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MUSIC:.JOAO BOSCO'S BAROQUE & JAZZ MIX

PRESIDENCY: ROOSO VISITS THE US ANO MAKES US PROUO

SPECIAL: THIRO WORLO ANO LITERATURE

SOCIETY: THE GAY BATTLE ASSERT EQUALITY

-~-~GUAGE:

BRAZILIANS AINIER LOT?

TRAVE L: GOAS MEANS SUN, NO SATISFACTION


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Samba, Bossa Nova, Jazz, Rock, Chorinho, lambada, Baifio, Frevo, Axe Music, World Music, and more.

COtS AND TAPES MAIL DELIVERY AVAILABLE Daniela Mercury, Olodum, Banda Mel, Ra~a Negra, Alcione, Caetano, Djavan, Milton Nascimento, Clementina de Jesus, Beth Carvalho, Margareth Menezes, Rosa Maria, leny Andrade, Elza Soares, Marina, Elba Ramalho, Tania Alves, Ivan l..ins, Jofio Gilberta, Tom Jobim, Vi nidus de Morais, Toquinho, Roberto Carlos, Nelson Ned, legifio Urbana, Chico Buarque, Ptlrolamas doSucesso, Barfio Vermelho, Elis Regina, Nora lefio, Cartola, Mario Bethonia, Gal Costa, Noel Rosa, Carmen Miranda, Gilberta Gil, MPB-4, Adoniram Barbosa, Moreira da Silva, Wagner Tiso, Sergio Mendes, Martinho da Vila, Jair Rodrigues, Jorge Benjor, Zeca Pagodinho, Bezerra da Silva, Nano Vasconcelos, luiz Gonzaga, Alceu Valen~a,Cazuza, leila Pinheiro, Nelson Cavaquinho, Villa lobos, Waldir Azevedo, Dilermando Reis and many others ... NEWS from BRAZIL- JUNE 1995


The Brazilian woman has been showing some of her faces to the world. Among the most recognized is the one that presents her as the sensuous body in a continuous spectacle of herself on the 5,000 miles of Brazil's sand and beaches. She has also been painted as a charming, docile being always ready to please her partner. The dream girl and femme fatale packed in one bundle. At least part of this appeal can be attested by the popularity of

News from Brazil's own personals, in which men have been trying to reach the Brazilian femaledom out there. Other portraits are even less flattering than those above. They show Brazil's women prostituting themselves since childhood in every big city, promoting and being victims of sex tourism in the Northeast, overburdening themselves with more children than they can take care of, and being a passive target of men's violence. In this issue we are bringing to light some other faces of our women. Their presence is all over: from the

highest house of congress to the buses' wheels. And our short-story pages show the talent of four contemporary women writers. The Brazilian woman doesn't seem afraid of old age the way she used to. Pickier than her own mother, she is waiting longer to marry or not marrying at all if some conditions are not fulfilled. She is in many instances looking for younger partners and is not ashamed of catering to her own pleasure. She is taking better care of herself and she's never looked better. R.M.

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29

Coyer

Short storjes

What do Brazilian women want?

4 by 4 women writers

12

Counseling: Fatima's way

33

Gays on the mainstream

36

16 Statesman Cardoso visits the US

19 Ouro Preto: the Getty connection

Musjc Cover by Aylan Francesco

Never a Gal like this

39

DEPARTMENTS 6 Rapidinhas

14

Travel

Alagoas: you don't know what you're missing

Letters

42

45

21

Brazilian Notas

Why can't they speak Portuguese?

46

Music

The Cultural Pulse

Bosco: back in the USA

47 Por ai

54

49

23

Classifieds

Claudio & Mariela's US adventure

U.S.A. Calendar

50 52

South of the border literature

That's Brazilian TIME TO RENEW? Send mail to: P.O. Box 42536- Los Angeles, CA 90050-0536 Ads: (213) 255-8062- Subscription: (213) 255-4953 Editorial: (213) 255-8062 -Information: (800) 354-4953 Fax: (213) 257-3487 -INTERNET: brazilnews@aol.com

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Publisher and Editor: Rodney Mello /Associate Editor: Carlos Ravelo /Entertainment Editors:Sam& Harriet Robbins/Reporter: Francine Alexander I Book Review: Bondo Wyszpolski I Representatives: MIAMI: Tania Mahon (305) 253-4201 - NEW YORK: C.A.T.S. Custom Advertising and Tour Services (718) 746-0169 -SAN FRANCISCO: Felipe MagaiMes (415) 648-5966 -Founder: Gilberto Ferreira NEWS from BRAZIL is published monthly by News from Brazil- 2039 N. Ave. 52, Los Angeles, CA, 90042-1024. Application to mail at secondclass postage rate is pending at Los Angeles, CA. Single copy sold for $2. One year subscription for 12 issues is $3 (three dollars) in the U.S., $15 in Canada and Mexico, and $18 (surface mail) in all other countries. Allow 5 to 7 weeks to receive your first issue. You may quote from or reprint any of the contents with proper copyright credit. Editorial submissions are welcome. Include a SASE (self addressed and stamped envelope), ifyouwantyour material mailed back.News from Braz//assumes no responsibility for any claims made by its advertisers.

POST MASTER: Please, send address changes to News from Brazil- P.O. Box 42536- Los Angeles, CA- 90050-0536 NEWS from BRAZIL路 JUNE 1995

5


Starting in 1965 American President Lyndon Jonhson continually pressured Brazil to send troops into Vietnam to fight alongside Yankee soldiers. This until-nowunknown page in Brazil's history has been revealed by newspaper Folha de Sao Paulo, which had access to documents from that time including a personal letter from Johnson. In the document, Johnson, after acknowledging that Brazil sent coffee and medicine, asks for "additional aide due to the circumstances", and concludes, "I would be most interested to learn your views as to what additional assistance the Government of Brazil might be able to provide." While pressuring on one side, the White House also promised some goodies such as the rescheduling of debt and the opening of American markets. Apparently, Castello Branco, the general who was Brazil's President at the time, was inclined to oblige, but the country was in no mood for it at the time. Guess who's helping Baghdad survive the commercial embargo's bad times imposed by the United Nations? Add Brazil to the list. The country is getting underthe-table oil from Iraq.

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The IS0-9000, a worldwide quality certificate given only to companies that excel in their fields, in Brazil has turned into a kind of Rolex made in Taiwan. Anyone seems to be able to buy it from the street vendor on the comer. While overdiligent Japan took decades to get a few. hundreds of these certificates, Brazilian companies acquired 600 (six hundred that is) of them between 1992 and 1994. The Brazilians entrusted by the Swiss institution to grant the certificate seem to be giving them out simply for the asking.

Amigiio (good friend) - a Arrasar (raze) -to be Baba-egg - sycophant Bala na agulha- (bullet in the needle) with money Banzai- a 'no', specially on an invitation for a date Caro9o (pit) - a nag Chaveco - flirt Cheirado, virado (smelt, turned) - high after having cocaine Dar mole - to show interest Dar um norte (give a north) - to go away Detonar (explode) -to get rid of Deusa (goddess) - unreachable woman Ficar gel - to keep it cool Liberada (liberated) - woman who just gave walking papers to boyfriend Palha (straw) - nothing special Stress -boring Zapear - to zap with remote control

Switzerland's World Economic Forum has asked 1,052 business leaders around the world: "Which three countries will be in the top ranks of the World Report on Competitiveness in the year 2030?" The US came in first place followed mostly by Asian countries. Brazil came in 11th (first iu: Latin America), an improvement from 1993 when it was 36th. India came in 7th. This is ironic since Brazilians have created the term Belindia .to describe their Belgium-like affluence and their India-like poverty. Now Indians have paid back in kind. They call their own disparities Belbras. Bel again is for Belgium and bras, well, that's not hard to guess.

NEWS from BRAZIL路 JUNE 1ell5


Sundae, the ice cream of Kibon, a traditional manufacturer of icy treats in Brazil, is celebrating its lOth anniversary. To commemorate the date, Kibon has invited Sharon Stone to star in a media campaign based on her movie Sliver, Jnstinto Selvagem in Brazil. Stone is getting $250,000 to drink an ice cream while a man tied to a bed observes her with begging eyes. When he is shown on Brazilian screens next ,. ·'.Tanuruy, Marcio Garcia, 25, will have nothing covering his sculptural body but a minuscule cache-sex. Garcia is Peri in the motion picture version of romantic novelist Jose de Alencar's 0 Guarani. Director Norma Bengell, who in the SO's also used to ooze sensuality through each pore, is enchanted with her finding. "This boy is very talented," she says, adding as not to overlook the physical attributes, "He is my Sonia Braga." Things start to happen to Brazilian rocker Supla, 29, who has been living for almost two years in New York. He got himself a new band, the Mad Parede, and has taped a clip with them. Thanks to a super cool motorcycle he owns, he caught the attention of some producers who invited him to pose with his machine and exporno star Traci Lords, 26. After the clicking session, a little-disappointed Supla revealed ' "She definitely has something for rockers, but nothing happened between us."

NEWS from BRAZIL· JUNE 1995

lim!mll Devil take it While in the Northeast the coolest drink nowadays is tufi!o (typhoon), its predecessor capeta (the devil) only recently arrived in Rio and it has become a hit. Both promise to act as aph• rodisiacs and to give an immediate feeling of euphoria. Tuflio, the strongest of the two, is a combination of tequila, wine, currant syrup, vodka, whiskey, cognac, milk cream, fruit and condensed milk mixed in a blender. As for the milder capeta there has been a lot of interest in how to make it. Even on Internet there was a recent posting asking for the recipe. In response to those inquiring minds we're publishing the

recipe used by Gosto Baiano, a barraca (stand) at Praia de Taperapuil in Porto Seguro, Bahia. It serves one. Ingredients: 1 dose of vodka, 1 slice of pineapple, 6 grapes, 1 slice of mango, 2 teaspoons of powdered guarami, 1 teaspoon of powdered cinnamon, 2 tablespoons of condensed milk, 1 tablespoon of sugar, 1 tablespoon of milk cream. Place it all in the blender, blend and serve over ice. If anything out of the ordinary might happen, you always can say, "The devil (capeta) made me do it."

Between 1980 and 1993, 2,143 objects disappeared from the Brazilian embassy building in Washington. The items include cutlery and china, but also paintings and four Persian carpets. For three years the Brazilian government has been trying to assess its damages in the case. Past November, then Foreign Minister Celso Amorim wrote to the TCU (Union's Accounts Tribunal): "The evaluation of the missing goods is virtually impracticable." Who first rang the bell, in 1993, was current Brazilian ambassador in Washington, Paulo Tarso Flecha de Lima, who found out that no inventory had been made at the embassy for more than 10 years. Oh well ... As a sunny day is followed by an even sunnier one on Bahia's shores, Bahianos don't stop creating new music rhythms. They all come with labels of new, revolutionary and im.proved, but basically they are very similar to the ones they are taking the place of. After the lambada, deboche, fricote, requebra seasons, the festive people from Bahia are raving about the tchaco. The new offshoot of the spicy northeastern music requires plenty of waddling and has risque lyrics like Eu to em cima, eu to embaixonchaco pra frente, !chaco pra tras (I'm on top, I'm on the bottomffchaco forward, tchaco backward).

7


NEWS from BRAZIL- JUNE 1995


The 1991 Census shows Brazil with 74,381,317 women versus 72,536,142 men. What this means is that they represent 50.63% of the total population. This disparity, however, is bigger in the Northeast and Southeast (with the exception of Santa Catarina state). The lack of men is particularly dramatic in the big cities, where there are 3.5 million more women than men. The city of Sao Paulo has 7.9 million women for 7.5 million men. In Rio, women outnumber men by about 320,000. Regions with a predominantly male population are those in the North and Center-West areas, which have drawn large contingents of men looking for job opportunities. Adding to this dearth of men, Brazilian women have also become much pickier than their mothers or grandmothers. In a study about the female population, Elza Berqu6, from CEBRAP (Brazilian Center for Analysis and Planning) found out that women today "want a complete relationship in all aspects: affective, sexual and intellectual." "The age of a woman is still very important," notes Berqu6, analyzing what she sees as a dramatic shrinkage of the "marriage market", "when she turns 30, her chances of getting a partner are reduced." The most common age for Brazilian women to marry is 23. The disparity between the male and female population has been a godsend for the matchmaking industry. At Sao Paulo's Happy End, for example, 63% of the 3,000 plus registrants are women. The vast majority of applicants have a college degree and belong to the so-called A & B classes, the most affluent. In Belo Horizonte, capital of Minas Gerais, the lack of men is so acute that even matrimonial agencies are not able to survive. This city with a population of 2 million has an excess of 100,000 women. Olympia Gazel, a radio personality, founded a matchmaking agency in 1982, but closed two years later due to the ratio of men to women on her books: 20 women for every man. She reopened the business in 1992 and now has a more manageable figure: four women for each man. But to get to this point she had to start recruiting males from other Brazilian states, especially from Bahia. In Belo Horizonte women as young as 15 are having trouble finding someone to date. It hasn't always been like this. During the 1870's. the lack of women was so dramatic that in places like the state of Minas Gerais where there was gold fever, the authoriNEWS from BRAZIL路 JUNE 1995

ties appealled to families to not send their daughters to convents or even to other cities. After 30 or so, never-married single women are called so/teironas (spinsters). In a slightly more compassionate sense they are 路referred to as the "as que ficaram para tia" (the ones who will be aunts). To cope with the present situation, however, women seem to be overcoming the stigma tied to growing old without marrying. And they are marrying less and less. While the state of Sao Paulo registered the marriages of207,089 women in 1980, this number fell to 196,231 in 1990, even though the state population increased by two percent during that period. Sociologist Rosa Maria Vieira de Freitas from SEADE (State System for Data Analysis) says that the marriage document has lost much of its appeal and that the terms single and married don't mean what they used to. "Thanks to sexual liberation, women don't need to be married to have sexual relations," she explains. A new way to marry - About 25% of marriages in Brazil end up in divorce. In order to deal with conjugal unions in a more businesslike matter, Congress is seriously studying the introduction of what is being called "office marriage". According to a bill already approved by the Senate's Constitution and Justice Commission, a couple would be able to get a valid marriage contract without any interference by the state. This contract can be converted into a civil marriage, but the law doesn't impose any deadline. The concept is nothing short of revolutionary. If and when approved the office marriage will make obsolete the present system of civil marriage or any other kind of cohabitation. Presently, a woman only acquires rights as a spouse after living together for five years. In the office marriage these rights start immediately. Before the 1977 legalization of divorce in Brazil all marriages were in the so-called universal commun9


ion category. Nowadays people automatically marry in a category called partial communion, in which all possessions acquired before the marriage belong only to the individual. Even though most Brazilian jurists believe that possessions acquired after marriage should be considered common property, law scholar Priscila Correa da Fonseca would like to see total separation of all assets all the time. Now, to be able to do this, couples have to enter into a pre-nuptial agreement in which they present a complete list of earnings and possessions of each of the partners. All this new independence, however, hasn't changed macho attitudes and sexual harassment continues to be a common fact of life. Even though more women have been reporting these assaults Tubal ligation to authorities, there is still a very small number who actually takes Pills this step. In Sao Paulo, the State Rhythm table Counsel for the Female CondiCoitus interruptus tion has determined that 60% of Condom the women who report sexual harassment never take the next IUD step and register the same comOther plaint with the Women's Bureaus which have the power to make a police investigation. For the most part they consider the official denunciaton to be more humiliating than the offense itself. And since sexual harassment is not considered a crime under Brazilian law, it is very rare that somebody accused of doing it

is condemned. The new penal code being written defines sexual harassment in its article no. 195 as: "To annoy someone with proposals of sexual content using relationships that involve work, family or friendship ties with the victim." Those convicted of the crime would be condemned to a prison term of between six months and one year. As in the US and many other so-called civilized countries, physical abuse against women is still rampant. It's estimated that at least two women are assaulted every hour in Rio. On average, Rio's police receive complaints from 540 physically abused women and 40 who are violated, every month. About 40 others are killed during the same period. Police statistics show that for the most part those women who are 44.4% victimized are between 25 and 36 years old, have no source of income 41.0% and no place else to go. They present 6.2% their grievances and go back to the 1.8% home in which they are being abused. 1.8% Young blood -In a recent inter~iew with the weekly magazine Isto 1.5% E, Moacir Costa, a Paulista (from 2.6% Sao Paulo) sexologist said that by the year 2000, half of the Brazilian women will be romancing young studs no more than 25 years old. Wishful thinking? Costa, who is the author of Sexo: o Dilema do Homem (Sex: the Man's Dilemma), a book already in its fourth edition, believes that this revolution has already started

Contraceptives

10

NEWS from BRAZIL路 JUNE 1995


because a woman in her 40's is in her sexual prime while men of the same age are already "stressed out and without energy". The scene of older women being escorted by younger guys is becoming more and more common in Brazil, with some well-known personalities leading the way. Actress Lady Francisco, 55, for example, who is a connoisseur of younger men, can't stand old fogies, calling them "grumpy". As for the under 30 crowd, she classifies them as "more attractive". Older men are also accused of working too much, being too prejudiced, and not interested in having fun. "This new behavior," says Escola Paulista de Medicina's psychologist Maria Aznar Farias, "is part of the space conquered by women." Some men who've opted for romancing older women say that they are much better at being independent and going directly to the point, without "the circuitousness of a Forrest <;Jump", as expressed by VictorMartuchelli in thefsto E article. Older women are also frequently credited for being more caring and attentive to their partners. Some themes as anal sex are still taboo among these mature Afrodites, but they don't seem afraid to chase pleasure in all places. They frequent single's bars, pay for sex, and carry condoms together with their make-up. About 90% of all advertisers at a Folha de Siio Paulo classified section called "Over 50 looking for over 50" are women. Among the most cited attributes they look for in a prospective candidate are sincerity, financial stability, readiness for commitment, willingness to travel and have fun, culture, good humor, and no vices. On another front, many women are still dying from preventable causes such as gynecological diseases, parturition (there are 150 maternal deaths for every 100 thousand births), pregnancy, and certain curable cancers. Only 10% of women have periodical Pap smears, a procedure that might prevent cervical cancer. As for birth control, tubal ligation seems to be the method of choice. A 1986 study by IBGE (Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics) has shown that while 41% of women take the pill- generally without medical supervision- other 44.4% opt for the surgical tying of their fallopian tubes. Abortion - an illegal practice - is also frequently used as a contraNEWS from BRAZIL¡ JUNE 1995

ceptive measure. It's estimated that every year there are 1.5 million abortions in Brazil and that 10,000 women end up dying from the operation. The complications of badly done abortions are the fifth largest cause for hospital admission in the country and represent almost $26 million a year in expenses to the state. Officially 72 women die for each 100,00 live births. Some doctors say ~he real number is closer to 150 deaths for 100,000 newborn children. The World Health Organization accepts no more than 20 deaths for 100,000 births. The causes of this high mortality rate are toxemia (53%), hemorrhage (21.4%), infection (17%), other direct complications (14.8%) and abortion (9.7%). Despite opposition by the powerful National Conference of Brazilian Bishops (CNBB), Congress is studying a bill that would give free access to men and women to procedures like vasectomies or tubal ligations. This last operation, however, wouldn't be allowed before the woman is 30 years old. Numbers from IBGE' s National Research by House Sample show that about 15.8% of women between the ages of 15 and 54 are sterilized, this amounts to around 6 million Brazilians. By comparison, this rate is about 7% in developed countries. Some experts, however, believe that there are at least 10 million women sterilized in Brazil. One of these scholars is Ana Maria Costa, a doctor specializing in the area of reproduction. "There is an absurd amount of misinformation," she says. "Women don't know about diaphragms, IUD's, condoms or other alternatives, and end up considering tubal ligation as the only safe method to avoid children." Costa observes that the absence of the State and the pressure of international organizations interested in zero growth, have established a sterilization culture in the country. The fertility rate among women has fallen from 6.5 children for every woman during the 1940's to 2 children nowadays. In the past the incentive to have children was considered a national security issue by the military. On the other hand, advances in medicine have allowed women who have ended their fertile years to have children. Dozens of them, many older than 50, are trying to have a child right now through less conventional methods. â&#x20AC;˘


Brazil is reaching a new milestone this June. Congress will be looking into inserting gay and lesbian rights within the mainstream of Brazilian society. Congresspersons Martha Suplicy (PT-SP) and Fernando Baeira (PV-Rio), have submitted a bill to that effect, and now the local "politically correct" establishment is feeling nervous ... and they should! In a country where harassment of gays and transvestites is commonplace, and where random and senseless murders of homosexuals is more common than not, particularly in the RioSa Paulo-Porto Alegre axis, this proposal is holding the undivided attention of an inmense proportion of the populace. Particulary gays, and transvestites. The battlelines have already been drawn: the Christian church coalition and other conservative and morality-laden groups on one side, and the Partido dos Trabalhadores (PT) and Gay Rights groups on the other. This, in a country in which, according to Grupo Gay da Bahia, almost 10% is gay or lesbian. That would mean 15 million people who currently feel discriminated against or sidelined. For many gays and lesbians, this is a key issue that they would like to see cleared up through a constitutional ammendment. According to Luis Motta, an Anthropology 12

professor at the Universidade Federal da Bahia and founder of the Grupo Gay da Bahia, two other key issues are to disseminate scientific information relating to what homosexuality actually is, and third to educate the gay and lesbian population as to their rights to equality under the Brazilian Constitution. Many people wonder, however, how a country which still has not solved critical social problems such as agrarian reform and elimination of multiple social health problems, can expect to promote such an advanced piece of legislation as this, which function ever so dis. erectly in countries such as Holland, Denmark or Norway. Many European nations have experimented with Gay rights. For instance, Denmark recognized (in 1986) the right of homosexuals to marry, as well as inheritance rights derived from such a relationship (1989). In 1992 Norway followed Denmark's example, wich was again copied by Sweden in 1994. Since 1993 France has granted social security benefits to partners in a homosexual relationship. Within the US the City of San Fraancisco accepted the so-called "domestic partnership" arrangement, and in 1993 the City of New York also recognized certain partnership rights between gay couples. NEWS from BRAZIL路 JUNE 1995


upon governmental authorities in the Health area. In In Brazil, two States (Mato Grosso and Sergipe), Rio, the Escritorio Modelo de Advocacia Gratuita, legally prohibit any sort of discrimination, under their a free legal advocacy group, provides legal assisState Constitutions. Another 73 other municipal governtance in the areas of Family Law, Labor, Civil and ments also acknowledge these rights under local laws. Criminal Law. Although there are no sitting Congresspersons who Two years ago, they pioneered the area of AIDS are admitedly gay or lesbians, they are nevertheless Law, by providing free legal counseling to anyone backed by several politicians who campaigned or took on who was an active carrier of the AIDS virus. Close commitments to propose changes to the Constitution in to 10% of the cases they are actively involved in are this respect. In fact, one of the strategies under considerAIDS related. In fact EMAG has been able to force ation by many of the gay groups which are lobbying for several firm and governmental agencies to reincorthese changes, is to expose and divulge the names of porate laid-off employees back to work, and has "closet" gay or lesbian politicians who might try to obtained medical pensions for several others in an oppose the proposals. advanced stage of illness. In fact, the 17th International Gay and Lesbian AssoAccording to Marcelo Turra, they also have 5 ciation Convention is being held this month in Rio. cases pending in which hospitals have been sued for Brazil was chosen for the event, precisely because of the passing on the virus to patients through contaminumerous number of alleged human rights violations nated blood transfusions. against gays, and to further expand the association's territory into the Third World. Another issue that is ripe for judicial review is in relation to AIDS carriers, the health profession and the Brazilian Penal Code. The key (213) 613-0943 • Downtown L.A. area relates to the Physicians (31 0) 641-4894 - LAX Airport Code of'Medical Ethics. The question seems to be this: at (31 0) 575-4544 • West L.A. what point in time can a phy(714) 668-1175 • Orange County sician break the doctor/patient relationship (and therefore (714) 668-051 5 • Espaiiol breach his ethical obligations) when he knows that his· patient's active HIV status can negatively affect third parties related to or in contact with the patient? The issue has been directly addressed in the U.S., $599 and currently more than 40 LIMA Law Schools teach courses in $549 BOGOTA relation to the medical/legal $649 BUENO.f AIRE.f aspects of the problem. $649 MONTEVIDEO "The AIDS issue covers 4.9 ECUADOR multiple aspects of law" says 670 HONG KONG Professor Marcelo Turra, and 20 BANGKOK attorney and law professor. "It covers c ·minal and family law, as well as prevention" he 676 RIO/.fALVADORIBRA/iLIA adds. In the U.S. criminal re676 BELO HORIZONTEIRECIFE sponsibility has charged upon 22 PORTO ALEGRE several individuals who knowingly had sex without informing their partners of this. Several people have also died due to that uninformed consent. Marcelo Rubens, president of the Conselho Regional de RT OPEN RETURN Medicina (CREMERJ) are exploring the alternative of PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE integrating the medical code of ethics within current Penal Code, as well as to determine aspects relating to responsibilities incumbent

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Letters (News from Brazil, April 1995) was a !O . As a philosopher Raulzito was as phony as imported whiskey sold in Brazil. (The best faked whiskey in the world according to Orson Welles). But a genius nonetheless. Our Dylan as Caetano pointed. Only better because no popular music was ever influenced by so many different styles than Brazilian mus1c. Not to mention the lyrics that alone would deserve a huge article from your magazine showing its richness. When Brazil will wake up and start treating our music as a product for exporting? It worked with lambada so 1magine with the real thing. Uh, huh! Adalberto da Sill•a Miami Beacll, Florida Here 1s a gratmtous ails 1ameless "plug" that I made on News from Brazil behalf on Compuserve. The posting was made in the World Community Fomm, Latin American section, where I've noticed a lot of "mail" from lovers of Brazilian culture. I think it will generate some interest, and hopefully, some subscriptions as well: "I have nothing to do with a small publication called News from Brazil, save that I am a subscriber. But I so admire and enjoy the sririt of this magazine that surely I wil be forgiven 1f I herein sound off in its favor. The magazine speaks for itself. Photographs, articles, stories, cartoons, art and dance reviews -- this is just some of what you may expect each month. Many pieces are competently written in Portuguese, many in English. For devotees learning Portuguese, or planning a trip south, there IS lots of new vocabulary. I even enjoy the advertising, though it's a little slanted towards its Los Angeles readers, with ads for Brazilian dining and samba venues in town. The cost of this intercultural extravaganza? Twelve issues for three bucks! Puxa vida! If anr,one out theie thinks it's a good deal I 11 be happy to let you know where to write for a subscriptiOn. Ate logo! Gray Jordan HoUywood, Califomia

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I am mteresti m siscr/ mg to your magazine. I visit Brazil mainly Rio de Janeiro at least twice a year. I am interested in all the news from not only Rio but the entire country. I am in the Navy. Billy W. Rayford USS ESSEK

I ,~woulf~~·~·=-··~··~:.t;J=t" I e to su sen to News from Brazil for one year. I am studying the Brazilian Portuguese language on my own, and would like to know if you have a pen-pal network through which I may be able to converse and improve myfroficiency in your beautiful language. am also planning a trip to Salvador, Bahia. Sardia Lewis New York, New York •=•=-~ru•~[CII«•If~r·13~1•1M!1ill~l"1*' it'S tm1e to renew my su scnptwn, which I am happy to do. I am very pleased with your pubhcation because it is a rare example that reports on Brazilian events in English. This is so important as I do not comprehend Portuguese. I vainly try to make some sense from newspapers distributed in New York City and \\Titten in Portuguese but I miss most of the meanino. So I must depend on your magazine w~ich I find to be a well-\\Titten journal. Continue the good work. P .S.: I'm renewing for two years.

Como vai?yortuguese professor told the class about this magazme and I am interested. Jennifer Lyn Bergren Minneapolis, Minnesota

it!~·•••·xm,,~ The !Jrst year was so good that I want to renew! Ed LeGrand Sacramento, Califonria

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tgJ:ru~·~··J·~~ Gostanae agraecer peo trabalho de voces. Depois de tantos anos aqui, conseguir uma revista que consiga nos trazer informac;:oes sobre o Brasil de uma maneira tao gostosa, foi demais! Na verdade nunca procurei fazer parte de nenhum gmpo de brasileiros. Estudo hotel management na UCLA e vou sempre ao Brasil. Na hora de voltar e sempre a mesma coisa. Patricia Valle Canoga Park, Califonria !MMiO'IM~""I~tc

LOVED SABINO Estou mmto contente com sua revista. Ja fiz algumas assinaturas para amigos e familiares e agora estou renovando a minha por ma1s um ano. Adorei as nove cronicas do Fernando Sabino que sairam na edic;:ao de marc;:o. Realmente eu gosto de tudo o que voces publicam e espero que continuem sempre com este born trabalho. A/aria C. G11erreiro Rowland l/eigllts, Califomia

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ou ding off President Fernando Henrique Cardoso was received in the US by a bad-mannered ad in the Wall Street Journal which asked on its title: "Should The U.S. Open Its Purse Strings To This Patent Pirate Country?". Cardoso who hasn't come to ask for any money and who is not responsible for the patent laws (the Congress is) responded, as the gentleman that he is, with class and firmness of purpose. Brazil has changed for much better. CARLOS EMMANUEL OA FONSECA BARRETO

There are times when Brazilians aren't particularly proud of their country, especially of their political leaders. In the past, some incidents created a certain anti-patriotic feeling among Brazilians living abroad. These are psychological complexes and insecurities on our part. We are very worried about our country's image in the international arena. Last month's visit by President Fernando Henrique Cardoso to the United States, however, was a big booster for our ego. After all, Cardoso is a well educated polyglot, considered by many as the most prepared of any current world leader. President Clinton noted that Fernando Henrique and he himself had a lot in common, including "the same educational background." The statement has a greater deal of truth than it appears affirst blush. Clinton, for example, has opposed the Vietnam War, iss a Democrat, and his government follows some Republican economic policies. Moreover, he attended Oxford, a foreign college. In comparison, Cardoso was opposed to the 1964 military regime, is a Social-Democrat, has allied himself with the right, and attended Sorbonne, a foreign college. Even their wives have a lot in common. The first-ladies, Mrs. Clinton and Mrs.Cardoso, have in their respective countries the fame of not only being the Presidents' spouses but also of playing an important political role. There proved to be a real mutual interest between the countries in having a stronger economic relationship. Clinton reminded that "Brazil is an important economy of 160 million people." Cardoso was given a first class reception in the US, even though for the American press it was a minor event. The streets of Washington D.C. had their light poles decorated with both countries' flags, and a gala dinner was offered by the White House to the President and his 41 person presidential entourage. The same reception occurred in the Reagan-Figueiredo, Reagan-Samey, and Bush-Collor eras, although none showed the genuine warmth of the Clinton-Cardoso meeting. Past economic peccadillos and more seriou'i mistakes had created ghosts that haunted the country during the 80's, and clouded US-Brazilian economic ties. Today Brazil has gained back its respect. The government has been able to repay its foreign debts, there are much less environmental pressures or human rights issues, and the electronics-computer market's reserve and trade barriers are being relaxed. Above all, the government has successfully stabilized its currency in an inflation-free economy, with respectable foreign reserves and a steady growth in GDP (Growth Domestic Product). "Brazil is the United States' only strategic partner in Latin America and every day we appear as a stronger regional power," said the Brazilian ambassador to Washington Paulo Tarso Flecha de Lima. A controversial issue is still the Patent Bill, expected to be approved by the Brazilian Congress. The Clinton administration claims that piracy in Brazil costs US businesses over $800 million a year. Cardoso promised 16

NEWS from BRAZIL路 JUNE 1995


Charmer During his talk at Washington's National Press Club, the Brazilian President wowed what usually is a blase audience WILSON VELLOSO

He arri..-cd almost on time. smilcc_l c..-cry time he should. then charmed his audience'' ith a grand gesture of calculated spontancit~ : he abandoned his written tc.\t and ad libbcd his talk . Thus did Fcmanclo Hcnriquc Cardoso. President of Br:vil. face a motley cro\\ d of ne\\ sgat hcrcrs. money makers. and others. His forum \1 as an e\ cmcws~ luncheon at the National Press Club in Washington. D.C.. nO\r merged. blended. enlarged. and enri ched by a si;ablc tranche of the Har..-ard Club membership. Of course FHC simply had to forget about his ad,·ancc tc.\t. a so-called ··non-official English translation·· distributed by the ream among those present. In its opening page the anonymous translator decided to tell Americans how to pronounce ··real.·· the name of both the Bra;ilian currency and the Economic Plan that shot FHC into stardom. He suggested .. ha~·-al as ( 'ariocas (Rio ·s nati\CS) say. Few read beyond that point. bcept in the case of the ..-c~ famous - such as Polish President \Valcnt.a and a few others - interpretation is a li..-ing death at the NPC. Can you imagine waiting for one minute or two before getting a point that made the speaker· s compatriots roar '' ith laughter'.' Cardoso spoke in a , · e~ · passable. Ii\·ely. often colloquial English. and ''on much applause. No embarrassing gaps to seck for terms. His stage manner "as impeccable: when he \las stumped because the right \\Ord eluded him. he would say .. Again··. Much better than the ··you know'! you know'?" now being used ad nauseam by Americans of all classes and persuasions. Fully aware that an after-lunch talk is not a lecture or a campaign speech. Cardoso painted in broad brushstrokcs the rationale of his economic policy : open the Bra;ilian market to trade. encourage competition. c.\pand technology. and create jobs. And at the same broaden and imprO\ c education. technical training. so that the poor may e.\pect substanti\·c and substantial impro,·cmcnt within their lifetimes. Less regulation. yes. by all means. but no attempt at the cruel tricklcdown economy that has been tried and miserably failed in the recent past. Nothing much was new in" hat was being said. but the June hers 10\·cd to hear it from the' c~- lips of the same man who denounced lllielllim/i(;/11 (idle talk)- the hot air balloon plastered 0\·cr with $6-l billion terminology fashioned to dccci,·c the unaware. Only for a few minutes did FHC lose his audience. when he shifted to Spanish (sounding ,-e~· much like the Argentinian castella no) about the Mc.\ico and other New Emerging Countries being under the fire of international no-count~· speculators. Apparently he was making good a pledge of a short and quick inten iew for Me.\ican TV. In his ailS\\ er to a question from the floor. FHC e.\plained clearly "hy his go' ernment had recently temporarily reimposed certain credit limitations as a protection against dumping. the artificial rise of company shares prices foiiO\\Cd by precipituous falls. after billions in quick profit had been raked in by speculators. After the final standing applause. many ran to the hcadtable to shake hands with FHC and ask for his autograph on the official program of the day . He wound up his ..-isit to the Club telling a selfdescribed .. -lOO-year old Paulista .. (from S:lo Paulo) that he was also a J>aulista . .. Only ... he said ... I spent my first 10 years in Rio ... NEWS from BRAZIL· JUNE 1995

Clinton to solve this problem in next few weeks. Clinton in exchange will help campaign for Brazil to win a seat as Latin America's permanent representative on the United Nations Security Council. Fernando Henrique is also very concerned with mechanisms used by the global economy to arrest financial chaos, especially after Mexico's currency market crash. He is interested in creating new more efficient international mechanisms than the IMF (International Monetary Fund) or the World Bank. Clinton said that this had to be discussed with the G7 countries (the seven largest world economies) before making any promises. Some of the G7 countries already believe that results from any new mechanisms will reward the country that's behaving financially irresponsibly. The two presidents chose Denver, Colorado to host a meeting in June when authorities from both countries will outline a bilateral commerce agreement. A better understanding between both countries will result in long term investment necessary to keep the Brazilian economy stable. Cardoso also brought to the United States an official economic report hoping to strengthen the two countries relationship and sell investment opportunities according to the new law of concession in public services. While in New York, the Brazilian President met with entrepreneurs to whom he spoke about economic stability and confidence in the future of Brazil. Cardoso firmly committed himself to push further the privatization program and announced the beginning of deregulation of Brazil's public sector. The news was exactly what investors wanted to hear- Brazil's huge stateowned electric companies would go on the auction block. In reaction to the announcement, Latin America's largest stock market, Sao Paulo's Bovespa, went up 5.3% that same day. President Fernando Henrique Cardoso showed the American government that Brazilian society can behave well, and is richer, more complex, democratic and solid than ever, contrary to the popular image many Americans have of Brazil. To the American press, he proved to be a reserved and discreet person, less interested in showing off in social circles, than to present a positive image for Brazil to a distinctive American group who could make a difference. As for Brazilians, the President gave them enough reason for national pride. 17


Toast of the town Clinton's toast at state dinner for Brazil President Cardoso Mr. President, Mrs. Cardoso, members of the Brazilian delegation, to all of our distinguished guests, Hillary and I are delighted to welcome you to the White House this evening. Mr. President, I learned many things about you today. But one thing sort of surprised me- I learned that as a young man you were drawn to a life of the cloth. The reason I learned that and found it surprising was my grandmother told me that I would make a good minister if I were just a little better boy. (Laughter.) And failing that, that I should go into politics. (Laughter.) But I think for a long time your family and friends believe you were more likely to wear a Cardinal's red hat than a president's sash. Well, you embraced politics, and now you lead your great nation. But I can't help wondering whether after four months in office, after spending 2,880 hours dealing with Congress and fielding questions from the media, whether you ever wonder if you made the right choice. (Laughter.) Let me say from the point of view of the people of the United States, you clearly made the right choice. And it is obvious to all of us that your faith has remained a powerful part of your life. Otherwise, it would be difficult to explain how you have endured arrest, blacklisting and exile without giving into despair; difficult to explain that although the enemies of democracy forced you to listen to your friends being tortured, and later bombed the office where you worked, you never wavered from the ideals of tolerance and openness. Those ideals animate your leadership in Brazil today and your quest for social justice for all the people whom you proudly represent. And you have added to them an acaderntc's expertise in policy and economics, which I am pleased to note, you have refined by teaching at some of our finest uruversities. We have all been impressed by the results you have achieved, especially the success of your "Real Plan." Mr. Prestdent, I have been very pleased for the opportunity to continue the personal conversation we began in Miami last year at the Summit of the Americas. The warm and productive relationship that we have established mirrors the relationship that is growing closer every day between our two countries. We have common mterests - bringing free trade to the Americas, promoting sustainable development throughout our hemisl'here, keeping peace around the world. And that relat10nship is more important than ever. I know from our discussions that we both believe Brazil and the United States have an opportunity, indeed an obligation, to be partners for progress in the Americas for all the years ahead. Today we have taken that partnership to a new level. Let me also say, Mr. President, you know that you have come here, along with your wife and your fine delegation, at a very difficult time for our country. And all the American people have been profoundly impressed and grateful by your expressions of condolence and sympathy and your assertion that we are all partners in the struggle against evil and inhumanity. For that we are especially grateful, and we will never forget it. So I ask all of you to stand and raise your glasses in a toast to President and Mrs. Cardoso and to the people of Brazil. (A toast is offered.) (Applause.) 18

Cardoso's toast Mr. President, Mrs. Clinton, dear friends. This dinner has been an enjoyable moment, yet I know that your thoughts are also with the victims of the Oklalloma tragedy. And I take this opportunity to reiterate my words of sympathy and solidanty with you and the American people. During our meeting this morning, we had occasion to talk about the friendship that has always united our peopl~s, as well as the meaningful issues our countries have m common. This is a time for a more personal comment. First, allow me to express my appreciation for the warm welcome that Ruth and I have received here in Washington, as well as yesterday in New York. You may be assured that we will both return to Brazil with fond memories of Otis visit. The attention we have received is a clear sign of the importance the United States government attaches not only to me, but rather to Brazil and its P.eople. I wish also to express the admiration and friendship I feel for you. Since Miami, since before Miami, since you have been a candidate and I was attending some congressesDemocratic Party in your country in my capacity as Senator from the state of Sao Paulo in Brazil, I know that central to your concerns is the search for ways to combine the necessary material progress with irnP.rovernent in living conditions and in the fostering of community values. I also know that your actions as "President invanably conform to the path of reason and understanding, even in the midst of the contradictory demands of our times. What you said, Mr. President, referring to me, is better to be said about you - the sense of tolerance, the sense of equity and the necessity to all times try to pursue the values of democracy. These are the qualities required of leaders today if they are to restore to politics its most noble meaning, which is the search for the common good. Because poliucs, be~ond being the art of the possible, is a set of tools with which utoptas are constructed and by which they are transformed mto reality. To manage policy, one needs the humility that teaches that the search for the truth requires that the people be always heard in the determination to lead one to pursue a better future even in the face of resistance by those who fear change. And I know these quite well in my country, as well as you know in your country. There are also the virtues that have guided Brazilian society during its long-standing effort to create a Brazil that is renewed today by growth, freedom and social justice. As your guest of the last few days, it has been a great P.leasure for me to tell American society about this Brazil that is entering a new period in its development. The message I bring is simple, Mr. President - it is a message of the 1riendship that has always united our two countnes. It is a message that will be the basis of a new partnership from a nauon that shares with the United States its aspirations for prosperity, freedom and peace. On a more personal note, I cannot forget that in 1964, because of rumors of my imminent imprisonment, my wife decided that we should go into hiding. And I did the same. The very first visit I received in my refuge was that of the American consul in Sao Paulo, who had managed to contact us through our friends. He carne to offer us a visa to the United States where we could live in freedom. So thank you very much to you and to America. After~ards, during ti:te hard years of aut~oritari?tn g9~erning m rn~ country, 1t was also at Arnencan uruversttles and founaations that I found encouragement and support. Mr. President, in an expression of my confidence that relations between Brazil and the United States will be further strengthened and deepened, I would like to invite all to join me in a toast to the well-being of President Bill Clinton and Mrs. Hillary Clinton. (A toast is offered.) Thank you very much. (Applause.) NEWS from BRAZIL. JUNE 1995


Justa little hand Declared a World Cultural Heritage Site by UNESCO, the town of Ouro Preto has been at odds to preserve its centuriesold baroque patrimony at the same time that it tries to draw tourist to the city. Now Ouro Preto's mayor, after a trip to the US, has received assurances of technical and professional help from the wealthy and maecenic Getty Institute. CARLOS E F BARRETO

The town of Ouro Preto, in Minas Gerais, is proud to have the largest homogeneous ensemble of baroque architecture in the world. This wealth is generously spread among its monuments, streets, alleys, churches and manors. The surrounding mountainous region creates an enchanting atmosphere. The city and the project work together in harmony to meet two goals: to preserve the historical roots of the city and to revive the local economy through the promotion of Ouro Pre to as a tourist destination. The local government has been having difficulties balancing economic development and urban planning with preservation of the city as a historical site. There is an ongoing problem with deterioration of the buildings themselves and their interiors. In 1990, after concerns voiced by local merchants and their desire to preserve the historical site, the Ouro Preto City Hall together with the National Institute of Artistic and Historical Patrimony (IPHAN) instituted the Tiradentes Plaza Project. The objectives of the project are to educate the local population about the necessity of preserving the architectural integrity, and to stimulate valuable cultural activities, in exchange for economic resources built upon tourism. The project moved to the next stage when the Getty Conservation Institute, part of the J. Paul Getty NEWS from BRAZIL- JUNE 1995

Trust, joined the efforts upon request of the local government. The Getty Conservation Institute and the city of Ouro Preto are collaborating on the project to conserve the quality of life and urban fabric, focusing on the Pra~a Tiradentes (Tiradentes Plaza), and to provide hands-on technical and professional support to local officials in charge of conservation. The two parties agreed that the project will serve as an example for other urban areas and 路World Heritage cities and provide an excellent case study for hands-on international training. The project has four objectives. Firstly, to desig!l and conduct a public opinion survey regarding concerns such as traffic control, use of urban space, design and placement of signs, conservation of monuments and buildings, and public participation. Secondly, to design and coordinate a public relations campaign to inform the citizens of Ouro Preto of the value of conservation and to enlist their support of conservation activities. One important element of this campaign is the production of an educational exhibition. A third aim is to conduct a traffic study in the area surrounding the Tiradentes Plaza to preserve the area and enhance the plaza's viability as an inviting public space. One final issue is the conservation of the Tiradentes Plaza including traffic re-routing, parking, transportation, and pedestrian issues to make more efficient use of the plaza. Last April, the Tiradentes Plaza project, entered into a new phase of development. The Getty Conservation Institute received a visit by Ouro Preto's Mayor, Angelo Oswaldo de Araujo Santos, the Secretary of Culture and Tourism Mauro Werkema, and the representative of the IPHAN, Janice Nascimento. During a busy three-day schedule they met with the Getty coordinators to evaluate the progress of the project, identify current needs and future activities, and to design an objective and action plan for the project to be implemented in the following months. The picturesque colonial city ofOuro Preto, which means "black gold" in Portuguese, was named by the Portuguese Bandeirantes (the equivalent of the Spanish Conquistadores) in 1693, when the region's riverbeds revealed to be rich in gold covered by a black layer of iron oxide. In 1711, the city of Vila Rica de Ouro Pre to (the Rich City of Black Gold) was founded. The rich mining town attracted the country's best craftsmen, 19


builders, and artists to erect a Cultural Herilege town. In 1839 the School of Pharmacy was created and in 1876, tage of Humankind, a Monument City. The the School of Mines, considered to be one of the best in the world, was architectural jewel that is Ouro Preto inestablished. cludes 13 churches, which were all built in Over the years, Ouro Preto has undergone several mining cycles, the 18th centwy, and are considered to be the first in gold and then in gemstones, followed by iron and aluminum. finest examples of baroque architecture in and is the ideal location for a mining school. In 1944, the Federal Brazil. Technical Schoolwas formed and in 1969 the Federal University of The fountains, bridges, colonial mansions, Ouro Preto was created. monuments and main plaza, Prarya Tiradentes, The city itself is located at 1,150 meters (3,773 ft) above sea level, are all surrounded by cobblestone streets and in a region characterized by several unusual rocky formations. The alleys. The town has an ambiance of lyricism surrounding area beholds wonderful natural scenarios, a great adventure for ecotourists. The region is rich in grottos, springs, rapids, and nostalgia that together with the romantirivers and waterfalls. cism of the Brazilians helps preserve that same beauty of the 18th century. The Parque Ecol6gico Cachoeira da Andorinha is situated inside Ouro Preto has been the stage for imporof a rocky formation similar to a grotto, and has waterfalls as wide as tant milestones throughout history. In 1721, 131 ft. The distinctive vegetation of the region's tropical forest is the city was named the capital of the state of home to a wide variety of fauna inCluding exotic birds, wolves, Minas Gerais, translated general mines, with anteaters, and pumas. The ecological area is a protected nature reserve a population of 100,000 people. The town's where you can find many endangered species such as the invertebrate past glory is still preserved in the architec• Peripatus Acacioi considered to be a live fossil. tural style of the city and in works by major artists, like Aleijadinho (the Little Cripple), born in Ouro Preto in 1738. Aleijadinho, Brazil's Michelangelo, was an architect and sculptor who with4221 Wilshire 81. #391 - Los Angeles, CA 90010 out hands, and using tools tied to his fist, created magFax (213) 525-1584 nificent masterpieces which today are displayed all over Minas's historical cities. Inspired by the US which gained its independence in 1776 and instigated by a growing economic discontent a group of romantic poets from Ouro Preto and adjacent towns, in alliance with a few planters, merchants, and clergymen, started a movement to liberate Brazil from Portugal. The plans collapsed in 1789 when the lnconfidencia, as it has since been known in history, was revealed to the Governor, who took swift action. The subsequent execution of the rebellion leader JoaquimJose da Silva Xavier, better known as Tiradentes (the Tooth Puller") due to his "CERTAIN RESTRICTIONS APPLY!" profession, created a martyr for the B·razilian indepenRepresenting: VASP, VARIG, AMERICAN, dence. LADECO, LAN CHILE, LACSA, In 1933, the Brazilian AEROLINEAS ARGENTINAS, AERO PERU government awarded Ouro AND UNITED AIRLINES. Preto status as a National Monument, and in 1980 it was named by UNESCO, a Cultural Patrimony of Humankind, a United Nations World Heritage Site. The city gained international renown as a "living museum." Ouro Preto is also a col-

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Javier's turn A while back I visited Bahia for a conference sponsored by a US-based academic association. Anxious to spend what little time I had really getting to know the country, I immediately sought upon arrival to distance myself from other tourists and plunge into the fabric of Brazilian life as quickly as possible. A friendly employee of a local jewelry concern agreed to give me what amounted to a private introductory tour of those sights and attractions which "really mattered". Since my guide spoke English, the tour was quite easy for me as well as informative. However, my ego would not permit me to simply submit to a tour given in the same language as the group (people from the US) I was trying to distance myself from. I would have preferred a Portuguese language tour. Even a Spanish language tour would have been a better option. As a native Spanish speaker from the Dominican Republic, I felt I had that much more in common with my Brazilian hosts than the North Americans. "We Latins have a way about us," I told myself as I wandered through the streets of Salvador on the second or third day of my stay. I stopped at one of the market areas and tried to decide where to go next. As is my custom in similar situations, I turned to ask a taxi driver about the location of some other shopping areas. Without thinking, I asked him my questions in Spanish and immediately realized my mistake. "Idiot!" I told myself, "Brazil is a Portuguese speaking country", I braced myself for a response of, at best, a blank look from the taxi driver. I was astonished to hear his actual response, for instead of staring at me or berating me in Portuguese for speaking to him in the wrong language, he answered my questions in fluent Spanish. We then had a running conversation which covered nearly everything I could think of and which lasted nearly an hour. NEWS from BRAZIL路 JUNE 1995

21


I asked my new-foundfriend if his mastery of Spanish was

related to his work. I asked him if knowledge of Spanish was

limited to certain occupations or educational levels. To both questions he answered "no". He seemed to be genuinely amused, "Everybody speaks Spanish" he said. "Why not"? He was right. For the rest of my stay in Bahia, I cheated - that is, I spoke Spanish to everyone and convinced myself that I "went native" and got to know the country far better than a mere English speaker. Whether that actually happened is debatable; however, I left Brazil with the distinct impression that they know us better than we know them. The fact that Brazilians speak Spanish far better than their Latin American Spanish speaking compadres speak Portuguese is one that I have often wondered about. Anitas's turn Anita's experiences in Brazil, which are even more numerous, seem also to bear out this uncanny ability. Because Anita and I are both professors who use Spanish in the classroom, we decided to survey a number of Spanish speakers to see how well they actually knew Brazil and the Portuguese language. We traveled to survey a group of Spanish-speaking professionals, most of whom were from Latin American Spanish speaking countries. We asked them some simple questions about Brazil and the Portuguese language. Among the questions: 1. "When did slavery end in Brazil?" 2. "What does the concept of 'saudade' mean"? 3. '' What is the name of a noted Brazilian martial art and what was it founded in response to"? and 4. "What is vatapti"? We also asked questions designed to get at the level of mastery of Portuguese. Not surprisingly, our respondents knew relatively little of these common Brazilian themes (13%, 20%, 7%, 0% of our sample answered correctly for the respective questions above). Only 15% to 20% had a conversational knowledge of Portuguese. Considering that these individuals comprised a group of Spanish speaking persons with a relatively high educational level, we were led to surmise that knowledge of Brazil and Portuguese by persons with lower educational levels would be quite less. Why the difficulty with Portuguese among Spanish speakers? 22

Theories, of course, abound. Some point to the fact that it is simply a matter of the number of Latin American countries which have Spanish as the native language as opposed to just one major Latin American nation (Brazil) which has Portuguese as its native language. Spanish speaking Latin Americans have a choice of countries to visit and interact with little necessity for linguistic adjustment. On the other hand, although Brazil is almost as large as all other South American countries combined, it is still only one country, whose citizens, out of necessity ,have to make a linguistic adjustment to Spanish if they are going to be crossing the borders. The presence of large numbers of Brazilians who speak Spanish may simply be an outgrowth of that fact. Other theories, more linguistically oriented, point to the languages themselves. Portuguese, these theorists say, is a little more difficult, perhaps harder to pronounce, with more difficult subjunctives. Maybe switching to Spanish is conceptually easier than vice versa. Still others tum to what they see as basic differences in the culture of Brazil as opposed to cultures of other Latin American countries. There is something about Brazil, they say, which makes Brazilians much more adaptable and open to other cultures. Maybe they are simply more culturally sophisticated. Certainly, our appraisal of Brazilians, as people, is that they are singularly unique and predis-

posed to welcoming those from other cultures. Ignorance of Portuguese and things Brazilian is by no means confined to Latin Americans. North Americans probably know even less. At the present time, most public school districts in the United States are making strenuous efforts to increase their foreign language instruction. Part of this is in response to an increase in Latin American immigration to the United States. Accordingly, the most popular language taught is Spanish, but Portuguese is usually left out as alanguage.Fiuencyinlanguages other than English has never been a US cultural characteristic. Although North Americans are just beginning to come to terms with Spanish, Portuguese seems to be virtually non-existent in terms of attention placed on it. Ironically, there has been an invasion of US culture, exemplified by US films to Brazil, for quite some time. The irony of the so-called differences between Brazilians and Spanish speaking Latinos is that the Brazilians may be on to something: the Portuguese language is really not that hard for a Spanish speaker to learn. Of the two of us, Anita, an Argentine by birth, is fluent in Portuguese. A Cuban friend of Javier's who is fluent in Portuguese set out to prove to him that Portuguese is simple for a Spanish speaker to learn. On his return from his Brazilian visit, she told him the similarities in verb formations and conjugations and then showed him certain pronunciation differences such that he was able to connect Spanish and Portuguese usage. In no time at all he was not only speaking a rudimentary form of Portuguese, but he was also understanding a lot more of the oral language. Although Javier has forgotten most of the Portuguese he has learned, (due to lack of practice), the point has been made, in this instance and in many others. When it comes to Portuguese and Brazil, Spanish speakers have a lot to learn! As if you didn't already know, the answers to the four questions above are as follows: 1. 1888; 2. It can roughly be translated by longing or homesickness; 3. Capoeira. This martial-art fight-dance was created by black slaves who had fled from captivity. 4. A typical Northeast dish, l'alapa is a puree of dried smoked shrimp, ground peanuts and cashews, colorfully seasoned. NEWS from BRAZIL路 JUNE 1995


From Brazil with love Claudio and Mariela. One is from Brasilia, the other from Araraquara, in the state of Sao Paulo. Both are teenagers who decided to make America as exchange students. Their inspiring stories may put a new spin on the way you see intercultural interchange. CHRISTINE BUCKLEY

This time last year, two Brazilian high school students were making plans to boldly leave behind the comfort and security of all that was familiar to them to embark upon the adventure of their young lives. In most respects, these two young people had seemed until now to be typical teenagers. They, like most teens, enjoyed listening to music, reading exciting novels, and going out with friends. However, there existed a special quality within these students that set them apart from the crowd. Claudio Albuquerque, 17, and Mariela Fernandes, 16, had made a decision to become international exchange students. Though they had not previously met, Claudio and Mariela shared a dream. They wanted to make a difference in the world. These two young people believed that by sharing their culture with people from all nations, and keeping their minds open to the cultures of others, they would help bring their planet one step closer to lasting peace. Claudio and Mariela would soon be en route to the United States to spend five months of their lives learning what it's like to be a member of an American family and a student at an American high school. Claudio would be the first to realize his dream, and Mariela would follow shortly after. In August, 1994, Claudio departed from his suburban home outside of Brasilia for Los Angeles, California to attend a three-day student orientation sponsored by the Foundation for International Understanding (FlU), the student exchange orNEWS from BRAZIL. JUNE 1995

23


ganization responsible for Claudio during his stay in ents' ell.1'erience during the five-month program was America. The orientation gave Claudio the so good, in fact, that they could not bear to part! So, Claudio opted to knowledge and essential skills for a sucextend his participation in the FlU cessful stay in the US, as well as an opporpro gram to a full academic year and, tunity to meet the staff of his exchange in the meantime, pursue an Ameriorganization and more than 70 other Bracan high school diploma. Jim and zilian teenagers who shared his dream. Deborah .gladly welcomed the opFollowing the orientation, Claudio eaportunity to continue hosting Claudio gerly flew to San Diego, California, to for the additional five months. meet his new host parents, Jim Hribar and But please don't call them "nice" Deborah Sollohub Hribar. Needless to say, for doing so! "People always say all parties were more than a little nervous. 'what a nice thing you're doing'," This was the first time Claudio had ever Deborah explained, "but I didn't do traveled abroad, and he had little knowlthis to be nice. My benefit is so edge of American culture apart from what great!" She then added, "If I had a he had seen on television. Jim and Deborah had no children of child, I wouldn't want him to be different in any way from our their own and, though they had previously Claudio." hosted younger short-term (four-week) Claudio's program extension exchange students, they had little idea what to expect from a teenager who would live permitted him to spend his April spring break in San Francisco with in their home for five whole months. Howhis host family. But more immediever, there did exist an important link ately, it provided him with the opbetween the members of this new familyportunity to meet MarielaFernandes. to-be: A thirst for cultural exchange. Mariela joined FlU's Academic This all important key, coupled with a Year Program in January 1995 from shared interest in boating, was enough to her home in the Brazilian city of open the door to a bond of love and friendAraraquara for a five-month stay. ship. And how long did it take this bond to Like Claudio, Mariela was introdevelop? According to Deborah, "After duced to America at an orientation three days, Claudio was not a guest; he was in Los Angeles. Also like Claudio, absolutely, positively a family member." Mariela's host family lives in San The key to achieving such an immediDiego. ate success in the host family-student relaAt the time, host parents Shawn tionship is in the attitude of the particiand Lucy Schwartzenberger were no pants. "You need to be open," Claudio strangers to parenthood. They have advised. "There are many new things to two children of their own - Laura, learn; it is a change in your kind of life." 10, and Paul, 6 - and had previIndeed, there is no shortage to the ously hosted six exchange students, changes that have taken place for Claudio including another Brazilian teenage and the Sollohub-Hribars. "It's a new famgirl. "Once you've hosted one time," ily-type responsibility," Jim explained. said Lucy, "you're going to do it all "We spend a lot of time talking about the time!" things with Claudio, addressing any probNo doubt, it's the enthusiasm of lems he may be having. We also go to students like Mariela that inspires parent-teacher nights at school and help families to continue hosting. "Everybody should try him with his homework." It is obviously a responsibilthis!" Mariela exclaimed. "All students should be ity they very much enjoy. open-minded to other people's cultures. They should School is an important aspect of Claudio's exbe willing to accept new things and to learn." change experience. The FlU program in which Claudio Indeed, Mariela has tried many new things during is involved is the Academic Year Program, and all her stay in America. "I play badminton now," said students are required to maintain at least a "C" averMariela, "and I go bowling. Before, in Brazil, I did not age in their local American high school. This has not play many sports, but now I try different things. posed a problem for Claudio. In fact, he has found America was my introductime to participate in his tion to sports." school's intercultural club and America also provided on the school swim team in adMariela with an introducdition to meeting his academic tion to some new rules. At requirements. He has also, like her Brazilian high school, most teenagers, managed to HELP MAKE DREAMS OF COMING TO make time for outings with AMERICA TRUE FOR A 15-18-YEAR-OLD she was not required to do .homework. In the Schwarfriends. BOY AND GIRL BY BECOMING A tzenberger household, Though Claudio has found HOST PARENT things are very different, some wonderful Brazilian however. Lucy explained, friends at school, he cautions CALL 1-800-548-PACE (7223) "We let Mariela know from his fellow exchange students, "You should definitely make the start that homework is friends with Americans, not WE OFFER BRAZILIANS AND MANY OTHER very important and that it only Brazilians. It's a good exis expected. NATIONALITIES. SHOW OUR YOUNG THE perience to make friends with We also let her know JOYS OF AMERICA. CALL TODAY! that we are here to help other cultures." Claudio's and his host par- PACE Institute International an Educational Foundation her." Lucy believes that 24

NEWS from BRAZIL路 JUNE 1995


host parents should play an active role to help their students succeed in school. "Host parents should always meet the school counselor," she said. "If you have a friendly relationship with the counselor, you '11 know any time your student may be having a problem." "Problem" is a word not used much in Mariela' s vocabulary. For this bright young lady, every new encounter becomes a thrilling experience. Her most exciting experience to date? "On spring break, my host family and I went to San Francisco for ten days, and I met my [host] grandparents!" According to host dad Shawn, his parents loved M riela. "Oh, yeah," said Shawn, "we've made a friend for life! hat's how I'm teaching my kids to look at it." He continued, "Like anything else, you learn as you go. Then, the first thing you know, you're like a real family!" When asked if he would consider hosting an exchange student again, Shawn responded, "Oh, there's definitely going to be a next time! As a matter of fact, we're planning to get a bigger house so we'll have a spare bedroom for a student. We're never going to quit!" Shawn's fondness for Mariela and his support for international exchange have been successfully passed on to his children. "I love Mariela," said ten-year-old Laura, who shares a bedroom with her Brazilian sister. "Having people from different countries as a brother or a sister is the best!" Why is it the best? "Because you learn things, and they're nice people!" Laura doesn't plan to limit her student exchange experience to hosting, however. ''I'm going to be an exchange student," she announced. She wants to study in Japan, Ireland and, of course, Brazil. ''I'm going to learn Portuguese for when I go to Brazil," said Laura. "Mariela' s helping me!" Like all exchange students, Mariela takes pride in teaching her American family about her native country. "She's also teaching us what it will be like to have teenagers around the house," said Lucy. Understanding teenagers will certainly be beneficial for Lucy. Not only will her own children one day reach that challenging period of their lives, but she will also be working a great deal with teenagers in the very near future. Lucy has decided to become a placement counselor for the Foundation for International Understanding, the organization that introduced Mariela to the Schwartzenberger family. A placement counselor is responsible for locating caring, volunteer host families for exchange students and providing counseling support to the students and families for the duration of the exchange program. "Now that we've hosted two longterm [academic year] students and so many short-term [fourweek] students," Lucy explained, "I know it's what I want to do!" She continued, "A lot of people tell me I'll be a great placement counselor, but I'm a little nervous about finding good host families." What is a good host family? Probably one very much like yours. A good host family is open-minded and eager for cultural exchange. To ensure that the student experiences true American

NEWS from BRAZIL. JUNE 1995

culture, all family members are at least secondgeneration American. As volunteers, host families do not seek monetary gain but, rather, the rewards of building friendships between the people of different nations. A host family need not have the traditional family make-up; it is just two or more related individuals living in the same home. The.home need not be large; to these students, it's really the size of your heart that counts. All that is required is a room and three meals a day. And you need not worry about having a spare bedroom; your child and the student will love being roommates, just like Laura and Mariela. After all, your student will not be a guest, he or she will be a member of your family. Certainly, good families provide the foundation on which great kids like Claudio and Mariela have a chance to build a better future for themselves and, one day, for their children. Cross-cultural understanding is a gift to be passed on from one member to another within our global family. We are fortunate indeed to have students like Claudio and Mariela, and families like the Sollohub-Hribars and the Schwartzenbergers, striving toward this goal on behalf of ourselves and future generations. And what does the future hold for these model Brazilian students? Ch'ludio is in the process of taking his Scholastic Aptitude Test on the chance that he may return to America to attend college. Mariela will graduate from her high school back home next year and then pursue a college degree at a Brazilian university. Both students have proven themselves to be the very capable leaders of tomorrow. If you would like to make a difference in your family's tomorrow by hosting a Brazilian exchange student for five or ten months, or by working as a placement counselor to ensure that a young student's stay in America is a success, please call the Foundation for International Understanding at 1-800-2-F AMILIES. More wonderful students, very much like Claudio and Mariela, are eagerly waiting to find out who will be their American host families when they arrive in the United States in August. Help them to make a difference in their life ... and yours. â&#x20AC;˘

25


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JOANNA DEANGELIS Mensagem psicografada pelo medium "Divaldo Pereira Franco•, · retirada do livro "Vida Felit'. Para obten~ao de mensagens gratuitas e literatura espirita, telefone para Peter Cosentino at (415) 695-9414,_mande um Fax para o Centro Espirita Dr. Humberto de Campos: (415) 695-1818 Ou escreva para o seguinte endere~o: Centro Espfrita Dr. Humberto de Campos 236 West Portal Ave. #401 -San Francisco, CA 94127 NEWS from BRAZIL- JUNE 1995


NEWS from BRAZIL路 JUNE 1995

31


nos di11amns ns Illlssns J.:sn>nh:ntam.:nl<>s'.' N;lo. 1· .:ntra ••i ··a gcn.:sc.: a ;malomia Jo sikm:io". (iosl<>n·• 0 si knuo. m.:n amigo. niio c so niio falar 0 ~ikm:io.; Jnan f.: <.:<N:a J.: krida qu.: s.: ad~nsa .

as pl!ssoas \'ao sc

tixhando d.:ntro dda. Tudo o qn.: madni<.:a. 'ai fi..:and1> scm rcmc\cr. l'od.: s.:r at.: qn.: as palanas \'cnham. numa h:ntati,-a_ Mas o pior c o csli>n;o de falar 1-: s.:nt1r a JmpolcJKia J.: J11cr <l11 '' tillar imhrcto. On dcs;1_1citaJo. s.: .:stripando nas pontas l'an ipas de 11111 cllh.:ndimcnto qu.: s.: dcsmancha totalmen!.:. l)llt: l·ada \C/ fica pior. 1-: aqu.:k --nih> ljllt:rcr magnar o outJo -- . Gida tun p.:nsa. c o cntnndt.:iramcnto nas ddi:sas. Olh.:. _1a q11c \on! .:st;-1 tiio de hn..:a ag11ada por htcratura d1ta ·:.:r(>IKa--. \'Oil tc <ht.:r: d.: trMia para ,·asa. lJill!lll sahc s.: IHIIII .:sfnn;o t;lo dcsaj.:itado d.: d1t.:r algo. nwnlcs de rcnslas cr(>ti.:as_1\i csta !\ mas..:;ua do silcn..:w t l Jisf;m.:.: Jo m.:do. l'orq11.: c si> a pd.: da g.:ntc q11c pnd.: aprcnd.:r. est a c a' crdad.:. l:ntiin a lcJtura. a figura. n pap.:I. a rcnsta. prct.:\tns para o distanciam.:nto. <l q11.: pod.: 11111<1 joYt:lll mHihcr p.:nsar ao \'l.:r sua cama aharrotada d.: rorp<->s nus r.:ccm-rh.:gados do ao,:o11gnc. pcrkti\>S s.:m dunda. tnn aharrotam.:ntn d.: .:arn.:s d.: lndns ns kitios'.' I sso mdlwra as l'Oisas''

On l'<llllpra,·a linos. Sab.:. n I ipo as marias-hnnapartcs da nda l'lllll s11as prdco,:<ks abobalhadas sobre a rhamada --sc:>.ualida,Jo.: kminina" c tipo isso do llil\·io ( iik<l\'ah.: d.: hoie. esse harhadn frctidista q11c Jcsnt:\'C (IIIII lllllllll'Jas (\IJ\10 SlllllOS C 0 lJilC scntinws _.: ncssa dd'ini.,:iio 0 IH>SSO l!lll'CITalllt:lliO. Jlcssa "sewalidaJ.:" ideal Ill-IS tlllYam.:nte aprisionadas no st:tTalho do ra<.:ionalisnw masndino. lsso. Mas \'Ol'C. jo,·cm amJ!!O. a1 h>dn na pontiniw do sofa .:-d.: si nlcsmo me Oll\-iilllo . .:11 n.:io na tua snll'cridad.:. c c por tsso que cstou tc falando. Me diga. linn algum ji1 ajllllon alg11cm' a saher o Olllro·• 0 p.:ssoasYcrsns-p.:ssoas. a transmiss1io pda Cll'llc. o s.:r dois 1111111 s(>' 1 Sc aprcnde. n;lo c . Se aprcndc. Nih> tcm disscrta.,:;l o 1k mcslrado 1111 doutormlo que rcsoha Nesta .:sti>ria q11.: te ci111to . olhc. de gosla\ilii1Uito de mim Da\'il-lllc apclidos carinhosos. l\1as scm pre em oulws mom enlos Nunc a. na lwra Jo chamado btn o amor Neste. era scn1 . n gido. ansioso Mcnino que tcm um dc\er de rasa para 1;11.:r. a.:rohata do sc:>.o. I: cu. o pasto, o .:ampo e:>.pcrimental. o tcorcma <.:OlllflHI\'ado . J·: nquanto isso o('asam.:nlo. cssa coisa com maitlsculas. ia 32

ficanJo p.:rfeito. Compramos min·cis. cortinas. I:Jdrodomcsti.:os. Td.:,·is<lo. TroGllllOs d.:pois por 11ma a ..:orcs. c daro. lJm fusquinha. lkpois. um Opala. 1-: ti,·cmos. naturalmcnlc. filhos. Trcs. lindos. saudil\·cis. intdigcntcs, como manda o fignrino. 0 que mais qu.:rimnos·> No sithado ti noitc itimos com oulros rasais ao cin.:ma. <Ill t.:atro. ;Is hoalcs. Cartiics de crcdito. !\ lmu<;us d.: li.nniliiL 1-:ssas .:oisas loJas. representa<;iio complcta. l:u sci.!\ p.:rgunta qu.: esl{l fatcndo _( l que acontcc.:u para cste casamcnlo, d.:smanchaJo, se dcsmandtar de r.:z. 1\ cris.:. co \JUC fa lam. Nada de t;lo Jrami1tico. Algo qu.: corroia. conslantc. ;igua minando . um Jia o transhorJamcnto. 1\ mulhcr que choraYa quando \'ia tll\1 casal sc h.:ijanJo 1111 cinema. !\ mulhcr que silcn..:iosa ti.11ia amor como ,-ompanhciro. qu.: gont\·a ..:om de c ... Como·-' Vo.:c pcnsou qu.: tulo'' ... Mas lJU<: tolinho. Sim . c dam. 1: dai'.' Eo que !em isto qu.: \'cr'' NaJa Jc rigido. matcmi1tico. por fan>r. chcga dcsscs tipos que pcrguntam ansiosos got.oti. gotmf.' N;lo sonws nuiquinas. o que quercmos nils todos. homcns. mulh.:n:s. c parlicipao;iio. o cstar ali. juntos. no ato fisico. 1-:le lamhl:m csta\'a inli.:Iit. c dim>. !\ intdicidadc palp{t\'CL 11111 .:mUt\'Cr cntr.: nossos Jois corpos. Mas no lim de alguns a nos niio ditiamos mais nada. Nos .:stremedamos em nossos pequcninosc scparados gotos lhicos. E depois. o.: hissico. Lie ,-jra,·a para o ]ado e donnia. N;lo por inscnsibiliJaJe . .:omo sc pensa _ Mas porquc ti1\ha de trahalhar no dia scguintc. t·:n era nwis ociosa. tmha cmprcgaJas. !kava d.: olhos fi:>.os nu lcto. Mas semprc. tc Jigo. all: o fim. Fspcra\'a ansiosa os passos largos dde Ill> corredor. a cha\'c que rangia na li:chadnra. o nome munnurado: "Lcda·'-- ... E ate hoic. Iantos anos dcpois da scpanu;iio. fico insone olhando o lcto. niio qucro crcr que num:a mais You ou\'ir os passos dde no corrcdor... ()ucm fi\a o tcto. ;\ noitc. num quarto em penumbra. olha nos olhos Jo Jcscspcro . E \'ai criando garras intcriorcs. Isto . .:u Jissc garras. 1\lgucm que sc ahriu. mmw e:>.p.:ctati,·a. c que dcpois lc\·c de rccolhcr-se pdas ]){IIlias. uinmdo de fntslra<;<lo. 1\quilo que se ahriu. que esta\·a prcstcs a Jcrramar-sc. Ill> retlu-.o nos cn,·cnena. Mas agora . meu amigo. por que rcmc:>.cr as kridas·? I'Mque akm Jas aparcncias. dos marcos c\tcriorcs da nunha \'iua . cstuu eu . As aparcncias. conhccem-mc os que sofrcram seus atrihutos. agrcssiviuauc tis \'t:zcs, Joo;ura em outras. Mas oquc Cll sou. sUUISSO que It: uissc antes: pn.':-guzo Ja mao que sc fcdta sohre minha pde. o Jei:>.ar-mc scr para aquelcs. s<lo t<lo poucos. que conscgucm Jizcr mcunomc na hom Ja 11nii'io. l .: entreguci tun scgrcJo. ·.:is. J·:nfim .. . J-:u tc disse que nessa cstl>ria do casamcnto de dct anos. hom·c u111 mom.:nto Je rc.:ncontm. Sim. Foi lJHando j:i cst{t\'illlllls transformaJos em ahutres mn do outm. nos dc\'oramlo. gritando. atirami<HIS destro<;os de nussas e\pcdati,·as tun no outro. aquda tcns;1o de (JJio montando . 1-:11 anJa\'a na rna de cahc4,:a hai:>.a. amargurada . inldit. . lima tarde senti-me mal no cabdcireiro, uma \'crtigcm Jc prcss<lo hai\a. Elc foi chamaJo. pohrc co111panhciro. \'eio corrcnJo. pohrc amor. Le\'ou-mc ao pronto-socorro. Tomei rc111l:Jios. fui para casa . tlcitci-mc, pcrmancremos 111uuos e tao intdit.cs. ali. juntos. Sofriamos juntos eo sofrimcilto era Ill!\ a prcsen<;a' que nos unia ( e tah·et a lcmhran<;a uaquda outra tarde. Je calor. quando en mcrgulha\·a na hanhcira de i1gna tcpida c de me passm·a a csponja no corpo ... ) Naqucla apro\im;u;iio. clc sc curnm sohrc mim, hei_jou-mc. pcla primcira \ ' C/. em tanto tempo. J-: no nosso sofrimcnto fitcmos amor. Nos ahrindo em scntimento. 1-:!n .:mu.,:;lo_ l'ude scntir-me amalia noYamcnte. cnt<lo quis tc-lo hem JcJllro de mim . quis ahriga-lo em Jo.;nra. Vdhus companheiros de l11ta <JIIC Jcpocm as annas. que sc s.:nkm sohdi1rius. que sc uncm - cnfi111 . Como tcnninotf' Tcnninou ai. I sso, o que cu disse: tcrminou ai , c :>.atamentc. ()uando de saiu para o cscritiHio. afundci- mc na ca111a . kliz como aqucla 111ocinha Jc det anus antes que dizia "\'Uil casar cum de. Yon ser tiio feliz".

QuanJo 'olton. tinha rccupermlo a armaJuw c o dislanciamento. TuJu intciw na s11a rigid.:~. o lJll<: n<lo sc dei:>.a\ a "veneer" por u111a mulher. 1\rrcpcnJiJu da cths<lo d.: antes. do Jci\ar-se ir Do is Jias Jepuis. ;\ noitinha. tclcfonci para o cscritinin: --v.:m ... ouse1 ditcr-lhe. --Por que \'o.:\: n;lu re111 logo para \:ascf? .. - 0 qu.: n>e\: qucr diz.:r''

N<lo \'\: que .:stou ocupaJo'.' - Fu qu.:ria sah.:r s.: roc\: niiu pode Yii' mais cello. J:stou te .:sp.:mndu. 1-:11 qucro . tl;lo timida ainJa. Jet. anus de casada ... ) cu quem fat.cr a111or com \'occ. · · - l J que sixu(lica isso" l J que I'OCt; quer dizer co111 i.uo:) lsso: assim forte. num grito. o \'ozciriio do macho que n;lo sc rcndc. 1\ \'Ill Jcle unta facaJa . D.:scendo sohre mim. Sohre nossos fillws . Sohre nosso casmncn111. lne:>.or(l\·.:1. tl111a semana depois nos scparamos. Mas, csperc ... Tt:Ill um dctalhe que o.:squeci de cuntar. lkpois Jaquclc a to de am or qn.: linhamos cnfim conscguido. ao afastar-sc de mim ck disse "LcJa . ,·occ c unta mulhcr sc:>.ttalmcnte maJura ... 1\ssnn. numa \ ' O/ rcssenl!da _ N;lo cntcnde·• Mas qu.:m cntcndc·• Sc te dign 1sto. s.: 1.: conlo estc pcdao;o de minha ,.i,·cncia particular. c s\1 para que se comccc a pcnsar. no lwmcm. na mulher. em ni1s toJos, pohrcs mcninos •.ksampamJos, Jepois d.: mnnJos c ci\'iliza<;ocs - c ainda tao atauos em nossos halhnciamcntos. Depois Jisso. ah. muitas coisas, casinhos. amorcs atl:. essas coisas. 1-'ui \'i,·endo . Mas att: hoje, tc confesso. quando me ucito fico de om·ido atento. parcce que ainda on.,:o os passos t!cle no corredor. parecc que a chavc. a qualqu.:r momcnhl . \'ai \'irar na kdwdura tic Illl\'1> Sahc que Junno com a lut accsa·1 Para afngcntar fantasmas. Bcm. Jesni!pc. men amigo. csta cstoria tiio ponco "crl>tica... tah·cz ,-occ niio possa puhlicit-la na sua re\'ista. ()que as pcssoas qncrcm. o amontoado de came frcsca aos quilos. scios-co\asnitdcgas. Juzcntas c cinqiieuta posi.;iics de amor. cstcrci1tipos adolcsccnte/mulhcr madura . coristas nuas de mcias prctas lsso, n<lo sei.

These short stories were originall~- fluhlhhcu in .\lnilfl J>ra:er. Editm·a Rcconl. NEWS from BRAZIL - JUNE 19G5


Five years ago, whenFatimaCastro came to visit the US for the first time, she could never imagine that one day she would be living here, teaching Americans the techniques that she used in Brazil in her everyday work as a therapist. But her life has changed completely since then, and she has been invited to teach not only in the US, but in Japan, Great Britain and Italy as well. Not bad for someone who always approached her therapy work more like a hobby. "My career path was very different than the usual," she says. "It all started with a few friends calling me at home to talk about their prob­ lems, so that I could help them see the situations in their lives with more clar­ ity. And then these friends would tell their friends about me, and suddenly I had strangers calling me insisting on having appointments for counseling... so as an experiment I decided to use an empty office at my ex-husband's busi­ ness m Silo Paulo." That was 20 years ago, and that office was never empty again. Fatima had just received her teaching credentials, but she never had a chance to use them, since there was such a demand for her to do counseling work. She went back to college again, this time for a degree in Psychology, but siie was always more interested in the holistic approach of therapy (which focuses not only on the mind, but on the inter-relationship between mind and body), and she was already using techniques of reflexology, bio-energetics, colon therapy and others that were little known at the time. Ultimately she created her own style of counseling and became renowned for her origi­ nal work. Very soon she had authors of books on holistic therapies contacting her for advice on the subjects they were writing about, and her reputation reached a point where she had wait­ ing lists for new clients. Surprisingly enough, some of her· Psychology teachers at the time were part of the list, waltingjust like any other client for her to become their the[apist. It was as if life was naturally creating situ­ ations to show her where to go. She never played the role of the .Professional looking for a job. In reality the JOb looked for her, and because of that she had to become a profes­ sional. But life had other surprises in store. "A psychologist friend of mine called me from Los Angeles where he was vacationing and said, 'Fatima, there is a big demand here for holistic therapists, so I have set up a work­ shop for you to teach next month. DOn't even think about not corning!' - and he hung up." She did come and her presentation was so successful that she was invited to come back the following year, and then again six months later, and then again, until there was so much pressure for her to stay here that she gave in and moved to Los Angeles last year. She had to go through the pain of leaving her four teenage kids in Brazil, but they under­ stand enough of her work to support her in this choice. They also feel that she has much to show the world and have become her four biggest fans. Apparently her clients in Silo Pau1o are having a harder time accepting her move. "They still call from Brazil asking me when I am going back, but I feel that there IS yet much to be done here." For the past year, Fatima has led many workshops and many counseling groups where her main focus is to teach people to explore NEWS from BRAZIL. JUNE 1995

their sensitivity and to really get to know themselves. Ninety per cent of her students are Americans and her work has gained so much respect and admiration that many local therapists have been studying with her. She will very likely become a prominent figure in the self-help movement that has become a world­ wide trend in the past few years. Many have already been considering her one of the top professionals in this field in the US, claiming that her work is different than anything they have seen before. She sees this dif­ ference as a result of her 'Brazilian approach' "Many techniques that are being used in this field are very mind-ori­ ented," she notes. Even when deal­ ing with emotional issues, some people have an overly mental ap­ proach. My approach is based on what the person is really feeling, not on what his mind wants me to believe he is feeling." These past 12 months in the US.

have given her an in­ depth understanding of the differences in behav­ ior between Americans and Brazilians. Accord­ ing to Fatima, there are many myths that were created because of the rnisperceptions between both cultures, and once one understands the other better, they will realize how much they comple­ ment one another. She tested her theo­ ries with some American companies that were hav­ ing problems with their teams o f executives, which were from differ­ ent ethnic backgrounds, and her results were amazing. The bickering stoppedand was replaced by a stronger sense of· teamwork. Fatima observes, "Americans are more di­ rect, more focused, which makes them higher achievers, and faster in their actions. Brazilians are more circular, which makes them more flexible to creative alternatives, and more able to have a wider range of perceptions. A person who is aole to incorporate both types of attributes can really become someone who will make a difference out there". Lat-ely some people who have heard about her, usually through a friend of a friend, have been cailing to request individual counseling. Just as it happened in Silo Paulo, the cycle seems to be repeating itself agam. It is hard to measure the Impact that this Brazilian counselor has had on her students and clients other than the personal feedback that they give her. Almost on a daily basis she re­ ceives letters, thank-you notes, flow­ ers, and above all she receives people's open hearts. They tell her constantly· how they count the min­ utes to be with her again every week. Not just· because of what they learn, of what they experience, of what they discover, but mostly because that IS the time when they feel comfortable enough to truly be who they are. No masks allowed here. In a letter she received a few weeks ago from a client it is easy to notice how people are affected by her work, and why so many are grateful that she had the courage to leave a very stable situation in Brazil, in or­ der to come to a country where until not long ago nobody knew who she was. A great Master once said, "Show me the fruits and I will tell you if the tree is good." The last paragraph of that letter gives us a sample of the fruits she has produced: "...before I met you I used to live in a deep black hole, and I had no more faith in my­ self. There was no way out...but with you I was able to understand life. I finally got it. And life is good, Fatima... Life is good." 33


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mRErAMENTE DA BRAZIL UPDATE wEEKtr

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brasileiro e demais eventos esportivos, atraves de nossa fita semanal de esportes. Comentarios, flashes, previsoes feitas pelos melhores e mais famosos comentaristas do Brasil. A Brazil Update no seu trabalho constante de oferecer aquilo que a comunidade gosta e quer assistir, garante todas as semanas o seu futebol predileto e muito mais!!!

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JUNE 1995

35


What happens when you mix the best Brazilian singer alive with two of the best Brazilian composers ever? You get Mina d'Agua do Meu Canto

(Water Spring of My Song),

the spectacle that Gal Costa has just opened in Brazil with tunes by Chico Buarque and Caetano Veloso. The US is having the chance to see this show before many Brazilian c"ities.

Wonder Gal ANA-MARIA VILLEPA What can one say about the most wonderful voice of Brazilian music today? Most of the superlatives have already been used at least twice. Gal Costa's new show Mina d'A.gua do Meu Canto- this is also the name

of her just released CD- had its debut May 12 at the Castro Alves Theater in Salvador, Bahia, to a packed house. At the end she received a standing ovation following two encores. The critics are calling her a diva at the very pinnacle of her career.

"Gal Costa's crystalline voice is a mine of im­

measurable musical wealth. The interpreter's mature singing has flown limpidly in the national debut of her show," wrote Mauro Ferreira at Rio's Jornal do

Brasil.

"She has a mature voice without exhibition­ ism, her arrangements are unretouchable. She is the best active singer in the nation," echoed Tatiana

Lima from Salvador's A Tarde. Maria da Gra�a Costa Penna Burgos was born in

Salvador, Bahia - that never-ending source of cre­ ativity where Brazilian music is concerned. She con­ siders herself a self-taught musician, having been

brought up listening to music, and then later studying the styles of American greats Billie Holiday, Ella Fitzgerald, and Stevie Wonder. Her local teacher was the great Joao Gilberto, who early on predicted that she would become an international star.

Gal Costa began working with a group of rising stars like Caetano Veloso, who in the early 60's was already pioneering towards the new Brazilian Popu­ lar Music. She called herself Gracinha (Little Gra­ cious One) at the time of her first show Arena Canta

36

NEWS from BRAZIL· JUNE 1995


Bahia in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo. She mostly sang bossa nova standards and was quiet and thoughtful. Later she became simply Gal during the tropicalismo movement experimenting with mu­ sic by Gilberto Gil, Tom ze, and Torquato Neto. These songwriters were merging the traditional rhythms of Bahia with the electric sounds of Brit­ ain and the United States, essentially modernizing the cool bossa nova style. While Gil and Caetano Veloso became politi­ cal exiles in London in 1968, she chose instead to participate in politically radical concerts with Jorge Benjor (then Jorge Ben), Adoniram Barbosa, Luis Melodia, Roberto e Erasmo Carlos. Gal vis­ ited her exiled friends in England and brought back their songs to perform, subject to the ap­

places were too small. In the early 1980's Gal began crossing the borders to Argentina, Japan, Europe and the United States, first appearing at Carnegie Hall ten years ago. She has earned 8 gold and 3 platinum records from her list of over 20 albums, and is considered one of the top voices of the world. Her latest album Mina d'Agua do Meu Canto should arrive in the United States in the next few weeks. The name grew out of an idea as a tribute to the late Tom Jobim, with lyrics and music by Chico Buarque and Caetano Veloso. The artistic director Jaques Morelenbaum has put together a wonderful production. Her show by the same name highlights essen­ tially all her top hits of the last 20 years and is certain to matar saudades (alleviate the longing)

proval of the Brazilian Government censors.

of those of her fans here in the United States. For

Her talent became evident as she began turning songs immersed in prejudice, such as the almost forgotten sambas of old composers, into dark jewels of unbelievable value for the cultural Bra­ zilian soul. She never wrote a song, preferring instead to express herself through other compos­ ers' lyrics . Gal went through many different styles, from barefoot with long hair to presiding over Carnavals with her enormous lipstick red mouth, which has

those of you who are starving to see her, she will definitely reward you. For those of you unfortu­ nate few who are as yet unfamiliar with Gal and her music, we suggest simply that you not miss this

now become her trademark. She was evolving much as the rest of Brazil, "growing up" along with the new high rises, highways, and moderniza­ tion. Suddenly the campus stages and alternate show Rique, former Cam a de Gato's keyboardist and ,�,.....- arranger, has been one of the best selling ar tists of instrumental records in Brazil. He has played for some of the top Brazilian artists such as Ivan Lins, Gilberta Gil, Milton Nascimento, Djavan, and also Chet Baker and Ernie Watts. On this live album you'll find the warmth and energy of one of the best performers of Contemporary Brazilian Music.

show. Gal Costa will be appearing June 24 at the Paramount Theatre in Oakland, California for the west coast premier of her US Tour, followed by a show at New York's Carnegie Hall for the JVC Jazz Festival. This will be the first time she will be performing in the San Francisco Bay Area. One performance only, reserved seating, June 24 - 8 PM, Paramount Theatre - 2025 Broadway Oakland, CA. Tickets: Paramount Box Office 510/ 465-6400 and at all BASS outlets. •

Brazn•s Top vocalist

RIQUE PANTOJA LIVE IN L.A. STEVE TAVAGLIONE- sax RICARDO SILVEIRA JIMMY EARL

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Send your check or money order of $11.95 (postage included) to: RIQUE PANTOJA MUSIC P.O. BOX 42536 LOS ANGELES, CA 90050 For contact: Tel/Fax: (213) 344-0421

NE'Ml from BRAZIL· JUNE 1995

I I

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Paramount Thea-tre 2025 Broadway, Oakland

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�a thalia

production 37


TV Brazil-Pacific Factory Entertainment presents a

Goulart de Andrade Produ�oes production of

Beautiful Brazil Beautiful Brazil is a half hour television program about Brazil's dazzling and diverse nature and the technological advances that are bringing it into the twenty first century. Beautiful Brazil is the first

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50 states and Central America, and reaching almost 7 million subscribers. PLEASE CHECK YOUR LOCAL CABLE OPERATOR FOR CHANNEL LINEUP Who?

Goulart de Andrade, the show's host and producer, is one of the most renowned TV Tupi in 1960. For eight years he was a special assignment reporter for the number 1 rated shows Globo Reporter and Fantastico. For the last 17 years he has been working as Brazil's top independent producer with his weekly srow Comando da Madrugada, first on Globo TV, journalists in Brazil. He started his career at Sao Paulo's

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NE\NS from BRAZIL· JUNE

1995


The small state of Alagoas is one of the pleasant surprises of the Northeast. The capital, Macei6, is a relaxed, modern city, and its beaches are enchanting, with calm, emerald waters. Penedo is the colonial mas­ terpiece of the state, with a fascinating river culture on the Rio Sao Francisco. Along the coast, there are many fishing villages (as yet undisturbed) with fabulous beaches shaded by rows of coconut trees. Buses trundle slowly along the coastal road (mostly unpaved) connecting the villages which are being 'discovered' by tourists and property developers. History - The mighty republic of runaway slaves Palmares -- was in present-day Alagoas. During the invasion by the Dutch in 1630, many slaves escaped to the forest in the mountains between Garanhuns and Palma res. Today, where the towns of Vi�osa, Capela, Atalaia, Porto Calvo and U niao dos Palmares stand, there were once virgin forests with thick growth and plenty of animals. Alagoas today has the highest population den­ sity in the Northeast. Macei6 Macei6, the capital of Alagoas, is 292 km north of Aracaju and 259 km south of Recife. A manageable place for the visitor, the city has a modern but relaxed feeling with endless sun and sea. Orientation - The rodoviaria is about four km north of the city center, which has inexpensive hotels and is the bustle of commerce. On the east side of the city are Praia de Paju�ara and Praia dos Sete Coqueiros, which are three km and four km respectively from the center, and recommended for beach enthusiasts. Information- Tourist Office Ematur (Tel. 221-9393), the state tourist agency, is on Avenida Siqueira Campos (Estactio Rei Pele). There are information booths at the airport and at the rodoviaria. The latter has erratic opening hours, but if you're lucky the staff will be in attendance and will provide a list of hotels with prices and will ring around to make a reservation for you.

Beaches - Just a short walk from the center, the beaches of Praia do Sobral and Avenida are polluted. Your best bet is to head north for some of the best beaches in the Northeast. Protected by a coral reef, the ocean is calm and a deep emerald color. On shore there are loads of barracas, jangadas (local sailboats) and plenty of beach enthusiasts.

Northeast Alagoas hides the most incredible secluded beaches on its littoral as well as numerous fishing villages. And for those interested in history and culture, it has museums and some of the finest baroque buildings of Brazil.

The beaches to the north are Paju�ara (three km from the center), Sete Coqueiros (four km), Ponta Verde (five km), Jatiuca (six km), Jacarecica (nine km), Guaxuma (12 km), Gar�a. Torta (14 km), Riacho Doce (16 km) and Pratagi (17 km).

You won't go wrong with any of these tropical para­ dises, but they do get busy on weekends and throughout the summer when there are many local buses cruising the beaches. On Paju9ara, you 'II find jangadas which will take you out about one km to the reef where you can swim in the piscina natural (natural swimming pool), and observe marine fauna and flora -- the latter is best done at low tide. Museums- In the center, Museu do Instituto Hist6rico (open Monday to Friday, 8 AM to noon and 2 to 5 PM) has

exhibits about regional history. You might also like to browse through the Indian artifacts in Museu Theo Brandao (open Monday to Thursday from 8 AM to 6 PM; and from 8 AM to noon on Friday), which is in an attractive colonial building on the seafront. Festivals -Macei6 is reported to have a lively Carnaval which is still considerably calmer and safer than Rio's, and features active samba clubs. Festa do Mar takes place in December. Places to Eat- Center Nativa is a good natura/food

eatery, close to the Hotel Ney. There's a set menu for $3; vegetable salad for $2; and excellent sandwiches and

NEWS from BRAZIL· JUNE 1995

39


fruit juices. It's open for lunch and dinner, Monday to Friday, and un­ til 3 PM on Saturday. If you want good seafood and feel/ike a splurge, visit Lagostao at Avenida Duque de Caxias 1384. A cheaper option, just one block to the east on the same road, is Como Antigamente, which does prato feito for $2.5 0 and has seating in a courtyard at the back of the restaurant away from the street noise. Most of the beaches offer a wide choice of food inbarracas and snack bars along the beachfront. Pester­ ing from vendors and assorted sandpeople can become wearisome if you sit outside. On Praia de PajU(;ara, two pleasant restaurants are An�o Marzio, a recently renovated Ital­ ian restaurant with great home­ made pasta and Cogo da Ema (sea­ food dishes around $5) with tables on an open patio. Other good places for seafood are Bern at Rua Joiio Canuto da Silva 21, Praia de Cruz das Almas; and Restaurante do Alipio at AvenidaA/ipio Barbosa 321, which is south-west of the center in Pontal da Barra. All three of these restau­ rants are medium priced and open for lunch and dinner. Entertainment For reviews and listings ofthe latest bars, dance spots, and cultural events i n Maceio, pick u p a copy of Veja, which includes an assortment of these places in its weekly supple­ ment entitled 28 Graus. Getting There & Away- Air­ -

Macei6 is connected by air with Rio, SaoPaulo, Brasilia, and all the major centers of the Northeast. Bus - There are frequent daily depar­ tures to Recife (four hours); and Aracaju (five hours). Services op­ erate five times daily to Salvador (10 hours). Buses leave for Penedo at 5:20 and 9 AM noon, 6:20PM (express) and 11.50 PM (express). The trip takes about three hours. The bus to Paulo Afonso leaves daily at 11 PM and takes around five hours. And if you want to make a 2256-km bus trip to Rio (36 hours), there's a daily departure at 7 PM. South of Macei6 Praia do Frances- Only 22 km ,

from Macei6, this is a very pretty, popular weekend beach which is being rapidly developed. The beach is lined with barracas and the ocean is lined with reefs. The w.pter is calm and better for wading than swimming. It's a very social beach on weekends, with plenty of drink­ ing, seafood scoffing, football and music. Marechal Deodoro

-

Beside

Lagoa Manguaba, a lagoon 21 km south-west of Macei6, is Marechal Deodoro, which was the capital of Alagoas between 1823 and 1839. Small and quiet, the town is worth a visit, perhaps combined withPraia do Frances as a day trip from Macei6 Marechal Deodoro has several churches, the most famous of which are the Igreja e Convento Sao Francisco, which was begun in the 17th century, and the Igrcj a de N ossa Senhora da Concei�ao. Inside Igreja e Convento Sao Francisco is the Museu de Arte Sacra (Museum of Sacred Art). It's open daily from 9 AM to 1 PM

A Little Power Goes a Long Way .llagoas has attracted much attention as the home state of impeached former President Fernando Collor de Mello and his wife. Rosane Malta. Collor de Mello reached his positio·n in a linear progression: from mayor of Macei6 to goYernor ofAlagoas state and thence to the presi­ dencY of Bral'il. Collor suffered acute embar­ rassment \\hen it was re,·ealcd that the Malta familY. to \\ hich his wife belongs. hi1d recei' cd la\·ish funds. dotens of cushY jobs and tilles. and am:ving deais for contracts. Rosane was identified as a ke� figure in massiye corruption perpetrated during her presi­ dency of the nation· s largest charity organitation. Some Bra­ zilians used to joke that there \\ as a "clilllieil·;)cluto (money duel) running directly fro1i1 Brasili;� to Alagoas! ·

except on Sunday, when it's closed. Brazilian history buffs may want to see the old governor's palace and the house where Marechal Deodoro was born. The lat­ ter has been turned into the Museu Dcodoro which is open daily from 9 AM to 5 PM, except on Sunday, when it's closed. The exhibits give a 'deodorized' view of Manuel Deodoro da Fonseca, emphasizing his role as a military hero and the first president of Brazil, but omitting to mention that he achieved this position with a military putsch in 1889 and later proved a poor politician. The artesanato shop next door sells the lace and homemade sweets for which the town is renowned. The Sunday market, held along the waterfront, is reported to be a lively, colorful event. Barra de Sao Miguel - Barra is 35 km south of Macei6 at the mouth of the Rio Sao Miguel. The fine beach is protected by a huge reef and there are kayaks for rent. Barra is not too crowded midweek, but it is being built up with summer homes for Macei6's wealthy. A large sailboat will take you up the river

for three hours for $6. Boats leave from Bar do Tio at the dock on the river. During the trip, drinks and fruit are provided on boar-d.

Penedo - Penedo is best known as the capital do baixo Sao Fran­ cisco (capital of the lower Sao Francisco river). The city has also been called cidade dos sobrados (city of hvo-story homes) by the famous Brazilian s o ciologist Gilberta Freire.

Amongst the attractions of the city, 42 km off the BR-101 and virtually untouched by tourism, are its many baroque churches and co­ lonial buildings, and the opportu­ nity to travel on the Rio Sao Fran­ cisco. Penedo bustles with people from the smaller villages up and down the river who come to sell and buy goods. History - Penedo was founded in either 1535 or 1560 {opinions differ) by Duarte Coelho Pereira, who descended the Rio Sao Fran­ cisco in pursuit of Caete Indians responsible for the killing of bishop Pedro Fernandes Sardinha. Penedo is claimed to be the river's first colonial settlement. Market - The street market is held daily in Penedo, but Saturday is the big day when the city is transformed into a busy port-of-call for farmers, fisherfolk and artisans. The waterfront becomes a pageant as families disembark: old people with finely carved features topped by strange hats, many grasping chickens by the neck in one hand and boisterous children by the neck in the other. On shore, traditional musicians play the accordion. The market is filled with ceramics, bas­ kets and shrimp traps made of reeds. Churches - Penedo has a rich collection of 17th and 18th-century colonial buildings, including many churches. The Convento de Sao Francisco e Igreja Nossa Senhora dos Anjos on Pra�a Rui Barbosa is considered the finest church in the state. Even Dom Pedro II paid a visit to this church. Construction was begun in 1660 and completed in 1759. The rococo altar is made of gold. The church is open Tues­ day to Sunday from 2 to 5 PM. Igreja da Senhora das Correntes was completed in 1764. It has some fine work done with azulejos (glazed blue tiles) and a rococo altar. The church is open daily from 8 AM to noon and 2 to 6PM. You'll find it at Pra�a 12 de Abril. The Igreja Nossa Senhora do Rosario dos Pretos, also known as the Catedral do Penedo, was built by slaves. It's on Pra�a Marechal Deodoro and is open from Tuesday to Sunday, from 8 AM to 6 PM. NE\NS from BRAZIL • JUNE 1995


lgreja de Sao Gon�alo Garcia was built at the end of the 18th century and bas some of the city's finest sacred art pieces. It's on Avenida Floriano Peixoto, but is closed for restoration. Boat Trips - Saturday (major market day) is the easiest day to find a boat up or down the Sao Francisco, but if shouldn't prove too hard to find boats for short local trips on other days of the week If you're going upriver, it's usually easy to find boats going as far as Propria, but more difficult to continue beyond there to Pao de A�ucar in Alagoas. Beautiful sail­ boats travel to Propria in four to five hours, depending on the wind. The ferry between Penedo and Passagem, on the opposite side of the river, crosses every 30 minutes, but is only of interest if you're driving. From Passagem there's a road to Ne6polis, which is linked by another road to BR-101. A bet­ ter excursion is one of the motor­ boat crossings direct to Ne6polis, a few km downriver. The 15-minute trip costs a few cents and boats depart every 30 minutes between 5:30 AM and 11:30 PM. Ne6polis is an old colonial town, on a hill overlooking the river, with some interesting buildings and good. crafts for sale. For another boat excursion only four km upriver, take one of the frequent boats (operating between 6 AM and 6 PM) to Carrapicho, a small town noted for its ceramics. You can also hire a boat and just cruise the river a bit, possibly stop­ ping at a sandbar for a swim. Festivals -The Festa do Senhor Born Jesus dos Navegantes, held on the second Sunday of January, features an elaborate procession of boats. Penedo also hosts a large annual Brazilian film festival. Around Penedo - The road is paved from Penedo down to the coast at Pontal do Peba. Along the way, there is a cheap hotel at the

town of Pia�abu�u and a couple of restau­ rants. Praia do Peba, a couple of km from town, is a disappointing beach, well below the quality of those to the north. The road north along the coast is un­ paved, so the going is slow. The beaches are deserted until near Coruripe, a small fishing village with a hotel and a restaurant. Another 15 km of dirt road and you'll reach the coconut tree-lined beach at Poxim, which is even more beautiful than Coruripe; and the town is even smaller. There is no regular bus service along this stretch of coast. North of Maceio If I had to choose one stretch of the Brazilian coast to spend several days explor­ ing, this would be it. The Alagoas coast north of Macei6 is ideal for independent travelers. The beaches are undisturbed and tropically perfect, and the sea is calm and warm. There are several fishing villages with no tourism apart from a simple hotel or two. The coastal road, which is unpaved and slow going along the most secluded stretch, runs within a few hundred meters of the ocean, a rare occurrence along the Brazilian littoral. If you want to follow it, head down to Barra de Santo Antonio. This road is often in disarray and you have to cross some small rivers on local ferries, so check road condi­ tions before departing. Alternatively, from Macei6, AL-101 heads north and then divides outside Barra de Santo Antonio. The main road and most through traffic heads inland here on AL-465. It's a stunning drive through sugar-cane.coun­ try (try to stop at Porto Calvo). AL-465 passes a large sugar-cane plant that pro­ cesses the sugar-cane alcohol that fuels Brazil's cars. The Empresa de Santo Antonio employs about 800 workers in the factory and 4000 in the fields. Tours are possible and worthwhile, but hard to arrange. A few buses from Macei6 go all the way along the coast, but they are less frequent than those that follow the AL-465. Ask for a bus that goes to Porto de Pedras or Sao Miguel dos Milagres. Barra de Santo Antonio & lllha da Croa - Barra is along the mouth of the Rio Jirituba below a small bluff. Only 40 krn from Macei6, this fishing village is begin­ ning to see a bit of tourism and beach-home

construction. There is a boat that runs back and forth across the river. The best beaches are out on the Illha da Croa (narrow peninsula), 15 minutes by motorboat fromBarra de Santo Antonio. This Barra do Camaralibe idyllic fishing village, 12 krn fur­ ther up the coast, offers fish, beer and beach. Ask around for a place to stay and for a ride in a fishing boat. Sao Miguel dos Milagres A bit bigger than its neighbors, Sao Miguel's soft beaches are protected by offshore reefs and the sea is warm and shallow. Porto de Pedras You've got to catch the local ferry to cross the river here. Porto de Pedras is a lively little fishing village with a road that connects to AL-465 at Porto Calvo. In the village there are bars, restaurants and the cheap and dingy Hotel Sao Geraldo. Japaratinga Japaratinga's shallow waters are protected by coral reefs and backed by coconut trees and fishing huts. Under the moonlight you can walk a couple of krn into the sea. Maragoji- Slightly more devel­ oped, Maragoji has some weekend homes for Pemambucanos and a couple of c heap hotels. The sea is protected by reefs and it's ideal for swimming. -

-

-

-

Ex c erpts from Hru::J! .I {run•/ .\ti!TI\'cil f.:lf

-

-

2nd edition. by Andre\\ Draffen. Deanna S\\ ane� and Robert Stranss. For more information call Lonely Planet: (XOO) 275X555 Cop� right I '>'>2 Lonely Planet Publications Used by permission

BRAZIL'S GOLD TOWNS IN THE ATLANTIC fOREST A week of re-discovery from airport to airport OURO PRETO: TIRADENTES: PETROPOLIS:

2 hours' drive from Confins Airport (Belo Horizonte} Your host in "'uro Prete: Ricardo Pereira at the Pousada Mondego* 1% hours' drive from Congonhas which is 1% hours from Ouro Prete. Your host in Tiradentes: John and Anna-Maria Parsons at the Solar do Ponte* The Imperial Summer Palace: 3 hours's drive from Tiradentes and 1 hour from Galeao airport (Rio de Janeiro}. There are good Pousadas * nearby.

*The Pousadas are members of the exclusive Association ROTEIROS DE CHARME* Tei/FAX(Brazil 55) (21} 273-1592. Phone or fax your program for advice about transport, meeting at airport, special itineraries, beaches, etc. SOLAR DA PONTE 55 32 355 1255 FAX 1201 - POUSADA DO MONDEGO 55 31 551 2040 FAX 3094 NEVIlS from BRAZIL

JUNE 1995


Although he has long been recognized as a "player's player" by American jazz musicians with whom he performed, it is only in rece¡nt years that Brazilian singer Joao Bosco has attained a considerable following in the United States. Since 1978, how­ ever, he has been the star of major music festivals and prestigious venues in the rest of the world. More than once he has brought audiences at the Montreux International Jazz Festival to their. feet. He has been a prize winner and the highlight of the Yamaha Festival in Japan and he has toured virtually every continent. The globe-spanning Bosco is originally from Minas Gerais, the same state that gave us Milton Nascimento, and his work is resonant with the sounds of the bandolim (mandolin), the violin and the piano that family members played. In his work, one can also hear the accordions and bands that were part of secular life in his little mountain tnwn of Ponte Nova and the church litanies that were part of its spiritual life. Included too are the influences of the radio singers who came, out of thin air, so to speak, from beyond his mountain town. But as strong as any other influences in the music of Joao Bosco are the creative and revolutionary breezes that have blown over Minas Gerais since the early colonial times. As a young man, Bosco went to Ouro Preto to study engineer­ ing. There he found the music of Brazilian artists like Joao Gilberto, Tom Jobim, Milton Nascimento and Americans like Miles Davis, Charlie Parker and Ray Charles more intriguing than slide rules. Though he knew he would eventually become a musician he kept up with his studies and earned his bachelor's 42

NE\NS from BRAZIL- JUNE 1995


degree in civil engineering. It was when he met the great poet Vinicius de Moraes that he formed his first important musical partnership and in 1972, recorded his first album, Disco de Bolso. In 1973, Bosco moved to Rio de Janeiro and, collaborating with psychiatrist/lyricist Aldir Blanc, became a strong musical voice raised against Brazil's political nightmare represented by a military dictator­ ship. Their song, "0 Bebado e a Equilibrista," ("The Drunkard and the Equilibrist") hauntingly recorded by Elis Regina, is considered the anthem of Amnesty International and to many Brazilian people it held out the promise of future hope and freedom that has, happily now been fulfilled. Through the years, Bosco has proved to be a restless artist, continually looking for new and revolutionary ways to express himself musically. His newest album, his sixteenth, "Na Onda Que Balan<;a" ("In the Wave That Swings), was recently released by Epic/Sony. In it he seeks the right balance from a Mother-Water whose wisdom combines both the voice of nature and the voices of the street. According to Bosco, "..Man learns more "I know I'm moving , I feel a by penetrating into life constant need to keep than by being instructed moving. I believe that music by life itself." like life is something " .. My texts are pretexts, music and lyrics, inseparable sounds."

dynamic. I feel that music complements life, in that order".

Beguine

Beguine

Dod6i

Ouch

(Joiio Bosco & Alc.lir Blanco) Olha m..:u h..:m 0 qu..: r..:stou Daqud..: grand..:

Look h..:r..: mY s\\.:d J\t 1\ hat ' s h..:co m.: Of that gr..:at lt.:rn \V thout ltn..: I h.:cam.: tlnn J\tlll haY<.: h.:com.: s1d, l.ik..: Tar/an atk1 tit.: tlu \V1th a handag.: \\rap 1\h\a\ s 1\and..:ring th..: la\<.:111 I'll ktll 111\sdt'

t

h..:r6i:

S..:m t..:r amor 1-:magr..:ci J-: ando dodt"1i Como Tartii d..:pois da grip..: lk ·..:mplastro sahi;'t S..:mpr..: zan;ando nos hot..:quins En \'ou m..: acahar Espr..:mo cra\'os Ddront..: ao cspdho L..:mhrando \'oct:, Fac;o no\'l.!tJa Tomo g..:mada /\h. niio d;1' mais .litlio Lousada Que me socorra N..:ssa a11ic;iio mortal Maracuiina Ht niio i·..:sol\'1.! J\o r..:cordar M..:ias fume Ligas v..:rmdhas E tmt olhar fatal...

'..;

·

squ..:.:;..: pimpks In front of tit..: Ill liTO!

Rcm..:mh.:ring You. I ohs..:n·c d<.:Yot wns I drink .:ggnog I cm·t t;tk.: 11 an\ mor.: Julio l.<iusada I ki p Ill<.: With that mortal aftli.:tion Sll!.!i.tl-\\al�t I>o � sn·t lt..:lp Wlt..:n I think about Dark m h11ls R.:d oitrt.:rs J\nJ a f atal o,, k

Those sounds, along with his extraordinary mixture of wonderful old ballads, sambas, bossa novas, jazz and flamenco will be part of the shows in his American tour that is taking Joai Bosco from coast to coast. (See Calendar for more information about his shows in the US.) Two years ago, Bosco made his Bay area debut under the banner of the Bay Area Brazilian Club. Those who attended his two sold-out l performances at Herbst Theater vividly remember the remarkable musi­ cal range, the energy, the passion and the joy in performing that have made Bosco a Brazilian national treasure. In a review The San Francisco Chronicle recognized VARIG �ri� immediately that his genius transcended language and place. Brozil's Outstanding "You don't have to know Portuguese to appreciate the artistry of Joao Bosco, the splendid Brazilian singer-song­ The lncomparoble writer," the reviewer wrote and continued, "While the ... Brazilians in the crowd could savor the poetry of the lyrics, the Anglos were seduced by the spirit and the beauty of the music." and his Band The Chronicle's writer also noted Bosco's unique per­ IN A BRAND NEW SHOW! forming style. "He's a subtle and swinging singer who revels in the sensuousness of the sound of words, caressing· o" the vowels, accenting the consonants with the click, hiss and ....� . pop of a percussionist. He has created a marvelous idiosyn­ cratic scat style, a mix of Ella Fitzgerald, bebop and the sounds of a Brazilian batucada." Equally enthusiastic with Bosco's appearance was the Los Angeles Times critic, who called his work "stunningly rich and inventive - music that reached out to touch both the mind and the body." The New York Times also hopped on the Bosco band wagon, describing how he "created intoxi­ cating cross-currents of rhythm, his vocal lines skimming and hopscotching across his guitar's syncopated chords and bass lines." On his current tour, which includes much new material and a new band, Bosco insisted on stopping in San Francisco and appearing there again (under the sponsorship of the non­ profit Bay Area Brasilian Club) despite other more commer­ cial offers. Since the first concert, a warm relationship has SATURDAY, JULY 8 AT 8:30PM sprung up between Bosco, his wife, Angela, and members of HERBST THEATRE, San Francisco, CA the club. For information and tickets for the July 8th q> Late in the year, BETH CARVALHO performance at San Francisco's Herbst Theatre call the Bay Call l4 334-0106 for information ProdiiOOJ Are1 Bnzililll Club .t. B1112i1 To Area Brasilian Club at (415) 334-0106. •

g>� Per>for>mer/Composer>

JOJ.\0 BOSCO tJ"e- Puc{ol'ff(Q/(et-

NEWS from BRAZIL· JUNE 1995

t,/

43


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NEWS from BRAZIL - JUNE 1995


Dori Caymmi has the best of both worlds. A familial heri­ tage so rich with musical tal­ ent that it flows through gen­ erations, and the boundless production capabilities of Qwest/Warner

Brothers.

Withthe possible exception of sergio Mendes, no other US based Brazilian musician has the confidence and support of such resources, and although Caymmi's development has been both consistent and ful­ filling in many respects, the title of his new recording If Ever... might also be inter­ preted as a unspoken signpost for this talented Bahian.

/fEver boasts a star-stud­ ded supporting cas£, an arsenal of original material an_9 SIJ­ ...

perbly orchestrated arrange­ ments that help to miilce this recording his best yet. And Caymmi has also evolved as a singer, projecting a stronger, more prominent voice on this collection, thus saving his trademarked wordless vocal­ izing from becoming cliched or trivializea. This album explores new ground, if with some hesita­ tion. Caymmi paints a beauti­ ful watercolor with "Send In The Clowns" and teams with lyricist Tracy Mann on the bluesy, wandering melody of "We Can Try Love Again."

"Irresistible" even had a brief flirtation with smooth jazz ra­ dio play. But, with the wealth of talent available to him, why didn'the tap Warren Hill, Leo Gandelman or Everette Harp to help launch his exquisite melodies into a greater public light? More outstanding than his singing are his compositions, expansive and breathtaking and without equal. Perhaps Caym­ mi's next recording will allow them to take center stage. The world is waiting for someone to fill Antonio Carlos Jobim's shoes, and we will all wait to see how this unfinished sen­ tence ends. The trials and tribulations of i nternational travel aside, pianist Bill Cun liffe's Bill in Brazil CD is a solid and en­ chanting project, with just the right balance betwee!\ creative whimsy and musical wisdom. Cunliffe's forte is found in his melodjc development and tonal texturing, l1oth in the six origi­ nal songs included here, as well as with his improvisational skill. His delicate shading on the Paul Simon melody "She Moves On" provides a striking contrast to the solo which fol­ lows, and Cunliffe's reflective reading on Caetano Velos o's "Saudosismo" is the perfect lead for a Brazilian romp through his own "Samba Fe­ liz." Cunliffe's original mate­ rial is predictably jazzier and, all in all, Bill in Brazil is a fme effort, waiting to provide you with more excitement than, say, forgetting to pick up a visa for your next Brazilian

trip. Each year for the past two years, the Sharp Primeiro award for Best Instrumental Jazz Recording has been pre­ sented to Rio de Janeiro'sCaju Music. It's the highest honor in Brazil's recording i ndustry. US distributor Milestone World Music has included three more Caju titles in their spring release ·schedule.

his· \in,tinl:ei.Y uass-w..·�: to: from AIDs due to �� Ullll,!t:U. blood transfusion in I 988, glll-�;:·c u,,:,,., lc;no tarist Francisco Mario devel­ oped a keen interest in pre­ serving the roots of his u"""'""a" music fans country's musical past. The will continue appreciate as result is Retratos (Portraits), they become more aware of which resurrects a variety of what Caju/Milestone has to / Brazilian song forms through offer." a heady combination of instinct and curiosity. Elegantly re­ We invite you to call us for corded, the original material a free subscription of The Bra­ inRetratos succeeds so well in zilian Music R eview. It's a maintaining the undiluted dig­ great way to stay informed with nity of these styles that it's all the news of Brazilian Music and contemporary hard to believe it's not the work jazz. Call (708) of some contemporary vision. your subscription today. Not surprisingly, the album

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A Comedia dos Erros - An adaptation of Shakespeare by Caca Rosset. With Cristiane Tri c e r r i and Maria Alice Vergueiro. In Silo Paulo. A Gaiola das Lou cas - Twenty years later, Rio's Cage aux Foiles is back with the same duo who starred in it two de­ cades ago, Jorge Doria and Carvalhinho. As G uerreiras doAmor- Sparta and Athens women decide to end the war between the two cities through a sex strike. In Sao Paulo. 0 Livro de Jo - Based on the Bible, it discusses divine inter­ vention and God's power. Di­ rected by Antonio Araujo. In Silo Paulo. Louro, Alto, Solteiro, Procu­ ra - Miguel Falabella, who wrote the text, plays all 17 char­ acters of this comical mono­ logue. In Rio. Na Era do Radio-ClovisLevy story about a family from the 20s and 30s following life through the radio. Sergio Britto directs. In Rio Nas Raias da Loucura- Name inspired by interpreter Claudia Raia. Lyrics by Silvio de Abreu and directed by ze Rodrix. In Rio. Perola- Mauro Rasi wrote and directs this family comedy in which the little facts of every­ day life get operistic tones. In Rio. Querida Mamile - Maria Ade­ laide A maral play about a touchy mother-daughter rela­ tionship. In Ri9. Trair e Cofar E So Comefar A loony maid makes life miser­ able for her bosses. In Sao Paulo. Vestido de Noiva - Nelson Rodrigues play about Alaide's dreams and her frustrations when facing reality. Eduardo Tolentino de Araujo directs.In Sao Paulo.

1. Pelas Portas do Corafilo Zibia Gasparetto (Espa9o, Vida & Consciencia) 2. Na Margem do Rio Piedra Eu Sentei e Chorei Paulo Coelho (Rocco) 3. A Profecia Celestina James Radfield (Objetiva) 4. Co medias da Vida Privada 101 Cronicas Escolhidas Luis Fernando Verissimo (L&PM) 5. Nada Dura para Semp re Sidney Sheldon (Record) 6. 0 Alquimista Paulo Coelho (Rocco) 7. A 1/ha do Dia Anterior Umberto Eco (Record) 8. A Historia Secreta Donna Tartt (Companhia das Letras) 9. Brida Paulo Coelho (Rocco) 10. Amar, Verbo Intransitivo Mario de Andrade (Vila Rica) -

American films just released: Rudyard Kipling's The Jungle Book (0 Livro da Selva), I.Q. (A Teoria do Amor), Pret-a­ porter (Pret-a-porter), Barcelona (Bar­ celona), Of Love and Shadow (DeAmor e de Sombras), Mrs. Parker and the Vicious Circle (0 Circulo Vicioso), Trapped in Para­ dise (Encurralados no Paraiso). Before de Rain (Antes da Chuva) - France - (1994) - Conflicts among a monk, a pub­

lisher and a photographer. Carlota Joaquina - Princesa do Brazil Brazil- (1994)- Directed by Carla Camura­ ti, it tells the story of Dom Joao VI's wife. Dear Diary (Caro Diorio) -Italy - (1993)­ Movie director writes a diary while visiting Italian towns. Nanni Moretti directs. Louco por Cinema (Crazy for Movies)- By Andre Luiz Oliveira. After the death of the director, one of the actors, from an insane asylum, decides to restart the shooting. Muriel's Wedding(O Casamento de Murie I) - Australia (1994) - Muriel is an ABBA avid fan who dreams of being rescued from her boring life by a prince charming. Sa/ade R usses - (Salada Russa em Paris) Russia/France- (1993)- Fantastic comedy. In St. Petersburg, friends find a secret win­ dow from where they can see Paris -

-

Nonfiction 1 M a ud, Empresdri o do Imperio JorgeCaldeira (Companhia das Letras) 2. Dez Anos no Mar Familia Schurman (Record) 3. Etiqueta sem Frescura Claudia Matarazzo ( Melhora­ mentos) 4. Anjos Caballsticos Monica Buonfislio - (Oficina Cultural Esotenca) 5. Maktub Paulo Coelho (Rocco) 6. A Magia dos Anjos Caba­ /lsticos - Monica Buonfiglio (Oficina Cultura Esoterica) 7. Minutos de Sabedoria Carlos Torres Pastorinho (Vo­ zes) 8. 0 Sucesso Nilo Ocorre por A caso -LairRibeiro (Objetlva) 9. Auto Estima - Aprendendo a Gostar Mais de Voce Lair Ribeiro (Objetiva) 10. Como Fazer Amigos e Influenciar Pessoas Dale Carnegie (Companbia Editora Nacional) NEWS from BRAZIL. JUNE 1995


CoLoR IT BRAZIL Tarsila do Amaral, Anita Malfatti and Tomie Ohtake are just some of the Brazilian artists taking part in the Latin American Women Artists exhibition now touring the US. With nearly 150 works by 35 famous artists (eight are Brazilian) from 11 countries, the ex­ hibit shows the best these women have produced in painting, sculpture and multimedia. The oldest works are by Malfatti who painted them between 1915 and 1922. The painter, who died in 1964, introduced modem art in Bra­ zil. Mark you calendar for this exhibit: from July 7 to October 1: Phoenix Art Museum; from October 28 to January 14, 1996: Denver Art Museum; from February 8 to April 29, 1996: Wash­ ington D.C.'s National Museum of Women in the Arts.

SHOWING THE COLORS Terrific doesn't mean terrible as it may sound to a Brazilian ear unaware of the English subtleties. Brazilian TV presenter and producer Goulart de Andrade went through some cold sweat before finding this out. He is the brain and soul behind Beautiful Bra­ zil, a TV program being aired from coast to coast in the US. When Andrade started showing his pilots to Ameri­ cans he heard from a Yankee director that the work was "terrific.t' He only recuperated his smile when it w� ex­ plained to him that his program was being praised. Beautiful Brazil can be seen every Saturday at 9 PM (Eastern time) on the International Channel, a cable net­ work that covers all US's 50 states, in addition to Canada, Central America and the Caribbean. Among other sub­ jects, the programs, to be shown in Portuguese with English subtitles, will deal with crocodile creation, the Iguar;:u Falls, sea turtles, the Fernando de Noronha ecological reservation, and the building of nuclear submarine Aramar. NEVIlS from BRAZIL. JUNE 1995

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FEIRA LIVRE OPEN MARKET

CATERING Joy's Catering - "We Make Your Party"- Dmners, salad bar,

finger food and petit fours. Now cooking frozen food for your busy week. Call (310)438-3415. CLASSES Computer classes- Groups and

private classes. (818) 507-1521. Portuguese classes- Individual & sm!il.l groups. I'm a native Brazilian rnstructor with an uni­ versity degree in languages. Try a free lesson. New groups be­ ginning now. (415) 771-9474. Portuguese lessons - Designed for all1evels, in an informal fun atmosphere. The instructor is a native speaker with Master De­ gree/teaching experience in the US. (415) 383-8859. ENTERTAINMENT Exotic samba dancers - Tradi­

tional music and dance of Bra­ zil. For clubs, celebrations, etc. Video available. ( 408) 4642234.

Experienced "Brasileiro" Gui­ tarist available to perform

Originals, Jazz and Brazilian Music. Call (805) 288-2076. The best Brazilian dance group in San Francisco & Bay Area

with the performing experience in movies, clubs and other cel­ ebrations. Video available. Call (415) 312-8667. JoB OFFERED Export company - needs a Por­

tuguese and English speaking person to supervise and inter­ pret. Car necessary. Phone (213) 261-9999. Leave message. MAGAZINES & NEWSPAPERS Jornais e revistas do Brasil.

Recebemos jo�ai� diar�os e todas as pnnc1pa1s rev1stas, incluindo masculinas e femi­ ninas, alem de gibis, palavras cruzadas e livros de bolso. Tel. & Fax: (617) 787-0758. Mus1c Brazilian Music in its totality.

Samba, bossa nova, chorinho, baiao, axe, and more. Merchant Express - (800) 589-5884. News & TV

Calll-900-255-7045 now or l 900-AK570IL for the latest Sportsline, news1 scores, Tips, Odds, Sports-tnvia game on North America's #I up to the minute best information line. Also can get on same line Stock Market Quotes, Soaps updates, and Horoscopes. Stay c-urrent. $1.98/minute. Must be 18 or older. Sponsored by Aileron NEWS from BRAZIL· JUNE 1995

Star, Inc. Las Vegas, Nevada 1702-598-2765 if complaints.

Come to where the channels are! Receive the "Brazilian

Television Network," news, soap operas from Brazil and the "RTP Channel" from Portugal. Own your satellite system. Call now (714) 385-5750. PERSONAL

American, 52, has travelled to

Brazil, desires correspondence with young, open-minded Brasi­ leira living in the US, to explore co�patibility and romance. Wnte: M.F.K., P.O.B. 215, Redmond, WA 98073. American businessman has lived in your country and loves your people, music, & dance. Desires fnendship/romance with brasileira between 22-30 years. Interests include yoga, health food, nature. Please write R.B. 1106 2nd St. #268, Encinitas, CA 92024. American Doctor, male seeks Brazilian lady, 18-32 for fun and romance. Must be pretty. I'm very handsome and look Brazilian. (213) 293-8909. Los Angeles area. American Jewish man, 36, sin­ cere, deep, fun, active, doctor, seeks Jewish lady under 35 with brown eyes and long dark hair, in Los Angeles area. (310) 2713168. American Plastic Surgeon. In­ ternationally recognized. Attrac­ tive. Athletic. Has toured Bra­ zil. Seeks intelligent, athletic, attractive, non smoking Brasi­ leira who likes skin diving, aerobics, surfing, outdoor pho­ tography & cooking. Ages 2230. Send photos and C.V. to G.M - 2318 Washington - Great Bend, Kansas, 67530 - U.S.A. Americano, divorciado, branco, 51 anos (parece 44 anos), 176 centimetros, 71 quilos, olhos azuis, cabelos castanhos, enge­ nheiro,mon6gamo, casa propria. Nao fumo, pode fumar. Procuro uma mulher delgada ou media ate 40 anos que more perto de Simi Valley, para relacio­ namento seno. Responda em ingles com sua foto, por favor. Patrick O'Bryan, 1728 Townley Circle, Simi Valley, CA 93063. Americano, 37 anos, delgado, olhos azuis, professor de Ingles. FalaFrances;Espanhol,Italiano, Portugues. Deseja encontrar brasilerra, 18-30 anos. Escreva para William, 1431 Ocean Ave., #1106, Santa Monica, CA, 90401. French American guy looking for friendship with Brazilian

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men 35-55. (310) 659-3139 or write: Occupant, P.O. B o x 16655,BeverlyHills,CA 90209. If you are in your twenties and would not mmd living in Cali­ forni� you are an ideal candi­ date ror an honest highly edu­ cated (Ivy League) fmancially secure, executive who likes to travel with you around the world, walk on the beach, cuddle with you in front of the frreplace in a ski chalet, go to concerts, Scuba dive and go to movies. Hope­ fully both of us can also give_ a little to others and help those m need. Please send a letter with picture to: 3857 Birch, Suite 454 - Newport Beach, CA 92660. LA./Ph.D. Loyal, funny and supportive seeks smart, loyal and young Brazilian lady age 28 to 35 for love and comparuonship. Write letter with l_)hoto to Dr. G. Martin - 1107 Farr Oaks #184 South Pasadena, CA 91030 or call (213) 223-6100. -

Meet the most b eautiful Women and top notch Men on

the world's #I International DATELINE. Call l -900-3293032 orcall l -900-FAX-DODA. Meet your future mate tonight. Must be 18 or older. $2.95/ minute. The Best. Sponsor is Aileron Star, Inc. Las Vegas, Nev. If line complaints call 1702-598-2764. Single American male seeks Brazilian women, 18-35 years old. I am 34 years old, healthy, attractive, romantic. Please send note & photo to: 2440 16th St. #179, San Francisco, CA 94103. Successful, wealthy, good­ looking marriage-mmded ro­ mantic Amencan comedy writer, 30, speaks a little Portu­ guese, seeks slender, intelligent, educated English-spealCing, 1 non-religious non- smoKing, brasileira in L.A. area. Note & photo to: Occupant, P.O. Box 3757, Santa Monica, CA 90408

PsYCHOTHERAPY Emotional and psychological

help. Elizabete Alineida MA. MFCC intern offers psycho­ therapy in English/Portuguese. Reasonable rates. (310) 2817536. REAL ESTATE

BUYING, SELLING, RENT­ ING- Let me assist you with all

your Real Estate needs. Any­ where in the U.S. through Na­ tional Referral Services. Call Dcbont Jackson at (703) 5480700. McEnearney Associates Inc. RENTAL

for single woman. Share kitchen/bath Wlth Brazilian/American family. W.L.A. $400. Utilities included. (310) 287-0905. Private studio

Degree offers service. (Substan­ tialknowledge of computers and software.) (818) 507-1521. Pyramid Press offen: typeset­ ting, copyediting, custom desk­ top publishing. Low rates! Call for estimate (310) 518-3425.

ast an reliable. Call Sonia (813) 7747458. J. Henry Phillips�simultaneous interpreter and AlA accredited Portuguese translator: (512) 834-1941. Fax: (512) 834-0070. Certified translator,

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Brasil Vigo - International Money Transmitter - Passagens aereas domesticas e interna­ cionais. Enviamos dinheiro para o Brasil em 24 horas. Traslados dos aeroportos em Washington D.C .. Tours em Washington D.C. - Tel: (703) 527-6977.


THURSDAY1 The whole month -Tomie Oh take shows her paintings at Americas Society - 680 Park Ave. 9:00 PM - Renni Flores at 14 Be­ low

FRIDAY 2 9:00 PM - Viva Brazil Show at Bahia Cabana

& Brazil

SATURDAY 3

SUNDAY 11

10:00 AM - 7:30 PM - Brazilian Street Carnaval with Sambala & MILA- For tickets: (310) 436-7794

7:00 PM - Marcos Santos & Sambala at Foothill

9:00PM-Renni FloresatZabumba 9:30 PM -Flavia de Mello & Band at Cafe Danssa 10:00 PM - lvson & Grupo Gosto at Bahia Cabana

SUNDAY4 &

2:00 PM - 8:00 PM - Brazilian Folklore at 14 La Perla Restaurant, 1832 Columbia Rd. - (202) 7235854

THURSDAY 8 9:00 PM-Dandara with Lisa Silva at Bahia Cabana 9:00 PM-Katia Moraes at 14 Be­ low

FRIDAY 9 10:00 PM -lvson & Grupo Gosto at Bahia Cabana ,._

,.

�.I�"{'

'-

9:00PM-Max Jr. & Zabumba Band at Zabumba

SATURDAY10 9:00PM-Renni FloresatZabumba 9:30 PM-Constellation & MILA at Cafe Danssa 9:00 PM - Viva Brazil Brasil at Bahia Cabana

50

2:00 PM -8:00 PM-Brazilian Folklore at 14 La Perla Restaurant, 1832 Columbia Rd. - (202) 723-5854

WEDNESDAY14 8:00 PM - Gilberto Gil at Intercontinental Hotel - Downtown

7:00 PM - Marcos Santos Sambala at Foothill

-

9:00 PM-Zeca do Trombone & His Band at Bahia Cabana

& Ginga

THURSDAY15 9:00 PM - Marcos Santos at 14 Below

FRIDAY 16 8:00 PM -Gilberto Gil at Roxy


9:00 PM -Meia-Noite & Midnight Drums at 14 Below

9:00 PM - Renni Flores at Zabumba

FRIDAY 23

9:00 PM - Som Brasil & Ginga Brasil at Bahia Cabana

SATURDAY17

10:00 PM -lvson & Grupo Gosto at Bahia Cabana

9:00 PM - Sambrasil at Zabumba 9:30 PM -S6nia Santos at Cafe Danssa

8:00 PM - Ballet Folcl6rico do Brasil performing at LACE. Info:

10:00 PM-lvson & Grupo Gosto at Bahia Cabana 8:00 PM - Ballet Folcl6rico do Brasil performing at Live Oak Festival. Info: (310) 453-2492

(31 0) 453-2492 9:00PM-Renni FloresatZabumba

SATURDAY 24 9:00 PM-Gal Costa at Paramount Theatre - 2025 Broadway - (510) 465-6400

SUNDAY18 7:00 PM - Marcos Santos & SambaLa at Foothill 8:00 PM - Ballet Folcl6rico do Brasil performing at Stern Grove Festival. Info: (310) 453-2492 9:00PM-Zeca do Trombone & His Band at Bahia Cabana

---

2:00 PM - 8:00 PM-Brazilian Folklore at 14 La Perta Restaurant, 1832 Columbia Rd. - (202) 723-5854

THURSDAY 22 9:00 PM - FJavio, Paulinho Zabumba

& Giba

at

9:00 PM-Carnaval Ball with Lisa Silva at Bahia Cabana 2:00 PM-Festa Junina promoted by l nstituto lnfanto-Juvenil de Cultura Brasileira. With Quadri/ha, Casamento na Ror;a & more. Call Ruth Walsh (213) 656-8978 8:00 PM - Ballet Folcl6rico do Brasil performing at LACE. Info: (310) 453-2492 9:00PM-Renni FloresatZabumba

SUNDAY 25 ,,. !til.,.

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", .: .

• ... ,.,

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FRIDAY 30 9:00PM -Renni FloresatZabumba 9:00PM-Entre N6s& Ginga Brasil at Bahia Cabana

51


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ashington DC

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53


ario Vieira de Mello, one of the few writers to ap roach the problem of the re ations between underdevelopment and culture, makes a distinction {or the Brazilian case that is also valid for all of Latin America. He says that there has been a marked alteration of perspectives; until the 1930s the idea of"the new country," still unable to realize itself, but attributing to itself great possibilities of future progress, pre­ dominated among us. Witli no essential modification in the distance that sepa­ rates us from the rich countries, what r.redominates now is the notion of -an 'underdeveloped country." The first per­ spective accentuated potential strength and, therefore, a still unrealized great­ ness. The second pointed out the present poverty, the atrophy; what was lacking, not what was abundant. The consequences Mario Vieira de Mello drew from this distinction do not seem valid to me, but taken by itself it is correct and helps us to understand certain fundamental aspects of literary creation in Latin America. In fact, the idea of a new country produces in literature some fundamental attitudes, derived from sur­ prise, from the interest in the exotic, from a certain respect for the grandiose, and from a hopeful sense of possibilities. The idea that America constituted a privi­ leged place was expressed in utopian pro­ jections that funchoned in the physiOg­ nomy of conquest and colonization; and Pedro Henriquez Urena reminds us that the first document about our continent, Columbus's letter, inaugurated the tone of seduction and exaltation that would be communicated to posterity. In the seven­ teenth century, mixing pragmatism and prophesy Antonio Vieira recommended ) the transter of the Portuguese monarchy, fated to realize the highest ends of His­ tory as the seat of the Fifth Empire, to Brazil. Later, when the contradictions of colonial status led the dominant strata to a political separation from the mother countries, there emerged the complemen­ tary idea that America had been predes­ tined to be the country of libercy, and thus to consummate the destiny of Western man. This state of euphoria was inherited by Latin American intellectuals, who transformed it into both instruments of national affirmation and an ideological justification. Literature became the lan­ guage of celebration and tender affec­ tion, favored by Romanticism, with sup­ port from hyperbole and the transforma­ tion of exoticism into a state of the soul. Our sky was bluer, our flowers more luxuriant, our countryside more inspiring than that of other places, as in a Brazilian poem that, from this point of view, is valuable as a paradigm: the "Song of Exile," by Gon�alves Dias, who could stand for any of his Latin American con­ temporaries from Mexico to Tierra del Fuego. The idea of couljtrywas closely linked to that of nature and in part drew its justification from it. Both were condu­ cive to a literature that compensated for material backwardness and the weakness of institutions by an overvaluation of regional features, making exoticism a

M

l

We can imagine that the Latin American writer is condemned always to be what he has been: a producer of cultural goods for minorities, though in this case that does nof signify groups of high aesthetic quality, but simply the few groups disposed to read.

ANTONIO CANDIOO < Ju /_1/era/111'<' a111l So< tcfl·. J\nllinw l'andadn. ta,ansi.It..:d ll\ l!n\\<lld S lkd,.:a. l'riii<d<lll lilll\·.:asat\ l'a.:ss. 1'!'!5. I'JX pp

reason for social optimism. In the Santos Vega, of the Argentine Rafael Obligado, on the verge of the twentieth century, the nativist exaltation is projected onto a patriotism properly speaking, and the poet Implicitly <listm� uishes country (institu­ tional) and lana (natural), nevertheless Jinkins them in the same gesture of iden­ tification: La convicci6n de que es mia La patria de Echeverria, La tierra de Santos Vega. [The conviction of what is mine The country of Echeverria The land of Santos Vega.] Country for the thinker, land for the singer. One of the assumptions, explicit ·or latent, of Latin American literature was this mutual contamination, generally euphoric, of land and country, the gran­ deur of the second being considered as a

kind of unfolding of the strength of the first. Our literatures are nourished in the "divine promises of hope," to cite a fa­ mous verse by the Brazilian Romantic poet Castro Alves. But, the other side of the coin, the discouraged visions shared the same or­ der of associations, as if the weakness or the disorganization of institutions con­ stituted an inconceivable paradox in the face of the grandiose natural conditions. ("In America everything is great, only man is small.") Now, given this causal link of"beau­ tifu! land-great country," it is not diffi­ cult to see the repercussiOns a conscious­ ness of underdevelopment could produce in a change of perspective that made evident the reality of the poor lands, the archaic technologies, the astonishing misery of the people, the paralyzing lack of culture. The resulting vision is pessi­ mistic with respect to the present and problematic with respect to the future, and the only remnant of the previous phase' s millenarianism, perhaps, might be the confidence with which it is ac­ knowledged that the removal of imperi­ alism could brins, in itself, an explosion of progress. But, m general, it is no longer a matter of a passive point of view. De­ prived of euphoria, the point of view is combative, and this leads to a decision to struggle, since the trauma of conscious­ ness caused by the confirmation of how great the bac kwardness is catastrophic, and invites political reformulations. The preceding gagantism, based on a hyper­ bolic view of nature, then appears m its true essence - as an ideological con­ struction transformed into a compensa­ tory illusion. From this comes the dispo­ sitiOn to combat that is diffused through the continent, the idea of underdevelop­ ment becoming a propulsive force, which gives a new stamp to the political obliga­ tion of our intellectuals. The consciousness of underdevelop­ ment followed the Second World War and was manifested clearly from the fif­ ties on. But there had been, since the thirties, a change in orientation, which could be taken as a thermometer, given its generality and persistence, above all in regionalist fiction. It then abandoned pleasantness and curiosity, anticipating or perceiving what had been disgmsed in the picturesque enchanhnent or ornamen­ tal chivalry with which rustic man had previously been approached. It is not false to say that, from this point of view, the novel acquired a demystifying force that preceded the comins-to-awareness of economists and politicians. In this essay, I will speak, alterna­ tively or comparatively, of the literary characteristics of the m1ld phase of back­ wardness, corresponding to the ideology of the "new country"; and of the phase of catastrophic consciousness of backward­ ness, corresponding to the notion of''un­ derdeveloped country." The two are inti­ mately meshed with one another and we 1 see the lines of the present in ooth the immediate and remote past. With respect to method, it would be possible to study the conditions of the d1ffusion of, or of the production of, literary works. Witlt­ out forgetting the first focus, I prefer to


emphasize the second by means of which, though we leave aside statistical rigor, we come close, in compensation, to the specific interests of literary criticism. rr .

If we think of the material conditions of literature's existence, the basic fact, perhaps, is illiteracy, which in the coun­ tries of advanced pre-Columbian culture is aggravated by the still present linguis­ tic plurality, with diverse lan$uages seek­ ing their place in the sun. 1n fact, illit­ eracy is lmked to the manifestations of cultural weakness: lack of the means of communication and diffusion (publish­ ers, libraries, magazines, newspapers); the nonexistence, dispersiOn, and weak­ ness of publics disposed to literature, due to the small number of real readers (many fewer than the alreadY. small number of literates); the impossibility, for writers, of specializing in their literary jobs, gen­ erally therefore realized as marginal, or even amateur, tasks; the lack of resis­ tance or discrimination in the face of external influences and pressures. The picture of this weakness is completed by such economic and· political factors as insufficient levels ot remuneration and the financial anarchy of governments, coupled with inept or criminally disinter­ ested educational policies. Except in the contiguous meridional countries that form "white America" (in the European phrase), there would have to be a revolu­ tion to alter the predominant condition of illiteracy, as occurred slowly and incom­ pletely m Mexico and rapidly in Cuba. TI1ese features are not combined me­ chanically, nor always in the same way, there being diverse possibilities of disso­ ciation and grouping among them. Illit­ eracy is not always a sufficient explana­ tion of the weakness in other sectors, although it is the basic feature of under­ development in the cultural area. Peru, to cite an example, is less badly situated than various other countries With respect to the index of schooling, but it presents the same backwardness with respect to the diffusion of culture. In another sec­ tor, the publishing boom of the 1940s in Mexico and Argentina showed that the lack of books was not uniquely a conse­ quence of the reduced number of readers and of lower buying power, since all of Latin America, including the Portu­ guese-speaking part, absorbed signiftcant numbers of its publications. Perhaps we can conclude that the bad publishing hab­ its and the lack of communication further accentuated the inertia of the public; and that there was an unsatisfied capacity for absorption. This last example reminds us that the problem of publics presents distinctive features in Latin America, since it is the only group of underdeveloped countries whose people speak European languages (with tile exception, already noted, of the indigenous groups) and have their origins in countries that today still have underde­ veloped areas themselves (Spain and Por­ tugal). In these ancient mother countries literature was, and continues to be, a good of restricted consumption, in com­ parison with the fully developed coun­ tries, where publics can be classified ac­ cording to the kind of reading they do,

such a classification permitting compari­ massified culture coming from the devel­ sons with the stratification of the entire oped countries. By such means, these society. But, as much in Spain and Portu­ countries can not only diffuse their val­ gal as in our own countries of Latin ues in the normal fashion, but also act America, there is a basic negative condi­ abnormally through them to orient, ac­ tion, the number of literates, that is, those cording to tlleir political interests, the who could eventually constitute the read­ opinions and the sensibility- the politi­ ers of works. This circumstance brings cal interests - of underdeveloped popu­ the Latin American countries nearer to lations. It is normal, for example, that the the actual conditions of their mother coun­ imal:\e of the cowboy hero of tbe Western tries than are, in relation to theirs, the is diffused because, inde�ndent of judg­ underdeveloped countries of Africa and ments of value, it is one of the features of Asia, which speak different languages North American culture incorporated into than those of the colonizers and confront the avera& e sensibility of the contempo­ the grave problem of choosing the lan­ rary worlo. In countries witll a large Japa­ guage in which to display literary cre­ nese immigration, such as Peru and above ation. African writers m European lan­ all Brazil, there is diffused in a similarly guages (French, like Leopold Sendar normal manner the image of the samurai, Senghor, or English, like Chmua Achebe) especially by means of the cinema. But it are doubly separated from their potential is abnormal that such images serve as the publics; and are tied either to metropoli­ vehicle for inculcating in the publics of tan publics, distant in every sense, or to tl1e underdeveloped countries attitudes an incredibly reduced local public. and ideas that identify them with the This is said to show that the possibili­ political and economic interests of the ties of communication for the Latin countries in which those images were American writer are greater, compared to made. When we realize that the majority the rest of the Third World, despite the of the animated cartoons and comic strips present situation, which reduces greatly have a North American copyright, and tllat a large proportion of detective and his eventual public. Nevertheless, we can adventure fiction comes from the same imagine that the Latin American writer is condemned always to be what he has source, or is copied from it, it is easy to been: a producer of cultural goods for evaluate the negative effect it could even­ minorities, though in this case that does tually have, as an abnormal diffusion not signify groups of high aesthetic qual­ among a defenseless public. ity, but simply the few groups disposed to In this respect it is convenient to point out that in erudite literature the read. But let us not forget that modern audio-visual resources might change our problem of influences (as we will see processes of creation and our means of later) can have either a good aestlletic communication, so that when the great effect or a deplorable one; but only in masses finally acquire education, who exceptional cases does it have any influ­ knows but what they will look outside the ence on tile ethical or political behavior book to satisfy their needs for.fiction and of the masses, since it reaches a restricted poetry. number of restricted publics. Even so, in a massified civilizatiOn, where nonliter­ Put another way: in the majority of our countries large masses, immersed in ary, preliterary, or subliterary media, such a folkloric stage of oral communication, as those cited, predominate, such re­ are still beyond the reach of erudite lit­ stricted and differentiated publics tend to erature. Once literate and absorbed by the unify themselves to tile point of being process of urbanization, they come under confounded with the mass, which receives the dominion of radio, television, and the influence on an immense scale. And, comic strips, constituting the foundation what is more, by means of vehicles whose of a mass culture. Literacy would then aesthetic element is reduced to a mini­ mum, thus rendering them capable of not increase the number of readers of being confounded with ethical or politi­ literature, as conceived here, proportion­ cal designs that, in the limiting case, ally; but would fling the literate, together with the illiterate, directly from the phase penetrate the entire population. Seeing that we are a "continent under of folklore into this kind of urban folk­ interventiOn," an extreme vigilance is lore that is massified culture. During the Christianization of the continent the co­ proper for Latin American literature, in lonial missionaries wrote documents and order not to be taken in by tile instru­ ments and values of mass culture, which poetry in the indigenous language or the seduce so many contemporary artists and vernacular in order to make the prin­ ciples of religion and of the metropolitan theorists. It is not a case of joining the civilization accessible to those bemg in­ "apocalyptics," but rather of alerting the doctrinated by means of consecrated lit­ "integrated" - to use Umberto Eco's expressive distinction. Certain modern erary forms, equivalent to those destined experiences are fruitful from the point of for the cultivated man of the times. In our view of the spirit of the vanguard and the time, a contrary process rapidly converts connection of art and literature to the rural man to urban society, by means of rhythm of the time, as in Concretism and communicative resources that· even in­ clude subliminal inculcation, imposing other currents. But it costs nothing to remember what can occur when they are on him dubious values quite different from those the cultivated man seeks in art manipulated politically by the wrong side and in literature. in a mass society. In fact, even though This problem is one of the gravest in they present at tile time an hermetic and the underdeveloped countries, by virtue restrictive aspect, the principles in which of the massive pressure of what could be they are based, having as resources an called the cultural know-how and the expressive sonority, graphical elements, very materials already elaborated for and syntagmatic combinations of great

·


suggestive power, can eventually become much more penetrating than traditional literary forms, functiorung as nonliterary instruments, but more penetrating for just this reason, reaching massified publics. And there is no pomt, for the literary expression of Latm America, in moving from the aristocratic segregation of the era of oligarchies to the directed manipu­ lation of the masses in an era of propa­ ganda and total imperialism.

lll

Illiteracy and cultural debility influ­ ence more than the exterior aspects just mentioned. For the critic, their action in the consciousness of the writer and in the very nature of his work is more interest­ ing. In the time of what I called the mild consciousness of backwardness, the writer shared the enlightened ideology, accord­ ing to which schooling automatically brought all the benefits that permitted the humanization of man and the progress of society. At flrst, schooling was recom­ mended only for the citizens, the minor­ ity from whtch were recruited those who shared economic and political advantages; later, for all the people, seen dimly, vaguely, and from afar, less as a reality than as a liberal conception. Emperor Dom Pedro II said that he would have preferred to be a teacher, which denoted an attitude equivalent to the famous point of view of Sarmiento, according to which the predominance of civilization over barbarism had as a presupposition a la­ tent urbanization, based in schooling. In the continental vocation of Andres Bello it is impossible to distinguish the politi­ cal vis10n from the pedagogic project; and in the more recent group, Ateneo, of Caracas, the resistance to tyranny of Juan Vicente G6mez was inseparable from the desire to diffuse enliEhtened ideas and to create a literature full of myths of re­ demptive education - all projected in the figure ofR6mulo Gallegos, who ended up as the frrst President of a renascent Republic. A curious case is that of a thinker like Manuel Bonfim, who published in 1905 a book of great interest, A America Latina. Unjustly forgotten (perhaps because it based itself on outrnoaed biological analo­ gies, perhaps because of the troublesome radicalism of its positions), it analyzes our backwardness as a function of the prolongation of colonial status, embod­ ted in the persistence of oligarchies and in foreign rrnperialism. In the end, when everythmg leads to a theory of the trans­ formation of social structures as a neces­ sary condition, a disappointing weaken­ ing of the argument occurs, and he ends by preaching schooling as a panacea. In such cases, we touch the core of the illusion of the enlightened, an ideology of the phase of hopeful consciousness of backwardness that, significantly, doe!; ljttle to bring what is hoped for to realiza­ tion. It is not surprising, then, that the idea already referrcii to, according to which the New Continent was destined to be the country of liberty 1 has undergone a curi­ ous adaptation: 1t would be destined, equally, to be the country of the book. This is what we read in a rhetorical poem

in which Castro Alves says that, while Gutenberg invented the printing press, Columbus found the ideal place for that revolutionary technique (the italics are the poet's):

Quando no tosco estaleiro Da Alemanha o velho obreiro A ave da imprensa gerou, 0 Genoves salta os mares, Busca urn ninho entre os palmares E a patria da imprensa acllou. fWhile in the rough workshop bf Germany the old worker Begot the bird of printing, The Genoese leaped over the seas, Seeking a home among the palms and discovered the country of printing.] This poem, written in the 1860s by a young man burning with liberalism, is called, expressively, "0 livro e a America" (The book and America), dis­ playing the ideological position r refer to. Thanks to this ideology, these intel­ lectuals constructed an eq_ually deformed vision of their own posihon, confronted by a dominant lack of culture. Lamenting the ignorance of the people and wishing 1t would disappear so that the country might automatically rise to its destined heights, they excluded themselves from the con­ text and thought of themselves as a group apart, really "floating," in a more com­ J>lete sense than that of Alfred Weber. They floated, with or without conscious­ ness of guilt, above the lack of culture and the backwardness, certain that it could not contaminate them, or affect the qual­ ity of what they did. Since the envuon­ ment could only give them limited shel­ ter, and since therr values were rooted in Europe, it was to Europe that they pro­ jected themselves, taking it unconsciously as a point of reference and a scale of values; and considering themselves the equals of the best there. But in truth the general lack of cul­ ture produced, and produces, a much more penetrating debility, which interferes with all culture and with the quality of the works themselves. Seen from today, the situation of yesterday seems different from the illuswn that reigned then, since today we can analyze it more objectively, due to the action of time and to our own efforts at unmasking. The question will become clearer as we take up foreign influences. In order to understand them best, it is convenient to focus, in the light of these reflections on backwardness and underdevelopment, on the problem of cultural deJ>endency. This is, so to speak, a natural fact, given our situation as peoples who are colonized, or descendants of colonizers, or who have suffered the imposition of their civiliza­ tion, but a complicated fact, with posi­ tive and negative aspects. This cultural penury caused writers to turn, necessarily, toward the patterns of the mother countries and of Europe in general1 creating a group that was, in a way, anstocratic in relahon to the unedu­ cated man. In fact, to the degree that a sufficient local public did not exist, people wrote as if therr ideal public was m Eu-

rope and thus often dissociated them­ selves from their own land. This gave birth to works that authors and readers considered highly refined, because they assimilated the forms and values of Euro­ pean fashion. Except that, for lack of local points of reference, they often could go no farther than exercises of mere cul­ tural alienation, which were not justified by the excellence of their realization and that is what occurred in what there is of the bazaar and of affectation in the so-called "Modernism" of the Spanish language, and its Brazilian equivalents, Parnassianism and Symbolism. Clearly, there is much that 1s sound in Ruben Dario, as in Herrera y Reissig, Bilac, and Cruz e Sousa. But there are also many false jewels u nmasked by time, much contraband that gave them an air of com­ petitors for some international prize for beautiful writing. The refinement of the decadents was provincial, showing the mistaken perspective that predommates when the elite, with no base in an uncul­ tivated people, has no way of confronting itself cntically and supposes that the rela­ tive distance that separates them trans­ lates of itself into a position of absolute height. "I am the last Greek!" - so shouted theatrically in 1924 in the Bra­ zilian Academy the enormously affected Coelho Neto, a kind of labonous local D 'Annunzio, protesting a g ainst the vanguardism of the modernists, who even­ tually broke the aristocratic pose in art and literature. Let us recall another aspect of alien­ ated aristocratism, which at the time seemed an appreciable refinement: the use of foreign languages in the produc­ tion of works. Certain extreme examples were in­ voluntarily saturated with tlle most para­ doxical humorousness, as in the case of a belated Romantic of the lowest rank, Pires de Almeida, who published, as late as the beginning of this century, in French, a nativist play, probably composed some decades earlier: Lafite des crdnes, drame des moeurs indiennes en trois actes et douze tableaux (The festival of the skulls:

A drama of Indian customs in three acts and twelve tableaux). But this practice is really significant when it is linked to authors and works of real quality, such as those of CUmdio Manuel da Costa, who left a large and excellent body of work in Italian. Or Joaquim Nabuco, a typical example of the cosmopolitan oligarchy of liberal sentiment in the second half of the nineteenth century, who wrote auto­ biographical passages and a book of re­ flections in French- but above all a play whose conventional alexandrines debated the problems of conscience of an Alsa­ tian after the Franco-Prussian War of 1870! A variety of minor symbolists (and also one of the most important, Alphonsus de Guimaraens) wrote all of therr work, or at least a part thereof, in the same langua$e. The Peruvian Francisco Garcia Calderon wrote, in French, a book that had value as an attempt at an integrated vision of the Latin American countries. The Chilean Vicente Huidobro wrote part of his work and of his theory in French. The Brazilian Sergio Milliet published his first poetic work in French. And I am


certain that we could find innumerable examples of the same thing in every coun­ try of Latin America, from the vulgar official and academic work of pedants to productions of quality. All this did not happen without some ambivalence, since the elites, on the one hand, imitated the good and bad of Euro­ pean models; but, on the other hand and sometimes simul­ taneously, they displayed the most in­ transigent spintual mdependence, in an oscillating movement between reality and a utopia of an ideological stamp. And thus we see that illiteracy and refine­ ment, cosmopolitanism and regionalism, could all have roots that min'l.led in the soil of the lack of culture and th e effort to overcome it. More serious influences of cultural weakness on literary production are the facts of backwardness, anachronism, deg­ radation, and the confusion of values. All literature presents aspects of back­ wardness that are normal in their way, it being possible to say that tile media of production of a given moment are al­ ready tributary to the past, while the vanguard prepares the future. Beyond tllis there is an official subliterature, mar­ ginal and provincial, generally expressed through the Academtes. But what de­ mands attention in Latin America is the way aesthetically anachronistic works were considered valid; or the way sec­ ondary works were welcomed by the best critical opinion and lasted for more than

a generation -while either should soon have been put in its proper place, as something valueless or the evidence of a harmless survival. We cite only the stran � e case of the poem Tabare, by Juan Zorriila de San Martin, an attempt at a national Uruguayan epic at the end of the nineteenth century, taken seriously by critical opinion despite having been con­ ceived and executed according to the most obsolete patterns. At other times the backwardness is not shocking, simply signifying a cul­ tural tardiness. This is what occurred with naturalism in the novel, which ar­ rived a little late and has prolonged itself until now with no essential break in con­ tinuity, though modifying its modalities. The fact of our being countries that in the greater part still have problems of adjust­ ment and struggle with the environment, as well as problems linked to racial di­ versity, prolonged the naturalist preoc­ cupatwn with physical and biological factors. In such cases the weight of ti1e local reality produces a kind of legitimiz­ ation of this delayed influence, which acquires a creative meaning. So, when naturalism was already only a survival of an outdated genre in Europe, among us it could still be an ingredient of legitunate literary fonnulas, such as the soctal novel of the 1930s and 1940s. Other cases are frankly disastrous: those of cultural provincialism which leads to a Joss of a sense of measure, the result of which is to evaluate works of no

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value at all by the standards applied in Europe to works of quality. Thts leads, further, to phenomena of true cultural degradation, causing spurious work to pass, in the sense in which a counterfeit banknote passes, due to the weakness of publics and the absence of a sense of values in both publics and writers. We see here the routinization of influences already dubious in themselves, such as Oscar Wilde, D'Annunzio, and even Anatole France, in the books of our own Elisio de Carvalho and Afranio Peixoto in the first quarter of this century. Or, bordering on the grotesque, the veritable profanahon ofNietzsche by Vargas Villa, whose vogue in all of Latin America reached mtlieus that in principle should have been immune, on a scale lliat aston­ ishes us and makes us smile. The profim­ dity of the semi cultured created these and other mistakes.

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Brazzil Magazine  

June 1995 edition of Brazzil Magazine - English-language magazine on Brazilian culture.