wannth and the friendship of tlle people, have always impressea people who came to visit. Having traveled ex­ tensively arotmd the worrd and experi­ enced so many different cultures, I al­ wavs believed Brazil to be a unique and special place in this respect. Yet, despite all of thts, in Brazil the disparity of classes is absurd-mainly due to a very unfair wealth distribution and a highly corrupt govemment-and the gap continues to widen. For blacks the sttuation is even worse. The position occupied by black people has changed very little from the time of slavery. The reason we have never had any radical Civil Rights movement nor n­ ots, is sin1ply because the blacks have deeply internalized the stereotypes that have been assioned to tllem. Accordino to Aronson "l>elief creates reality.� "When we hold erroneous beliefs or

stereotypes about other people, our re­ �onses to them often cause tllem to behave in ways that validate tllese erro­ neous beliefs," he adds. The majority of tlle Brazilian black people live under tlle line of poverty and have been deprived of adequate educa­ tion, decent 1obs decent wages and of tlle possibility of breaking the chronic cycle of miser_y and violence. In every facet of Brazilian life blacks have al­ 1 ways been representea as lazy less in­ telligent or criminals. On television, blacks are always seen as servants or in very lo'Y category jobs. I don't r.ecall ever seemg a olack person portraymg a professional on TV. The onry successTul black people I can think of are a handful of musicians, actors and soccer stars 1 even though we have finally electea Benedita da Silva as Senator. She is tlle very first black person to hold this post. The Brazilian black has a very low self-esteem and conforrns to tlleir plight without opposition. They tend to oe sat­ isfied wilh simple ):>leasures such as Camaval, in whtch they are the main drive, their passion for soccer and some cacha�a (sugar cane liquor) and samba on the weekends. They are so confom1ing that it is even common to tell demeaning jokes about tlle black race to a black person, for him to enjoy and lauoh alono. In the Police Academy of Sao f3aulo, t �ere is a big, "humorous•· sign hangin& on the wall witll tlle followmg saying: 'A black standing is a suspect. ..A black running is guilty:· This sort of attitude is so blatant in Brazil that even religious people and those who consider themselves open minded become blinded by it. Many de­ vout Christians, for example explain \ tlle issue of poverty and homeLess chil­ dren, which are mostly_ blacks, with verses taken from the Bible such as: "You will always have the poor among you." They sometimes even condone their deaths at the hands of the police. Many seem to be unable to see that crime has notlling to do witll tlle color of a person's skin. Since many Brazilians have been a victim of crin1e, the idea of having all criminals and street children extermi­ nated is by no means foreign or absurd to them. This sort of attitude confirn1s Aronson's statement tllat "once we have succeeded in dehumanizing tlle victims, watch-out because it becomes easier to hurt and kill subhumans tllan to hurt and kill fellow human beings." It seems to me now that the prejudice agains blacks that exists in Brazil is stronger tllan it is in America. It is so subtle,. however, that it has passed urulo­ ticed ror decades. The segreoation haP: �ned in Brazil very "naturafiy" instead of the "forceful" way it happened in the States. In Brazil, when a l>lack person excels in somethmg and mixes w1tl1 tlle others1 he/she is actually very well ac­ ceptea. But tlle occurrence of breaking tlle cycle is still very rare. But there are good signs of change, one prime example being Olodum, a movement created in Balil8 five years ago with tlle intent of celebrating the African-Brazilian Heritage of their par­ ticipants. In addition to liaving a world­ renowned band, tlle movement has also launched educational and health care programs.

in question was the monopoly of ment and tomb of the Duke of Caxias, words, political words, in the hands past the former building of the army of the participants." Schwarcz is here ministry, and terminating at Eleventh referring to tensions between leaders Square (Prac;a Onze) which has a statue of Afro-Brazilian religious practices, of Zumbi of Palmares. Caxias, from the black movement, and party politi­ the slave and plantation-owning class cians who vied for the most visible of the previous century, was a patron and commanding presence in the of the army who fought in the War of events of the day, including the march.· Paraguay. Historians have noted that The Unified Black Movement the majority of Brazilian soldiers con­ treated the march as a �great protest" scripted for the Paraguayan war were against racism in the country and black, as were the overwhelming state-sponsored events. The paradox majority of Brazilian casualties. The historical irony of the 1988 march in of their "nonevent" was their de facto participation in the march, which left front of deceased general's statue was their ritualized mark upon the com­ lost upon neither the activists nor the memorative events. The state govern­ Brazilian government. ment, which approved of the 13 May The army commander of the west­ march, had done so with the as­ ern part of the city stated he received sumption that it was dsme in homage information shortly before the march to the signing of Lei Aurea by Prin­ suggesting that the marchers would cess Isabel in 1888. make hostile gestures in front of the The· state secretary of social rela­ monument and the former army min­ tions, Oswaldo Ribeiro, who consid­ istry. Consequently,· the march was ers himself black, intended to lead the altered immediately before its proces­ march from Largo do Paissandu, a sion, despite vociferous protest from major thoroughfare in the center of the movimento negro. Helio Saboya, the state secretary of the civil police Sao Paulo. Members of MNU wanted to lead the march with a banner of who had originally approved of the march. was the one who ordered its protest. After much discussion be­ tween state representatives and mem­ alteratl.on. In a four-part justification bers of MNU, it was finally decided for the change, the western section that the latter would head the march. military commander stated that he had "confirmed information of the MNU members also succeeded in al­ tering the course of the march, as well intent...of activists to utilize the comas making a public declaration against . memorations of the centennial to up­ the state's position at the march's set the tranquillity of the city of Rio de Janeiro" and present to its citizens end. Circumstances were quite differ­ "unpatriotic proposals to. create an­ ent in Rio de Janeiro, where differ­ tagonisms, even hate, among brothers ences over the interpretation of the of whatever race and color." day's march almost led to violence. Government troops would accept no divergence from the original course and intent of the 11 May march to commemorate the "farce" of aboli­ tion, two days before the actual date. It began in a manner similar to what occurred in Sao Paulo, tensions among and between various segments of the movimento negro. Damasceno and Giacomini, in an ethnographic essay on the march, noted tensions between black nuclei from competing political parties; PT, PDT, PSB, PC do B, and others, and conflicts be­ tween several organizations of the nonpartidarian kind within the move­ ment. There were also "institutional divergences and conflicts; some with the state, others against the state, de­ pending upon the moment and the conflict in question." The original plan for the march was for its participants to walk down President Vargas Avenue, a major street in downtown Rio, past the monu-

Furthermore, he added in another justification reported in Veja, the ac­ tivists had the "improper intent of some citizens to make Caxias out to be a man who condoned slavery." Under those conditions, the army could not pem1it "offenses of what­ ever nature to historical landmarks," namely the duke's tomb and the old army ministry. Two days later, before the march in Sao Paulo, military po­ lice surrounded a statue of the duke to avoid its possible desecration. Approximately six hundred sol­ diers and military police blocked the entrance of three thousand partici­ pants to President Vargas Avenue, During the abbreviated march that started late and took less than one hour to complete, "political discus­ sions were not flags had to remain behind the representa­ tive flags and banners of black cul­ ture." Nevertheless, marchers chanted various slogans of the black move­ ment. They made references to Zumbi, criticized Brazilian racism, and even taunted the black shock troops with chants: "Who represents the majority of the military police? Blacks!" This repressive act highlights the residue of authoritarian political culture in Brazil two years after the return to civilian rule. More specifically, it un­ derscores the limits of expressive free­ dom for Afro-Brazilian activists even in the "democratic" or democratizing era. Clearly, the military and civil po­ lice in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo were intent on keeping the respective marches "cultural," without racialized, political content. Most importantly, their ac­ tions were informed by the old logic of racial excepti­ onalism and democracy, not new logics of the commemo­ ration or abertura. This is evidenced in Colonel Sabo­ ya's assertions that the ac­ tivists had "unpatriotic pro­ posals" as justification for the intervention into the march by the state's coer­ cive apparatus. His assertions represent the transposition of logic that is rooted in racial hegemony - claims of ra­ cial mistreatment become calls for racial division or conflict. This too is made obvious by the colonel's as­ sertion that the activists were seeking to foment antago­ nism and "even hate...among brothers of whatever race and color."

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TO ORDER; Phone or send your che<k, money order or lnst. P.O. Specify Accelerat�d Course you wish:

0 French '265• 0 Spanish '26501 0 Gtml8n '265• 0 Hallan '2&5•



Or9 select Intennediate Course:

0 Japanese '285• 0 Chinese (IIIRdartn) '285• 0 Russian '285• 0 Portvguen (IIBZIIltftl '265'"

_ __

0 l11termediate French '22500 0 Intermediate Spanish '22500 0 Intermediate German 122500 0 Intermediate Italian '225"

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PROFESSIONAL CASSETTE CENTER 408 S. Pasadena Ave. Suite 4 Dept. NFB Pasadena, California 9i 105 U.S.A. Please add $11.00 shipping &

Signature (Card Orders Only) 0 DISCOVER 0 VISA D MASTERCARD D AMERICAN EXPRESS Need It Tomorrow? Ask Operator for Express Service

NOW #1! Over 85'!'. of fortune ,000 companies have now pun:nased one or more of our programs.


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handling. California residents add

8%% sales lax. All Funds payable in U.S. Dollars. For international orders, please call lor shipping.

This single-cassette series was created by leading con­ sultantsto help companies "go worldwide." Discover every­ thing from negotiating tactics to the best way of presenting your business card. Some top­ ics presented: • Initial Contact • Getting Things Done • Negotiating • Reaching Agreements • Dress and Manners • Social Contact & Entertainment •Image Enhancers &Taboos Choose lrom:

D Australia D France D Greal Brilain D Indonesia D Korea D Me xico D Russia D Thailand

D China D Germany D Spain D Japan D Malaysia D Philippines D Singapore D United Stales


Select your areas ollnterest, each pro. only: +

$2.50 per volumeS & H. or maximum $10.00 lor 4 or more programs

Encounter the wonders of the world... in BRAZIL The Brazil route. Korean Air flies from Los Angeles to Sao Paulo three times a week. And at Korean Air, we'll make sure you are comfortable and cared for from the moment you get on board.

For over 25 years, Korean Air has been dedicated to accommodating its passengers with superb service. Family care, friendly multilingual anendants and special in-flight meals are among KAL's continuous efforts to provide unparalleled service. And KAL's Frequent Traveler Bonus System (FTBS}, offers a reward system with better mileage and special Sao Paulo dividends that other airlines just can't match!*

Fly of the hemisphere and encounter the thrilling sight of "Christ the Redeemer" overlooking the city of Rio and the sunny beaches along the coast. It will be a breathtaking experience

Korean Air flies worldwide, with technologically advanced jumbo aircraft, and with the most flights from the continental U.S. to the Orient. With Korean Air, you'll be certain that your

whether it is your very first trip or your twentieth. Korean Air

vacation travel is pleasant and enjoyable.

offers superior service and convenient flight schedules with

Korean Air. Fly the Spirit of Dedication.

departures up to three times a week from Los Angeles to Sao Paulo, the economic and cultural gateway of Latin America.

This program is subject to rules and standards established by Korean Airlines.

For detailed information, please


IWRFANAIR TOLL FREE 1 (800) 438 - 5000

Los Angeles ,)IC.

2:00PM I KE062 We • Fr• SuI 7:40AM


Sao Paulo �

1:10AM I KE061 Tu • Fr• Su \7:10AM

...,... Los Angeles

Profile for Brazzil Magazine

Brazzil Magazine - March 1995  

Brazzil is an English-language magazine dealing with everything that has to do with Brazil or has some Brazilian connection, including music...

Brazzil Magazine - March 1995  

Brazzil is an English-language magazine dealing with everything that has to do with Brazil or has some Brazilian connection, including music...