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LLL_"/ talent and voice at the service of jazz I




Year 14 No. 198 -October 2002'4,




Sunday, October 27 7:00 PM II The Spreckles Theatre, 121 Broadway, San Diego.

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"...Veloso's slinky melodies incorporate everything from jangly African rhythms to fuzz-tonedpsychedelia to gently undulating samba." NEWSDAY 5/ 1 0/0 I


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459Vrank 1 With the elections decided way ahead of the elections thanks to the innumerable weekly polls, let's move beyond low-blow-lowbrow politics and jittery economy to infinity and beyond. The country seems to have buried, at least for now, the military regime dreams of turning Brazil into a nuclear power. But Brazilians still have to honor a pledge to the International Space Station. Or do they? While astronaut Major Marcos Pontes has finished training in Houston and is ready to become the first Brazilian in space, no one knows if the Brazilian government will provide the equipment for that international mission, as it promised five years ago. At this time, it does not seem likely that commitment will be kept. Brazil is moving forward however in other space areas, despite opposition from most of the world's spacefaring countries, and in special the U.S.. It has been a quite solitary journey. In 1979, the nation presented a strategy that included building its own satellites and creating a launching center, both of which are going along according to plans. A third objective, however, has proved to be much more elusive: building a national rocket. Our cover story shows the efforts being made to propel Brazil in outer space. RM

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Cover Rushing to space against all and all odds Cover by Sonia R. Tiyhane

Contents 0B

Fear Drug lords terrorize Rio's population


Tribute Haydee Magro wrote the book on Portuguese


Politics Hard choices for President Lula


Election Ciro Gomes's fall from grace


Election Lula isn't Lula anymore Election Serra's disastrous mudslinging

1 22

Economy Can Brazil be saved?


Economy Argentina we are not


History 100 years of Conselheiro, Canudos and Os Serkies


Behavior Domestic violence in Brazil and the U.S.


In Portuguese 0 Cortigo by Aluisio de Azevedo


Tourism Tasting Fortaleza, Natal and Olinda


Culture Capoeira and the young gringo


Music Luciana Souza, a life dedicated to jazz



Under Rio's spell

( )

Entertainment Editors: Sam & Harriet Robbins Book Review: Bondo Wyszpolski Music Editor: Bruce Gilman Brazil Bureau Chief: Marta Alvim

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State of Siege Gangs usually play the role of government in Rio's favelats, ruling them and even providing for the needs of the population, including better transportation and security. CAROLINA BERARD According to a recent poll by Datalblha, the polling arm of dadx newspaper Folha de S. Paulo, 60 percent of Brazilian voters consider security one o t‘ lie most important factors in determining their vote for the presidency. Given the increasing rates of violence in all of the major cities in the country and the perception of the failure of current policies, this is hardly surprising. The importance of efficient measures towards violence was made ey ;dent by an event in Rio: Luis Fernando da Costa, 35. Brazil's most notorious drug lord, stirred up a rebellion in Bangu I (ironically called a maximum security penitentiary), which lasted about 23 hours. Later that day, Costa, best known as Fernandinho Beira Mar, sneered at police after his prowess in leading the mutiny and killing his worst rival with cruelty in jail. National and international authorities have been after Fernand i nho Beira Mar (also known as Freddy Seashore) for years. His name appears no the black list of drug traffickers published by the U.S. State Department and the White House. This is due to his relationship with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colotnbia FARC). According to Pia, Brazil's most widely read magazine, the FAR.0 trades with drug traffickers in order to get money to buy arms and support their activit lea against the Colombian state. Their business pir Costa w ith free access to Colombia's-big drugs cartels. The rebellion, which coincidentally took place on September 11. led to discussions about whether part of the police was inv olved in Costa's strategy and to the conclusion that the State has become so weak to the point of not being able to pre cut such mutiny. So. the war should be not only against drug dealers, but also against eorrupt policemen who cooperate with bandits and against measures that have not proven efficient. Corrupt policemen and authorities cooperating with drug dealers is a fact. So much so that nowadays most Brazilians know that many of these drug lords continue their activities uninterrupted from their jail cells, using cell phones (!)and firearms. Their activities receive the "authorization of the State" because the drug lords allocate about 25 percent of each ;S$ I million they make to corrupt authorities, according to data horn the Ministrx of Justice. According to political scientist Arthur Maranhao Costa. the ineffective performance of the police and the aggravation ofproblems related to drug trafficking are due to several factors. First, the Brazilian police force has not been designed to control the situations that take place nowadays in shantytowns, especially the biggest ones. Thenr role," he argues,' -has always been that of guarding the feeble border between two social worlds: the.iiivel as and the elites." Second, because of Brazil's model of social control, wheh is based on spatial segregation (the poor usually live in suburbs), social exclusion and police violence. According to Maranhao Costa, this model has always been regarded as satisfactory by the elites. but ceased to be "efficient" in the 1980s. with the expansion ofcheaper drues. This combination ofsocial control and easier access to (Pugs created hoeu.s. de futno (specific places in the megafaveias where drugs are traded on a large scale), a place almost unreachable by outsiders and almost impossible to be destroyed by the police. The police are not only incapable of cop ino with this problem, but also discredited by a great part of the population. According to a 1997 study cited by MaranhaciCosta, 82 percent of victims of robbery in Rio did not go to the polite to register the crime. sin- ply because they did not believe policemen would either solve their problem or protect them. The lack of contide.nce is extremely high in society in general, but it is even higher in the slums. .After all, the gangs usuahy play the role of a government in the Jove/as, railing them and sometimes even providing the population with *.eVCr:v 011112 the legitimate eov ernment cannot," such as e411!. . better transportation and security, according to a recent article published by the Washington Post. Once a local battle, the lack of effective measures against drug trafficking gained the proportions of a national war. especially after the press became more involved. This involvement, however, came at a high cost: the killing ofjournalist HITILopes who had been reporting funk music parties events held mostly in shanty towns where drug dealers can most easily sell drugs. His assassination was



, my .' Targeting a clear response of the drug lords to the presence of journalists, and outsiders m general, in ' I powerful Tim Lopes, who worked for Globo, the all-triightyBrazilian TV channel and media conglomerate, statement. a ckers Needless to say, especially in the aftermath of this event, Glob° became more invOIVIdttrid the cycrage er 19 capture d their activities has been incessant. The Brazilian press covered with a great sense of 'de , principal suspect for the murder of Lopes—known as Elias Maluco, or Croy Elias, 6 his cruelty. of the Amidst so Much bad news, the arrest of Malucowas regarded as a sucess. And itita ' was. e news annuriced the result of a jointaction by society, good policemen and the press. The operation iniolved helicopters, dozens of es intelligence services anonymous tips from the population, and more than 250 icemen per shift. The police e. ot shoot anybody. It was undoubtedly a model to be followed in the opined 0 bathe norm Irt However, authorities and experts remain realistic "Operatiemslikethis one are d if Maranhao Costa agrees: "Unfortunately this Was an exception. I do not beti ye the same Would have Veja. bandits had killed a journalist of a small newspaper or any other anonymous pato= "there C In order for this successtabfeththe norm, the police should be entirelyrefonned.. Also, p should be more participation o e State, more social inclusion atidiesspolice violinceoci 11111z''ir trust in this institution. The way it is now, the police is not the SolUtion. It iSpart of the problem." —ty— drugs, poverty, ,1,--,i r in L ts,.. cornn Because efo of en. Rio's drug lords are still way too far from being definitely not only in Rio, but in is * Lewis unlikely to be reduced until a long tarp alid broad-based r comip * ' en' in ' , Ilk is which, by the way, can have the same problem in`-tbe funire if meastitres-ar vit' all bigticIties— toted cases. Sadly, undoubtedly one of the major challenges for the next govermneat, since successfulactions ar rebellion In a ssfut the arrest of Elias Malucodoes not guarantee his retirement front crime. After all, after , maximum -security penitentiary, who can guarantee Maluco will stay quiet in.iail? THE d by Fernando so far 1.2 million spectators packed movie theaters throughout Brazil to 'n atcM used to use ia pictures. Based on the hook w-itten yPau10 the best recent Brazilian motion eirelles, one of the shantytown City of God, in Rio, the movie is an epic -of drug trafficking and vioinç4 in slums. This is also why the events including Fernandinho Beira-Mar and Elias Maluco have had so irta4 permissions. City esnieriz scenes and attentionof God has opened society's eves to the problem of drugs d Viorene4throu . ."Everything tr the tors, and grabbing plot, and it has-moon' raged discussions among, of it," says Jonathan srea ' movie is real, The difference is th at things arenow MI the =coal the Haagensen, 19, one of the inhabitants of the Vidigal slum, as rlistic, even though the story takes jilace novie . This is due to many factors, but especially because peopl fit , is police corruption. Buscape, the narrator the 1970s and early 980s. One glaring similarity between rate, becottleS-449Ographer at the end cri,tnitt*. _ e story and one of the inhabitants who manages to este Peclueno, ;he most datigefo0Aug trafficker of the the movie. Hiwitnesses some policemen mem:414111On on publis ing them as hp !Wks this would put his shanty town. Be then takes many pictures of the scene btt life at risk: irdren were "hired" by Ze teenagers. n Another similarity is the use o firearms and they grew up so used hey all had bu Pequeno and other traffickers to help them . . adieus Nachtergaele who obleni in killt hay with shots that, in 'the y familiar themand so presence of guns. as the st thing in tit' played the role of another powerful drug lord, said that h „IAA becaMelikc a baby The childre we record ed with fake guns, but. t gotvery , bV , disturbetl . w1,th Tv Cul f them telling t hem be careful," he saiu 111 art mac ttion, for the conflicts, scenes jent vie vu-entin ara it is rem , , and in eTrhoerfilin ,c - -w ily of G 04ttie queno shoots two little 3 eneis when Ze1 t 4 _ : is , tul art 'bihrigms Irugs issue, humOr,_ati _ 4"Shockirig$crtes. . eyttlyothis was one Jf the admits that Mei another -children and forces a tea-year-0Id to for .kill•aotors anone, d the to record, both " est difficult scenes , id ' and lithe fib before elaborating their governmen - plan. - City 6tGodis very timely.. "All pres aeaic ida,tessli.s P1 presidential candidate, Luis Inacio Lula aGlobe. y mr wont/list for KT' d ty " said Litenir Ventura,. , is a civic u . impre 'sed: 4everyone Should watch the movie in was Silva, did his homework, as did preSidettt Cardoso. aweekly magazine, was so impressed cording t. itvithapprova ,. . a r teunderstan d Br more yourg people could watch it. now (i ,oto be educed the limit age of the e:wctnte;c1 i, , — : , lped toe police arrest one of the amon STU1 g peO , nically enough, the film Was-SO' . ., _ „ tQW11. HOers of one gang in the Ciclide Alta , , , k at a ested when he was in, line _ to liii`, y reening of the movie. Carolina Berard is a tran She worked as a translator and journalist for the pnrat MultARTE Brazilian Culture and has translated texts on various subjects ranging from economic integration to popular culture in Brazil. She is currently doing freelance translations and articles for several publicsdons. Her email: carolinaberardhotmailcom or kerol mb(



Tribute Portuguese Was Her life Prof. Haydee Magro's textbooks were adopted at numerous colleges and universities in the United States as well as in several countries. JAMES H. KENNEDY Foreign language teachers throughout the LI. S. join the Brazilian community of Washington, D. C.. in mourning the loss of Prof. Haydee Simoes Magro. A noted pioneer in Portuguese language instruction in the U.S.A., Prof. Magro's extensive teaching career came to an untimely end when, after a brief illness, she died in Washington on April 27. 2002. Prof. Magro came to the United States after completing her studies at the Caetano de Campos ' TeachersCollege in Sao Paulo. She continued her studies here at Columbia University and Georgetown University. Subsequently, as a recipient of fellowships from the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation during the summers 1966-1970 Prof. Magro carried out further studies at the Faculdade de Letras o the University of Lisbon, where she was awarded a diploma in philology with a concentration in Portuguese literature and civilization, Prof. Magro taught courses in Portuguese language and Brazilian literature for almost forty years in Washington. D. C. She was an instructor atthe Vox Language Institute and the Berlitz School ofLanguages before joining the Brazilian-American Cultural Institute (BACI),, under the auspices ofthe Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 1964. During her thirty-eight years at BACI. Prof. Magri) taugh t thousands of people from all walks of life. Among her students were government employees, college students, retired persons as well as scores o diplomats of various ranks including a number of ambassadors. Early in her teaching career. Prof. Magro became a key figure in the promotion ofPortuguese language instruction and Brazilian Culture in the United States. Realizing the dearth of adequate instructional materials available at that time in this country, she co-authored with Prof. Paulo DePaula the texts Portugues Conversaccio e Gramcitica (Portuguese: Conversation and Grammar) for beginning students and Leituras Brasileiras Contemporaneas tContemporary Brazilian Readings) for students at the intermediate stage of learning. Portugues: Conversaciio e Gramatica, because it focused not only on the development of linguistic skills but cultural knowledge as well, was considered innovative at the time ofits firstpublication. The book's concise language lessons are complemented by brief readings on Brazilian theater, arts, education, and literature and a number of the country's traditional folk songs. The intermediate text, Leituras Brasileiras Contetnportineas, presents contemporary and colloquial usage of Brazilian Portuguese through short stories by such well-known writers as Manuel Bandeira, Cecilia Meireles, and Carlos Drummond de Andrade. These two textbooks, both published by BACI, were subsequently adopted forthc teaching ofPortuguese language and Brazilian literature at numerous colleges and universities in the United States as well as in such countries as England, Suriname, Finland, Kenya, Japan. Guyana. Libya. Nigeria, and Trinidad and Tobago. Prof. Magro's unfortunate passing leaves behind her unfinished work on a Portuguese-English dictionary of Brazilian idiomatic expressions. In addition to her activities at the Brazilian-American Cultural Institute, in the 1970s Prof. Magro was a lecturer in Portuguese at the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Service. Her expertise in Portuguese language instruction reached an international level when, on invitation by Nagano University and Tokyo University, she traveled to Japan to undertake the restructuring of the teaching of Portuguese in those institutions. During her remarkable teaching career, Prof Magro played a very active role in professional organizations on both local and national levels. She participated in meetings to promote the teaching ofPortuguese in the United States not only at the college level but in high schools as well. She was a member of the Modern Foreign Language Association (MFLA). the Greater Washington Association of Teachers of Foreign Languages (GWATFL), and the American Association o f Teachers of Spani sh and Portuguese (AATSP). She furthermore served as President of the Washington. D. C. Chapter of AATSP for seven consecutive years. In recognition of Prof. Magro's work for the advancement of Portuguese studies in the United States, she was inducted into the National Portuguese Honor Society, Phi Lambda Beta. Students, friends, and coworkers will miss Prof. Magro's dedication to teaching, her polished demeanor, and her keen sense of humor. In the words of Prof. Paulo DePaula, \\ ho worked with Prof. Magro at BACI during the 1960s, "Haydee's finesse, knowledge, and work attitude turned our daily labor into real pleasure with valuable results..." In addition to their textbooks, the collaboration of Magro and DePaula firmly established BACI as a leading center for the study of Portuguese language and Brazilian literature in the Washington. D. C. metropolitan area. As for Prof. Magro's sense of humor, Prof. DePaula relates, "Haydee had a great sense of humor and, once in awhile, we'd have a laugh at one of her stories, such as when she inquired about a 'hanheiroi(F3razilian Portuguese for restroom) at the beach in Faro. Portugal. and had a poor soul run around screaming frantically: Banheiro! Banheiror In Portugal," he adds, "hanheiro is the ‘vord used to call for a lifeguard!" A memorial mass celebrated by Monsignor Raymond G. East was held on June 15 at the Church of the Nativity in Washington, D. C. Followingthe mass, friends, relatives, 0:workers, and former students gathered at the Brazilian-American Cultural Institute for a memorial program and reception organized by Dr. Eloise Spicer, past president of the Washington, D.C. Chapter of AATSP. Prof. Magro was born on December 12, 1920. in Recife, Pernambuco. She is survived by her sisters. flebe de Carvalho of Salvador; Niobe Nardon, Diana Simoes Magro, and Cybele SimOes Magro, all of Sao Paulo, as well a host of nieces, nephews, grand-nieces, grandnephews, and cousins. In spite of the birth date provided by her family, it seems that Prof. Magro considered a different date as her birthday. According to Prof. DePaula "Most memorable to me was what Haydee considered her greatest disappointment in life. The seventh of September is Brazil's Independence Day, and the daylong ceremonies include parades, bands and fireworks. Her disappointment came when, at the age of five, she discovered that the festivities were not intended for her. The seventh was her birthday, and she thought the honors were due her. This is something! remember with a smile and at the same time with pride. The child who was born on the seventh of September went on to become abulwark ofBrazil abroad—apioneer messenger, anchored in Washington, D.C., who spread her love for her country, language, and culture with the most graceful dedication." James H. Kennedy, a former student of Prof. Magri), is with the Office of Bilingual Education of the District of Columbia Public Schools. He can be reached at Books mentioned here are available at the Brazilian- 1„merican Cultural Institute: phone 202-362-8334 and LusoBrazilian Books: phone 800-727-5876; ww‘ a


Brazil has had to pursue their space dreams alone and against the opposition from most of the world's spacefaring nations, including the United States. For over a decade, the U.S. had strongly discouraged its ally from developing its own rocket.




There are only eight nations in the world capable of designing, building and launching rockets, which can place satellites into earth orbit; the U.S., Russia, the Ukraine, India, China, Japan, Israel, and France. Brazil, South America's largest and most powerful country, would very much like to become the ninth. It has been working, slowly but steadily, to reach that goal for a long time. The nation has been building its own satellites for many years, and it also has a launch center, Alcantara, on its Northeast coast, capable of lofting satellites into various orbits. But what Brazil does not have to make it a truly independent, space faring nation, is a fully functional, reliable rocket of its own. Brazil's space ambitions are not new. In 1979, the South American nation formulated what it called the Brazilian Complete Space Mission, a comprehensive program that included three long term objectives: design and build its own satellites, possess an indigenously manufactured rocket and develop a launch center on its own territory. So far, Brazil has proceeded well along the path to fulfilling the first and last of those goals. The second goal, having its own national rocket, has proven to be a bit more elusive. Not that this country, with the eighth largest economy in the world, hasn't tried. But for most ofthose years, Brazil has had to pursue their space dreams alone, with little assistance from others, (except maybe the Chinese) and against the opposition from most of the world's spacefaring nations, including the only remaining superpower left on earth. For over a decade, the United States, although a friend, had strongly discouraged its ally from developing its own rocket. Realizing better than anyone else that the so-called "dual use" rocket technology used to launch a satellite into earth orbit could just as easily be used to launch a missile with an explosive warhead, the U.S. opposed Brazil joining the world's exclusive "rocket club". It did so on the grounds that it was against encouraging the proliferation of technology which had military, as well as peaceful applications, to any nation that didn't already possess it Led by the U.S., other nations in the world that did possess such knowledge banded together and formed what was known as the Missile Technology Control Regime, an international agreement that limited the missile related technology which could be exported to nonsignatory nations such as Brazil. That effectively closed the door on Brazil. Henceforth it would not be able to obtain 10

information that was vital for the further national commercial spaceport. development of its rocket program, such But once again, U.S. concerns over as sophisticated guidance and liquid fuel the transfer of sensitive rocket technolpropulsion technology. ogy resurfaced. In the eyes of some in the To accommodate the proliferation U.S. State Department, bringing the rockconcerns ofthe U.S., Brazil's government ets and satellites of other countries to then decided to make a commitment, in launch from Alcantara theoretically althe mid-nineties, to adhere to the MTCR lowed Brazilian authorities (or other counguidelines. In 1995, when the Brazilian tries Brazil might do business with) acsenate passed a law prohibiting the ex- cess to sensitive technology which they port of any "dual use" launch technology otherwise would not have. These addito other nations, the member nations tional technology transfer concerns voted to invite Brazil to join the Missile would have to be dealt with before Brazil Technology Control Regime. This meant could open up its base, even to foreign that, while the U.S. would not champion customers other than the U.S. Brazil's rocket development program, at Why? Since the U.S. controls about least in the future it would not actively 80 percent of the international commeroppose it either. cial launch market (meaning that most Brazil becoming a signatory to the satellites launched by any other country MTCR also opened the door, eventually, probably contain some U.S. built compoto further Brazil/U.S. cooperation in space. nent), any agreement with a third party to In October 1997 during President Clinton's launch its rocket or satellites from Brazil, visit to Brazil, NASA and the Brazilian would require an export license from the Space Agency signed a Memorandum of U.S. government. And the U.S. governUnderstanding, permitting Brazil to par- ment wasn't about to issue those export ticipate in the International Space Station licenses unless it was satisfied the techprogram. In exchange for a nology would be procommitment to contribute tected from the prying $120 million worth of hardeyes of Brazilian launch ware over five years, Brazil center authorities, or othwas given the opportunity ers. to launch a Brazilian astroBy now, both govnaut to the I.S.S. ernments had formed a closer relationship workAmerican ing on possible space station cooperation. BraConcerns zil and the U.S., therefore, already had a founBrazil next turned its dation upon which to attention to the expansion enter into talks that of its A Icantara launch cenwould establish yet anter. Brazil had invested other mechanism to asabout $300 million into the launch complex, which, it turned out, was suage U.S. technology transfer concerns. situated in a uniquely attractive location. After a series of negotiations between Sending commercial satellites aloft from U.S. Secretary ofState Madeleine Albright Alcantara, just 3 degrees from the equa- and Brazilian Foreign Minister Luiz Felipe tor, offered significant fuel savings be- Lampreia, the two nations came up with a cause the increased spin of the Earth near bilateral document known as a Technolthe equator provided additional momen- ogy Safeguard Agreement, which spelled tum, or an extra "kick", to any rocket out specific measures to preclude transfer of sensitive rocket or satellite technoldeparting from there. Over the years, many international ogy to or from international clients launchcompanies such as Lockheed Martin and ing rockets or satellites from A Icantara. Boeing had expressed an interest in the Those measures addressed specific U.S. possibility of launching their rockets and concerns that missile or other sensitive satellites from Brazil. The additional rev- technology could make its way through enue to Brazil's treasury (some estimates Brazil into the hands of potential adverhad Brazil capturing about $14 million saries of the United States. The T.S.A., as it was known, was annually from leasing out some of its launch facilities) would prove to be an signed in April of2000 by Brazil's Minisattractive inducement; enough to lead ter of Science and Technology, Ronaldo the Brazilian government to consider Mota Sardenberg and the U. S. Ambassamaking some of its national territory avail- dor to Brazil, but was not submitted to the able to foreign customers, thus making Brazilian Congress for ratification until A Icantara perhaps the world's first inter- Apri12001. BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 2002

And that's when the problems started. The submission of the T.S.A. to the Brazilian Congress, a full year after it was negotiated and signed, prompted harsh criticism frotn influential Brazilian congressmen and Brazil's media. The TSA has languished in the Brazilian National Assembly for over a year now while debate has centered upon certain key provisions in the agreement. From the U.S. point of view, those provisions prevent technology transfer, but from the perspective of its more vocal detractors, such as Brazilian congressman Paulo Marinho, they amount to "an abrogation of B razi s national sovereignty". Congressman Marinho (from the PFL—Liberal Front Party, until recently allied to the Fernando Henrique Cardoso administration and for years involved in several cases of corruption and fraud) said the conditions imposed by the agreement were "draconian". "By agreeing to these conditions, we are essentially ceding part of Brazil's national territory to be used as a restricted American base of operations," Marinho said to the Brazilian and foreign media. Congressman Marinho also pointed out that if the agreement was passed in its present form, the U.S. could "theoretically" bring in military spy satellites secretly into Alcantara without the knowledge of the Brazilian authorities, citing the provision that prevents Brazilian customs officials from examining any of the closed containers carrying U.S. payload or launch equipment entering the port of A Icantara. Critics such as Marinho claimed the pact also violated Brazil's Constitution. "One of the provisions specifically outlines in great detail that only the U.S

.can produce the identity badges worn by those allowed access into the restricted U.S. zones of the base," Marinho said. Rocky Road Ahead A U.S. government official, who was directly involved in negotiating the agreement, said that the TSA established "the framework which permitted the U.S. to agree to launches from Alcantara of rockets, or satellites that might have U.S. components [and therefore require U.S. export license approval], while at the same time allaying U.S. concerns about the potential transfer f sensitive and advanced missile techno ogy to Brazil or any other nation th t might operate at that base. Before t e Technical Safeguards Agreement, t e U.S. would have considered permitti g launches from Alcantara as indirec ily encouraging the development of Brazi 's own rocket program and that is agai St our policy," The Brazilian Executive branch ill have to mobilize its entire political bas in the Congress in the next few months or the TSA to pass the Brazilian Congr ss without modifications, according to 1 azilian Congressman Julio Semeghini, ho supports ratification of the agreem nt. "There is nothing in the present ag eement that prevents it from being sig ed. It is true that there are some provisi ns that Were poorly written from a polit cal point of view. But these problematic ections can be dealt with by including s parate and parallel agreements that cl rify the problematic sections, such as the ones forbidding Brazilian customs irom inspecting the closed containers co ing into Alcantara," Semeghini said. H belongs to the PSDB—Party ofthe Bra Aiian Social Democracy—the same pa I of President Cardoso. Luiz Gylvan Meira Filho, presid nt of the Brazilian Space Agency (AE), is confident the TSA will be ratified. 'The Congress may add certain declar tions indicating its position on some f the Agreement' s prov is ions it disagree with, but it will not change or amend an section of the Agreement." he said. The same U.S. government o icial, cited earlier, indicated that the U.'. will consider whatevermodificationsth Brazilian government may request n the

Agreement. "We prefer the document the way it is. But Brazil is a friendly country, and we would certainly talk to them and consider whatever they have to say. As long as it provides for avoiding technology transfer", the U.S. official, who requested anonymity, said. Last year, the Safeguards agreement was approved by several key committees in the Brazilian Congress, including the influential Foreign Relations and National Defense Committee, but not without modifications to the controversial provisions Failure to ratify the Agreement has already cost Alcantara a previously scheduled launch of a U.S. payload. Plans by the U.S. Air Force to launch the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting Satellite (C/NOFS) from Alcantara on a Pegasus rocket were scrubbed because the Brazillian Congress modified the accord, according to Air Force Capt. Scott Haskett, C/NOFS mission manager for the Air Force Space Test Program. Waiting Pattern The Air Force could not wait the additional time to re-certify the agreement before making its launch arrangements, so it decided in late 2001 to use the U.S. Army missile range on the Kwajalein Atoll in the Pacific. The TSA next goes before the entire Brazilian National Assembly, and later the Senate, before it is, or is not, finally ratified. While the T.S.A. is winding its way through the Brazilian Congress, no commercial deals can be concluded, no clients signed up for Alcantara. An earlier interest expressed by Italy's Fiat-Avio to form joint-venture with the Ukrainian company 11


Yushnoye to launch international payloads from Alcantara on the Ukrainian Cyclone-4 rocket, dissolved after FiatAvio was informed the U.S. wouldn't issue export licenses until a T.S.A. was signed with Brazil. In the meantime, Brazil hasn't had tremendous success launching its own rocket so far, with two failures over the last five years. In November 1997, the first VLS rocket had to be destroyed 65 seconds after liftoff, when one of its four first stage boosters failed to ignite and the rocket began to veer off course. I witnessed the second attempt to launch the VLS with a Brazilian designed and manufactured satellite on board in 1999. It too had to be destroyed, this time pate in an expansion of the Alcantarit upgrade ofthe Cyclone-3 rocket, which in 200 seconds after liftoff, when the second complex, using Russian investment an its previous incarnation, during the cold stage failed to ignite. The assembled Bra- launch technology, but such a plan wa$ waryears, was known as a "satellite killer". zilian Air Force brass and launch person- not practical, from a financial point of Finally in June, the Brazilians, led by nel took the disappointment ofthat failed view. Borges, returned once again to the Ukraine mission quite hard. Brazil will make athird The Ukrainian part of that state visit4 and are presently meeting in the joint attempt to launch its small rocket before however, did yield specific cooperativel Brazilian/Ukrainian task group: negotiathe end of the year, according to engineer agreements, including a Technology Safe- tions for the creation of the joint venture Daniel Borges Neto, Director General of guards Agreement. The key differencei company were supposed to be concluded the Brazilian Space Agency. from the TSA Brazil signed with the U.S.,' by September, according to Borges. The "October is a good month, mainly according to one Ukrainian space official, joint task group is set to come up with because ofthe favorable weather," Borges is that the Ukrainian TSA does not con- cost estimates, definitions of each z said. "This third VLS will have the same tain any "political provisions". country's responsibilities, an evaluation configuration as the two previous rockAnother official said the initial goal of the launch market, the potential return ets. The only difference is that we have would be to raise $10 million—most likely on investments, and an analysis of the identified the causes of the previous fail- from the two countries' national space necessary legal structures. Under the ures, and have made technical correc- programs—for costs such as launch site Ukrainian-Brazilian project, the first tions." Even as it prepares for its next "reconnaissance work" and blueprints launch ofaCyclone4 is tentatively schedlaunch attempt, Brazil is having discus- for new facilities. Brazil arid Ukraine would uled for the end of 2004. sions with Russia on the possibility of have to raise the remainder of the project And what has happened to Brazil's collaborating on liquid-fuel rocket engine costs—estimated at $150 million to $200 involvement in the International Space development for its next generation of million—from other sources, including ; Station? Five years after Brazil signed on launch vehicles (the same propulsion tech- loans and investment. to provide equipmentto the I.S.S., includnology Brazil had been denied before The official also said his agency had ing a rather important item known as an signing the MTCR). begun discussions with unspecified U.S. I Express Pallet, whether Brazil will be able The VLS utilizes less complex, solid companies, but added that no deals have to fulfill that commitment is still an open rocket propellant engines. Once the VLS yet been made. In spite of the previous ; question. Meanwhile, the Brazilian astrohas flown successfully, Brazilian space Fiat/Avio deal having failed, Brazil and naut, Major Marcos Pontes, has comofficials indicate they would also con- the Ukraine were not about to give up on pleted astronaut training in Houston and sider producing a "hybrid" rocket incor- a collaboration to bring the Ukrainian ;waits for his ride up to become the first porating the solid-rocket propellant tech- Cyclone-4 rocket to Alcantara. The two i3razilian to travel into space. It may be a nology used on the VLS, with a liquid- countries simply decided to proceed on Jong wait, since NASA hasn't quite defueled upper stage, possibly developed their own to form a joint venture company cided what it wants to do with the Space with Russia. to take the place of Fiat/Avio. §tation and there is a long line of astro"It wouldn't make sense to throw away A later, reciprocal visit to Brazil, 'Outs waiting to go up ahead of him. all the work we have done on solid-rocket headed by Valery Komarov, Director Gentechnology and then replace the whole eral of the Ukrainian National Space Frank Dirceu Braun is rocket with liquid fuel technology," the Agency, led to the establishment of a an award-winning journalist officials said. who was born in Brazil and joint Brazilian/Ukrainian task group raised in the United States. After a Brazilian delegation led by whose purpose is to determine the techAfter graduating from UCLA President Fernando Henrique Cardoso nical and infrastructure conditions nec(University of California, Los Angeles), visited Russia and the Ukraine earlier this essary for such a joint venture company, Braun returned to Brazil to year, an official from the Russian Space according to the Director General of the help launch the Latin America Daily Agency, Rosaviakosmos, indicated that Brazilian Space Agency. The Ukrainian Post. Braun now resides in California any potential cooperation between the delegation also evaluated the modificaand is a Producer/Writer for two countries had not moved beyond tions to the Brazilian base's existing faJames Cameron's Earthship.TV. "the discussion stage." The official also cilities necessary to accommodate the Braun can be contacted at said Brazil had invited Russia to partici- Cyclone 4 rocket. The Cyclone-4 is an 12




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the disgrace of Brazil. He is a pure communist. and will open the doors into Brazil to the likes of Saddam Hussein, Fidel Castro and others that are the plague of this planet. You get out of the country. Your article is doing more damage to the country than all the poverty together. Believe me when I say, that there are still a number ofgreat men in Brazil who care for the good of the country despite of the candidates. It happened in 1964 and will happen again. Brazil has too many small businesses to become a communist country or socialist like France and your Canada. ' We do not need socialism or communism. We are a group of intelligent and self-made people, got that? The only reason we owe to the IMF is because of dishonest men and communists like Lula. See what happened to Jango Goulart, before you backup Lula, bozo.

Amaury Ferreira dos Santos An American- Brazilian Citizen STOP LULA Stop Communism! We hear your country may go under ifthis new candidate Luiz da Silva is elected. We hope and pray for freedom's sake and good will that the Holy Spirit wins out in the coming presidential elections. See my Website at WORLDBEFREE You are invited to participate in thisdialogue Write to. Letters to the Publisher P 0 Box 50536

Los Angeles, CA 90050-0536 or send E-mail to.

brazzil@brazzitcom AND BASH THE USA

Gil Via Internet NO TRUTH Dear Peter Castle. I was really glad to come across y our article in Brazzilmagazine ("Speak Up, Brazil!" - pl8sep02.htm) about the attacks of Mr. Constantine Menges on presidential candidate Lula. I felt that was the greatest absurd written in our recent times. Not only it is false-alarmist, but it is irresponsible and untrue. Those arguments either have no real basis or are tw i sled to the most (a pretty dictatorial practice).

ISLAND OF INTELLIGENCE Dear, Ms Leda Beck, I was getting quite annoyed by the mountains of misinformation (more like stupidity) in the latest issue of Brazzil relating to theBrazilian financial crisis, "globalization ',the elections and related matters. Then I read your article entitled "Election Dysfunction"- I found it factual, calm, objective, and well written. Please keep writing for Brazzil. We need a counterweight to French-trained ideologues and to a certain economist who sees Brazil as a safe haven from economic and political chaos in the US (and who wants Brazil to develop nuclear weapons).

RichardAnderson Via Internet THE COLOR BLACK I was very saddened after reading Brazzil's article on black Brazilians. Actually, I just had my first visit to sao Paulo last Monday. lam an African-American and I am a flight attendant for Delta Airlines. First of all, I was worried that I would not see a lot ofblacks, but a friend ofmine told me I would and that there were more blacks in Brazil than in America, which was shocking to me. Maybe the black Brazilians who are afraid of who they are need to get educated on some history just like the blacks in America had to get educated. God bless all my white and black brothers and sisters in Brazil.

Via Internet Atlanta, Georgia GETTING IT STRAIGHT

I enjoy your magazine, you have opened up Your article on singer Wilson Simonal new experiences for me in music, art and Brazil. www.braz7il.corn/p07jul00.htm- basically covWith the apparent election of a socialist immiers most of the story, however, there is a little nent, leftist anti-USA voices (South and North more to it, and incidentally, I have been able to American) seem to dominate your articles and piece the story from true and reliable sources. I your readers' letters. I believe in democracy, personally knew Simonal, and he never struck Brazilians must decide their fate; that is your Renato Lopes me as a person that would want to harm anyright The United States government will not and Via Internet body,. It simply was not in his mental makeup. is not interfering with your elections. I heard LAUGHING MATTER He was first and foremost, an entertainer and an verylittle outrage when European leaders all but Dear Mr. Castle. I've just read your article artist, the likes of which Brazil has rarely seen. did commercials forAl Gore in our last elections. in - Simonal had charisma and above all, seemed That was OK, that was not interference? It is a p 1 8sep02.htm and I must say I couldn't agree to be happiest when singing. People in that state non-issue, we voted they didn't. I am not an economist anymore than your more. Mr. Menges's article is not only inaccu- of mind don't generally think about beating the average Brazilian, so I take a s imple view ofthis. rate, but also a great way to give its readers a few shit out of anyone whether by their own perCompanies have a responsibility to their inves- laughs, although knowing that many North- sonal hand, or through delegating that action to a third party. People like Simonal generally try tors. Investors are nervous about Brazil and American readers have read it and may believe in Mr Menges's load of crap., „„ to elevate the human spirit and again, do it by Lula. How is that interference in your election? b't entertaining others. Joao Paulo Flores Investors and companies will divest from BraGroover zil, but that is the ptice of electing a socialist http://coiotuxo.blogspot com when your economy is so shaky. It is only good Via Internet business practice to protect your investors. The evil, onerous USA will of course lend money in FOR MORE LETTERS AND ENTIRE LETTER SEE: a pinch. But the USA is an evil hegemony? • http://www.brazzil.corn Look, you borrow money, you pay back money. If you cannot pay it back, why should Allow 5 to 7 weeks to receive your first issue. No back issues sold. anyone lend it to you? If you borrow $100.00 Please, no subscriptions or address changes by phone. with a promise to payback $110.00, that is the Use your credit card or make check to Brazzil and mail it to: price °flaking the loan. Do you hate the one that BRAZZIL - P.O. Box 50536 - Los Angeles, CA 90050-0536 lends you the money? It is the borrowers interest payments that allow the lender to continue lending money. No wonder usury is so despised 0 take 1 year (12 issues) in Christianity, it is a vicious circle for the poor A YEAR 0 NEW 0 RENEWAL and poor countries, which is why I do not like the HvIF and its rules. For info: (323) 255-8062 • SEE ENTIRE LETTER ONLINE

James L. Stolarczyk Deerfield, Illinois BRAZIL'S RUIN Mr. Norman Madarasz, I read your article on the PT candidate Mr. Luiz Inacio da Silva, Lu la ("Gi ve Lula a Ch ance" - cvrsep02.htm). Are you crazy, indicating that this man can bring down the Brazilian poverty syndrome? Listen, I am married to a Canadian. She was also very much socialist until she came to live in America. Now she is as capitalist as they come. Mr. Lula thinks that running a country of Brazil's magnitude is the same as running a uni on in the sao Paulo ABC region. This man will be 14



250 A COPY


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State: Tel:


Yearly rate for Canada & Mexico: $15. All other countries: $18 (surface mail) BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 2002

These articles were written in different weeks leading to the election

President Lula's Choices Pressing problems faces his Excellency President Lula—vfho will run the central bank JOHN FITZPATRICK Only a few days befor election day on October 6 and the question is: can the PT's Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva win in the first round? The answer is a"yes". Opinion oils give him around 45 percent, putting him within reach of the 50 perc nt majority required for a knock-out. Even if he fails to win in the first r und, the chances ofhim winning in the second round are extremely good nd polls show he would win by a wide margin over his rivals ex-health m nister, Jose Serra(PSDB), former governor of Rio de Janeiro, Anthony arotinho (PSB) and former finance minister, Ciro Gomes (PPS). Lula is on a winning s reak and his principal rival, Serra, is making little headway even thou h he recently overtook Ciro Gomes in second place. It is difficult to se any single factor arising between now and polling day which will u set this scenario. Serra's tactics of trying to blame Lula for the wors fling economic situation have failed, and his claim that he will create ight million jobs has fallen on deaf ears. Voters have also sho n that they will not be intimidated by scare tactics and will not vote or Serra, simply because the market sees him as a safer pair of hands. his week saw the dollar soar to record levels against the real, reach in R$3.80 at one point, but Lula is no longer seen as the bogeyman respon 'ble for the sinking currency. Finance minister, Pedro Malan, told inve ors in Washington that greed, fear and ignorance were driving them ket. He also said that a PT government would maintain the basic econo ic policies ofthe Fernando Henrique Cardoso administration. In fact, the PT has een quietly preparing itself to assume responsibility for the economy ince it knows that Lula' s untried team will need as much domestic and international support it can get, if he wins. However, there is still a lot of uncertainty about whether Lula will maintain Cardoso's cc nomic policies. The fact that Lula has such a commanding lead sho s that voters are not so keen on these policies and want change. How uch change will be up to "President" Lula to decide. Let us look at on dilemma which arose this week when Lula announced, on the ve day the real nosedived, that the current Central Bank President, Armin o Fraga, would lose his job under a PT administration. (Serra later a nounced that Fraga would remain under his government.) Few vote swill be swayed by the fate of a financier whom most have never even h ard of so this was not a vote-winning announcement by Lula. Everyon agrees that Fraga has done an excellent job over the last three years but no-one could possibly expect Lula to keep him 15 BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 2002

on. However, at the same time, some PT economic advisers would like him to stay on temporarily and, in fact, Lula may find that Fraga will remain in charge for some time. Any new Central Bank chief will need to be approved by Congress which does not meet until February 1 5, about six weeks after the new President takes office. If Lula wins outright on October 6 the market will expect a quick indication of who will be the next Central Bank president. If this does not happen, then things could get even worse. At the same time, Lula will have to put forward a serious candidate acceptable to domestic and foreign investors and international institutions like the IMF and World Bank. There are signs that this is happening. Brazilian journalist Celso Pinto, writing in the Folha de S. Paulo newspaper, quoted a top PT adviser as saying that the next Central Bank president would not need to be from the PT. Pinto said that over the last two weeks, the PT's economic policy makers had held meetings with Brazil's main bankers, such as Olavo Setithal of Lazaro BrandAo of Bradesco, Jose Safra of Safra and Fabio Barbosa of Banco Real, as well as economists with divergent views such as Delfim Netto, Luiz Paulo Rosenberg, Ibrahim Eris and Raul Velloso. Pinto said possible candidates for the post whose names were raised included Claudio Haddad, an ex-Central Bank director, and Henrique Meirelles, former president of BankBoston. Both these bankers have great credibility but one could only imagine them accepting the post if they were given the kind of freedom Cardoso has given Fraga. At the same time, it is difficult to imagine Lula being comfortable with either of these two, particularly Haddad who used to be a partner in Banco Garantia, a pushy USstyle investment bank, which overstepped itself a few years ago and was subsequently sold tothe Swiss bank Credit Suisse. Meirel les has expressed political ambitions and may be more to Lula's taste. However, this is pure speculation at the moment and Lula is playing his cards close to his chest. Much will also depend on who Lula's finance minister would be. In theory, the finance minister is senior to the Central Bank president, and Malan, has exercised this power. However, he and Fraga have been a team of de facto equals and the market will not be happy to have a Central Bank chiefhemmed in by a finance minister who is a politician. Even today, after almost eight years of loyal service to the President, Malan is still not a member of 16

Cardoso's PSDB or any other party. One of those tipped to be Lula's finance minister is Joao Sayad, a former minister under Jose Sarney's government, and currently in charge of the finances of sao Paulo's PT-run city government. Lula is looking extremely pleased with himself and has every right to do so. Everyone loves a winner and even those interest, which will vote against him, are now more or less reconciled to the idea for a PT president. He was even called "Your Excellency" at a meeting ofthe Brazilian lawyers' association as though he were already President. His "peace and love" campaign, in whichthe rhetoric was toned down and a statesmanlike approach adopted, seems to have paid off.

Down for the Count Ciro Gomes has still not made a sincere apology for his asinine remark that the main role of his girlfriend was to sleep with him. To many this showed the face of a macho man who thinks women only exist for his pleasure. JOHN FITZPATRICK Like Icarus, the son of Dedalus, Brazil's would-be president, Ciro Gomes, has flown as high as he could and, having reached his zenith, is crashing earthwards, his waxy wings on fire. His fall has come as quickly as his rise and, for the sake of Brazilian democracy, let us hope there is no Phoenix-like resurrection in the years to come. Gomes has shown himself to be vain, petulant, undemocraticallyminded, and unfit to be a presidential candidate, never mind president. Here are the results of the latest polls

in mid September, which showthat Lula is still well in the lead, with Serra gaining support, Gomes falling and Garotinho gaining some support. Datafolha Lula 40% Serra 21% Gomes 15% Garotinho 14%

'hope 39% 19% 15% 12%

Vox Populi 39% 19% 17% 12%

Source: Folha de Sao Paulo (September 13) No one likes to be a loser but Gomes is being an extremely poor loser. He claims that the opinion polls, which are charting his downfall, are fabricated by"billions of reais circulating behind the scenes to try and influence votes". We do not know who is paying out these "billions of reais" because he did not identify anyone. Presumably he means that rival candidates are either bribing respondents or the polling companies are being paid massive amounts to engage in a conspiracy. Like all the other candidates he has made various appeals to the electoral court, but has been openly critical of it because some of its rulings have gone against him. He has accused it of being favorable to Serra, showing a lack of faith in and respect for an important institution in the democratic process. He also suggested that the elections would not be free and fair and said he was considering whether to ask the United Nations to send international observers. One recalls that ex-president Jose Sarney made a similar preposterous statement earlier this year after his daughter, Roseana Sarney, abandoned her presidential bid, following a police raid on a company she owned which unearthed over one million reais in cash sitting in an office safe. Even Gomes' attempts to admit that he may not be as perfect as he imagines he is have backfired. Last week he said that although he was sometimes hot-headed, what was more important was that he was not a thief. (This is a good example of the Alice in Wonderland mentality prevalent in Brazilian politics. Look at the current campaign by Paulo Malufto become governor of Sao Paulo state. Maluf, who has faced countless accusations of corruption in his political career, is fighting his campaign on an anti-crime ticket.) If not being a thief is a good credential for being president then presumably 99 percent of the population could hold the highest office in the land. Also, Gomes has still not made a sincere apology for his asinine remark that the main role of his girlfriend, the actress Patricia Pillar, was to sleep with him. To BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 2002

many Brazilian women this comment showed the face of the Northeastern macho man who thinks women only exist for his pleasure. Gomes' own advisers have admitted that the remark had had a devastating effect on women voters and needed to be addressed. Here, however, is a free translation of Gomes' idea of an "apology": "It was a joke and, if it was in bad taste. I am sorry, but it was a joke taken out of context (by Serra)." Hopefully, having bid Gomes farewell we can look ahead to either a first round knockout by Lula or a second round between Lula and Serra. The question now is will Lula continue to coast along or could Serra pull off a surprising victory? In purely numerical terms, voters who sided with Gomes and Garotinho in the first round are more likely to vote for Lula than for Serra. However, what will happen after October 6 if we have a Lula-Serra stand-off? We can be sure of one thing, Lula' s honeymoon will be over. The media, which has savaged Gomes, will turn its attention to Lula and the PT. We can expect articles about the PT's administration in places like Santo Andre, where there have been corruption allegations, and in Sao Paulo where the PT mayor, Marta Suplicy, has performed poorly. The PT governor of Rio de Janeiro state, Benedita da Silva, will come under fire for the latest prison rebellion which saw rival factions kill their enemies almost at will and negotiate with the police on equal terms. The militant activities of the MST landless peasant movement will be singled out once more and doubts will be raised as to whether Lula really has changed. Inside that neat little suit is there still a tee-shirted union orator? There are already signs that business is stepping up contributions to Serra. A director at a leading bank told me last week that there are a surprisingly large numberofpeople in the financial community whonow think Serra will pull it off. It is hard to imagine this but one cannot rule it out. However, if it does happen then let us hope it is based on political rather than personal factors and that last-minute "scandals" or "revelations" play no part of it.

Lula Now Everything seems to point to Lula as Brazil's next president. His reformation is such that it seems almost impossible to find anyone who does not like him and, in turn, he seems to love everybody. JOHN FITZPATRICK On October 6, chances are that the veteran left-wing PT leader, Luiz [flack) Lula da Silva, will top the presidential poll and probably go into a second round that he will win. This is not meant to be a prediction, but a conclusion one can state fairly confidently because it is confirmed by consistent backing in the opinion polls. While the ratings of the other three main candidates—former Health Minister Jose Serra (PSDB), formerCeara state Governor Ciro Gomes (PPS) and former Rio de Janeiro state Governor Anthony Garotinho (PSB)—have fluctuated in the last few months, Lula's have remained steady. The latest I BOPE poll, published on September 3, shows him with 35 percent while Serra and Gomes each have 17 percent, and Garotinho 11 percent. Lula has fallen from earlier heights of around 40 percent, but his ratings have consistently put him well ahead of the others. This was a scenario few observers would have foreseen a year ago. At that time, Lula was seen to be a voice in the wilderness, shouting old slogans and offering out-of-date ideas. The change has been enormous and in almost a blink we have seen the "old" Lula banished from the public eye, to be replaced by a moderate, almost fatherly figure ready to take on the task of leading the nation. His publicists have done a great job in smartening him up, swapping the tee shirts stretched over a paunch for smart suits and capped teeth, and making him use more inclusive language. The reformation is such that it seems almost impossible to find anyone who does not like him and, in turn, he seems to love everybody. Not only has he formed the strangest political alliances, but he even appeared to be praising the military dictatorship recently for creating an economic boom that boosted employment.

How has this come about, and why is Brazil now fairly relaxed about "President" Lula? One reason is that Lula has been the dominant opposition figure for over 20 years, first as a trade union leader who challenged the military, and then as the founder of the PT. Several generations have grown up with Lula, who is as familiar a face as that of relatives. Therefore, to many people Lula represents not change but continuity. Another reason is that, at the present time, right-wing policies have no appeal to the electorate. All the main candidates are center-left, and the two fringe candidates are extreme left. Parties that sit more to the political right have formed alliances with other candidates, as is the case with most of the PFL, now supporting Gomes. In these circumstances, Lula is not only on home ground: he also got a head start. A further reason is that President Fernando Henrique Cardoso, who cannot seek another term, did not cultivate a natural successor and let the PSDB front runners, Serra and current Ceara state Governor Tasso Jeriassati, slug it out for the candidacy. The aggrieved Jeriassati has repaid Cardoso by announcing his support for Gomes, his predecessor as Ceara Governor and a long-time regional ally. Cardoso has not taken an active part in the race, and has even said privately he will back Lula if Serra does not reach the second round. This shows an astonishing lack of confidence—if not disdain— for his own party's candidate. However, one of the main reasons why Lula is now seen as a good boy is the current world economic crisis. Over the last year the Brazilian economy has been severely hit—unemployment has risen, the value of the real against the dollar has plunged, the current account deficit remains stubbornly high, and only the promise of a US$30 billion loan from the International Monetary Fund has staved off what could have been a collapse, not only in Brazil but in all the emerging markets. All the main candidates have gone along with the IMF deal, as they know there was no other way out. The bulk of this loan will become available next year, so the new president knows he will have a cushion between him and reality for a while. Those sectors that have traditionally been against the PT—the banks, big business, etc.—also know this and, consequently, have become more relaxed. This is not to say that everything will be OK next year. The real, in particular, could easily come under pressure, and the Central Bank may find it does not have enough reserves available to intervene in the market on an organized basis, as it has 17


done this year. The country itself seems hausen, made an interesting point eThe government-backed candidate to have recognized the gravity of the cently when he called attention to the in Brazil's presidential election, former latest crisis and accepted the situation, support Lula has received from former Health MinisterJose Serra (PSDB), must despite the usual knee-jerk anti-Ameri- President and current Minas Gerais state have produced a huge sigh of relief at the canism and hostility to the IMF and the Governor ltamar Franco. It was Franco's end of August when an opinion poll World Bank in some quarters. It is the rash behavior in early 1999, soon after he showed the tide may finally have turned third time the IMF has come to Brazil's was elected governor and blatantly de- in his bid for the presidency. The survey rescue over the last eight years and, per- faulted on state debt, that contributed by IBOPE showed that Serra's rating haps, voters have also become used to it. strongly to the sharp devaluation of the jumped from 11 to 17 percent and, even At the same time, the IMF has im- real that followed. better, those ofhis rival, Ciro Gomes (PPS), proved its public relations and shown a Bornhausen also recalled Lula saying had fallen from 26 to 21 percent. less harsh face. By offering the loan, he would cancel a contract signed by The main opposition candidate now which featured a bigger dollar figure than Petrobras for oil platforms to be con- in his fourth attempt to win the presiexpected, the IMF has shown that it rec- structed in Singapore, to have them built dency, Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva (PT), is ognizes Brazil's strategic importance. It in Brazil instead. The PFL Senator looked stillfar ahead and maintained his ratingof also acted discreetly, and sounded out back to when the PT won the governor- 35 percent. The fourth candidate, former the views of the candidates before an- ship in Rio Grande do Sul state: one of the Rio de Janeiro Governor Anthony nouncing the deal. first acts of the new governor was to Garotinho (PSB) gained one percentage This crisis has helped Lula enor- renege on a contract which the previous point and rose to 11 percent. Two other mously. By accepting the IMF agree- governmenthad signed with Ford to build polls, by Vox Populi and Sensus, showed ment, he has shown that actions speak a new auto plant in the state. Ford refused broadly similar figures: Lula (34 and 34 louder than words and hushed those to renegotiate the terms, and eventually percent), Gomes (25 and 25.5 percent, voices constantly demanding an unam- set up the plant in the state of Bahia. Lula Serra (15 and 14.7 percent) and Garotinho biguous public statement that he would has criticized the Petrobras platform cony (8 and 10.4 percent) respectively. honor Brazil's debt commitments. The tract in practically every speech he has The IBOPE results mean that in just bitter struggle between Serra and Gomes made, as though having this platform over a week, Gomes lost a 15 lead over has also benefited him. While attention built in Brazil will solve the problem of Serra, and both are now technically even. has focused on this unseemly scrap, Lula unemployment. It is far too early to say that Gomes' star has remained above the fray, appearing The PT is also strongly critical of the has waned but this is the first real breakstatesmanlike in comparison with the feud- American attempt to set up a Free Trade through for the Serra camp since the caming Serra and Gomes. Area of the Americas, and is backing a paign became entered its decisive stages, Meanwhile, the PT leadership has done national plebiscite against Brazilian in- with daily free television airtime being an excellent job of muzzling internal dis- volvement. Lula is pinning his faith on the used. Instead of coasting along as the sent, as the party realizes it is on the brink moribund Mercosul, which links Brazil front runner with Lula, Serra has been of success. The unions are quiet, and with bankrupt Argentina, tiny crisis-rid- reeling since Gomes unexpectedly arose even the landless peasant movement, the den Uruguay, and Paraguay, one of the in the voters' consciousness and pushed MST, has scaled down its activities. Al- most corrupt, inefficient countries in the him aside. Serra himself was obviously though the MST and PT are not formally world. pleased with the result, but described it as linked, there are shared sympathies and it Let us hope that in the second round— only the "first goal" in the game. is difficult to believe that the MST's cur- whether it is against Serra or Gomes— Gomes made no immediate comment, rent low profile is a coincidence. Lula's Lula is forced to shed his public relations but went on the defensive during his policy of forming a broad front has also mask, and tell us whathe really stands for. allotted TV airtime on the day the poll was helped, so he is not coming under attack published, accusing Serra ofmaking false from interests which would normally be attacks on him. This time it was the Gomes hostile to the PT. camp that started reeling, and it is exHowever, Lula as president is an unpected to counterattack by blaming Serra known quantity and Brazilians could be for all the problems of the .Cardoso era, taking a big risk putting their trust in him. including high unemployment and finanLula has admitted that he has little politicial crises. We can also expect mudslingcal administrative experience, and recently ing and personal attacks. compared himself with Nelson Mandela, Gomes' declining popularity shows who assumed the South African presithat Serra's attacks on his character have dency after a lengthy jailterm and with no hit home. Serra has basically accused prior experience. A better comparison Gomes of being a liar in terms of his Ciro Gomes' declining might be with the Polish trade union leader, political record and personal life. He has Lech Walessa, who was a wonderful sym- popularity shows that Serra's attacked Gomes over his handling of the bol offreedom and a dynamic union leader economy when he was briefly Finance but an unimpressive president. Unlike attacks on his character have hit Minister in 1994, and was still a member of Mandela who, at least, gave South Africa home. Serra has accused Gomes the PSDB. Serra has also accused Gomes a sense of unity, Walessa left a poor of lying about being educated in public legacy and lost virtually all the popular of lying about his political record schools, when in fact part of his school support he had enjoyed. and personal life. days were spent at private schools. Serra's So far, Lula has had an easy ride, and television strategy also embarrassed it is time he was called to account. PFL JOHN FITZPATRICK Gomes by showing a video in which he party President, Senator Jorge Bornsuggested that a radio listener in a phone-

Serra's Respi


in program was a "moron", over a remark the listener made about Switzerland. To make matters worse, it was Gomes who appeared the moron as it was he who eventually made a factual error about the Swiss system of government. But Gomes produced an even more amazing gaffe this week, when asked by a journalist whether his girlfriend, wellknown actress Patricia Pillar, played an important role at his side during the campaign. Gomes replied: "My companion has one ofthe most important roles, which is to sleep with me. I would say that is a fundamental role." Observers believe the Serra camp has made good use ofthe first few days of free television airtime, to bring Gomes back within reach. This is probably true, but Gomes himselfmust shoulder some ofthe blame. When his rating first surged, he was not well known among the general public and appeared young, fresh and new. However, over the last month his face has become familiar, and it looks as though familiarity is beginning to lead to contempt. We have expressed our concerns about Gomes' failings several times and will not repeat them here, but in our view, he is dangerous, and along with the populist Garotinho, the worst candidate. It looks as though the public is beginning to see the hollow reality beh ind the image. The public has a short memory, and just as it took him to its breast in an instant, so it may discard him with equal speed. One should remember Maranhdo state Governor Roseana Sarney, the public's darling less than a year ago according to opinion polls, who is now out of the running... It's also hard to resist comparing Gomes with Brazilian national football team Manager, Luiz Felipe Scolari, who became an overnight hero when the team won the World Cup earlier this year in Korea and Japan. Two months after the big win, Scolari's popularity is already fading, partly because he announced his resignation from the squad, which promptly lost its first game following the World Cup triumph—and last match under Scolari' s leadership—at home to Paraguay. Scolari had previously praised Gomes and announced his intention of voting for him. It was no coincidence that the match was held in Fortaleza, where Gomes was once mayor. In a nauseating attempt to link Gomes with the world champions, the candidate was pictured holding a Brazilian shirt bearing number 23, a reference to his electoral code number. One hates to see Brazil lose a game but, in this case, it was good to see Gomes, at least, humili-

ated. Did voters, however, see any sym bolism in his being associated with losing team? The news of Serra' s improved rating is good for the PT because it gives Lul time to sit back, bask in his newfoun respectability, and watch Serra and Gom s fight it out. As for Lula himself, he s weaving the most tangled of tangled we s to become president. We have alrea pointed out the strange alliance he repr sents, which includes the Brazilian Co munist Party and the evangelically-o ented PL (Liberal Party), along with oth r strange bedfellows most people outsi e Brazil will not have heard of. His runni mate is the millionaire owner of a text le firm. On the day the IBOPE poll was p lished, Lula was photographed shaki g hands with former President Jose Sa y of the PMDB, an old-style political bi ss from the Northeast who represents verything the PT supposedly despis s. Sarney and Lula are, of course, still m es apart in ideology. But by backing L la, Sarney is getting back at Serra, who he blames for a police raid on a comp ny owned by daughter Roseana. The id uncovered huge sums of cash, and le to an ongoing criminal investigation." he enemy of my enemy is my friend", s ms up this unlikely love match. Lula is now in a position that w uld have been hard to imagine not that 1 ng ago. He has the support of not just me, but two former presidents, since It ar Franco, the Governor of Minas G rais states, has decided to back him. ula might even end up with support fro the incumbent, President Fernando Hen que Cardoso, if Serra flops in the first r und and we have a Lula-Gomes runoff.

The PT candidate is aware of the irony of his position. "Now I have the support oftwo former presidents, Sarney and hamar Franco. I just don't want the support of Fernando Collor" he said recently, in a reference to the former president who stepped down 10 years ago as he was about to be impeached following allegations of corruption. Finally, in passing, I would like to mention the astonishing lack of security at a public rally I attended last week, which featured an address by Lula. The rally was held outside So Paulo's downtown Municipal Theatre, in the middle of a hot afternoon. Lula and the PT leadership were addressing supporters from atop a rather rickety platform. The PT claimed 10,000 were there, while the police put the figure at 3,000. To me, both figures were inflated. However, what concerned me was the lack of visible security. There were a few police cars on the periphery, but no uniformed police near the platform. I was about 15 feet away from Lula, with only a few people between me and the candidate, and I could easily have gotten closer. Although I was carrying a bag on my shoulder, no one questioned me. The entire potential future leadership of the country could have been wiped out in a few seconds, if anyone had that intention in mind. One assumes that Lula has his own personal bodyguards, but I have seen much tighter security outside a bingo hall than surrounding the leading presidential candidate. When I later commented on this, Brazilians pooh-poohed any idea that Lula could be in physical danger. "The people like him, no one would hurt him", one person said, recalling that he had seen Lula speak during the military regime, unafraid of army helicopters hovering overhead. Let' s hope the Brazilians are right, but some tightening of security is definitely required. The last thing Brazil needs at this point is an assassination attempt on the leading candidate. John Fitzpatrick is a Scoftish journalist who first visited Brazil in 1987 and has lived in SAo Paulo since 1995. He writes on politics and finance and runs his own company, Celtic Comunicacoes -, which specializes in editorial and translation services for Brazilian and foreign clients. You can reach him at

You can read John Fitzpatrick's articles in Infobrazil at 19


Mr. Constantine C. Menges analysis Well, Brazzil's article suggests that of the Brazilian situation in the Washing- people should read Brazilian papers like 0 ton Times is completely right (See "Speak Globo instead of believing Mr. Menges. Up, Brazil", Brazzil, September 2002 - Bullshit. I am myself one of 0 Globo's vvww. bra 1 8sep02.htm). Mr. Luiz columnists, and this is what I wrote there Inacio Lula da Silva is a main Brazilian a few days ago: supporter of Colombian FARC, whose representative in Brazil is Fernandinho Beira-Mar (Seaside Freddy), a cruel and sadistic criminal whose gang frightens OLAVO DE CARVALHO our people, our government and even our Army. 0 Globo (Rio de Janeiro), September Brazil is up to the point ofbecoming a 7,2002 new Colombia, owing to people like Mr. Lula da Silva and Beira-Mar. This is not Since 1990 and after the downfall of just an opinion. It's a fact. People who try the USSR, the Forum of Sao Paulo has to cover facts under pseudo-patriotic become the most powerful initiative to rhetoric are not real patriots. They are just restart the international communist movestupid. ment and, in Fidel Castro words, "to reMoreover, Mr. Menges is not a gov- gain in Latin America what was lost in ernment official, he is just an intelligence East Europe". Summoned by the Cuban analyst who tries to understand what is dictator and Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, the happening in Brazil. If a simple press Forum brings together the legal Commuarticle is an "undue interference in Brazil- nist (and pro-Communist) parties, enian affairs", then all press commentary in gaged in the struggle for cultural and foreign newspapers concerning Brazilian political hegemony within their nations, politics should be prohibited, except those and armed organizations involved in kidfavorable to Mr. da Silva, of course. napping, terrorism and drug traffic. To say that Mr. da Silva's enemies Among the latter, the outstanding one is intend to "overthrow the government and FARC, whose connections with the Braremilitarize Brazil" is a huge and cynical zilian drug market were proven with the lie. Mr. da Silva is overtly supported by arrest of Fernandinho Beira-Mar. There the military, to whom he promises gov- are also double-faced organizations, both ernment money for nuclear research (ap- legal and illegal, like the Chilean Commupealing to the old ambition of making nist Party, whose armed wing had someBrazil an anti-American atomic world thing to do with the kidnapping earlier power—exactly what Mr. Menges had this year of Washington Olivetto, one of foretold). Mr. da Silva is very close to Brazil's most celebrated admen. ultranational istmi I itary, the most dangerPerhaps the readers will at first find ous part of Brazilian Armed Forces. These strange a meeting in which legally orgapeople, and nobody else, intend to nized parties fraternize with criminal "remilitarize Brazil", this time under an gangs. Actually, this association only anti-American flag. follows the old Leninist rules that recomIt's also a lie that the Workers' Party mend the joining oflegal and illegal means (PT) is not a revolutionary one. Some in the revolutionary struggle. In fact, one months ago a political scientist from of the advantages of the international UFRGS (Unversidade Federal do Rio alliance is to allow that the promiscuous Grande do Sul—Rio Grande do Sul's mixture oflicit and illicit ways, ofmoralist Federal University), Prof. Jose Giusti rhetoric and drug traffic, of beautiful ideTavares, wrote that the PT als and the brutality of kidnappings, of was a revolutionary party humanitarian sentimentalism and orgaand was sued for that. He nized terror—a mix so clear and evident in brought to Justice the continental scale, and at meetings of the evidence confirming his Forum—that it appears disguised and diagnosis (papers from nebulous when seen from the perspecthe Party itself) and was tive of each separate nation. acquitted. Mr. da Silva Using Argentineans to act in Mexico, himself admitted to his Bolivians in Brazil or Brazilians in Chile, extreme-left supporters the most obvious connections become that any "light" tone he invisible to the eyes of local public opinhad adopted in his elec- ion: the legal parties continue above any toral propaganda was just suspicion, and the simple suggestion of this: electoral propa- investigating them is rejected as an intolganda, and nothing more. erable offense when the arrest of crimi-

Harvest Time

The Muzzling of Brazil Our four presidential candidates, with token differences, have the same ideology. All we have is a single slate election, subdivided into four temporary denominations. OLAVO DE CARVALHO


nals shows full proof ofthe intimate association between organized crime and leftist politics in the continent; identification that becomes still more evident when the arrest of such persons is followed, with magical coincidence, by the quick and effective mobilization, for the criminals, of officials and "decent folk" of the Left. Since 1990, the Forum of Sao Paulo has been meeting regularly. The tenth meeting took place in Havana, Cuba, in December, 2001. Mr. Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva was there. To deny therefore that he is associated politically with the other entities, signatories to the declarations of the Forum, it is to deny the validity of the Brazilian presidential candidate's signature on official documents of international relevance. As wrote Vasconcelo Quadros in the weekly magazine isto Eof March 2002, "Brazil shelters a secret network of support of international guerrilla organizations employed in kidnappings, bank robberies and drug traffic". In a country where any phone call to a swindler'is enough to place a politician under police suspicion, a countrywide refusal to investigate a link enshrined in public documents it is, at least, surprising. Still more surprising is that, among so many media commentators, policemen, politicians and the military, all reputed

intelligent, nobody gets—or wants—to establish a logical link between those facts and Dr. Leonardo Boffs August 23 declaration, in Jornal do Brasil that with the next election "the time for the Brazilian revolution will have arrived. The sowing has already been done. It is harvest time". Or, when using the word "revolution", didn't the retired clergyman mean anything of the sort, and was all innocent hyperbole? The massive and obstinate refusal to face with realism this state of affairs can be explained by the fact that it constitutes a dreadful reality, whose vision would be too traumatic for the delicate nerves of dandy bourgeoisie, terrified to the poin of no longer admitting the reality of th evil that terrifies it. Psychologically kid napped by a nameless Marxism that per meates the air, the dominant class is al ready ripe to act its role of docile, smilin and helpful victim. But, please, don't think that with thos remarks I am acting in favor or against an candidate to the presidency of the Re public. Mind you: four candidates, wit token differences, have the same ideol ogy, and any one of them, when electe cannot govern without the support of least one or two of the other three. All w have then is a single slate election, su

divided into four temporary denominations. Perhaps what Dr. Boff will not say is that the revolution will be inaugurated with the victory of candidate x or y, but with "the election" itself—no matter who wins. From the psychological point of view, at least, that revolution has already begun: the ideological uniformity, once accepted as the normal state of the democratic politics, is enough to virtually outlaw, as "right wing extremism" any word henceforth said in favor of liberal capitalism, of the USA or of Israel. He who says it receives regular death threats, no longer with the precaution of delivery as anonymous messages: they are to be seen in Internet sites and cause no scandal. Dr. Boff is right: Sowing has already been done. It is harvest time. But all this certainly is mere hyperbole. Yes, it would be a scandal to see some malign intention in such innocent words. (Nava

de Carvalho is a philosopher and the author of several books, including 0 Imbecil Coletivo: Atualidades Inculturais Brasileiras (1996) and 0 Futuro do Pensamento Brasileiro. Estudos sobre o Nosso Lugar no Mundo (1997). He writes a column for Rio's daily 0 Globo and can be contacted at olavo(&,



(818) 986-1295 e-rneti


Shock Treatment Brazil needs a major and radical government change to be able to avoid an economic collapse similar to the one in Argentina. RICARDO C. AMARAL

In October2002, Mr. Luiz Inacio da Silva (Lula) was finally elected president of Brazil. After so many tries (four in all), what put him over the top in this election? What made such a difference this time around for Mr. Lulato achieve his presidential victory? First, we have the catastrophic economic situation in South America; with various economies collapsing one after another, such as Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, Colombia, Bolivia, Venezuela, and Brazil. Second, the people in Brazil are tired of!) the widespread poverty and despair of the Brazilian population, 2) a crime wave which is completely out ofcontrol all over Brazil—related to the illegal drugs trade, 3) the mismanagement of economic resources by the Brazilian government, 4) the complete political apathy of the government to resolve the major economic and social problems afflicting the country. Third, also having a major impact on this mess is corporate and political corruption. Fourth, we had a very poor economic policy and performance the last four years bythe current Brazilian government economic team. Since January 1999, the Brazilian Real lost over 60 percent of its value in relation to the US dollar. The country Brazil and the Brazilian population are getting poorer and poorer every day. Somebody has to do something drastic to improve the situation in Brazil, before Brazil falls into the same economic crisis and final economic collapse similar to the one in Argentina. The status quo has to go! Brazil needs a major and radical government change to be able to survive. Finally, we could list all the usual reasons to justify the economic collapse of South America, but the economic mess is already done. It is there for everybody to see. Please don't underestimate the power of greed, incompetence, and corruption; things still can get a lot worse for all countries in South America. Brazil is running out of time to take the only economic steps which can save the Brazilian economy from total collapse. Brazil still has some economic reserves left and is still in a position to negotiate its way out of this economic mess. This is pretty much a last call for Brazil. If Brazil misses this last chance, then good luck when you enter into the economic black hole. After what has happened economically in Argentina and Uruguay, Brazil can become at this point, the laughing stock of the rest of the world, if the new Brazilian economic team lets this last opportunity slip through its fingers, without trying something drastic to save Brazil from economic meltdown. The new administration should move the Brazilian economy away from the direction demanded by the IMF and the rules followed by the Cardoso administration, because that is the direction to an economic black hole, meltdown and chaos. A Plan to Save Brazil The only way to avoid an economic meltdown


in the near future in Brazil, similar to the one which destroyed the Argentinean economy, is for the new Brazilian president to implement immediately and adopt a radical economic plan as follows: 1) The first priority for the Brazilian economy is for Brazil to adopt the euro immediately as its new currency. The Brazilian government should first adopt the euro as the new currency, then they should workout the details with the European Union for a reasonable timetable for the Brazilian economy to meet the requirements for full membership in that club. Out of the 15 countries which comprise the European Union (EU), 12 countries also belong to the new European Monetary Union (EMU). The (EMU) country members adopted the new currency, the euro, as of January 1, 1999. The resulting euro market created an economywith more than US$ 7 trillion in gross domestic product (GDP). If Brazil becomes a member of the European Monetary Union (EMU) the Brazilian economy would add another 10 percent to the size of the (EMU); an increase of (GDP) to almost US$ 8 trillion. There are some (EMU) criteria established by the Maastricht Treaty which countries wishing to join the (EMU) are required to meet before they are allowed to join the euro group. The criteria are as follows: •Their inflation rate should be within 1.5 percentage points of the three best performing (EMU) countries. •Their exchange rate should be stable in relation to the euro. •Their government debt must be less than 60 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). • Their government budget deficit must be below 3 percent of their (GDP). The short term sacrifices required from the Brazilian people to meet these requirements will be rewarded in a big way in the future—with monetary stability, lower interest rates, a sound economic environment for investments, and access to European money markets. With today's technologies in computers, communications, satellites, air travel, etc, distance is not an issue to stop any country from adopting the euro as its new currency. I want to bring to your attention the fact that the euro is the official currency ofa country in South America—French Guyana belongs to France and the official currency in French Guyana is the euro. After Brazil adopts the euro and it is protected by the power implicit in the value of the euro, only then the new

Brazilian administration should take the second step of the economic plan. 2) The second step is forthe Brazilian government to renegotiate its $ 250 billion dollar public debt to a more manageable longer term, and at a better interest rate. This is not a big deal as they make it to be in the press, since American companies in the US restructure their debt load all the time when they run into economic problems. The Brazililian government debt of US$ 250 billion is nothing today, when compared with the US$ 8 trillion debt of the US government. I am not suggesting a major program of defaults on debt payments to banks and investors. I am suggesting a restructuringofthe debt for a longerterm period at a more reasonable interest rate. It will be easier to restructure the government's debt after Brazil adopts the euro as its new currency, because it will give banks and investors the confidence that Brazil will be able to repay its debt in the future, in this new sound currency—the euro. Brazil would be renegotiating its debt from a position o strength implied by the value of the euro also recognized as an international re serve currency. Stability and Prosperity Today, the fortune of countries caft change very fast. As we look around the world we can see what happened to the Soviet Union, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, and Brazil, just to give a few examples of countries with weak currencies. A strong currency such as the euro implies that the governments behind that currency will protect the value of the currency, in turn creating a safe environment for investments to flourish and grow. If you are a Brazilian, you know that to protect your assets you have to transfer them out of Brazil to a safer and more stable economic environment, such as the major countries of the Europe0 Union or the United States. The adoption of the euro by Brazil would stop this Brazilian and foreign capital flight and would provide a sound economic environment in Brazil, with a sound and stable currency which Brazilians and foreigners can trust. The benefits of such a move should be immediate for Brazil. The one major benefit is currency stability. Brazilians will not be afraid of losing all their savings because of major currency devaluations. Currency stability would give Brazilians confidence to repatriate to Brazil the over US$ 200 billion that they

have stashed away in Europe and in the United States to protect these assets from currencies meltdowns. The other major benefit is that interest rates charged to Brazilian businesses and to the Brazilian population would go very low—they would get in line with interest rates charged in the euro countries. Another immediate benefit would go to the companies of the euro countries that have investments in Brazil. After Brazil adopts the euro, Brazil will have eliminated the currency risk between Brazil and the European countries of the European Union. Europe is a very important exporting market for Brazilian goods and services, and the elimination of the currency risk will help increase the volume of business between Europe and Brazil. Afterwards, the market place would make the necessary adjustments to the prices of assets in Brazil to reflect the fair market value of these assets in terms of the new euro currency. Why not the U.S. Dollar The fact that I have been advocating in my writings that Brazil should adopt the euro as its new currency, has nothing to do with being anti-American. It has to do only with what is best economically from the Brazilian point ofview. I believe that the Brazilian economy matches much better with the economies of the countries which comprise the European Monetary Union than with the economy of the United States. From a Brazilian point of v iew, it is more appealing to adopt the euro instead of the US Dollar, because of the US Dollar's vulnerability to the international monetary market system. The long term US trade imbalances have created a large pool of US Dollars in the hands of relatively few central banks around the world. These nations continue to run large trade surpluses with the United States, and they continue to increase the pool of US Dollars held by their central banks. It is estimated that today 70 percent of US currency circulates outside the United States. The major holders of this currency are the euro countries, Japan, China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea, Indonesia, and Singapore. Probably today, there is an oversupply of US Dollars floating outside of the United States. The U.S. government has a cumulative federal government debt of over US$ 6 trillion as °Duly 2002. The US government also has other borrowings 23


from various funds which are not included in the above figure. These other U.S. govemmentborrowings added to the debt another US$ 1.8 trillion as of July 1999, and included the following: Social Security US$ 845 billion, Medicare US$ 148 billion, Military Retirement US$ 140 billion, Civilian Retirement US$ 490 billion, Unemployment Compensation US$ 81 billion, Highway US$ 35 billion, Airports US$ 15 billion, Railroad Retirement US$ 21 billion, all others US$ 58 billion. When the numbers are adjusted to reflect all this other debt, then the new total of the US cumulative debt as ofJuly 2002 is estimated to be around US$ 8 trillion. Since the US government will be running budget deficits in the coming years, it will not be long before the US government debt reaches a new astronomical total of about US$ 10 trillion. I wonder how much debt the US government can get away with, before international investors realize that the US has way too much debt. On top of th is figure, 45 states in the US have another $ 50 billion in deficits to add to the debt burden. Eventually, the US government debt will catch up with reality, and the value of the US dollar will be adjusted accordingly in relation to other major world currencies. This is why Brazil should adopt the euro instead of the US dollar currency. It will be a major m istake for Brazil to adopt the US Dollar, since that would be the equivalent of investing in a company that is way over leveraged. The United States has a much stronger and powerful economy because it operates with one currency—the US dollar. The economy of the United States would not be as strong if California, New York and Texas—each had its own currency. We have in the United States different economies operating under a single cur* rency. Texas has its oil economy, California has its high tech economy, Nebraska has its agricultural economy, but they all operate reasonably well under a single currency, even though some times a change in the value ofthe US dollar would benefit the economy of one state and hurt the economy of another state at the same time. In the same fashion, the adoption of the euro by Brazil will help some Brazilian states at a certain time and will hurt other states at other times. I hope the new Brazilian president have the courage to make these radical I . decisions. Today, this is the kind of po24

litical leadership we need in Brazil, guide Brazil for membership in Eurola and create a more stable economic en ronment for the country, and start the new millennium on the right path foilgrowth and prosperity.

diversion by the US administration from the real economic problems facing the United States today. The administration should be doing something more productive such as finding a way to create new jobs in the US economy. The administration should show that they care at least Other Suggestions about the American people by giving the people that run out of unemployment 1) Related to the Iraq war, Brazil should benefits an extension to their unemploydo the same thing that France and Russi ment coverage until the economic situaare doing today—Brazil should try to g tion improves in the US. as many business contracts as possibl 2) Related to the new World Court, from the Iraqi government. The Iraqi4 Brazil should not give an exemption for have the oil revenue from authorized U.N. Americans from the jurisdiction of the oil sales, and Brazil should try to sell to the International Criminal Court. Iraqis as much as possible to help dui If the leaders of the US government Brazilian economy. act according to international law, then It seems to me that there is nothing there is no reason for them to fear the new new about Iraq's mass destruction weap- World Court. I know that many people ons. If there was any sign of danger, then thought that they could get away with Israel would have taken care of the prob- murder and that they were above the law. lem as they did in the past. The informa- Today many ofthese people are in trouble tion that Saddam Hussein is a ruthlessi because of their past wrongdoings; indictator is nothing new, and certainly is/ cluded on that list are the following people not a good reason to start a war in Iraq. t to mention just a few: According to an article on the front page: 1) The Serbian dictator Slobodan of The New York Times of August 18, Milosevic is being tried by the War Crimes 2002; "the Reagan administration pro- , Tribunal at the Hague in the Netherlands. 2) General Augusto Pinochet has been having all kinds of legal problems related to his 17 year dictatorship of Chile. Even Mr. Henry Kissinger is afraid to leave US soil today, and recently he canceled a trip to Brazil, because he was named in legal actions over the Chilean coup that brought Mr. Pinochet into power. 3) The leaders of the repressive Argentinean military dictatorship that ruled Argentina from 1976 to 1983 also have all kinds of legal trouble today related to their actions during that period. They thought that they were above the law, but now they will pay the price vided Iraq with critical battle planning ,for their arrogance. assistance at a time when American intelThe lesson to learn from recent past ligence agencies knew that Iraqi comhistory is that no country or any one can mandos would employ chemical weapIact above the law. You might feel arrogant ons in waging the decisive battles of the nd untouchable today, and believe that Iran-Iraq war, according to senior military ou are superior to everyone and that officers with direct knowledge ofthe proou will get away with it, but given enough gram." A war in Iraq will be devastating to time you will also have your downfall imilarto the above examples. Any counmost economies aroundthe world. I would fry or individual that acts according to be worried about Saddam Hussein if he was a religious fanatic, but he is not. international law will not need any special Saddam is just a greedy and ruthless exemption from future prosecution from dictator: no different from many dictators the World Court. that the US did business with and kept in Ricardo C. Amaral, economist and power in the past. author, can be reached at This ridiculous talk of war against Iraq is only a "wag the dog" tactic or a BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 2002

they should have, but soon When you've seen one wasteenough to avoid a collapse. ful, debt-ridden, poorly managed For the last eight years, BraSouth American economy you've zilhas been governed by a distinseen them all, right? That's what guished sociologist, Fernando too many Americans think. And it Henrique Cardoso, who underis hard to blame them when newsstands enough economics to papers and television commentaknow when the economists are tors talk about "Latin America" as out of touch with political realiif all the countries were the same. ties. Argentina's politicians left There's even talk of "contagion" the economy in the hands of an as if Argentina had some kind of economist, Domingo Cavallo, Mad Economist's Disease that who is a technical whiz but too could spread to its neighbors. Unoptimistic about imposing his fortunately, while economic mistheories on a r calcitrant society. As a culture, Brazilians management is not contagious, pan.c is. Brazil's economic are inclined to work problems out so that no one gets hurt future will be much smoother if the world's bankers, investoo badly. Ar entineans are more inclined to stand on tors and political leaders don't slip into a herd mentality. principle, eve if the principle isn't working. They've Brazil isn't Argentina, and it isn't likely to follow Argentina become "the ilace where bad ideas go to die." into financial collapse. Here's why. Brazil's p rties are fluid, with politicians frequently Let's start with the bottom line. Brazil's economy has jumping from one party to another. Foreigners often have grown remarkably over the last forty years. Argentina's has the misconce stion that Luiz Inacio "Lula" da Silva, of the not. Brazil experienced only brief periods of stagnation Worker's Pa , is a radical leftist, challenging the capitalduring the debt crisis in the early 1980s and the inflation ist, free marke orthodoxy of Fernando Henrique Cardoso's crisis in the early 1990s. It dealt with both crises responsiSocial Demo ratic Party. Actually Lula and Fernando bly, recovered and went on to resume its growth. For Henrique are old friends, there's very little difference in Argentina over the same period, rapid growth has been the their party pl tforms, and they might easily end up in the exception, stagnation the rule. The only really striking same politica coalition. Lula and the other candidates in growth Argentina experienced over the last four decades Brazil's presi i ential election have already met with Presiwas in the early 1990s, and that led up to the recent collapse. dent Cardoso and agreed to honor the agreements he made If we categorize countries according to their economic track with the International Monetary Fund records, instead of their geography, to get a $30 billion loan commitment. Brazil belongs with the winners, Brazil has consistently met its commitArgentina with the laggards. ments to the IMF and other foreign Argentina's other important neighlenders. Regardless of who wins the bor, Chile, has also done very well, election, Brazil will continue to be at least since the mid-1980s. ruled by a center-left coalition. Geography is not destiny; counArgentina' political parties are tries can do very well on the southmore polarized than Brazil's, with ern cone of South America, as Brastrong traditional loyalties to the two zil and Chile have shown. But why main centrist parties. They are in a has Argentina done so much worse state of flux today, and there is a posthan its neighbors? The main reason sibility of a populist outsider winning is probably national culture. ArgenBrazilians are inclined to work power. Mariano Grondona, tines thought of themselves as enArgentina's best known political colproblems out so that no one gets lightened Europeans living on the umnist, believes that what Argentina fringes of a primitive continent. hurt too badly. Argentineans are needs most, in addition to a president Their ideal was to sit back and live like Cardoso, is a responsible opposioff the riches of the pampas. Brazilmore inclined to stand on principle, tion leader like Lula. ians are more diverse, racially and even if the principle isn't workin . Of course, Brazil has problems, culturally, and their complexes are including a heavy debt burden, energy of inferiority, not superiority. Brashortfalls and environmental problems. zil was known as "the land of the TED GOERTZ It has difficulty raising taxes enough to future—and it always will be." Now pay for entitlements for its aging poputhe positions are reversed; Brazillation. There is far too much poverty, ian companies are buying up their especially among the people of color. Argentine counterparts at bargain The stock d financial markets are sometimes unstable, prices, and Argentines are learning Portuguese in the hope and the go ernment occasionally has to step in to bail out of finding jobs in sao Paulo. a failed ba . But these problems are not so different from In 1991, the Argentines were fed up with hyperinflation those in th United States and other countries, and the and desperately wanted their money to be as good as the Brazilians an manage them with a little help from their American dollar. So they amended their constitution to friends. make it so. But this meant there wasn't enough money to pay for all the civil servants. Instead of laying people off, they let ed Goertzel, Ph.D., is Professor of Sociology at the states print up their own quasi-money to pay them. They Rutgers University. He is author of Fernando Henrique stuck adamantly to this system until the banks collapsed. Cardoso: em venting Democracy in Brazil, a biography of The Brazilians also ended hyperinflation with a monetary the Brazilian President. He can be reached at reform. But when the economy couldn't keep up with the new exchange rate, they let the currency float, not as soon as

Argentina Isn't Here



Canu os s

starving prisoners


Condos 100 What a pity Euclides da Cunha is not around to write about today's Brazil and the presidential


because he would find that much of the same social misunderstanding is still around. JOHN FITZPATRiCK


Jorge Amado and, more recently; Paulo Coelho may be the most widely read Brazilian writers in the world but the most highly regarded book by a Brazilian is, undoubtedly, Os Sertoes by Euclides da Cunha. This fascinating work, published 100 years ago', tells the story of how, towards the end of the 19`h century, the recently-established Republican government tried to put down a revolt in the grid backlands—serrao—of the northeasterti 4tate of Bahia led by a religious mystic known as Antonio Conselheiro. In 1 893, he settled in an abandoned hamlet called Canudos and within a few years had attracted around 20,000 followers In 1896 a petty incident with merchants in a nearby town over a supply of wood to build a new church led to a row which eventually led to accusations that Canudos was a hotbed of monarchism. Clashes occurred between the local and state militias, in which the backlanders emerged victorious, finally led to the government in Rio de Janeiro mounting expeditions to defeat what they claimed was a bastion of monarchism. The backlanders proved formidable enemies and defeated every force sent against them and even killed the commander of the first expedition. The 'rebels" defied the federal forces until 1 897 when a 5,000-strong army blasted Canudos to pi es and killed almost all those ins' e charismatic Antonio Conseiheiro, scribed by Cunha as a madman,;kiie4 of hunger after being wounded in ad illery attack, before the army took corgioi the 'timid town. It is not an ,e „book and I quickly abandoned attemptsuto read it in the original Portuguese and turned to an English version "Rebellion in the Backlands" 2. Cunha was a military engineer and this shows in his painst4ing descriptions vif the terrain, which; he federal armies

marched through and the rebels used to inflict deadly ambushes. The book is full of tnilitary terminology, which can be tOnfusing and uninteresting to a nonsoldier. The pages are filled with the names of officers, battalions and incidents as though Cunha were writing the official dispatches. Sub-headings like "The Cannonading", The Enemy Continues to Fight Back and "In the Field ospital" are scattered throughout the book. Can you imagine the feelings of relatives of the soldiers on reading a sentence like this: "At one side, stretched out on the bare ground with the Sun beating down upon them, were the bodies, rigid in death, of a number of offics—those, of Lieutenant Colonel Tupy, Major Queiroz, Sublieutenants Raposo, ,Neville4earvalho, and others." He is methodical in his approach to the whole story, starting with a description of the topography and the prehistoric formation of the land which, millions of years later, was to be the breeding ground of the backlander and the backdrop to the drama of Canudos. He describes the flora and fauna, not in the lyrical terms of a fine writer like H.E. Bates or in the awed way Charles Darwin describes his first encounter with the Brazilian forest, but in the same matter-of-fact style. The geology and geography fascinate him because he sees that it was this terrain which shaped the rebels. A hard environment created a hardy people. For Cunha, the backlander—or jagunco as he calls him—was a member of a different race from other Brazilians and he devotes great space to describing this human product of centuries of breeding starting with the original mixture of Indian, Portuguese and African. It is no longerfashionable to discuss race in the same way as people did a century ago and, of course, Cunha has been accused of racial stereotyping and racism. It is always easy to criticize the way people behaved in the past according to the standards of today. The reader can make up his own mind from this description of prisoners and their conquerors." There were few whites or pure Negroes among them; an unmistakable family likeliness in all these faces pointed to the perfect fusion of three races. The legitimate pardo (mixed-race, my italics) predominated, a mixture of Chaffer, Portuguese and Tape Indian—bronzed faces, stiff and straight or curly hair, nshapely torsos. Here and there would be with perfectly correct lines, pointing to the admixture of a higher racial element. And round about them were the ictors, separate and disparate, proteiform BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 2002

sense that Cunha was trying to show that these backlanders were a different race from the other Brazilians who knew nothin about them. This ignorance an arrogance led to the eventual de struction of Canudos. The elit saw the proclamation of the Re public in 1889 and the separa tion of the church and state a progressive steps but to th backlanders they were crime against religion. The new state used a steam roller to crack a nut but the stea roller was a slow lumbering efficient instrument and the n t had a harder shell than expecte The final victory was hollow an even today the wounds have n healed. As a captured Celt' c warrior is said to have said of a defeat by the Romans: "Th y types, the white man, the black man, the create a wilderness and call it peace." cafuso (mixture of Indian and black), and What a pity Cunha is not around o the mulatto, with all graduations of coloring. There was a contrast here; the write about today's Brazil and the pre istrong and integral race thus reduced, dential campaign because he would fi d within this square, to the indefinable and that much of the same social misund pusillanimous mestizos, wholly broken standing is still around. The current pre 1dential campaign shows the same divi e by the struggle." If Personally, I see more irony than "rac- between the "elite" and the "forgotte St ism" there. Cunha then goes on to de- Brazilians, the backlanders of the 2 scribe how the "integral" Brazilians were century. The "elite" live around or n ar tortured and murdered by the vengeful the coast in pig cities like Rio, Sfto Pa lo troops. For a military man like Cunha the and Recife, or in rich inland agricultu al connivance of the officers in this butch- areas like Minas Gerais, Parana or M to ery was as bad as the slaughter itself. One Grosso. The forgotten Brazilians live in of the last sub-headings is a tribute to the backlanders and rebuke to the military — backland areas of the Northeast or ii e "Canudos did not Surrender". There can vast territories of the Amazon. Loo at be few sadder scenes in literature than the itineraries of the presidential can this description. "Canudos did not sur- dates and see how often they visit pla es render. The only case of its kind in his- like Rond6nia and Acre. Their stomp ng tory, it held out to the last man. Con- grounds are the familiar pattern of he quered inch by inch in the literal meaning southern states of SAo Paulo, Rio, Mi as of the words, it fell on October 5, towards Gerais, Parana., etc. plus some impo nt dusk—when its last defenders fell, dying Northeastern states. Token visits wil be every man of them. There were only four made to more isolated spots, but as son of them left: an old man, two other full- as possible the candidates are bac in grown men, and a child, facing a furi- familiar areas. At the same time, these "forgott n" ously raging army of 5,000 soldiers." Brazilians are n'ot only to be foun in Although Cunha makes it clear that he is on the side of the government— isolated areas. Millions of them liv in referring to "our" troops and the "en- the urban centers, generally in fav 'las emy"—his candid description of mili- (shantytowns). Thesefavelas areas" u cc" tary blunders and atrocities may have of officialdom as Canudos was over 100 ended up costing him his life. He was years ago. Whereas Canudos was i the shot dead by an army officer in Rio in hands of a religious fanatic, the fav las are governed by criminals who ex bit 1909 at the age of 43. One of the points he makes in the the residents by turning their chil ren book is that the Brazilian elite, by which into drug addicts, and rob and kill at ill. The criminals are well organize and he meant those who lived in the popuimpossible to eradicate. The gang I adlated coastal regions, had nothing in common with the backlanders. It is in this ers become role models for the yo ng. BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 2002

Every so often the police or the military carry out highly-publicized large-scale operations to capture leaders. We saw an example recently in Rio's Roc inhafave/a when around 1,000 members of the security forces tracked down Elias Maluco (Crazy Elias) the leading suspect in the case of a journalist, Tim Lopes, who was kidnapped and brutally murdered while covering a story in the favela. The PT state government wasted no time in claiming the glory for this arrest but it is difficult to see anything to glory in. The arrest or death of individual gangsters will not end the control the gangs have over millions of people. Not only are local people frightened but also so is society as a whole, including the police. Recently all the shops and banks in a large part of northern Rio obeyed a demand by drug traffickers to close as a sign of respect for a gang leader who had been killed in prison. During the funeral, TV journalists and police cameramen obeyed warnings not to film the event. No matter who becomes president the gang leaders will continue to thrive. This is because, unlike the rebels at Canudos, they pose no threat to the political structure. In fact the gangs thrive on corruption within the police and among politicians. This means that for the unfortunate favela dwellers, no expeditionary force will march in one day and root the gangsters out. During the two decades (1964 to 1985) in which the military ruled Brazil, the security forces stamped out any armed political resistance yet after almost two decades of democracy they are incapable of stamping out blatant criminal rebellion. ' The site of the Estado de SAo Paulo newspaper has a special section — in Portuguese dealing with the 100th anniversary of the books' publication — 'Rebellion in the Backlands, University of Chicago Press, 1944 John Fitzpatrick is a Scottish journalist who first visited Brazil in 1987 and has lived in Sao Paulo since 1995. He writes on politics and finance and runs his own company, Celtic Comunicacaes, which specializes in editorial and translation services for Brazilian and foreign clients. You can reach him at This article was originally published in I nfobrazil, which can be read at


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Here and There Contrasting How the United States and Brazil Deal with Domestic Violence Against Women In the United States, the aggressor is usually categorized as 'the batterer', 'the perpetrator', or 'the abuser'. In Brazil, he may be seem as "male author of violence against the woman". Ever since Nicole Brown Simpson JENNIFER GRANT was killed in 1985 and her husband, football legend O.J. Simpson, was accused of the crime, domestic violence has become a priority for advocacy by same as in the United States. It is intere twomen's rights groups, been a topic of ing to note, though, the differences. focus for the news media, and become an An act of domestic violence ta s urgent matter within the United States place against a woman in the U.S. ev ry criminal justice system. 15 seconds, while in Brazil, one occ rs Unfortunately, domestic abuse is uni- every four minutes. The difference in versal and is not just confined to age, population size (a total of 175 milli n race, social-class, culture or country. persons in Brazil compared to 250.4 ilBrazil finds itself simultaneously con- lion in the U.S. according to the 2010 fronted by this predicament. Yet, each census) may account for some of he nation deals with it according to the un- discrepancy, but even this would not p oderlying bel ief systems, traditional styles vide a total explanation, thus makin it of relating, social customs, and types of reasonable to assume that domestic ab se sanctioned governmental intervention constitutes a lesser percentage of atr available in accordance with its own laws ties against women than in the U.S.. E en and within its proper establishments. more interesting to note is that wo en It is arrogant for one country to be- are the victims of 95 percent of dome tic lieve that they hold the answers for how violence in the U.S., while in Bra il, concerns should be viewed or handled women account for 63 percent. within another nation or to think one's In both countries; there is a rel cown reasoning or stances are superior. tance for women to speak to police o lcYet, in comparing how issues are dealt ers when a violation has sexual compowith within respective lands, we can bet- nents and/or takes place within the h me ter evaluate what works and doesn't work due to the lack of empathy and the fee ing within our own, and where, or if, there is that the officer is looking for way to room for modification and improvement. blame the woman for the crime. The .S. A common stereotype within the has attempted to mitigate this proble i by United States is that countries with deeper hiring more patrol women within the ingrained cultural machismo are more system, who can hopefully be presen for prone to brutality against women. How- 'the initial report, and by establis ing ever, this appears to be untrue in the case rape treatment and domestic viol nce of Brazil where 23 percent ofwomen will centers who have trained counselors a ailbe victims of a violent act at some point able to support and accompany the icin their life, this statistic being about the tim during treatment and subsequent ealBRAZZIL - OCTOBER 2002

ings with law enforcement and the criminal justice system. Brazil's answer has been to establish completely separate police stations known as Delegacias da Mulher (Woman's police stations) where the women employees not only serve as peace officers, but also provide psychological and social assistance. Besides dealing directly with the female victims, they are responsible for analyzing the facts and seeing to the arrest of the person committing the grievance. They also lecture on violence in the schools and community, much as officers do in the United States. The first Delegacia in Latin America was created in August of 1985 in So Paulo, the most populated city in Brazil, in order that, according to Brazilian historical and political author, Frei Betto: "In that form, the women who were victims of beatings, sexual violence, or of whatever other type (of maltreatment) will have the power to register complaint without passing through the constraint of relating the occurred facts to the men who work in the police stations." There are now 278 of these law enforcement agencies formerly known as DEAMs (Delegacias Especializadas de Atendimento a Mulher translating to 'police stations specialized in attending to the woman'). However, these centers are faced with current challenges. In 32 percent of them, there are no arms available for the officer's protection. 20 percent have no telephone line. 76 percent are closed on the weekends and 77 percent 29

do not have someone available 24 hours daily. 61 percent do not have an officer who is a trained psychologist and, disconcertingly, 53 percent of the policewomen have not had specific training in domestic abuse. While domestic violence extends to all parts of the country, 61 percent of the delegacias are located in the southeast region, which includes the larger cities of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Defining Violence California Penal Code 273.5 interprets domestic violence as infliction of a corporal injury resulting in a traumatic condition upon a spouse, former spouse, co-inhabitant, former co-inhabitant, or parent of a child. Brazil has expanded on this explanation by defining domestic abuse as "any act of violence which results in damage or psychological suffering ofa sexual physical nature, or threats, coercion, arbitrary deprivation of freedom or wants if they (the acts) are produced in public or private life." Most common complaints relating to domestic trauma noted in police reports received by the Los Angeles District Attorney's office include assault (attempt, coupled with present ability to commit an act of violence), battery (a willful act of violence), stalking, threats, harassment, and domestic rape. In the delegacias, the most common complaints have been threats, violence to modesty (compelled close contact without sex, i.e., rubbing up against a woman in a public place), defamation (speaking against a woman's honor), injury crimes (which include battery without the presence of physical marks), aggravated assault which has resulted in harmed health, and domestic rape. United States officers will attempt to diffuse the situation, many times removing one of the parties, at least temporarily, from the home (mandatory if the aggressor is in violation of a restraining order), issue temporary restraining orders (TROs), and equip the victim with resources for follow-up support provided by domestic violence counselors and victim advocates. Victims are advised to contact the station if they would like a copy of the police report. A new law which went into effect on January 1, 2000, entitles the victim to have one copy made available at no charge within five days upon request. Should medical treatment be necessary, an officer will usually accompany the victim to, or meet them at, the hospital and/or transport them to a domestic violence shelter. Meanwhile the emotional care of the victim is passed on to counselors from domestic violence agencies, psy30

chologists, and victim advocates within the prosecutor's office who may either be summoned to the hospital, or contacted by the victim at a later date. Besides supporting the victim immediately following an incident, a later attempt is made to educate her on the components comprising the stereotypical 'cycle of violence', while analyzing the psychological dynamics and personality maladjustments ofthe involved parties. Brazilian police will also arrest aggressors and can evacuate women to shelters if considered necessary. However, it seems that, unless the injuries are severe enough to require immediate attention, women are counseled to follow up with medical treatment at a local clinic or hospital and to keep their own copies of documents and test results if further legal action is necessitated. Community support comes from the station itself, where in the words of police members of the San Carlos' (state of Sao Paulo) Office of Psychology for the Delegacia, objectives beyond report taking and diffusing or removing the aggressor is seen as: "1) educating the woman of the right to be human, specifically a woman, of not having to suffer physical, psychological, or sexual aggression. 2) reversing beliefs which continue to perpetrate violence, and 3) analyzing the underlying beliefs which are brought to the police's attention at the station and to attending to the violence and aggressors in a form perfect to the matter complained of." However, once they leave the headquarters, the extended family is encouraged to play the more active role. While neighbors may call for emergency law enforcement intervention with a resultant dispatch to the scene of a domestic violence occurrence in the U.S., neighbors cannot go to a police station to file a written complaint. In Brazil, they can, where the complaints are viewed with the same concern as ifthe victim had walked into the station herself Police Report

Reports in both countries read similarly. The report opens with the usual jargon as to whom, what, when, and where. This is followed by facts relative to time of cohabited life, previous history of domestic violence between victim and aggressor, description of the incident, and standard closing vocabulary. Medical attention rendered also appears to be similar, as both countries take care to register the injuries, preserve evidence, take measures to prevent STDS or HIV if the woman was raped, and issue emergency pills for the prevention of unwanted pregnancies. Causes of domestic mistreatment appear to be viewed a little differently within the respective countries. According to material contained in a domestic violence victim assistance training manual compiled by the Los Angeles District Attorney's office, the U.S. view focuses on factors pertinent to individuals such as childhood abuse endured by one or both parties, psychological maladjustment and behavioral disorders on the part of the aggressor, accompanied by the low selfesteem and dependency needs of the victim manifesting themselves in a "cycle of violence, "with drugs and/or alcohol often contributing a major influence. Brazilians seem to see the problem as not originating from a specific origin, but rather from errant constructions of society derived from ancient civilizations and misinterpretations of tenets found in all major religions. Credence similar to U.S. beliefs is also accounted for in statements such as that made by Gildeci Marine Alves, Titular Commission Agent of the Delegacia da Mulher of Goiania (capital city of Goias state) who sees violence against females as stemming from "masculine convictions regarding women as property and feminine financial dependency giving rise to a feeling of powerlessness and a need to submit which play a strong role, along with alcohol and drug misuse." In the United States, the aggressor is usually categorized as 'the batterer', 'the perpetrator', or 'the abuser'. A somewhat differing view was taken by attendees of the Forum of Whole Treatment to the Female Victim of Sexual Violence, which took place in Sao Paulo on November 20,2001, where it was stated that an aggressive male should not be labeled as some kind of deviant, but given the description of "homen autor de violencia contra a mulher" (male author of violence against the woman). The attendees reasoned that this title "confirms our comprehension that these men are not only aggressors, but live in society, work, maintain relations of friendship, love, and marriage, etc. Thus, BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 2002

we adopt the position that he (the aggressor) deserves to be punished in accordance with Brazilian laws, but believing also that this man is capable of reversing his behaviors and assuming a process of change for which he needs support." In California, Section 273.5 of the state's penal code allows the aggressor to be sentenced to state prison for two, three, or four years, or in a county jail for not more than one year and/or fined up to $6,000. Probation can be granted or the execution or imposition of a sentence suspended upon condition that the aggressor attend a batterer's treatment program. He may also have to make payments to a battered woman's shelter of an amount up to $5,000 along with reimbursing the victim for any expenses incurred for medical and psychological treatment. In Brazil, the aggressor can be sentenced to prison for 1-8 years, depending upon the severity of the crime, or have the confinement substituted for by imposition of a fine. Always flexible in its approach, the law does provide leeway for diminishment or increase within these sentencing guidelines based on circumstances. In the U.S., men's batterer programs seem to be fairly standard in format. They consist of 1) education on the dy-

bill. Both women have strong personalities and it will be interesting to see what changes and advances would be made in handling domestic violence under their leadership. But whatever the result of the presidential election in Brazil, it remains to be seen how both of these two nations, located on opposite sides of the equator, will continue to address and try to resolve the issues, attitudes and beliefs contributing to their particular situations in respect to domestic violence.

namics of battering, male socialization and cultural learning, and how violence affects the victim and others who may have witnessed the incident. 2) values assessment in the form of group therapy 3) communication strategies for decision making and conflict resolution. The programs usually last from 3 to 12 months and participants are generally discharged after completing the required number of meetings regardless of actual performance in the group sessions. In Brazil, psychological treatment is customized to the aggressor based on 1) the degree and complexity of the problem. 2) the individual's motivation to change, and 3) the resources available through existing organizations and structures. It is postulated that treatment "should be given to each man until the point where he wishes to and assumes thought, vision, and self-awareness, and subsequently modifies his attitudes and behavior." According to the Jornal do Brasil of August 16, 2002, if elected in October, Brazilian PT (Partido dos Trabalhadores(Worker's Party)candidate, Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, plans to create the office ofNational Secretary ofthe Rights of Women and is looking to Sao Paulo mayor Marta Suplicy or Rio de Janeiro governor, Bernedita da Silva, to fill that


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Jennifer Grant wishes to thank Jazon da Silva Santos, Los Angeles resident, formerly of Maceie, for equipping her with the Portuguese language skills necessary to research this article along with Ana Paula Duarte, Los Angeles resident, formerly of Rio, and Eduardo Borgerth of Niteroi for helping her to maintain them. She is a free-lance journalist and former victim advocate for the L.A. District Attorney's Office. She hopes her future will include journalism and Christian missionary work in Brazil along with promoting better understanding between the citizens of both Brazil and the U.S. You may write her in either English or Portuguese at


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Slum Always in shirt sleeves, without Sunday or holiday, not missing any occasion to steal other people's property, not paying his dues when possible, but always receiving what was owed him, deceiving customers, stealing with a doctored scale, enduring privation over privation, Joao Roma° ended up buying a good portion of the stone quarry he coveted. ALUISIO DE AZEVEDO

Joao Romao foi, dos treze aos vinte e cinco anos, empregado de urn vendeiro que enriqueceu entre as quatro paredes de uma suja e obscura taverna nos refolhos do bairro do Botafogo; e tanto economizou do pouco que ganhara nessa duzia de anos, que, ao retirar-se o patrao para a terra, Ihe deixou, em pagamento de ordenados vencidos, nem so a venda corn o que estava dentro, como ainda um conto e quinhentos em dinheiro. Proprietario e estabelecido por sua conta, o rapaz atirou-se a labutacao ainda corn mais ardor, possuindo-se de tal delirio de enriquecer, que afrontava resignado as mais duras privacifies. Dormia sobre o baled° da propria venda, em cima de uma esteira, fazendo travesseiro de um saco de estopa cheio de palha. A corn ida arranjava-lha, mediante quatrocentos reis por dia, uma quitandeira sua vizinha, a Bertoleza, crioula trintona, escrava de urn velho cego residente em Juiz de Fora e amigada corn urn portugues que tinha uma carroca de mac) e fazia fretes na cidade. Bertoleza tambem trabalhava forte; a sua quitanda era a mais bem afreguesada do bairro. De manha vendia angu, e a noite peixe frito e iscas de figado; pagava de jornal a seu dono vinte mil-rdis por mes, e,' apesar disso, tinha de parte quase que o necessario para a alforria. Urn dia, porem, o seu homem, depois de correr meia legua, puxando uma carga superior as suas forcas, caiu morto na rua, ao lado da carroca, estrompado como uma besta. Joao Romao mostrou grande interesse por esta desgraca, fez-se ate participante direto dos sofrimentos da vizinha, e comtamanho empenho a lamentou, que a boa mulher o escolheu para confidente das suas desventuras. Abriu-se corn e le, contou-lhe a sua vida de amofinacifies e dificuldades. "Seu senhor comia-lhe a pele do corpo! Nao era brinquedo para uma pobre mulher ter de escarrar pr' al i, todos os meses, vinte mil-reis em dinheiro!" E segredou-lhe entao o que tinha juntado para a sua liberdade e acabou pedindo ao vendeiro que !he guardasse as economias, porque ja de certa vez fora roubada por gatunos que !he entraram na quitanda pelos fundos. Dal em diante, Joao Romao tornou-se o caixa, o procurador e o conselheiro da 32


crioula. No fim de pouco tempo era ele quem tomava conta de tudo que ela produzia e era tambem quem punha e dispunha dos seus peculios, e quem se encarregava de remeterao senhor os vinte mil-reis mensais. Abriu-lhe logo , uma conta corrente, e gaitandeira, quando precisava de dinheiro para qualquer coisa, dava um pub o ate a venda e recebia-o das maos do vendeirO, de "Seu Joao", como ela dizia. Seu Joao debitava metodicamente essas pequenas quantias num caderninho, em cuja capa de panel pardo, ha-se, mal escrito e em letras cortadas de jornal: "Ativo e passivo de Bertoleza". E por tal forma foi . o taverneiro ganhando confianca no; espirito da mulher, que esta afinal nada mais resolvia so por si, e aceitava dele, cegamente, todo e qualquer arbitrio. Por ultimo, se alguem precisavatratar corn e la qualquer negiacio, nem mais se dava ao trabalho de procura-la, ia logo direito aJoao Romao. Quando deram fe estavam amigados. Ele propos-lhe morarem juntos e ela concordou de bracos abertos, feliz em meter-se de novo corn urn portugues, porque, como toda a cafuza, Bertoleza nao queria sujeitar-se a negros e procurava instintivamente o homem numa raga superior a sua. Joao Roma.° comprou entao, corn as economias da amiga, alguns palmos de terreno ao lado esquerdo da venda, e levantou uma casinha de duas portas, dividida ao meio paralelamente a rua, sendo a parte da frente destinada a quitanda e a do fundo para urn dormitOrio que se arranjou corn os cacarecos de Bertoleza. Havia, alem da cama, uma comoda de jacaranda muito velha corn macanetas de metal amarebojá mareadas, urn oratorio cheio de santos e forrado de papel decor, urn ban grande de couro cru tacheado, dois banquinhos de pau feitos de uma so peca e urn formidavel cabide de pregar na parede, corn a sua competente coberta de retalhos de chita. 0 vendeiro nuncativeratanta mobil ia. —Agora, disse ele a crioula, as coisas vao correr melhor para voce. Voce vai ficar forra; eu entro corn o que falta. Nesse dia ele saiu muito a rua, e uma semana depois apareceu corn uma folha de papel toda escrita, que leu em voz alta companheira. — Voce agora nao tern mais senhor! declarou em seguida a leitura, que ela ouviu entre lagrimas agradecidas. Agora esta livre. Doravante o que voce fizer e sO seu e mais de seus filhos, se os tiver. Acabou-se o cativeiro de pagar os vinte mil-reis a peste do cego! — Coitado! A gente se queixa é da sorte! Ele, como meu senhor, exigia o BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 2002

crioula, indo em hasta publica algumas jornal, exigia o que era seu! — Seu ou no seu, acabou-se! E vida bracas de terra situadas ao fundo da taverna, arrematou-as logo e tratou, sem nova! Contra todo o costume, abriu-se nesse perda de tempo, de construir tres casin h as dia uma garrafa de vinho do Porto, e os de porta e janela. Que milagres de esperteza e de dois beberam-na em honra ao grande acontecirnento. Entretanto, a tai carta de economia no realizou ele nessa consliberdade era °bra do proprio Joao trucao! Servia de pedreiro, amassava e Roma°, e nem mesmo o selo, que ele carregava barro, quebrava pedra; pedra, entendeu de pespegar-lhe em cima, para que o velhaco, fora de horas, junto corn a dar a burla major formalidade, repre- amiga, furtavarn a pedreira do fundo, da sentava despesa porque o esperto mesma forma que subtraiam o material aiiroveitara uma estarnpilha ja servida. 0 das casas em obra que havia por au i perto. Estes furtos cram feitos corn todas as senhor de 13ertole* no teve sequer conhecimento do fait); o que the constou, cautelas e sempre coroados do melhor sim, foi que a sua escrava lhe havia fugido sucesso, gracas a circunstancia de que para a Bahia depois da morte do amigo. nesse tempo a policia nao Sc mostrava —0 cego que venhabusca-la aqui, se rnuito por aquelas alturas. Joao Rornao for capaz... desafiou o vendeiro de Si para observava durante o dia quais as obras si. Ele que caia nessa e vera se tern ou nao em que ficava material para o dia seguinte, e a noite la estava ele rente, mais a pra peras! No obstante, so ficou tranquil° de Bertoleza, a removerem tabuas, tijolos, todo dai a tres meses, quando lhe constou telhas, sacos de cal, para o meio da rua, a morte do velho. A escrava passara corn tamanhahabilidade que se nao ouvia naturalmente em heranca a qualquer dos vislumbre de rumor. Depois, urn tomava filhos do morto; mas, por estes, nada uma carga e partia para casa, enquanto o havia que recear: dois pandegos de marca outro ficava de alcateia ao lado do resto, major que, empolgada a legitima, pronto a dar sinal, em caso de perigo; e, cuidariam de tudo, menos de atirar-se na quando o que tinha ido voltava, seguia pista de uma crioula a quem no viam de •entao o companheiro, carregado por sua vez. muitos anos aquela parte. "Ora! bastav Nada lhes escapava, nem mesmo as ja, e nao era pouco, o que lhe tinham escadas dos pedreiros, os cavalos de pau, sugado durante tanto tempo!" Bertoleza representava agora ao lado o banco ou a ferramenta dos marceneiros. E o fato é que aquelas tres casinhas, de Joao Romao o papel triplice de caixeiro, de criada e de amante. tao engenhosamente construidas, foram o ponto de partida do grande cortico de Mourejava a valer, mas de cara alegre; a sao Romao. quatro da madrugada estava ja na fain Hoje quatro bracas de terra, amanha de todos os dias, aviando o café para o seis, depois mais outras, ia o vendeiro fregueses e depois preparando o almoc conquistando todo o terreno que se para os trabalhadores de uma pedreir estendia pelos fundos da sua bodega; e, a que havia para alem de urn grand proporcao que o conquistava, reproducapinzal aos fundos da venda. Varria ziam-se os quartos e o rinmero de casa, cozinhava, vendia ao balcao n moradores. taverna, quan do o amigo andavaocupad Sempre em mangas de camisa, sem la por fora; fazia a sua quitanda durant domingo nem dia santo, nao perdendo o dia no intervalo de outros servicos, e nunca a ocasiao de assenhorear-se do noite passava-se para a porta da venda, e alheio, deixando de pagar todas as vezes defronte de um fogareiro de barro, fritav que podia e nunca deixando de receber, figado e frigia sardinhas, que Roma° i enganando os fregueses, roubando nos pela manha, ern mangas de camisa, d pesos e nas medidas, comprando por dez tamancos e sem meias, comprar a prai reis de mel coado o que os escravos do Peixe. E o demonio da mulher aind furtavam da casa dos seus senhores, encontrava tempo para lavar e conserta apertando cada vez mais as prOprias alem da sua, a roupa do seu homem, qu despesas, empilhando privacOes sobre esta, valha a verdade, no era tanta privacties, trabalhando e mais a amiga nunca passava em todo o mes de algun como uma junta de bois, Joao Roma° pares de calcas de zuarte e outras tanta veio afinal a comprar uma boa parte da camisas de riscado. bela pedreira, que ele, todos os dias, ao Joao Romao nao saia nunca a passei cair da tarde, assentado um instante nem ia a missa aos domingos; tudo qu porta da venda, contemplava de longe rendia a sua venda e mais a quitand corn um resignado olhar de cobica. seguia direitinho para a caixa economic Pos la seis homens a quebrarem pedra e dai entao para o banco. Tanto ass e outros seis a fazerem lajedos e que, um ano depois da aquisicao d 33

paralelepipedos, e entao principiou a ganhar em grosso, tao em grosso que, dentro de ano e meio, arrematava ja todo o espaco compreendido entre as suas casinhas e a pedreira, isto é, umas oitenta bracas de fundo sobre vinte de frente em piano enxuto e magnifico para construir. Justamente por essa ocasiao vendeu-se tambem um sobrado que ficava a direita da venda, separado desta apenas por aquelas vinte bracas; de sorte que todo o tlanco esquerdo do predio, coisa de uns vinte e tantos metros, despejava para o terreno do vendeiro as suas nove janelas de peitoril. Comprou-o urn tal Miranda, negociante portugues, estabelecido na Rua do Elospicio corn uma loja de fazendas por atacado. Corrida uma limpeza geral no casarao, mudar-se-ia ele para la com a familia, pois que a mulher, Dona Estela, senhorapretensiosa e com fumacas de nobreza, ja nao podia suportar a residencia no centro da cidade, como tambem sua menina, a Zulmirinha; crescia muito palida e precisava de largueza para enrijar e tomar corpo. Isto foi o que disse o Miranda aos colegas, porem a verdadeira causa da mudanca estava na necessidade, que ele reconhecia urgente, de afastar Dona Estela do alcance dos seus caixeiros. Dona Estela era uma mulherzinha levada da breca: achava-se casada havia treze anos e durante esse tempo dera ao marido toda sorte de desgostos. Ainda antes de term mar o segundo anode matrimonio, o Miranda pilhou-a em flagrante delito de adulterio; ficou furioso e o seu primeiro impulso foi de manda-la para o diabo junto com o cumplice; mas a sua casa comercial garantia-se com o dote que eta trouxera, uns oitenta contos em predios e acOes da div ida publica, de que se utilizava o desgracado tanto quanto the permitia o regime dotal. Alem de que, umrompimento brusco seria obra para escandalo, e, segundo a sua opiniao, qualquer escandalo domestic° ficava muito mat a urn negociante de certa ordem. Prezava, acima de tudo, a sua posicao social e tremia so corn a ideia de ver-se novamente pobre, sem recursos e sem coragem para recomecar a vida, depois de se haver habituado a umas tantas regalias e afeito a hombridade de portugues rico que ja nao tern !Atria na Europa. Acovardado defronte destes raciocinios, contentou-se com uma simples separacao de leitos, e os dois passaram a dorm ir em quartos separados. Nao corn iam juntos, e mat trocavam entre si uma ou outra palavra constrangida, quando qualquer inesperado acaso os reunia a contragosto. 34

Odiavam-se. Cada qual sentia pelo outro um profundo desprezo, que pouco a pouco se foi transformando em repugnancia completa. 0 nascimento de Zulmira veio agravar ainda mais a situacao; a pobre crianca, em vez de servir de elo aos dois infelizes, foi antes um novo isolador que se estabeleceu entre eles. Estela amava-a menos do que lhe pedia o itistinto materno por sup:31'1a filha do marido, e esteadetestava porque tinha conviccao de nao ser seu pai. Uma bela noite, porem, o Miranda, que era homem de sane espertoe °Nava entao pelos seus ninta e cinco anos, sentiu-se em insuriortavel estado de lubricidade. Era tarde já e nao havia em casaalgumacriada que lhe pudesse valer. Lembrou-se da mulher, mas repel iu logo esta iddia com escrupulosa repugnancia. Continuava a odia-la. Entretanto este mesmo fato de obrigacao em que ele se colocou de nao servir-se dela, a responsabilidade de despreza-la, como que ainda mais the assanhava o desejo da came, fazendo da esposa infiel urn fruto proibido. Afinal, coisa singular, posto que‘ moralmente nada diminuisse a sua repugnanciapela perjura, foi ter ao quarto dela. A mulher dormia a sono solto. Miranda entrou pe ante pe e aproximou-se da cama. "Devia voltar!... pensou. Nao lhe ficava bem aquilo!..." Mas o sangue latejava-lhe, rec lam ando-a. Ainda hesitou urn instante, imOvel, a contempla-la no seu desejo. Estela, como se o olhar do marido lhe apalpasse o corpo, torceu-se sobre o quadril da esquerda, repuxando corn as coxas o lencol para a frente e patenteando uma nesga de nudez estofada e branca. 0 Miranda nao Ode resistir, atirou-se contra eta, que, num pequeno sobressalto, mais de surpresa que de revolta, desviou-se, tornando logo e enfrentando corn o marido. E deixou-se empolgar pelos rins, de olhos fechados, fingindo que continuava a dormir, sem a menor consciencia de tudo aquilo. Ah! ela contava como certo que o esposo, desde que nao teve coragem de separar-se de casa, havia, mais cedo ou mais tarde, de procura-la de novo. Conhecia-lhe o temperamento, forte para desejar e fraco para resistir ao desejo. Consumado o delito, o honrado negociante sentiu-se tolhido de vergonha e arrependimento. Nao teve animo de dar palavra, e retirou-se tristonho e murcho para o seu quarto de desquitado. Oh! como the doia agora o que acabava de praticar na cegueira da sua sensualidade. — Que cabecadal... dizia ele agitado.

Que formidavel cabecadal... No dia seguinte, os dois viram-se e evitaram-se em silencio, como se nada de extraordinario houvera entre eles acontecido na vespera. Dir-se-ia ate que, depois daquela ocorrencia, o Miranda sentia crescer o seu oclio contra a esposa. E, a noite desse mesmo dia, quando se achou sozinho na suacamaestreita, jurou mil vezes aos seus brios nunca mais, nuncarnais, praticar semelhante loucura. Mas, dal a um mes, o pobre homem, acometido de um novo acesso de luxuria, voltou ao quarto da mulher. Estela recebeu-o desta vez como da primeira, fingindo que nao acordava; na ocasiao, porem, em que ele se apoderava dela febrilmente, a leviana, sem se poder conter, soltou-lhe em cheio contra o rosto uma gargalhada que a custo sopeava. 0 pobre-diabo desnorteou, deveras escandalizado, soerguendo-se, brusco, num estremunhamento de sonambulo acordado corn violencia. A mulher percebeu a sauna.° e nao the deu tempo para fugir; passou-lhe rapid° as pernas por cima e, grudando-se-lhe ao corpo, cegou-o corn uma metralhada de beijos. Nao se falaram. Miranda nunca a tivera, nem nunca a vira, assim tao violenta no prazer. Estranhou-a. Afigurou-se-lhe estar nos bracos de uma amante apaixonada: descobriu nela o capitoso encanto corn que nos embebedam as cortesas amestradas na ciencia do gozo venereo. Descobriu-the no cheiro da pele e no cheiro dos cabelos perfumes que nunca the sentira; notou-the outro halito, outro som nos gemidos e nos suspiros. E gozou-a, gozou-a loucamente, corn delirio, corn verdadeira satisfacao de animal no cio. E eta tambem, eta tambem gozou, estimulada por aquela circunstancia picante do ressentimento que os desunia; gozou a desonestidade daquele ato que a ambos acanalhava aos olhos um do outro; estorceu-se toda, rangendo os dentes, grunhindo, debaixo daquele seu inimigo odiado, achando-o tambem agora, como homem, melhor que nunca, sufocando-o nos seus bracos nus, metendo-lhe pela boca a lingua amida e em brasa. Depois, urn arranco de corpo inteiro, com um soluco gutural e estrangulado, arquejante BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 2002

e convulsa, estatelou-se num abandono de pernas e bracos abertos, a cabeca para O lado, os olhos moribundos e chorosos, toda ela agonizante, como se a tivessem crucificado na cama. A partir dessa noite, da qual SO pela manhd o Miranda se retirou do quarto da mulher, estabeleceu-se entre eles o habito de uma felicidade sexual, tao completa como ainda Wan a tinham desfrutado, posto que no intimo de cada um persistisse contra o outro a mesmarepugnancia moral em nada enfraquecida. Durante dez anos viveram muito bem casados; agora, porem, tanto tempo depois da primeira infidelidade conjugal, e agora que o negociante já ndo era acometido tdo freqiientemente por aquelas crises que o arrojavam fora de horas ao dormitorio de Dona Estela; agora, eis que a leviana parecia disposta a reincidir na culpa, dando corda aos caixeiros do marido, na ocasido em que estes subiam para almocar ou jantar. Foi por isso que o Miranda comprou o predio vizinho a Joao Roman. A casa era boa; seu anico defeito estava na escassez do quintal; mas para isso havia remedio: corn muito pouco compravam-se umas dez bracas daquele terreno do fundo que ia ate a pedreira, e mais uns dez ou quinze palmos do lado em que ficava a venda. Miranda foi logo entender-se com o Roman e propos-lhe neg6cio. 0 taverneiro recusou formalmente. Miranda insistiu. — 0 senhor perde seu tempo e seu latim! retrucou o amigo de Bertoleza. Nem sO ndo cedo uma polegada do meu terreno, como ainda Ihe compro, se mo quiser vender, aquele pedaco que the fica ao fundo da casa! — 0 quintal? — E exato. — Pois voce quer que eu fique sem chacara, sem jardim, sem nada? — Para mim era de vantagem... — Ora, deixe-se disso, homem, e diga la quanto quer pelo que the propus. — Já disse o que tinha a dizer. Ceda-me entdo ao menos as dez bracas do fundo. — Nem meio palmo! — Isso é maldade de sua parte, sabe? Eu, se faco tamanho empenho, é pela minha pequena, que precisa, coitada, de urn pouco de espaco para alargar-se. — E eu ndo cedo, porque preciso do meu terreno! — Ora qual! Que diabo pode la voce fazer au? Uma porcaria de urn pedaco de terreno quase grudado ao morro e aos fundos de minhacasa! quando voce, alias, dispoe de tanto espaco ainda! BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 2002

— Hei de Ihe mostrar se tenho ou ndo o que fazer au! — E que voce é teimoso! Olhe, se me cedesse as dez bracas do fundo, a sua parte ficaria cortada em linha reta ate a pedreira, e escusava eu de ficar corn um aba de terreno alheio a meter-se pelo meu. Quer saber? nal° amuro o quintal sem voce decidir-se! — Entdo ficar4 corn o quintal para sempre sem muro, porque o que tinha a dizer ja disse! — Mas, homem de Deus, que diabo! pense um poucto,,I Voce au i ndo pode construir nada! Ou pensard que Ihe deixarei abrir janelas sobre o meu quill. tal!... — Ndo preciso abrir janelas sobre o quintal de ninguem! — Nem tampouco the deixare* levantar parede, tapando-me as janelas da esquerda! — Ndo preciso levantar parede desse lado... — Entdo que diabo vai voce fazer de todo este terreno?... — Ah! isso agora é cá comigo!... 0 que for soard! — Po is creia que se arrepende de ndo me ceder o terreno!... — Se me arrepender, paciencia! S6 the digo é que muito mal se saird que quiser meter-se cá corn a minha vida! — Passe bem! — Adeus! Travou-se entdo uma luta renhida surda entre o portugues negociante a . fazendas por atacado e o portugu•s negociante de secos e molhados. Aque e nao se resolvia a fazer o muro do quinta sem ter alcancado o pedaco de terre • que o separava do morro; e o outro, p seu lado, ndo perdia a esperanca apanharlhe ainda, pelo menos, duas tres bracas aos fundos da casa; parte es a que, conforme os seus calculos, valer a ouro, uma vez realizado o grande proje o que ultimamente o trazia preocupado a criacdo de uma estalagem em pon o enorme, uma estalagem monstro, se exemplo, destinada a matar toda aque a miucalha de corticos que alastravam pr Botafogo. Era este o seu ideal. Havia muito que Jodo Romdo vivia exclusivamente para essa ideia; sonhava corn ela todas s noites; comparecia a todos os leilbes ; e materiais de construcdo; arremataVa madeiramentos ja servidos; compraVa telha em segunda mdo; fazia pechinchns de cal e tijolos; o que era tudo depositado no seu extenso chdo vazio, cujo aspecto tomava em breve o carater estranho de umaenorme barricada, tal era a variedade dos objetos que au i se apinhavam

acumulados: tabuas e sarrafos, troncos de arvore, mastros de navio, caibros, restos de carrocas, chamines de barro e de ferro, fogOes desmantelados, pilhas e pilhas de tijolos de todos os feitios, barricas de cimento, montes de areia e terra vermelha, aglomeracOes de telhas velhas, escadas partidas, depositos de cal, o diabo enfim; ao que ele, que sabia perfeitamente como essas coisas se furtavam, resguardava, soltando a noite urn formidavel cdo de fila. Este cdo era pretexto de eternas resingas corn a gente do Miranda, a cujo quintal ninguem de casa podia descer, depois das dez horas da noite, sem correr o risco de ser assaltado pela fera. — E fazer o muro! dizia o Joao Roma°, sacudindo os ombros. — Ndo taco! replicava o outro. Se etc é questa° de capricho eu tambern tenho capricho! Em compensacdo, nab cara no quintal do Miranda galinhaou frango, fugidos do cercado do vendeiro, que ndo levasse imediato sumico. Joao Romdoprotestava contra o roubo em termos violentos, jurando vingancas terriveis, falando em dar tiros. — Poise fazer urn muro no galinheiro! repontava o marido de Estela. Dai a alguns meses, Joao Romao, depois de tentar um derradeiro esforco para conseguir algumas bracas do quintal do vizinho, resolveu principiar as obras da estalagem. — Deixa estar, conversava ele na cama corn a Bertoleza; deixa estar que ainda the hei de entrar pelos fundos da casa, se é que ndo the entre pela frente! Mais cedo ou mais tarde como-lhe, ndo duas bracas, mas seis, oito, todo o quintal e ate o pr6prio sobrado talvez! E dizia isto corn uma conviccao de quern tudo pode e tudo espera da sua perseveranca, do seu esforco inquebrantavel e da fecundidade prodigiosa do seu dinheiro, dinheiro que so lhe saia das unhas para voltar multiplicado. Desde que a febre de possuir se apoderou dele totalmente, todos os seus atos, todos, fosse o mais simples, visavam urn interesse pecuniario. SO tinha uma preocupacdo: aumentar os bens. Das suas hortas recolhia para si e para a companheira os piores legumes, aqueles que, por maus, ninguern compraria; as suas galinhas produziam muito e ele ndo corn ia


urn ovo, do que no entanto gostava imenso; vendia-os todos e contentava-se corn os restos da comida dos trabalhadores. Aquilo ja ndo era ambiedo, era uma molestia nervosa, uma loucura, urn desespero de acumular; de reduzir tudo a moeda. E seu tipo baixote, socado, de cabelos a escovinha, a barba sempre por fazer, ia e vinha da pedreira para a venda, da venda as hortas e ao capinzal, sempre em mangas de camisa, de tamancos, sem meias, olhando para todos os lados, corn o seu eterno ar de cobica, apoderando-se, corn os olhos, de tudo aquilo de que ele no podia apoderar-se logo corn as unhas. Entretanto, a rua la fora povoava-se de um modo admiravel. Construia-se mal, porem muito; surgiam chales e casinhas da noite para o dia; subiam os alugueis; as propriedades dobravam de valor. Montara-se uma fabrica de massas italianas e outra de velas, e os trabalhadores passavam de manhd e as Ave-Marias, e a major parte deles ia corner a casa de pasto que Joao Romdo arranjara aos fundos da sua varanda. Abriram-se novas tavernas; nenhuma, porem, conseguia ser tdo afreguesada como a dele. Nunca o seu negocio fora tdo bem, nunca o finOrio vendera tanto; vendia mais agora, muito mais, que nos anos anteriores. Teve ate de admitir caixeiros. As mercadorias ndo the paravam nas prateleiras; o balcdo estava cada vez mais lustroso, mais gasto. E o dinheiro a pingar, vintern por vintern, dentro da gaveta, e a escorrer da gaveta para a barra, aos cinquenta e aos cem mil-reis, e da burra para o banco, aos contos e aos contos. Afinal, j a Ihe ndo bastava sortir o seu estabelecimento nos armazens fornecedores; comecou a receber alguns generos diretamente da Europa: o vinho, por exemplo, que ele dantes comprava aos quintos nas casas de atacado, vinha-lhe agora de Portugal as pipas, e de cada uma fazia tres corn agua e cachaca; e despachava faturas de barns de manteiga, de caixas de conserva, caixOes de faisforos, azeite, queijos, louea e muitas outras mercadorias. Criou armazens para depOsito, aboliu a quitanda e transferiu o dormitorio, aproveitando o espaco para ampliar a venda, que dobrou de tamanho e ganhou mais duas portas. Já ndo era uma simples taverna, era urn bazar em que se encontrava de tudo, objetos de armarinho, ferragens, porcelanas, utensilios de escritOrio, roupa de riscado para os trabalhadores, fazenda para roupa de mulher, chapeus de palha proprios para o servico ao sol, perfumarias baratas, pentes de chifre, leneos corn 36

versos de amor, e an& e brincos de deste urn grande quadrilongo, especie de patio de quartel, onde podia formar urn metal ordinario. E toda a gentalhadaquelas redondezas batalhdro. Noventa e cinco casinhas comportou ia cair la, ou entdo au i ao lado, na casa de pasto, onde os operarios das fabricas e os a imensa estalagem. Prontas, Jodo Romdo mandou levantrabalhadores da pedreira se reuniam depois do servico, e ficavam bebendo e tar na frente, nas vinte bracas que conversando ate as dez horas da noite, separavam a venda do sobrado do entre o espesso fumo dos cachimbos, do Miranda, um grosso muro de dez palmos peixe frito em azeite e dos lampiiies de de altura, coroado de cacos de vidro e fundos de garrafa, e corn urn grande porta° querosene. Era Joao Roma° quern 'hes fornecia no centro, onde se dependurou uma tudo, tudo, ate dinheiro adiantado, quando lanterna de vidraeas vermelhas, por cima algum precisava. Por al4do se encontrava de uma tabuleta amarela, em que se lia o jornaleiro, cujo orclenado rid° fosse seguinte, escrito a tinta encarnada e sem inteirinho parar as mhos do velhaco. E ortografia: "Estalagem de Sao Romao. Alusobre este cobre, quase sempre emprestado aos tosteies, cobrava juros de oito gam-se casinhas e tinas para lavadeiras". As casinhas eram alugadas por mes e por cento ao mes, urn pouco mais do que levava aos que garantiam a divida corn as tinas por dia; tudo pago adiantado. 0 preco de cada tina, metendo a agua, penhores de ouro ou prata. Mao obstante, as casinhas do conic°, quinhentos reis; sabao a parte. As proporedo que se atamancavam, moradoras do cortico tinham preferencia enchiam-se logo, sem mesmo dar tempo e nao pagavam nada para lavar. Gracas a abundancia da agua que la a que as tintas secassem. Havia grande avidez em aluga-las; aquele era o melhor havia, como em nenhuma outra parte, e ponto do bairro para a gente do trabalho. gracas ao muito espaco de que se dispunka Os empregados da pedreira preferiam no conic° para estender a roupa, a todos morar la, porque ficavam a dois concorrencia as tinas nao se fez esperar; acudiram lavadeiras de todos os pontos passos da obrigaedo. da cidade, entre elas algumas vindas de 0 Miranda rebentava de raiva. —Urn cortieo! exclamava ele, pos- bem longe. E, mat vagava uma das sesso. Um cortieo! Maldito seja aquele casinhas, ou urn quarto, urn canto onde vendeiro de todos os diabos! Fazer-me coubesse urn colchao, surgia uma nuvem urn cortieo debaixo das janelas!... de pretendentes a disputa-los. E aquilo se foi constituindo numa Estragou-me a casa, o malvado! E vomitavapragas, jurando que havia grande lavanderia, agitada e barulhenta, de vingar-se, e protestando aos berros corn as suas cercas de varas, as suas contra o pod que lhe invadia em ondas as hortalicas verdejantes e os seus jardinsalas, e contra o infernal barulho dos zinhos de tres e quatro palmos, que pedreiros e carpinteiros que levavam a apareciam como manchas alegres por entre a negrura das limosas tinas martelar de sol a sol. 0 que alias ndo impediu que as transbordantes e o reverbero das claras casinhas continuassem a surgir, uma ape's ban-acas de algodao cru, armadas sobre outra, e fossem logo se enchendo, a os lustrosos bancos de lavar. E os estenderem-se unidas por au i afora, desde gotejantes jiraus, cobertos de roupa a venda ate quase ao morro, e depois molhada, cintilavam ao sol, que nem dobrassem para o lad° do Miranda e lagos de metal branco. E naquela terra encharcada e fumeavancassem sobre o quintal deste, que parecia ameacado por aquela serpente de gante, naquela um idade quente e lodosa, comecou a minhocar, a esfervilhar, a pedra e cal. 0 Miranda mandou logo levantar o crescer, urn mundo, uma coisa viva, uma geracdo, que parecia brotar espontanea, muro. Nada! aquele demonio era capaz de ali mesmo, daquele lameiro, e multiplicar-se como larvas no esterco. invadir-lhe a casa ate a sala de visitas! E os quartos do cortico pararam enfim The above text is the first chapter of de encontro ao muro do negociante, published in 1890. Aluisio de 0 Cortico, formando corn a continuaedo da casa Azevedo (1857-1913), born in Sao Luis, Maranhao state, was the introducer of naturalism in Brazil with the 1881 novel 0 Mutat°. 0 Cortico is considered his masterpiece. Azevedo's main book, adopted in Brazilian literature classrooms, can be easily found in bookstores. BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 2002

Nordeste means northeast in Portuguese, the languageof Brazil. Best known as a beach lover's paradise, the beauty of the shoreline cannot be overstated. The Nordeste, however, has lots more to offer: colonial architecture, tropical climate, folk art, local fishing craft and even a few Internet cafĂŠs. Plus, this sundrenched haven is very affordable. This sampler ofthree cities, each in a different state, is just a glimpse of what awaits you in Brazil's Nordeste. Fortaleza, Ceara Much of life in Fortaleza centers along the beaches. Men with little carts sell whole coconuts with the tops sliced off so you can drink the juice. Jangadas (boats used for lobstering and fishing that date back to pre-colonial times) provide local scenery to beachcombers. The Praia de Iracema is a popular beach. Iracema is a famous novel written by Jose de Alencar, a Cearanese, in 1865. It tells the story of the love between a native Indian girl, Iracema, and a Portuguese settler. A graceful sculpture of lracema graces the beach that bears her name. She has a taut bow in her hands. All quite lyrical for a place that used to be called Fish Beach! Every evening, a lively street market with handicrafts goes on along the boardwalk ofthe beira-mar (literally sea shore. but in this case refers to the main avenue running along the city's eastern beaches). Local crafts people display their wares selling sandals, hammocks, woodcarvings, embroidery and lace. You may even see a local fisherman walking along with a stick slung over his shoulder, the day's catch dangling from one, or both, ends. A little north of Iracema Beach you encounter the Englishmen's Bridge, so called because it was built by an English company. The structure is, however, a pier and not a bridge at all! Fortaleza has no harbor, so ships have to anchor quite a distance offshore. Small boats set out from the Englishmen's bridge, carrying passengers and cargo bound for the ships. The pier provides a sweeping view up and down the beach in both directions. Surfers kick and splash in the waves and you can sometimes spot dolphins at play. A partially submerged shipwreck (where some people dive) is part of the view. The Mercado Central is a good place to see and buy local handicrafts and products. The place is enormous with three or four levels of stalls hawking cashews, sandals, tee shirts, lace, embroidery, hammocks, cachaca (local sugar cane rum), etc., all at reasonable prices. Stall attenBRAZZIL - OCTOBER 2002

eta glimpse of three northeastern 1?Ieza, NataC and Olintia,


dants are aggressive and ready to bargain. Similar to the Mercado Central is the Tourist Center, housed in an old jail. The inmate cells have been converted into stalls where artisans sell their work and other tourist trinkets. The merchandise is the same, but the people tending stalls at the Tourist Center are a little less aggressive than those in the Mercado Central. For a nominal fee you can visit The Tourist Center's museum featuring locally-carved and brightly painted animal figurines and statues, carvings of saints, puppets, bull carts, examples of local lace and how it is produced. One section is devoted to ex-votos (exvows). These are woodcarvings of body parts: hands, feet, torsos, breasts and so on. They are presented to the saints or the church as thanks for a miracle that has been granted. A catholic priest who worked in this part ofthe country, Padre Cicero is quite a folk hero among northeasterners and his story is presented here. He is closely tied to the belief that the saints can perform miracles. The museum also has a large section dedicated to Brazilian semi-precious stones, some carved, some polished and some in the rough. Ceara Museum is also worth a look. Displays include: a full-size jangada (fishing boat), sand pictures in bottles, portraits of various Cearense historical figures, ex-votos and some Indian artifacts. Padre Cicero also has a place of honor here. Another unique exhibit is a stuffed goat. It seems this goat was a city mascot adopted by Fortaleza in bygone times. The goat roamed the town, visiting one of the town's busiest squares every day. When it died, someone decided to have it stuffed and donated it to the museum. Dragao do Mar (Sea Dragon) is a cultural focal point with its theater, movies, planetarium and exhibition halls. There's even a bookstore. A beautiful mosaic wall of Cearense art gleams in the sunshine. Travelers' palms grace the courtyard that is surrounded by buildings brightly painted in colonial style. Changing exhibits are displayed in its galleries. The Teatro Jose de Alencar has been declared a national monument. It is named for Jose de Alencar, a statesman an the author of the novel Iracema as mentioned above. Quite ornate with a mixture of architectural styles, the theater was restored in the 1990's and has air conditioning now. Think about watching a play in the tropical climate in colonial 38

days! In Blacksmith's Square close to the Ceara Museum, is the Sao Luiz movie theater, billed as the most beautiful in BraziL The building mixes Art Deco and ' s'cal elements. The lobby has neo-clas three grand chandeliers and a marble stairway to the second level. The first movie eiter shown here was Ingrid Bergman's Anastasia *0 Grande do Nixte rtuguese for Christm . Nal The th ee se men are a symbol of the

Center. As in Fortaleza, the place occupies an old jail; each old cell a stall for selling local crafts. Much of the same stuff they peddle at the Mercado Central in Fortaleza is also for sale here: cashews, leather goods, lace, hammocks, Tshirts, sand art, etc. A few things here are different. You can buy brightly colored fish to hang on your wall. Also available: carvings of Brazilian historical buildings and blue clay sculptures and vases. You can even pick up a map of Natal. The second level has a lot of paintings and carvings for sale. The painting is childlike and colorful. One artist paints local scenes of people working in the sugar cane fields, picking coffee beans or harvesting cashew fruit. Tropical birds inhabit the surrounding trees. Scattered amongst the artwork are carvings of saints and books about the area: history, geography, literature written by Northeasterners and even place name histories. Olinda, Pernambuco


city: the city fort bears their name, a three wise men light sculpture greets travelers arriving by bus, figures of the wise men stand in front of one of the nicest hotels. Many places, like pharmacies and luncheonettes, are named after them. Some people argue that Brazil's most beautiful beaches are in Natal. Who wants to argue? They are breathtaking. Th water is varying shades of green, thask a vibrant blue. The waves are high an plenty of people, brown as berries, pla in the surf and on the shore. Children splash in tidal pools. A cooling breeze blows constantly. Many gorgeous beaches are so secluded you can only reach them by dune buggy. Fortunately these-veily hicles, with driver included, are available for rent. You'll be asked' ou want an="emotional" or "un-emott4a1" ride. The Americans had a military 'haw here during WWII. Natal, being the closest point in Brazil to Africa, was considered a strategic position. Howi those American soldiers must have loved the place despite the heat. In fact, a type of music, popular to this day in Brazil, takes its name from the corruption of the English expression *fon, all." The music known in Portuguese asforro was played at dances held by the military which were open to all. a Tourist Natal, like Fortaleza

Olinda means "Oh! How pretty!" in Portuguese. The 16th century founder of Olinda made that exclamation when he declared it a good spot for a town. UNESCO has declared the town, with its 20 Baroque churches, convents and numerous small passos (chapels) a cultural heritage site. Olinda is on a hill. Wandering the steep streets, known as ladeiras, you are surrounded by colonial period architecture. Many of the houses are joined together and painted bright colors. When the climbing gets tiring, turn around and get inspiration from the sweeping views down to the water. The colonial architecture nestles in the lush tropical vegetation rolling down to the sea. The air is clear; the clouds bleach white. At the top of the hill, many vendors have stalls full of the same tourist stuff you see everywhere but also: little carvings of houses climbing up a hill; some with local churches represented, flat carvings to hang on the wall and sculptured figures. Some men might be doing the carvings along the sidewalk or in the square. Many of the colonial structures are open to the public but only during specific hours. Check open hours to avoid disappointment. One example ofthe many places to tour is the Convento de Sao Francisco, its outer facade encrusted with decorative molding. Inside, blue and white tiles cover the walls of a small BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 2002

central courtyard. Some of the rooms inside also have murals of blue tile decorating the walls. The convent has three lovely chapels, massive carved-wood furniture, the ever-present tri-chrome saints and painted ceilings. Old town Olinda also has four museums: Olinda Contemporary Art Museum, Sacred Art Museum of Pernambuco, Olinda Regional Museum and a Puppet Museum. The Regional Museum was originally a bishop's house. It has its own chapel, quite a large one. The place is full of antique furniture, imported -china and painted saints. It's not well marked, so ask someone to point it out to you. More souvenir shopping is available at Mercado da Ribeira. This placi e was an antique market for slave food, never a slave market as some guides claim. In colonial times, Brazil imported a large number of slaves to work on its sugar cane plantations. In sharp contrast to the Mercado is Shopping Tacaruna. It is a modern shopping mall with all the conveniences including bank machines, movie theaters, and a food court. This mall, like all other major shopping centers in the Nordeste, has Internet computers available to rent by the hour.


Ranging a bit further, visit Porto de Galinhas (Chickens Port), known far and wide as the most beautiful beach in the area. In olden days, when slaves were brought in to Brazil illegally, "chicken" was a codiword for illegal slave cargo. Despite its dark history the beach is spectacular. Protected by reefs many natural bathing pools form; lt,is about 100 kilometers south of Olinda and well worth the trip. Tlilegr FACTS

)11-N GETTING THERE: Most flights from the USA enter Brazil through either Sao Paulo or Rio de Janeiro, greatly overshooting the Nordeste. You then pick up a domestic Brazilian flight back up to the Nordeste. Frequent flier programs, if the providing airline has a Brazilian partner, may allow you to fly all the way to the Nordeste on a single award with stopovers in any of the connecting cities. There are rumors of new direct flight service from Miami to Fortaleza. WHEN TO GO: Tropical temperatures prevail year round varying from 85 to 90 degrees. Being in the southern hemisphere the Nordeste is experiencing

its domestic off-season during the USA's winter months. Just remember the Northeast, particularly Olinda, is a popular Carnaval (Brazil's version ofMardi-Gras, celebrated the week before Lent) destination. WHERE TO STAY: A good number of the local hotels are listed with the Internet reservation services. These sites provide a good deal of information about the hotel, including photographs. Start out with, and Janis Carter began her love affair with Brazil as a Rotary Youth Exchange Student in Presidente Prudente, state of SAo Paulo, in 1976. After returning to the USA, she studied Portuguese at the Ohio State University. A telecommunications professional, she worked in Brazil during the privatization of that industry. She now lives in Columbus, Ohio, but visits Brazil as often as she can to matar saudades (satisfy a longing for the place). You can reach her via e-mail at .

1-888-7-BRASIL 1-888-727-2745 510- 655.9904 4170 Piedmont Ave., Oakland- CA 94511



Will the Gringo Win? A shrill blast on the whistle marked the end of the capoeira game. The mestres stopped playing and lowered their berimbaus. Everyone became hushed as we waited for the referees' decision... The crowd now wanted the gringo to win. ALASTAIR THOMPSON

ORM The air was thick and wet and hung down from the roof like a blanket, while music, percussion, and young voices singing, reverberated around the hall. It was nine in the morning. Inside it must have been about a hundred degrees as the sun poured its blessings down on the corrugated tin roof that covered our little gathering. Little? No, not little. Groups had come from all over sao Paulo to take part, and each group had brought its own collection of singing, dancing and chanting fans. I sat quietly on my chair in the corner trying to concentrate as I strapped my wrist with an old bandage. What was I doing here? I was the only gringo in this colorful mass of people. My blonde hair and green eyes earned me the nickname, alemao (German), and wherever I went in Sao Paulo, Brazilians would shout out their friendly greeting, "Oi, alemcio! Tudo bem?" (Hi, German! How are you?) Now here I was a year and a half after the day I first arrived in Brazil, and I was about to enter my first competition. I tried not to watch the other athletes as they got ready, somersaulting, handstanding, twisting and flipping, showing their moves to each other. I tried not to think too much. In a short while I would meet them in the roda, literally 'circle', the traditional meeting place for those who practiced the Brazilian art of capoeira. Capoeira is uniquely Brazilian. According to tradition it was created by the African slaves who were brought to Brazil by the Portuguese. Prohibited from fight amongst themselves, the slaves developed a fighting style that appeared to be a dance. Capoeiristas (those who practice capoeira) would glide and float around each other using elaborate movements, rolling, cart-wheeling, twisting and falling, always, always to the sinuous rhythmic twang of the berimbau, an instrument made from the thin branch of a tree, a piece of wire from a nearby fence, and a dry cabaca, a hollow gourd that serves to amplify the sound from the berimbau. To their white owners, the slaves would appear to be singing and dancing, but inside the circle of clapping and chanting spectators, two capoeiristas were honing their fighting skills, preparing for the day when they would rise up and fight against their oppressors. "Oi, alemdo. Tudo bem?" I looked up. My mestre (master) stood in front of me. Tio Joao (Uncle John) was a native Baiano (from the state of Bahia) who had moved to S-Ao Paulo with his mestre fifteen years ago. Capoeira was his life. Capoeira had taken him out of BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 2002

the favelas (slums) of Bahia and given meaning to his life. Now he taught capoeira at a small academy in Sao Paulo where he shared the knowledge passed down from his mestre, and his mestre 's mestre, and the mestres before him. "Oi, tio. Tudo bem." (Hi, Uncle. I'm well.) The drum beat, steady four on four, bounced around the hall, deep, hollow, it sprouted from the atabaque (a large bass drum) and supported the melody coaxed from three gaudy berimbaus and two shimmering pandeiros (tambourines). The crowd were silent now, waiting, waiting forthe mestreto start his ladainha, his song of praise to capoeira, to his mestre, and to the great capoeiristas of the past. Around me competitors clad in white swayed gently. Letting the rhythm carry them, a few started to ginga (characteristic movement associated with capoeira)slowly. Into this silence strode the opening words of the ladainha (litany),

Boni dia, meus senhores Born dia, minha senhoras Vamos dar inicio a festa Que est-a em cima da hora A voces que aqui estdo Um minuto de atencao Vou fazer a minha prece Que eu no sou nenhum pagdo Agradeco ao Criador Que me deu inspiracdo Aqueles que ,me ofenderem Eu respondo corn perddo Educaccio ndo tern fronteira E uma realidade E o que todos devem usar Para o bem da humanidade Isto é UMa licdo Pra quern quiser aprender Quern ado vive para servir Aleio serve para viver Quanto mais vive se aprende Saber nunca é demais Capoeira é no Brasil Quero ver quem joga mais ra, ra, viva meu deus... Good day, my good sirs Good day, my good ladies Lets start the celebration That is ready to start To you that are here A minute of your attention I will offer up my thanks Because I am not a pagan I thank the Creator Who gave me inspiration To those who offend me I respond with pardon Education has no boundaries BFtAZZIL -OCTOBER 2002

This is a reality And all should use it For the good of humanity This is a lesson For those who want to learn He who does not live to serve Has no reason to live The more you live, the more you learn You can never know too much Capoeira is from grazil I want to see who plays the best ra, ra, God is great... As one we responded, "Viva meu deus, camarci." (God is great, comrade.) !P4, The mestre nodded and signaled to two capoeiristas waiting, crouched before the assembled musicians. In one

Capoeira is the art ofmalandragem (villainy and double dealing). The idea is to execute a complicated acrobatic maneuver (the more complicated the better) and lure your opponent into attacking you. Then, when he or she attacks, thinking that you are too busy executing your one-handed double-twisting back flip (Sdobrado), you expertly roll out of the back flip and counter attack with a flying full twisting scissors kick (tesoura). However, your opponent might be expecting this and could evade your carefully executed trap using a crouching back flip (pubo do macaco) and counter with a sweeping reverse kick (meia lua de compasso). As you can see, it gets cornpl icated. As each game ended and the winner

Mestre Joao • swift fluid movement they entered th

roda, the circle, and began their game. A the same time every pair of hands in tha steamy hall started to clap, and a thou sand voices sang with the single mestr on his berimbau. "Viva meu mestre, camarci." (My master is great, comrade. I sang with them, and clapped, an watched the game as it unfolded befor me in a symphony of motion. Whirlin legs and twisting bodies moved smoothl through the air, and the crowd held it breath momentarily as one of the corn petitors seemed to fall, but miraculousl recovered only to reply with an eve more breathtaking assault, and the crow sang with even greater gusto. Each game lasted a mere one and half minutes. Three referees watche every game and allocated points to eac player for a breach of the other's defense

was announced, so the crowd would become an explosion of sound and motion. The winner, inspired by the adulation of the crowd, would enter the roda once more, this time alone, and execute a seemingly impossible maneuver, an expression of sheer exuberance, a statement. "This is my capoeira! I can play

capoeira!" I watched each game with my group. We sang with the succession of mestres as they took turns on the berimbau. We cheered when one of our players entered the roda and faced a capoeirista from another group. We shared the exultation of the winner, we consoled the loser. We laughed at our mistakes and swore at those of the referees. And all the while a tiny silver coil tightened itself quietly in my stomach, for as each game passed, so the time drew closer when I would have 41

"Capoeira." I heard to enter the roda with another capoeirista. A Brazilian, weaned on samba and myself singing with everybody else. I looked across capoeira, not an awkward gringo like at my opponent. He too was me. singing. He caught my eye The sun hung golden orange in the and stretched out his hand, late afternoon Sao Paulo smog and fil- a greeting, a sign ofrespect, tered through into the hall. The young and an indication that the bucks of Sao Paulo had played their •game was about to start. games. They had won and lost and shared The mestre dipped his their joy or sorrow with the crowd. Fi- berimbau and as one we nally my time had come. My name, clumsy rolled into the roda. Sudamid the soft spoken Portuguese, denly everything else disstumbled out of the loudspeakers. The appeared, and all that remained was the rodaoand crowd became quiet. It was the gringo. I in it, my opponent, and I. walked slowly toward the roda. SudHis first attack was swift denly I heard a voice by my side. It was and efficient, but I saw it Joao. coming. In an instant I "Calma." He said. "Sempre busca evaded his blow and moved calma na roda." to counter attack, but then saw that his There 'was applause, but they wanted the I looked at him and saw the twinkle in attack was merely a ruse, and his real gringo. They wanted the gringo to win, his eye. I had heard that before. At the ' intent was the counter attack. As his body this glorious crowd, because it was their end of our training sessions he would twirled and his right leg started the grace- sport, their heritage, their culture, and the gringo had come to Brazil to play. They enter the roda with his students. We ful downward arc that would sweep my feet from under me, I halted my attack wanted the gringo. would be tired, physically and mentally, We waited for the third referee, an and using my remaining momentum, after a long arduous two hours of train- threw my weight onto my arms, lifting old capoeirista, a mestre who no longer ing. Joao would push each one of us, my legs from the floor. As my legs reached played, but who carried his capoeira in testing our limits of ability and endur- their apex, I curled my body around my his heart, and his mind was still as sharp ance, until finally we would flee the tight shoulders, freeing my legs once more to as his body had been in the days when he circle of clapping chanting bodies, and return and whip his legs out from under was a young capoeirista making a name for himself on the streets of Salvador. seek refuge from the incessant barrage of him. I knew what the color would be beI heard a roar from the crowd. The attacking movements executed by our gringo could play capoeira, and in my fore he raised his flag. I had known it mestre. "Calm." He would say. "Always mind I could see Jotio smiling as the during the game. I had trained hard, and crowd recognized my achievement, and was a good player, but I was only beginsearch for calm in the roda." his. In a flash my opponent was up again. ' ning. That first sweeping rasteira (literAmid the heady beat of the drum, the I looked into his eyes and saw that there ally sweep) had been lucky. My oppomusic, the clapping hands, the singing, would be no more opportunities like that nent had been overconfident and unpreand the malicious intent of your partner again. I was a gringo no longer. In his pared for my rapid counter attack. He had in the roda, there exists a quiet place in eyes I was a capoeirista, a treacherous quickly recovered, and for the rest of the which you can find calm. I needed to find and malicious opponent who would be game I had been on the defensive. So when the old mestre raised his yellow this place. Within this space you can play shown no leniency. I expected none. We played for the full one and a half flag, I was not surprised. I was not indigyour game unrestricted by thought. Here there is no thought, there is only action minutes. In that time I thrice managed to nant, nor was I devastated. Rather I was and reaction, a smooth evolution of time escape being unceremoniously upended proud. I was proud to have entered the by my experienced and skillful oppo- same roda as the capoeirista who stood played out in slow motion by the body of nent. I found the quiet place in the roda. before me now, and who, after shaking the capoeirista. I played as if my life depended on it, my hand, had flick-flacked into the roda I crouched quietly before the as- every movement linked to every other and executed a maneuver that I could sembled mestres. As I waited for my movement until it became so that I did only dream of pulling off. opponent to join me, I felt the music from not know where the movements of my I was proud to have played capoeira the berimbau drift down over my body. I opponent ended, and where mine began. in front of these wonderful people who tried to find that calm space. Suddenly I saw that the quiet space in the roda was had supported us and sung with us my opponent arrived and I felt the silver not static, but was rather a fluid con- throughout the day. I was proud to have coil in my stomach tighten once more. tinuum where motion summoned motion played before the many great mestres and we, the players, merely responded to who had gathered here today. And yes, in The mestre began to sing. my vanity, I was proud to have tumbled the call. A shrill blast on the whistle marked another capoeirista. Desde de pequeniniho the end ofthe game. The mestres stopped Eu ouvia meu pai falar Alastair Thompson is a travelling playing and lowered their berimbaus. Que quando eu crescesse writer and teacher. He is living in Sio The crowd too became hushed as we Ele ia me ensinar Paulo, Brazil, at the moment, teaching returned once more to the entrance of the English and learning to play capoeira Me ensinar a jogar.... roda in front of the musicians and, standwith the group, Capoeira ing together, waited for the referees to Arte e Ginga, (Web site announce their decision. One by one they Since I was a small child raised their flags. The first referee, a I heard my father say You can contact him at the following green flag. The gringo! The gringo! And That when I grew up email address: I heard the shouts from the crowd as they He would teach me waited on the second referee. Yellow Teach me how to play... 42


Luciana Souza—pianist, vocalist, composer, arranger, and academic—is no household name, but she performs with her fair share of them. From Danilo Perez to John Patitucci and guitarist Mike Stern to "longhair" ensembles like the Atlanta and the Boston Symphony Orchestras; Souza's attuned ears and extraordinary voice enable her to approach jazz from both visceral and analytical perspectives. Whether singing bossa nova, jazz standards, or her own compositions, she seeks the essence ofthe material in every setting, performing with a breezy virtuosity and propulsion. Brazilian Duos, her third solo CD, reveals not only sleek and cerebral arrangements but also an assured technician who has clearly picked her accompanists carefully. An individualist and jazz advocate with a distinctive way of taking a tune apart, Souza phrases in a manner that never distorts the melodic line or interferes with the matchless way she lives a lyric. Her timing, particularly during wordless improvisations, is as impeccable as the finest jazz instrumental players. The qualities that define Souza derive from a background not unlike that of many artists of comparable stature. She was born into a musical aristocracy where music was in the air from the moment Luciana was old enough to hear it. The youngest offive children, Souza's family tree bears the fruit of parents who worked for a radio station's recording studio, and who, as highly regarded singer/songwriters, achieved distinction in the sixties with compositions like "Azul Contente," "Samba SO," and "Amanha." At home, there were several instruments that the children were all encouraged to play. Her father's access to the radio station's record library filled their home with the music ofartists like Bill Holman, Stan Kenton, Duke Ellington, and even the Hi-Lo's. Says, Souza, "My father loved big band jazz and vocal music, so he was constantly playing Dorival Caymmi. My older sisters, who were especially into Tropiccilia, played lots of Caetano and Gil. And the exposure to Gil's drive, rhythm, and Africanism particularly inspired me." Souza began formal music studies on guitar when she was fourteen, although she had been recording radio jingles since the age of three, which had become the cornerstone of her musical education as it involved a proximity to great musicians, an exposure to different musical styles, the necessity to create distinctive voices, and the urgency to learn tunes very quickly by ear. BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 2002

Souza's Sonic Quilt Driven by a mastery of technique and a fidelity to tradition, Luciana Souza pays homage and claims a place for herself. BRUCE GILMAN


By the eighties, her parents had dreamed up the idea of a family-operated, musician-friendly instrumental record company that paid fair royalties, and founded Som da Gente (Sound of the People). Says Souza, "The whole family was involved. I worked there when I was a teenager, doing secretarial stuff, clerical stuff. My brother worked there. Carla worked there. We all worked there." Be that as it may, playing traditional Brazilian instrumental music was an act of economic suicide during the eighties, so many young instrumentalists migrated to the United States to learn how to play jazz fusion. Along with them, Souza, then in her late teens, traveled to the United States to attend Boston's prestigious Berklee College of Music. Three years later, she walked away with her bachelor's degree in jazz composition and returned to Brazil only to resume studies four years later at the New England Conservatory where she received a master's degree in jazz studies with an emphasis in voice. And then, as if bridging continents and traditions, she joined Berklee's faculty. Her stateside career was launched when Dan ilo Perez, one of the great multiculturalists ofjazz, brought her into his Central Avenue project to record a 5/4, Afro-Cuban version of John Coltrane's "Impressions." Since then Souza's output has been of such consistent quality that ranking individual discs becomes difficult. Reviewers and jazz critics from Down Beat magazine to The New York Times have marveled at her instrumental phrasing and riveting performances despite the wide variety of difficult material and the close proximity of tour dates. Her performances are based on the hard work of her student years and are sustained by an unusual discipline and self-respect. As a musician, Souza knows how good she is, but I can't accuse Luciana Souza of not being true to her instincts. We spoke about academia, her recordings, and about the defunct record label, Som da Gente. Brazzll—Singing advertising jingles was your first professional gig, and I'm wondering what that was like? Souza—You know, I worked for what we call fcibricas. It was as if a company like Blue Note called me to say, "Come and do background vocals for somebody." I'd go in, sing, get paid, and that's it. I don't even know what most of that stuff was. It was in the family. We all did that, you know? Nobody questioned it. I was just a singer. I sang background vocals for some people who never got into the mainstream, and I sang background for 44

it." I ask, "What do you think?" or I say, "Show me what you've been doing so far," or "I want to give you an idea about something and have you arrive at your own conclusion," as opposed to just lecturing. That's how I learned in Brazil. My whole education prior to Berklee was through observation, just by experience. Music is an experience. I mean, you can't teach what you don't know, really, beBrazzil—Is that because advanced cause you'd be a lame teacher. If there's something you don't know, programs in music education are stronthat's okay because no one knows everyger in the U.S. than in Brazil? Souza—I can't speak for other thing. But, you should go research it. people, but for me, Berklee was the per- Teaching keeps you honest with music, fect place to concentrate on what I needed. so you share from a place of love. ObviIt was an effective way to learn a lan- ously, it's a hard thing to do because guage—a musical language—and learn students can like things that you don't it quickly. But it wasn't necessarily the like; they can ask you things that you may place to develop artistry. I don't think not think they're ready to learn. But you anyone should go to a school, especially always have to find a way to keep them in when it involves moving to anew country music by encouraging them to find the when you're eighteen years old, and ex- answers themselves. pect to find everything. I don't think that Brazzil—W ere there any drawschool is the place for that. It's a place to collect information and make connec- backs to teaching? Souza—Just the facts, not really any tions. drawbacks. The way I teach requires When I went to Berklee in '85, it was perfect for that. There were so many preparation. I do a lot of thinking before tremendousmusicians, like Danilo Perez, I walk into a classroom. I like to be who has been a very important influence prepared for my students. I believe in in my life and who I consider one of the listening a lot, so I make tapes for them great musicians of my generation. Be- and have them transcribe things. That sides, I had a pretty clear idea of what I requires a lot of time. So for me, there's wanted to get from school, and I did. I really a conflict. When you're performstudied, I collected, and I moved back to ing a lot, you can't dedicate yourself to Brazil the day after graduation. And the preparing lessons. And being connected same thing was true with my master's. I with a university requires that you go to knew why I wanted to get it and why I and participate in meetings, so now I wanted to be in a school like NEC (New can't teach a lot. Teaching is something England Conservatory of Music). Be- that will always be there for me. It's sides, they both gave me scholarships, so something that I'd eventually like to get back into. I'm grateful.

Jane Duboc when I was, I don't know, thirteen of fourteen. I recorded material with Hermeto that was never released. Yeah, I don't think anybody has that stuff any more. You know, experiments that he was doing. But it wasn't until I came back from Berklee that I really thought of myself as a musician, as a full-time musician.

Brazzil—Did you have to audition before becoming an assistant professor at Berklee? Souza—Yeah, I went in for the interview, and they gave me a theme and twenty minutes to prepare it. Then I came back and taught before a jury of professors. I was basically improvising, but that's what they were judging me on. I knew how they taught because I had been around Berklee and knew their method pretty well, so I was seated in the ear training department. It's part of the performance division. Of course, I taught theory, harmony, voice, vocal arranging, ensembles, and a bunch of ear training classes. I taught and I taught. Brazzil—Did you enjoy teaching? Souza—Oh, I still do. I enjoy keepinghonest. The way I teach is the Socratic method. I don't say, "This is how you do

Brazzi/—Does the analytical part of your mind ever interfere, become an end in itself rather than a funnel through which your feelings and ideas are communicated? Souza—I would hope not, but I can't help it. I'm one of those people who spends time investigating and thinking about things. I'm constantly thinking about my instrument and ways to sing better and how I can actually let my instrument serve the music and not get in its way. When I do my vocalizing, I'm thinking, "Let me get the instrument in shape so it's supple, so it's ready for anything." That way when I'm "shedding" (practicing), when I'm studying ear-training or harmony, when I'm sitting at the piano trying to play something, I can be creative. There's a great deal of struggle that goes with practicing. It's very demandBRAZZIL - OCTOBER 2002

ing and requires discipline, but there's also great joy when you're able to be creative on stage and think in the moment, without running into the mind/ body barriers that can get in the way. My analytical approach really facilitates being in touch with my instrument so! don't have to do it on stage. Brazzil—Is there any special system, time of day, or place that helps you compose? Souza—Not really. I try to keep in touch with writing by transcribing music and by thinking through phrases, rhythms, grooves, melodic lines, and harmonies. When I hear something I like at somebody's gig, I go home and ask myself, "What was that made of'? Why do I like it? What makes it so interesting?" After I've figured it out, I'm usually inspired to write something. There's really no method. It might be late a night after I've read some poetry. I've studied ing you feel like you're learning. Being music enough to know that once you have 'involved with his Motherland project an idea, it's important to put it down was a tremendous education for me. either on paper or on a mini-disc. I have Danilo was and is a tremendous influa mini-disc on top of the piano in my ence. living room, so if I come up with an idea, I just push record and sing to it, you Brazzil—What was your father's know? That way it stays right there, and connection with Hermeto? I can visit it later. Souza—When Hermeto had just moved to Sao Paulo, my father made a Brazzil—Y ou mentioned Danilo record that came out on RCA called Perez. What was it like working with Caminho. It was my father, Walter him? WanderleY, and Hermeto on flute. It was Souza—We were on tour for about a the first recording that Hermeto ever year and a half, and during that time! had made. They've been friends since 1964. the opportunity to express myself as another instrument in the band, which helped me grow immensely. At the end of every Brazzil—How was working with evening, I was in another place and think- Hermeto different from the other muing, "My God! Where was I?" Where am sicians you've worked with? I now?" Danilo expects you to perform a Souza—His presence, his music, and little differently every night and to be on his teachings have tremendous weight. your toes all the time and to be ready for Anyth ing he says, about anything, is pretty anything. deep. As you know, Hermeto is my godDon't get me wrong, I love music father, and he would often come to lunch where you can just sit back, relax, and or be recording at Som da Gente, and play what you've rehearsed. It's all there, everything was pretty crazy when you you present it, and the people love it. But were around him. I mean, everything was it's a whole different experience with remarkably unexpected. He'd give you a Danilo. There's a lot you're prepared part; you'd learn it and think, "Okay, for—things that you know are going to that's how I'm going to sing it." happen, but there's a lot more you don't You figure you know what you're know. We were all aware that at any doing when you go into the studio. So second something might happen that we you go in, you do a take, you go into the weren't prepared for, so we had to be control room to listen back, and Hermeto open, to listen with a certain openness. says, "Okay, okay, okay, stop! I have an Like playing with Hermeto, you're idea." He goes to the piano, writes somefully exhausted by the end ofan evening— thing else and says, "Okay, now sing this drained. Expectingthe unexpected forces one." And you look at it and say, "Oh, you to be creative. Playing with Danilo okay, but this is, uh, like . . . extremely inspired me, and it still does. I mean he's difficult, so give me uh ... five minutes?" like Hermeto or my father, the ultimate "No, no, no, he says. "You get three teacher, because he teaches without mak- minutes, and then you do it." BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 2002

Then when you think it's all wrapped up, he comes up with a new percussion section, extends the introduction, adds a coda. He's a fountain of creativity, but after a while somebody always had to say, "Hey, enough ofthis! That's it! Let's move on." Otherwise, Hermeto would just keep coming up with more and more ideas. He is exhaustively nonstop. Brazzil—I understand there was a falling out between Som da Gente and Hermeto regarding studio access and the mixing ofMundo Verde Esperanca. 2

Souza—1 don't know. To be quite honest with you, there's a lot oftalk about why Hermeto left the label. Whatever happened, happened within the business. I've been with three labels already, and I can tell you, shit happens. My parents always did political work, as many studios do in Brazil, because you make a lot of money, and that's how labels are supported. I mean, it's business. Hermeto is still my godfather. When I performed in Rio, he sat in the first row. Brazzil—So far all of your CD's have been released on alternative labels. Are you looking for a deal with a major label? Souza—I'm not looking for anything. I'm happy where I am. Brazzil—W hat are the advantages of working with alternative labels? Souza—I can only talk about Sunnyside. I've done two records with them. You're treated humanly, and you know their financial limitations are pretty dramatic. He (Francois Zalacain) doesn't have money to run ads and all that kind of 45

stuff. But you're treated fairly, and there' s no intrusion in the music whatsoever. There's absolute freedom to do what you want to do as long as you discuss it and defend it. Sunnyside wants artistic statements more than anything. They're not scrutinizing numbers (sales). That's where I want to be. Brazzil—There's a terrific version "Embraceable You," on your first CD, An Answer to Your Silence, and I'm wondering where you found that arrangement? Souza—That arrangement was written by a friend, a great horn player, composer, and arranger, Adam Coker. I heard him play that tune on a gig and said to myself, "Oh, man, I've got to have that! It's exactly how I want to do it." The arrangement has a very elastic mood and is really very floaty. It's Latin, but not powerfully Latin, and that's what I love about it. Brazzil—T ell me a little about your wordless vocals on "Backfile" from the same CD. Souza—I've been creating sounds with my voice since I was a kid, yati' know? When my father used to bring home those big band records, I would listen intently, following just one instrument, and then I'd sing that line along with record. It's not something that need to think a lot about nowadays. It comes naturally to me. Choosing syllables that are complimentary to a saxophone's sound and counting the tune off really fast and then actually having to make it through the melody is what's fun about "Backfile." Brazzil—On your second CD, o set Elizabeth Bishop's poetry to music, and I'm wondering if you see any parallels between the way Bishop wrote poetry and your own approach to corn position? Souza—I've read a lot about her life a few biographies and a large book of het letters, which she wrote to people over the years. I wouldn't say that there's a parallel, but one of the things that I've always admired about her, from reading her letters, is the fact that she wrote very little poetry. She wrote 103 poems and published 3 books of poetry. That's it. She wasn't prolific in terms of quantity, but the quality is outstanding. There was one poem that had taken her 15 years to write because she wasn't satisfied with one word. I admire that a lot. I don't know if I'd have the guts to do that, to not finish a song because I wasn't satisfied with the final chord or some46

thing like that, but she was thorough. I don't think she was being anal about it because you just don't put something out that's not ready, you know? She didn't feel she needed to put anything out if it didn't have 'quality5liappreciate that. There is a certain peace about that even though as an alcoholic and just a very troubled person she was not peaceful at all. Brazzil—Can you identify with her tortured artist image? Souza—No, not at all. I mean, I feel like I belong to a great community of musicians and artists. I don't want to sound happy-giggly about it, but I think if we made the choice to be jazz musicians—and I include myself as a jazz musician, not just a jazz singer—there's a certain life and lifestyle you embrace. I don't have any conflicts about that. When I need money, I go to work. When I need to make more money, I teach. And if I'm having a crisis and can't write, I'll sing somebody else's music. I'm pretty honest about that because I've learned from my parents example. They've been musicians, and they've been business people. My parents came from nothing and they made something ofthemselves. They helped other people and built a beautiful label in Brazil that lasted for ten years. They put out amazing music and helped spread the word about Brazilian instrumental music. I feel that the lessons they taught me, and which they continue to teach me every day, are to be as honest as I can about my music and to make money with it so I can live decently. I'm able to do this in the United States, and I will. Brazzil—Did you have a particular concept or theme in mind for Brazilian Duos? Souza—No, just the transparency of the instruments, the voice and the guitar, being as close together as possible. The idea was to capture the music as if it were a live performance. It was done live to DAT, completely live. I used two different mikes at the same time, and the guitar players also had two mikes. I wanted to just sing the songs as they are, do very simple arrangements, and honor the tunes. Those are great tunes; there's really nothing to mess v, ith. I'm so happy with the results that I don't think I'd do anything differently. Brazzil—The sound is so transparent that I'm wondering how long the recording process took. Souza—Oh, now you got me. It was done in parts. My father and Marco BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 2002

(Pereira) recorded in Sao Paulo toward • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 11 • mmmmmmmmmmmmm •••••• • the end of 2000, and then Romero • (Lubambo) and I recorded here (New • • THE SINGS • York) the following March. With my dad, we did many, many more takes be- • Pra Dizer Adeus To Say Goodbye cause he has asthma and was wheezing a • • (Edu Lobo/Torquato Neto) • lot during the recording. And since we • were recording so closely together and • Adeus, you pra nao voltar Goodbye, I'm leaving and I won't come back • completely live, it was something I • • E onde quer que eu vá And no matter where I go • • couldn't deal with. Sei que you sozinho I know I'll be alone • I had to tell him, "You know, Dad, I • Tao sozinho amor So lonely, love • can't use that. We've got to do it again." • Nem é born pensar It's no good to think We did several takes on each tune and Que eu nao volto mais That I won't return • were absolutely tired of doing them, but • Desse meu caminho • From this journey • there was a lot of integrity in each. And • Ah, pena eu nao saber I'm afraid I don't know we've lived with some of them even • Como te contar Flow to tell you when I thought, "Oh, man, I'm not sing- • • Que o amor foi tanto That my love was so intense ing too great here," because my breathE no entanto eu queria dizer But anyway, I'd like to say • ing or my phrasing was off. Vem, eu so sei dizer vem Come, that's all I'll say, come • • • Nem que seja s6 Even if it's only Pra dizer adeus To say goodbye Brazzil—Y our interplay with • Marco Pereira is one of the most excit- • • ing facets of the CD. Is his ability to • • AmanhA Tomorrow • draw energy and feed it back as spec(Walter Santos/Tereza Souza) • tacular as it is understated? • • Ve que amanha mais lindo que vem surgindo See what a beautiful tomorrow is corning Souza—Man, he's so powerful, it's • • Tern gente indo tern gente vindo There are people going, people corning • scary! I'm such a huge fan of his. Marco Tudo e certeza de se encontrar You're sure to find everything • has such a special sound and way of • • • sensing dynamics within the instrument. Neste amanha certeza tanta beleza Lots of beauty in this tomorrow Já nao existe mais gente triste There are no more sad people I've always wanted to record with him. • Tudo ë certeza de se encontrar You're sure to find everything But it's always hard going to Brazil and • • finding people of his caliber with time to Vao se encontrando, vao They'll meet spare. So I sent him the music and all the • Vao se dando a mao They'll shake hands • arrangements long before our session. • Se querrendo bem And like each other • Todo mundo irmao Like brothers Everything had been written out, so when •• • Vao sorrindo, vao They'll smile we met the day of the recording session, • Que amanha mais undo que vem Because there's a beautiful tomorrow corning • we just went into the studio and rehearsed • • and recorded, rehearsed and recorded, • Vern corn certeza, vem sem tristeza, t's certainly coming, without sadness, it's • vem coming each tune like that. It was very spontane• Que beleza, vem !-low beautiful, it's coming • ous. Tanta paz que tern, tanto amor que tern Tanta gente vai Tanta gente vem

Brazzil—"Amanha" sounds so familiar, yet so fresh, especially with the Neste amanha certeza tanta beleza new 3/4 bridge. Why is it still such a Já nao existe mais gente triste "hymn of hope"? Tudo é certeza de se encontrar Souza—It's a very simple song that has all the elements of a hit. It's happy, the melody is very diatonic, and the lyrics Eu Nao Existo Sem Voce (Antonio Carlos JobimNinicius de Moraes) say, "There's a tomorrow coming, and people will be joyous. Tomorrow there's Eu sei e voce sabp ja que a vida quis assim a future for us. We're not going to be Que nadkneste mundo levara voce here, under this darkness." Within the de mim climate of Brazil's dictatorship, the lyrEu sei e wee sabe que a distancia nao existe ics were often perceived as subversive or E todo grande amor sO é bem grande se for triste Por isso meu amor nao tenho medo de sofrer even as an attempt to incite people. It's a Pois todos os caininhos me encaminham funny tune that actually became a big hit, pra voce and it was played on the radio for months. • Assim como o oceano so é belo You know, when I was in Japan, some corn o luar people came up to me and said, "Oh, your • parents! Your father wrote ... "and they • Assim como a cancao so tern rail° se se cantar Assim como uma nuyem sO acontece se chover sang a little bit of"Amanha." These were Assim como o poeta so 6 grande se sofrer people in their late fifties or sixties. It was • Assrm como \infer sem ter amor nao é \aver • Nao ha voce sem mim really quite lovely. • Eu nao existo sem voce • Brazzil—Does having various • projects running simultaneously ever •" • • • • • • • ••II • • • IN

o much peace, so much love o many people going o many people coming

• • • • • ots of beauty in this tomorrow • here are no more sad people • ou're sure to find everything • • • • I Don't Exist Without You • • [know and you know that's the way life wants it: That nothing in this world will take you away • h•om me I know and you know there's no distance And that every great love has sadness So I'm not afraid to suffer, my love liecause every road brings me tb you

Just like the ocean is lucent only under the moonlight Just like a song only makes sense if it's sung hist like a cloud only appears if it rains Just like the poet is only great if he suffers Thst like living without your love is not living There is no you without me I don't exist without you

• • • • •

• ••• • II • • • II • MEE • II • • •



stretch you a little too thin to perform with conviction? Souza—You know, when I receive invitations from people, if I have the time and if I'm interested in the project, I take it. This kind of approach has given me opportunities to travel to different places musically and learn new things. Singing with an orchestra is a completely different experience than singing with a quintet or with just a guitar player. All that eclecticism and diversity enriches me musically. I really don't have to be a specialist in anything right now. If I get an invitation and feel like I have something to offer, that I can contribute, I'll usually do it. Brazzil—Are there any plans to record more Brazilian albums; for example, a Djavan or Milton Nascimento song book? Souza—That's an idea that I've always had going on in my head. I would love to do something like that just for my own selfish pleasure. There are many Brazilian composers that I'd like to record, but I don't need to rescue their music.I love Ary Barroso, but Gal (Costa) has done a great recording of Ary's music, so I don't need to do one. She's also done a great recording of Dorival (Caymmi). Only I love to sing him, so on Duos I sang "Saudade da Bahia," which was not intended as an homage. It's just a song I love that has great meaning for me. I also sang Djavan's "Romance," and I sang a tune I learned from Milton— Toninho Horta's "Viver de Amor." Brazzil—What's next? Souza—There are a lot of things we can still do with Brazilian Duos. Besides, it's a nice project to travel with. It's very compact, very light, and there's a lot of freedom in the music. I have quite a few gigs with Romero coming up, one in New York where I'm going to do half the week with Romero and half the week with a quintet, and I'll be trying new


things with. both. Brazzil—Any recording plans? Souza—Well, yes, but it's too early to say. I'll probably change my mind, and people would hold me responsible, so I'd rather just let it happen. Official Web Site:

On Brazilian Duos, Marco Pereira uses an 8-string guitar, tuned E, B, G, D, A, E, B, F# that combines the classical 6-strings guitar, the Brazilian 7-strings guitar, and a bass all together. To read more about Marco Pereira see "Acoustic Assurance" in the January 2001 back issue of Brazzil ( Bruce Gilman, music editor for Brazzil magazine, received his Masters degree in music from California Institute of the Arts. He is the recipient of

' Hermeto's first recording as a flautist was on the LP by Walter Santos. Nonetheless, Hermeto had made a number of earlier recordings as an accordionist including "Boite em Sua Casa" (A Night Club in Your Home) with his brother, pianist Jose Neto; "Subindo o Morro" (Going Up the Hill) with a carioca singer named Pernambuco do Pandeiro; and a recording with an orchestra in Recife conducted by Maestro Guio de Moraes. The Santos recording, however, was the first that got any kind of distribution or airplay. To read more about Hermeto Pascoal see "Snapshots of Sound" in the February 2002 back issue of Brazzil (http:// 2 Hermeto's falling out with Som da Gente, at least in terms of business, occurred when Hermeto's band was recording Mundo Verde Esperanca in 1989. This was a big election year, and the studio was completely tied up with recording political ads. The band had basically recorded the entire project and was beginning to mix the record, but Hermeto could never get access to the studio. Som da Gente kept putting him off so they could make money. Hermeto eventually threw up his hands and completely abandoned the project. Polygram later tried to buy the master tapes but Som da Gente wanted something like $50,000, because of all the expenses. Polygram balked. now Hermeto shows no interest in the record, which is too bad because it is extraordinary.

three government grants that have allowed him to research traditional music in China, India, and Brazil. His articles on Brazilian music have been translated and published in Dutch, German, Portuguese, Serbian, and Spanish. You can reach him through his e-mail:

U.S. Postal Service Statement of Ownership, Management and Circulation as required by 39 USC 3685 I. Publication Title: Brazzil 2. Publication No.: I091-868X 3. Filing Date: September 30,2002 4. Issue Frequency: Monthly 5. No. of Issues Published Annually: 126. Annual Subscription Price: $3.00 7. Complete Mailing Address of Known Office of Publication: Brazzil, 2039 N. Ave. 52, Los Angeles, CA 9004210248. Complete Mailing Address of Headquarters or General Business Office of Publisher: Brazzil, 2039 N. Ave. 52, Los Angeles, CA 90042-10249, Full Names and Complete Mailing Addresses of Publisher: Rodney Mello, 2039 N. Ave. 52, Los Angeles, CA 90042-1024; Editor: Rodney Mello, 2039 N. Ave. 52, Los Angeles, CA 90042-1024; Managing Editor: Rodney Mello, 2039 N. Ave. 52, Los Angeles, CA 90042-1024 10. Owner: Rodney Mello, 2039 N. Ave. 52, Los Angeles, CA 90042-1024 II. Known Bondholders, Mortgagees, and Other Security Holders Owning or Holding 1 Percent or More of Total Amount of Bonds, Mortgages, or Other Securities: None 12. N/ A 13. Publication Name: Brazzil 14. Issue Date for Circulation Data Below: September 2002 15. Extent and Nature of Circulation: Actual No Copies of Single Average No. Copies Issue Each Issue Published earest DuringN to Filing Preceding 12 Months Date 2500 A. Total Number of Copies: B. Paid and/or Requested Circulation I. Paid/Requested Outside 1868 County 2. Paid In-County Subscriptions 0 3. Sales Through Dealers and Carriers, Street Vendors and N/A Counter Sales: 4. Other Classes Mailed N/A Through the USPS C. Total Paid and/or 1868 Requested Circulation: 0 D. Free Distribution by Mail: E. Free Distribution 370 Outside the Mail: 370 F. Total Free Distribution: 2238 G. Total Distribution: 262 H. Copies Not Distributed: 2500 I. Total: J. Percent Paid and/or 83% Requested Circulation

3000 2159 0 N/A N/A 2159 0



521 521 2680 320 3000 80%

16. This Statement of Ownership will be printed in the October 2002 issue of this publication. 17. I certify that all information furnished on this form is true and complete. I understand that anyone who furnishes false or misleading information on this form or who omits material or information requested on the form may be subject to criminal sanctions (including fines and imprisonment) and/or civil sanctions (incl udingmultiple damages and civil penalties). (Signed) Rodney Mello, Publisher and Editor-in-Chief BRA221I.. - OCTOBER 2002

Silvio Tadeu and Ina Carvalho, with Tereza Penteado, Silvio Bisterso, and Andre Ruffo. A Casa de Bernarda Alba (The House of Bernarda Alba)—Drama. Widow locks her five young daughters for eight years, but, deprived of sex and love, they rebel and start a fierce confrontation With their mother. Text by Federico Garcia Lorca, directed by lone de Medeiros, with Grupo Oficcina Multimedia. Como Se Fazia urn Deputado (How We Used to Make a Representative). Comedy of costumes. In 19th Century Rio, two politicians decide to fabricate a candidate to win the elections, using Henrique, a young lawyer, for that. Written by Franca Junior and directed by Felippe Correa, with Adilson Pereira, Gildo Fontolan, Robson Stancov, Patricia Bispo and Sandra Nagy. Quern N do Tern Cdo Cava corn Cato (There's More Than One Way to Skin a Cat) Young Miroaldo leaves his small town to try his luck in Sao Paulo as a country singer. Things start to get messy and funny when he decides he does not want to be a star anymore and his twin brother Riroaldo takes his place. Written by Eduardo Lipiane, directed by Sebastiao Apolonio, with Afonso Nigro (from defunct band Domino), Monica Lopez e Fernando Lyra Junior. Buda (Buddha)—ConieJ. Decided to get a man she loves, a young woman appeals to religion. Monologue by Clarice Niskier. Directed by Domingos Oliveira, with Clarice Niskier. Comemorando?(Celebrating?)--A guest is kidnapped and tortured during aparty. None of the guests, however, does anything to stop the violence. Written and directed by Denise Weinberg with actors just graduated from CAL (Casa de Artes de Laranjeiras). 0 Homem sem Sentidos (No-Senses Man)— A man chooses to go into complete isolation and finds a world full of questions and conflicts. Written by Patricia Mess, directed by Elisa Barbato, with Andre Junqueira. Assassinaram a Pelicula (They Murdered the Motion Picture)—Comedy.. Passed their prime, a group of actors appeal to fiction in the hope they'll be stars again one day. Written by Rodrigo Shimidtz, directed by Andre Range!, with Alex Bakalla, Christian Bruno, Leandro Tassi and Filipe Marinho. Mande Ndo Pode Saber (Mom Cannot Know)—Comedy. Family deep in debt gets ready to receive the visit of the matriarch, who lives in Europe and is quite wealthy. Written and directed by Joao Falcao. With Vladimir Brichta, Lazar() Ramos, Edmilsom Barros, Drica Moraes, and Alessandra Maestrini.

SA1 PAIN Ndo Me Conies Verdades (Don't Tell Me Truths)—Comedy. A group of people are shown talking while waiting to be seen by a doctor in a free medical clinic. Written by Tacit° Rocha, directed by,Luiz Serra and Marcus Cardeliquio, with Enio Goncalves, Jose Ferro, Vania Barboni, and Lourdes de Moraes. 0 Homem do Sobretudo Escuro (The Man on the Dark Overcoat)—Drama. Based on several short stories by Agatha Christie. A young couple, which owns a boarding house in England, receives the visit of the police while waiting for some guests. Directed by BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 2002

Movies Jut-releasel ur rt-rsleasei

Fernando Meirelles and Katia Lund, with unknown actors, including Alexandre Rodrigues, Leandro Firmino da Hora, Seu Jorge, Matheus Nachtergaele, and Phellipe Haagensen. Abril Despedavado (Broken April, Behind the Sun in the English Version)—BrazilSwitzerland-France/2001—Based on Albanian author Ismail Kadare's book Broken April. In the Brazilian Northeast, following a family tradition, a young man is compelled to avenge his brother's murder. The youngster, however, decides to question this blood code. Directed by Walter Salles, with Rodrigo Santoro, Jose Dumont, and Rita Assemany. Unia Onda no Ar (A Wave in the Air)— Brazil/2002—It seems like a war in the big favela (shantytown). The police start to go up the hill while a pirate radio station tells the population how to react. It's the radio station that the police are looking for. Directed by Helvecio Ratton, with Alexandre Moreno, Adolfo Moura, Babu Santana, Benjamim Abras, Priseila Dias, Edyr Duqui. Books

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free lesson on the website. [186] Estamos admitindo motoristas coin carteira de motorista da California pelo menos por dois (2) anos. 0 salad° sera aproximadamente $600 a $800 por semana. Nosso enderego é 14550 S. Main Street, em Gardena. Para mais informagOes chame, por favor, o telefone do escritorio (310) 771-1450 e tale corn Alex ou Mark. 0 niimero do celular do Mark é (818) 571-3580 [197] Wanted: Female exotic dancers 18-29 needed for 4 months in Atlanta and Columbus, Georgia USA gentlemen's clubs. No experience necessary. We provide roundtrip ticket from Sao PauloAtlanta, housing, and local transportation. Earn $4,000 or more U.S. dollars a month. If interested, provide proof of age, 2 color swimsuit photos. Email: - Mail: Rising Star Enterprises, Suite 16 6751 Macon Road, Columbus, GA 31907 USA - Phone (706) 569-5494

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Servicos Legais, consultas sem limite, cartas, chamadas e outros beneficios incluidos, para individuos somente $26 por mes. Tambern oferece protege° para familias ou negocios pequenos. (909) 392-5766 ou [196]

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'ac ma 1114 Wanted: Men & Women 18-40 interested in meeting Americans for relationships. New website coming August 25th "American-Brazil Dating Service" looking to put you on its website. Send two color photos, your age, sexual preference (i.e. straight, bisexual, or gay), hobbies, address, phone number, or email. Service fee of $1.00 U.S. dollars only required($2.00 Real). Our site will get quick results with our national advertising in U.S. Today newspaper. Email: - Mail: Rising Star Enterprises, Suite 16 6751 Macon Road, Columbus, GA 31907 USA - Phone (706) 569-5494 Free Personal Ad - Send bio-data, photos to: Patrick Williams, ADC #84677, Box 3200-B, Buckeye, AZ, 85326, USA. All wellcome. [196] Fire and Passion - Agenda de Casamento para Brasileiros e Estrangeiros, no ramo desde 1989. Marriage Agency for Brazilians and Foreigners in business since 1989. Email: -Tel: 310-450-4586 [196]

Oportunidadel Precisam-se Lideresl Empresa intemacional de marketing em expansao no Brasil, procura candidatos experientes em marketing, corn espirito de lideranga e network. Importante saber usar computador e ter vontade de fazer sua independencia financeira! Résumé Fax (775) 2645803 [197] Wanted: Marketing Reps for Pre-Paid Legal Services, Inc., a 30-year-old NYSE traded company. Commission deposited daily. No experience required. Call (909) 392-5766 [196]

WES Conversational Brazilian Portuguese Method - "I tried several methods to learn BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE, but when I started lessons with NILSON, I knew immediately that I'd found the best one. And in just a few months, I was able to communicate on a one-on-one basis." Individual, Total Immersion, Corporate Group and SemiPrivate. Phone (310) 379-0738 [199] PORTUGUESE CLASSES - Brazilian teacher. Fast, easy, efficient and pleasant way to learn Portuguese. (949) 240-8178 [196]

n or ammen Experienced "Brasileiro" Guitarist; Brazilian native Joao Junqueira (MFA in Jazz Guitar at CALARTS) is available to play, sing and record, solo or accompanied, his specialty, Authentic Brazilian Music, Originals and Jazz. Please call (818) 716-9053 or write j_ jun queira@yahoo. com [179]

1118110ES Income tax, bookkeeping services. Certified tax preparer experienced and reasonable. Call Cintia Bove (415) 203-6464. Falo Portugues, Espanol. [192] BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 2002

' iving Bassi WoridMovers Brazil - Mudangas, encomendas, caixas para o Brazil. Contato: 718472-5843 - USA -- Contato: 55-11-4473-3137 Brazil— Email: [201] I need share container to Brazil. 818-247-8027. Some urgency. [198]

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ewspapers agannes Jornais e revistas do Brasil. Recebemos jornais diarios e todas as principais revistas, incluindo masculinas e femininas. Tel. (954) 785-2131

'myna an' ee s unman Egyptian Lover, 5'8' tall, good personality, seeks Brazilian girl, only 21+, friends first. (925) 609-9023. San Francisco Bay Area only. [189] American male, 37, college educator, seeks Brazilian lady for friendship/relationship, Los Angeles, CA area, Daniel 310-257-8940 [187] Elderly Black American seeks Brazilian lady 40 plus. Write Don Clifford, PO Box 512491, Los Angeles, CA 90051-0491 [185]

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Irish-American guy, 46, tall, attractive, fun, seeks Brazilian men for friendship, maybe more! Phone Larry at 310-899-6075 [199] Attractive Brasilophile Gay Male, 40, wants to meet Gay Brazilians in Pacific Northwest (I live in Portland) for friendship and to learn/practice Portugues. I studied for a few months at Berlitz and have been to Brasil 3 times in the last year, but need to really learn/practice and become fluent. If interested, please call (503) 544-5655. Thanks! [197]

hie iv air iwAvMmiptMlifi • FEIRA LIVRE RATES 500 a word Phone is one word •DISCOUNTS For 3 times deduct 5%, for 6 times deduct 10%, for 12 times deduct 15% • POLICY: All ads to be prepaid Ads are accepted at our discretion Your canceled check is your receipt Please, include address and phone number, which will be kept confidential • DEADLINE: The 25th of the month Late material will be held for the following month if appropriate •TO PLACE AD. Send ad with check, money order or your Credit Card number (plus your name and expiration date) to BRAZZIL P.O. Box 50536 Los Angeles, CA 90050-0536. 51

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In Brazil everything dances'—the palm trees, the ocean, the verdant mountains. It's no surprise the samba and bossa nova were born here, and not in Anchorage or Moscow. BONDO WYSZPO SKI

"She had an elegant way of moving her hips when she walked, you could tell she was from Rio."—Jorge Amado, Jubiaba

Heloisa Pinheiro is not a household name, but next to Carmen Miranda, Sugar Loaf, and the mountain-top statue of Christ the Redeemer, she epitomizes Rio de Janeiro. Over forty years ago. Heloisa, or HelO, used to walk to the beach, crossing the intersection at Montenegro and Prudente de Moraes. There was a restaurant on the corner, the Bar Botineiro, later called Veloso (from Raul Correia Veloso, who started the bar in 1945) where two friends often met and drank beer. One ofthem was Vinicius de Moraes, the other AntOnio Carlos -Tom" Jobim. They noticed Heloisa as she passed, on her way to bask on the sands of Ipanema. The rest is history. "Tom and I were struck dumb when she strolled by," de Moraes later recalled. The air became lighter as if to ease the divine sway of her step... For her we wrote respectfully and in silent wonder the samba that brought to the headlines of the world our dear Ipanema... She was and remains for us the essence of the young Rio girl, the golden girl, a blend of flower and siren, full of light and grace, the sight of which also brings sadness—for she bears on her way to the sea a sense of youthfulness that will fade..." Today, Veloso has a new name, Garota de Ipanema (Girl from Ipanema) and the street out front. Prudente de Moraes (an early Brazilian president) has seen its 'Prudente' give way to 'Vinicius. It's a colorful, noisy hangout; strolling musicians gather just outside the open doors and windows to serenade the clientele. The quality of their playing is very good, and afterwards they hope you'll spare a few coins to show your appreciation, for they are probably as poor as they are talented. Bossa Nova Temple The Vinicius Bar is just around the corner, and it's everything an American bar is not: dimly lit with a cozy, sensuous atmosphere, music that's prominent but not so loud you can't converse, and the freedom to enjoy a cigarette. I sat with my companions and listened to the sultry



rhythms of bossa nova, a guitarist and female vocalist first, then a polished but restrained trio led by an old-timer named Joao Paulo. Some years ago, Sinval Silva (who'd composed ballads for Carmen Miranda) told writer John Krich that "The secret of Brazil ian music is writing love songs to a woman you'll never meet.- Maybe it's an audacious statement, but perhaps there's a ring of truth to it after all. Rio once sported the much-longer moniker Sao Sebastiao do Rio de Janeiro. It was from Sao Sebastiao that the French, who'd tried settling in, were run off. (Later they'd get their revenge; see below) The Portuguese should have run off the incorrect 'Rio' as well. The area is situated at the mouth of Guanabara Bay, which early explorers had thought was a river, hence the name. Ifthey 'd not erred, we might today be talking about Baia de Janeiro—January Bay. For all that, Rio is still one of the focal points of the known universe, especially during Carnaval. It enjoyed two centuries as the capital of Brazil, until 1960 when the seat of government reluctantly moved to Brasilia. Tourism remained unaffected, that is, until the late '80s and early '90s when Rio gained a reputation for being unsafe, and not just for travelers. Cartoons tended to depict the towering statue of Christ overlooking the city from Corcovado Mountain in the act of shrugging or surrendering, but the reality of 400 to 500 daily robbery assaults was no joking matter. It's not that folks are meaner or greedier in Rio, it's that the slums, the famous favelas of Black Orpheus, if you will, are where nearly one-quarter of Rio's population makes their home. Visiting the city in the 1950s, Nobel Prizewinning author Albert Camus remarked, -Never have I seen wealth and poverty so insolently intertwined." I was aware ofthis one evening when a few of us had gone to a 'happy hour' destination called Arco do Telles (Telles Arch), at the end of Rua dos Mercadores in downtown Rio. Behind the arch is something of a narrow, crooked, pedestrian alley called the Travessa do Comercio that dates back over two centuries and is lined with restaurants and bars. The tables and chairs fill the street so thoroughly that it's hard to walk through when the place is bustling. Certain districts in Germany where folks also gather after work or school


have the same feel. At last we found an national language (not everybody knows open table and were able to soak in the this!) is Portuguese, which I always deatmosphere, sipping Antarctica beer and scribe as a mixture of Spanish and beauty. munching on hot cheese balls and fried Speaking of national this and that, chicken. Every few minutes, one or two the Brazilian national bird should be, if children, and by this I do mean children it already isn't, a black and white soccer and not teenagers, would approach with ball soaring through the air—preferably items to sell, mostly candy orgum. Some past the opposing side's goalie. In 1994, wanted to shine our shoes. when Brazil beat Italy for the World Cup In their own interest they were un- championship, virtually the whole counfailingly polite, but none of them were try was on high alert: -Close to 100 doing this out of love. Some probably percent of the population tuned into the came from large families and had to pull last games via television or radio. The their own weight, even at such a tender country literally stopped for the final age. Others may have been orphans. In matches—Congress adjourned, schools the U.S., most of us have seen the home- closed, and businesses shut down. After less making do for the night out of doors, the victory, people poured into the streets, but few of us, I think, have seen groups creating a noisy carnival of dancing and ofchildren huddled together under sheets fireworks." of cardboard and sleeping on the side[This is from "Two Essays on walks. I won't tell you it's a common Sports," by Janet Lever and Jose Carlos sight in Rio, but I've seen it on more than Sebe Bom Meihy, found in The Brazilone occasion. ian Reader, edited by Robert M. Levine d John J. Crocitti] Presumably the Tropical Viennese ountry was no less enthralled in 1998— ntil the astonishing defeat in the final On the other end of the spectrum •ame at the hands of the French. (I guess from drinking beer in the cool night air at *t was retaliation for being kicked out of Telles Arch is having lunch afew blocks ão Sebastiao do Rio de Janeiro four away at the Confeitaria Colombo, an enturies earlier!) But in 2002 BrazilOld World, Belle Epoque salon that *ans once again lavaram a alma (washed opened in 1894. In its heyday, poets and heir souls) coming from behind and artists and intellectuals gathered to disonquering for the fifth time the World cuss their ideas. At one point the estabup. lishment was even regarded as an informal extension of the Brazilian Academy Dancing Air of Letters. Its flavor is something like tropical Viennese, if you can imagine Brazil, as everyone knows, is the that, and the sumptuous buffet offers a ountry where the air is made, and where wide variety of treats. t dances; in fact, everything 'dances'— One rides up to the spacious secondhe palm trees, the ocean, the verdant floor dining area in a tiny, quaint elevaountains. It's no surprise the samba tor that holds just three people, plus the d bossa nova were born here, and not operator. In a balconied corner sits a n Anchorage or Moscow. The first time pianist performing turn-of-the-century landed in Rio (now 16 years ago) it was melodies from Debussy, Ravel, Johann he middle of summer, and there was a Strauss, plus Rachman inoff and (it weetness in the air, like sugarcane, that seemed to fit righ ) the "Music of the remember to this day. Night" number Lloyd-Webber's I was thinking about all this early one Phantom of the i ira. Even if most of dternoon at Praia Vermelha (Red the literary hangouts have since shifted : each), nestled in a quiet inlet on the to Ipanema or CopVana, Colombo is pposite side of Botofogo Bay, sepaelegant and inspi , , and still a place ated by Urea (gable') mountain and for urgent, impassioned conversation. .ugar Loaf. There's a two-kilometer Two years ago, Brazil celebrated its oath, the Pista(Trail) Claudio Coutinho, 500th anniversary. Originally it was called hat provides a quiet walk with the rocky the Land of Parrots and also the Land of horeline on one side and the sheer bulk the Holy Cross, before someone thought of Sugar Loaf looming straight up on the it best to name it after an indigenous tree. ther (what a sight, let me tell you). At any rate, the country spans 47 percent From the array of unfamiliar sound, of the South American continent and the Ine imagines exotic birds in the trees.


And when you look close, if it's not too hot, you'll spot tiny saki monkeys in the trees. In one of her short stories, Brazilian author Clarice Lispector has a line, -1 don't go to Urca, to the rocks of Urca, because it's full of rats." I guess we had a better experience: just monkeys. Even here, though, in this sheltered little tropical paradise, the sunshine is deceptively potent. Years earlier a carioca, a Rio native, had taken me with her to bask on Copacabana Beach, and I'm still sunburned from that long-ago afternoon. Taking the cable car from Praia Vermelha to Urea, and then up to Sugar Loaf, is a must-do tourist attraction, like going up the Empire State Building when visiting New York. But on the day that our little group was primed for its journey, the cable was being repaired. That was the bad news. The good news was that we were going up in a helicopter. Not the kind of substitution one complains about too vocally! In their book, Amazon, Brian Kelly and Mark London say of Rio that -It is a city so physically beautiful that it defies one to put in a day's work." Seeing it from the air, who could disagree? Helisight has a number of sightseeing tours, ranging from about 6/7 minutes ($43 per person) to one hour ($250). The flights originate from the Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon, shoot out over Ipanema, glide over Copacabana, almost graze Sugar Loaf, circle around Corcovado and over Tijuca Forest. Longer packages offer trips over the downtown area • or, in the other direction, pastthe beaches So Conrado and Barra.

Near the water in the Flamengo district, across Botofogo Bay from Sugar Loaf is a museum devoted to Carmen Miranda, the "Brazilian Bombshell" perhaps best known for her fruit-cluster headgear and the song "South American Way.- On display are film stills and other photographs (from the Forties, mainly), plus various costumes, shoes, and .jewelry that the singer/actress wore on stage or in her movies. But because Carmen Miranda was life itself, always vivacious and exuberant, the place feels a bit like a shrine-slash-mausoleum. Without Carmen. the stuff sits there. dead. Dead or waiting. Who would have guessed it. this undertow of 'all things must pass"?

I fthe melancholy mode pleases you, head over to Santa Teresa. to the Parque das Ruinas (no translation needed) and the skeletal remains of the mansion where once lived the high society hostess Laurinda Santos Lobo, whose home was a hub of cultural activity and exchange from the 1920s to the mid-Forties. We were there in the quiet of late afternoon. Little remains but the splendid view: and yet, and yet. within these very walls... A couple of minutes away by foot is the low-key but engaging Chacara do Ceu Museum, formerly the home of Brazilian industrialist Raymundo Ottoni de Castro Mayo, who donated his residence, and his impressive private art collection, to the city. Precisely because it was a family dwelling, the galleries have a

curious intimacy that is lost in other, larger museums. Yet another distinctive museum, the Casa do Pontal is located on the grounds of the Recreio dos Bandeirantes, about thirty miles west of Rio near the beaches Grumari and Prainha, and not far from the Serra de Grumari ecological reserve. As Brazil's largest museum of folk art, it contains some 5,000 works by 200 artists. On the day we were there the skies were pouring rain and inside the building one could inhale the mildew. A smell like this has its own character, its own footprint. The discreetly placed room of erotica is worth a few extra minutes. The mostly amusing figurines include women with a set of chompers you-know-where, plus characters presumably discussing Spinoza and Descartes while engaging in extra-circular activities. Jacques Van Beuque, who spent over forty years amassing this incredible array of folk art, recently passed away. One ofthe larger displays depicts a samba parade, with spectators in the bleachers. Press a button, and hundreds of figures instantly come to life. At least in theory. Some of the tiny figures were noticeably unresponsive, and the speaker was broken. Instead of pulsing samba music, one heard what resembled an air conditioner going at full blast. It was both puzzling and amusing, and reminded me of L.A.'s Museum of Jurassic Technology, where 'broke' is part of the experience.

With 8.150 acres, Tijuca forest—in the heart of Rio—is the largest urban forest in the world. More impressive is the fact that, although decimated from the 17th century onwards, Emperor Dom Pedro II decided in 1861 that the area should be replanted. Major Manoel Gomes Archer and his six slaves rolled up their sleeves and didn't stop working for the next thirteen years. When they straightened up at the end of the day they'd planted 60,000 trees. The reforestation project not only lured back most of the animal population, which had long since bolted, but replenished Rio's diminishing water supply. In Los Angeles, I look around at our Suburbans and Excursions and I ask myself, If Brazil is a Third World country, where does that put us?

There are a couple of roads that run through Tijuca National Park, and an open-air jeep tour seems just the ticket for inhaling the splendid surroundings. Up here, as the winding roads ascend higher and higher, the air is much cooler than far below, in the city center. The destination ofany jeep tour worth its salt is the near-summit of Corcovado, a mountain over 2,300 feet in height, capped by the 125-foot tall Christ the Redeemer by sculptor Paul Landowski. The statue, which commemorated the first century of Brazilian political independence, was dedicated in 1931. It weighs more than a thousand tons, and might never have been built except for the fact that a tiny railway had been in place since 1884, running to the peak from the Cosme Velho neighborhood. If you've taken the jeep up, be sure to take the train down. Cosme Velho, where the writer Machado de AsSls lived for his last twenty-five years, has its exquisite Largo do Boticario, a kind of heritage square where gathered together are several restored, century-old colonial homes that replicate what much of the district looked like way-back-when. Not so sprawling as Tijuca is the 340-acre Jardim Botanic°, with its royal palms, planted in 1842, and its 5,000 species of tropically-indigenous trees and plants. This botanical garden was founded in 1808, and was intoxicatingly lovely on the rainy day we visited. Those who live in any bustling city know that you cannot wander into it for just a few days and come out with anything more than a glancing overview of its cuisine, and this is especially so of Rio de Janeiro where there are over 860 restaurants. When we consider specific categories, however, the number drops, and it falls yet again ifwe limit ourselves to dishes native to Brazil. Of these, one might select represen-


tative samplings from both north and south, beginning with Yemanja, which advertises itself as "0 sabor da Bahia no Rio," or the taste of Bahia in Rio. On the Atlantic seacoast in the North, Bahia was the port of entry for most African slaves, and so not surprisingly the region's specialties evolved out of African know-how and Brazilian homegrown.

Among these are the seafood stews, the moqueca, for example, in which shrimp or crab, ray or codfish, squid or lobster, and so on, are simmered with palm oil, coconut milk, red pepper, coriander, tomato... the list goes on. Other items include vatapci (chicken stewed in coconut milk, seasoned with sliced shrimp, onion, red pepper and olive oil) and acaraje (fritters of mashed cow peas, with hot pepper sauce). This is the delicious food Jorge Amado akâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;ays heaps onto our plate in such books as Dona Flor and Her Two Husbands and Gabriela, C1.64 and Cinnamon. Originating in the south (Rio Grande do Sul, etc.), churrascarias or barbecue restaurants are noted for their many kinds of meat, cooked rotisserie-style, which are then carried to each-

able by waiters who offer them to the ye before slicing off tasty slabs for the alate. One of the best of these teakhouses is Marius, with two locaions For an idea of Northeastern cuisine here's Bar do Arnaudo in the Santa eresa district, where the in-house speialty seems to be came-do-so!, sunned meat in a rustic environment. It's a mall, busy but friendly establishment ith streetcars passing out front. You'll ink you're in a Graciliano Ramos novel. nd of course one can't go to Rio and ot sit down with a helping offeijoada, onsidered the national dish of Brazil. Feyoada consists of black beans (red eans in Bahia) and pork, which means irtually everything the little piggy has o offer except the proverbial squeal and he curl of its tail. We had ours at the ell-named Casa da Feijoada. To help s pass the time while awaiting an open able, we were each given a batida, made rom cachaca (sugarcane liquor) and ixed with fresh-squeezed juice, usuIly lime or passion fruit. These deceivngly tasty drinks not only clear out the ullet, they clear out the head. One small lass will do the trick; I had three. Needess to say, the feijoada was delicious. In Rio, breakfast buffets can be ideal or starting one's morning, because the ir at dawn -seems to hold a profound nd dreamlike quiet," Moritz Thomsen rote in The Saddest Pleasure. "Smells f the sea and tropical flowers hang in he air..."

The recently renovated Le Meridien, on Avenida Atlantica in Copacabana, serves quite a spread, among which is a haven of fresh fruitâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;papaya, guava, melon, passion fruit, kiwi and plum. The fruta do conde, with its white flesh but big black seeds, may be a little daunting to eat, but do try one. By the way, the caju (cashew) milkshakes are delicious, and it was from a Brazilian that I learned to make avocado-based smoothies. At the buffets-1 also sat down to one beside the luxurious pool at the Copacabana Palaceâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;there are also more beverages and juices than can be imagined: orange juice, oh sure, but pineapple and papaya and honeydew juices, coconut water and watermelon juice as well. From the 36th floor of Le Meridien, where their buffet is served, one can survey with a bird's-eye view most of the purported 100,000 cariocas (residents of Rio) who hit Copacabana beach each weekend.

gaudy, colorful, that's often the pervad- hearse. Most take place on SaturdaN ing sensibility. Several young men and night, beginning at II p.m. and continuwomen, dressed like gypsies but seem- ing almost until dawn. They are as loud ing like renegade circus performers, came as they are vibrant, fueled by a seemout and danced. There was also ball- ingly inexhaustible bateria or percusroom dancing, and later a battery of sion ensemble. We attended the Salgueiro samba percussionists. school rehearsal, as spectators for maybe One man with a camcorder wanhalf an hour, as participants after that. It dered among the dancers and the surBrazilian Voodoo rounding tables, filming whatever caught was to be our farewell samba, the source We had the opportunity, the honor, his eye for instantaneous broadcast on a of our saudade, or nostalgia, because in really, to sit in on a macumba presenta- large screen off to one side of the stage. my case only four hours after stepping tion (no, it was not held in a forest On occasion he'd stop to chat with some- outdoors I was at the airport, ready to clearing but rather a spacious commu- one, neglecting the camerawhich slowly depart. My ears were still ringing, like nity center). Macumba is the Brazilian tilted down to film the floor or up to film cathedral bells, a factor that transformed version of voodoo or fetishism, the word the ceiling. But what I found truly fasci- what might have been a standard leavetaking into one gilded with a surreal candomble used to describe the ceremo- nating were the singers. There was one middle-aged black resOnance. Sure, my hearing is now back nies in general, and these occasions are marked by a joyous yet profound mix of man who might have been a bus driver to normal, but when I think of Brazil, it's judging from his appearance, yet when clear that the ringing has not yet gone singing, dancing, and drumming. Syncretized with Catholic saints, the he sang his voice was simply angelic, away. And I suspect it never will. various African deities have names like like a one-man girls' choir. Later on, an With sincere thanks and deepest appreOxala, Oxossi, Omolu and Xango (the older woman who looked like a cafeteria ciation to Hawkins & Widness in New York, worker took her turn, with similar effect. 'x' being pronounced 'sh'). Ext), for ,to our tour conductor Angelica Carneiro da example, is a mischievous trickster Like a revival meeting, the assembled Cunha, to Marcia Pessoa and Andrea whereas Yemanja is the alluring god- crowd of maybe three hundred people Revoredo of the Rio Convention & Visitors dess of the waters. That moonlight you literally got into the spirit. Bureau, to Haroldo our driver, to Varig The cariocas, according to Erico Brazilian Airlines, to Maria Ercilia Borges see on the ocean? Look again, for it may Verissimo, "love three things above all Murakami of the Brazilian Consulate in Los instead be Yemanja's outspread hair. Fortunately, to interpret the instruc- others: the sun, the sea, and the samba... Angeles, and to Rodney Mello of Brazzil tions of the orixas (the voodoo spirits) The samba is their national language." magazine. Lastly, o f course, a round of gratithere's the meie-de-santo and/or the pai- Each year during Carnaval several tude and caipirinhas to my fine colleagues Inya Caruso, Gretchen Kelly, Matthew Link, de-sat/to. Each deity has an attribute or escolas de samba (samba clubs) corn- and Steve Markovits: may we samba in pete for top honors in categories ranging two, and something by which they can be paradise yet again. recognized: at the end of the evening the from costumes and themes to overall saints' representatives emerged in cos- performance and general unity between Bondo Wyszpolski also tume and danced in a line. Since Yemanja sounds and colors. heads up the arts and Designed by architect Oscar likes mirrors and other shiny objects, entertainment section of the Niemeyer, the Sambodromo, or Samba she was easy to identify. Easy Reader, a weekly newspaper What preceded this finale was a Parade Avenue (now Passarela Darcy based in the South Bay of course of events that to untrained eyes Ribeiro) is basically a long avenue with southern California. resembled a variety show. For Brazil- concrete grandstands where the schools He can be reached at ians, if the decibel level is to the point of will try to outdo one another. Prior to the bwv szpolski(earthlin blowing the speakers, all the better. Loud, big event they gather each week to re-



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Brazzil - Year 14 - Number 198 - October 2002  

Brazzil - Year 14 - Number 198 - October 2002