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Brazil's victory in the World Cup has re-energized the country in a way no other event has in many, many years. The 2-0 win over Germany brought jubilation from the President down to the little kids. For a few days, Brazilians stopped talking about the violence, the still falling real and the so-called Brazil risk, to simply celebrate the feat of their boys in Japan. The flag and the national anthem became hip again. More than half a million people went to the scorching hot streets of Brasilia, the capital, to give team Brazil a heroes' welcome. Despite the nation's tradition as the land of football—Brazil is the only country to have participated in all World Cup competitions since the event started in 1930 and has more titles than any other country—Brazilians seemed resigned to lose this time. Most of the nation, following the lead of the ever nitpicking and cranky media, didn't think the team would advance to the semifinals. With all the celebration behind us, it's time again to pay attention to politics. It's about time. Elections are around the corner. On October 6, 115 million voters (from a population of 175 million) will be electing a new president, as well as, senators, governors and House representatives. In our cover story we go behind the scenes and between the lines to show how political marketing is shaping the coming elections. You'll find out that to be a Duda Mendonca or Nizan Guanaes—the two supreme wizards of the political game in Brazil—you cannot be too coherent and you'll relearn the old marketing lesson: "what's RM bad we hide."
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Cover packing The art o the new president Cover by
Memory Dm traffickers torture and kill reporter Tim Lopes
18 00 11 13 15 23 25 21 28 34 31 40 43 45 41 54
Trib te "Arnelia"'s composer, Mario Lago, dies Wonl Cup Ronaldo and Filipao, two obstinates orld Cup Joy to the world, Brazil has won! World Cup Brazil vs. England. For some, the real final. World Cup Why Brazil should have lost Politi s Candidates, the polls, and the bad news Opi ion Time to stop administering the economy Opinion Only the euro can save Brazil Re uttal The A-bomb should scare you to death In Portuguese "Clara" by Joyce Cavalccante Cr me Homophobe kills dancer and vanishes Problem Trying to cope with street kids Language English for Brazucas VIII Music
The f ur classes of people, according to bossa nova M sic Review Francis Hime and Leo Peracchi
Eight years of Fernando Henrique Cardoso
OB Rapidinkas 111 Letters 49 Cultural Pulse 51 Classifieds 52 That's Brazilian
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Memory War Correspondent Tim Lopes belonged to an almost-extinct group in Brazil, that of the investigative reporter. And he was a pure breed of this rare species. Many times during his three decades as a reporter he mixed into the circle he was going to write about in order to get the inside scoop and insights only intimate familiarity can bring. His death at the hands of Rio's drug lords has shocked and enraged Brazil. Weeks after the assassination, the police hadn't either located the main suspect of his death or recovered the body of the reporter. In the early '70s he dressed as a blue-collar worker, for example, to write an article for alternative newspaper 0 Reporter on the bad work conditions at the Rio's subway construction site. Later he became a truck driver to better denounce corruption at the Policia Rodoviaria (Highway Patrol). More recently, already working for Globo TV, he checked for two months into a detox clinic to show the drama of people hooked on drugs. Just last year he won the most prestigious prize of the Brazilian media, the Premio Esso, using a hidden camera to show how drug trafficking operates inside Rio's favelas, the shantytowns built on the hills around the city. He obtained his images for the three-part report -Feira de Drogas" (Drugs Fair) at Favela da Frota, in the so called Complexo do Alemdo, close to Favela Vila Cruzeiro, the place he was last seen. Authorities concluded that Lopes had been killed, after testimonies from other criminals who confessed having seen the execution. The G lobo TV reporter disappeared on June 2, in a funk ball in a,favela where he went to investigate residents' complaints the Police had been warned, but hadn't done anythingâ€”that drugs were being freely sold and gang leaders were forcing minor girls to have sex with them. Tim Lopes was born Arcanjo Antonino Lopes, in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul, but while still a child moved to Mangueira the same place that gives name to the famous escola de samba (samba club) in the North Zone of Rio. The Tim nickname from childhood was adopted as his professional identity. His parents were very poor and, in the late '60s. the future reporter started working as an office boy for now-defunct weekly Manchete magazine. He would work as reporter for several publications including the three most important dailies in Rio: 0 Dia, lornal do Brasil and 0G/oho. Lopes started to work for Globo TV, Brazil's leading TV network, in 1996. Easy going, he loved to tell jokes, and bohemian, he enjoyed drinking at night with friends and dancing in gafieiras (lively popular dance parties). As for â€˘ his writing, some editors didn't like his adjective-laden style and would cut his baroque prose to the bone. â€˘ Journalist Arthur Dapieve, who worked with Tim in the Jornal do -; Brasil, tells that the newsman was also a great inventor of terms and expressions. "It was he who, writing for the Jornal do Brasil's city section, baptized as mauricinho that all-dressed-up guy, who everybody knew existed, but didn't know how to call. The female ofmauricinho, patricinha, appeared soon after, so they would happily reproduce themselves, until today, in the nights of all Brazilian cities. See the irony of him as father of mauricinhos and patricinhas. He was a smiling mulatto, always in a Bermuda short and a T-shirt, who loved samba, Vasco da Gama (a Rio soccer team) and beer.The Police Story
BRAZZIL - JUNE 2002
According to police reports, Lopes was killed by drug lord Elias Pereira da Silva with a Samurai-like sword. Da Silva, better known as Elias Maluco (Deranged Elias) had been release from prison in July 2000, after four years of incarceration. During all those years the state was unable to build a case against the drug dealer, while his lawyers used delaying tactics that included not showing up for hearings in court. Elias Maluco is now the boss of 10 favelas that are part ofthe Complexo do Alemdo. The DRE (Delegacia de Repressdo a Entorpecentes Drug Enforcement Headquarters) estimates that the drug lord has an arsenal of 250 guns and possesses a 400-employee work force, including security people and salesmen, all connected by radio and cell phones. The police were told about the details of the murders after detaining three suspects. They said that, before being killed, Tim was tortured and subjected to a mock trial staged by Da Silva plus three other drug dealers: Andre Capeta (Satan Andre), Boi (Ox), and Ratinho (Little Rat). Ratinho was one of the drug dealers who were shown in the award-winning report"Feira de Drogas." The detainees told police that Tim was at first shot on the foot so he wouldn't be able to escape. This happened in front of some caves that are known as microwaves due to the fact that they are used to burn people killed by the drug traffickers. They also graphically described how Elias Maluco thrust a sword against the reporter's chest cutting him from the neck ' down to the belly button: "His blood spilled on all of those around him." One week after Tim's disappearance, the police occupied the hill where the reporter had disappeared and the usual weekend funk ball was suspended by the authorities. Many days of search for the journalist's body, however, were fruitless. ' While searching for Lopes's body, the police found several signs of the hills' lawlessness. They discovered, for example, a clandestine cemetery with bones of scores of unknown victims and holes being readied to receive fresh bodies. Commenting on Lopes's assassination, President Fernando Henrique Cardoso called it a "heinous crime and an attempt to silence media reports about drugs." The Rio de Janeiro's Journalists Union, after expressing its outrage at the killing, accused of unfairness and opportunism those who expressed the opinion that the reporter had been reckless and irresponsible for entering the favela the way he did. Daily kraal de Brasilia, in an editorial, complained that the media covering o fthe TV reporter's murder was overblown. The newspaper called attention to so many anonymous deaths in similar circumstances that are not mentioned not even in the internal pages of the newspapers. Drug Empire Tim's death ea/led e attention once again of Brazil, and the Rio population in particular, to the precarious state of the state authority in the country. It's estimated that one million people or around 20 percent ofRio' s population lives under other laws than those of the rest of the nation in the 605 favelas of the city. They are controlled by at least 10,000 wellarmed people linked to drugs. Policemen are known to refuse to go to some areas at night fearing for their lives. Roberto Aguiar, Rio's secretary for Public Security, says that drug trafficker with vulgar names like Deranged Elias do not represent the base that produces violence: "These people who head gangs in favelas have to be captured because they are psychopaths, but they are not the big shots of the system. They are medium agents. We should look for the bosses rather in the social columns than in the paper's police section." In an article for Rio's daily 0 G lobo, Miriam Leitao, who usually writes on eco omy, used the murder of her colleague to derr.onstrate that Brazilian authoritieslost controlofthefavelas in Rio: "We already knew that, but it became scandalously explicit now. There, soot* •••••••••••••••• • the law, the order, the distributor of basic services to the population, the ' 4, creator of jobs, the real authority are others. It's not only the old fight • of the police against the outlaw. It's more complex than that. You can't • • build a network so powerful without connections with the police and • other powerful people from this side of the world. Argentina started the little war with • itk "In the ,favelas, the traffic is the main economic activity, the main • a very suggestive and graphic billboard. • source of income, one of the greatest job generators, and, in many areas An anonymous Brazilian paid it back in • The only social assistance people get. And it is, most of all, the only. the same coin. established power because the state has been impotent... The drug • activity in the favelas corrupts and oppresses our poor in order to offer he goods consumed by our rich." The murdered reporter was writing a book on samba, which included • profiles of several sambistas from Rio. The work was being written in • partnership with his longtime friend Alexandre Medeiros, who intends ; to fin sh the book by himself. "It will be painful," Medeiros said, "but I will go ahead and write the book as an homage to him." Reporter Cristin a Guimardes, who worked w ith Lopes in the "Feira de • • Drogas" piece moved out of Rio soon after the TV story was aired. She •• said she had to leave due to a series of threatening calls. The reporter also '• • sued TV Globo in the labor court, accusingthe company of not offering her adequate protection. Ms Guimardes was told byfavela residents that . there was a 10,000 dollar prize on her head. The reporter contacted the • Amnesty International in order to ask for asylum in a foreign country. • 'Nobody knows about her whereabouts.
BRAZZIL - JUNE 2002
Being co-author of "Ai Que Saudade da Amelia", one of Brazil's most enduring musical jewels, would have been enough to secure a place for Mario Lago in Brazil's cultural history. He was much more than that, though, circulating with ease from playwriting to lyrics writing, from acting on radio to acting on TV and on the big screen, from being active in politics to being an inspired memorialist and story teller. Brazil is mourning his passing, which occurred May 30, after a long fight with emphysema. He was 91. For most people he was an example of integrity, someone who kept his convictions even under duress throughout his whole life. Graduated from law school, the actor didn't practice law for more than a few weeks. A confessed communist for his entire life—at the end he used to say that he was an "autonomous Marxist"—Lago was sent to jail six times for his pol itical convictions, some of them during the military dictatorship that ruled Brazil from 1964 to 1985. He authored more than 200 songs. Lago was born on November 26, 1911 at Rua do Rezende, 150, in Rio's Lapa neighborhood. His father, Antonio Lago, was a music conductor and a piano player, his mother was said to have been overprotective. In order to pay his studies, the future composer started writing vaudeville plays. He wrote 31 of them, according to his biographer, MOnica Carvalho, who in 1999 wrote Mario Lago, Boemia e Politica (Mario Lago, Bohemia and Politics). Lago published his first poem on Eon-Eon magazine by age 15. It was called "Revelacao" (Revelation). The lyricist started to work as a TV actor in 1966, when he was already 55. His first role was in the novela (soap opera) 0 Sheik de Agadir. Among the characters he is most remembered for are Atilio in 0 Casardo (The Large House) and Alberico Santos in Dancin' Days. He was still very active till the end. He had to use an oxygen tank during the taping of TV G lobo's 0 Clone, in which he interpreted Doctor Molina. The novela had its last episode aired June 14. Lago also appeared in such movies as Glauber Rocha' s Terra ern Transe, Joaquim Pedro de Andrade's 0 Padre e a Moca and Cacd Diegues's Os Herdeiros. The actor wrote several autobiographical books. He was in the process of writing Meus Tempos de Moleque (My Years as an Urchin) when he died. He had already published "Na Rolanca do Tempo" (In the Wheels of Time), in 1976; Bagaco de Beira-Estrada (Edge-of-the-road Bagasse). in 1977; and Meia Porcao de Sarapatel (Hodgepodge's Half Portion), in 1986. How did he keep his stamina and youthful enthusiasm? By being politically active, he used to say3. His pol itical convictions, however, didn't make him an ascetic: "Despite being a communist I didn't want to deprive myselfofanything. An activist needs to lead his life as everybody else, at least to be able to dialogue with them. He was a bohemian, but only until he met and married Zeli Cordeiro, in 1947. They saw each other for the first time during a communist rally. Zeli would be at his side the entire life, until 1997 when she died. Was she the submissive Amelia-type woman that Lago describes in his memorable tune? "She was a woman from the left like me," said Lago, "but in a way she was also Amelia. When we had to move from Barata Ribeiro streetto Dent° Ribeiro s e she told me, Bent° or Barata, it doesn't matter, they are all relatives." Zeli was the only one to know the other side of a man o seemed alw caring and affectionate. He once confessed "I'm crabby, I wake up kicking my own shadow." The cranky, but modest m died poor and in debt. His long disease wiped the little savings he had. His contract with Globo and his US$ 500 retirement pension were not enough to pay for the bills that the medical insurance didn't cover. His debts with health care had climbed to around $12,000 at the time of his death. Some people have seen in Lago' s rnost famous song, "Ai Que Saudade da Amelia", which he composed with Ataulfo Alves, a celebration of the down-to-earth woman, a lovelorn song or even a machista provocation. But, the number one bohemian, disavowed those versions explaining in a Radio Nacional interview that Amelia was born in a mesa de hot equim (bar table) to retell the story of percussionist Almeidinha—revered singer Aracy de Almeida was his sister—who every night between a beer and a swallow of cachaca (sugar-cane liquor) complained about the departure of a cleaning lady who used to keep his house and his clothes spotless. "That was a real woman," Almeidinha used to say. The real woman was named Amelia.
You can read the lyrics for "Ai que Saudade da Amelia" in our site (www.brazzi I .com/p08jun02.htm) and listen to the song at http://www. brazzi I. com/ameli a.mp3 Phrases
"I made an agreement of peaceful coexistence with time: neither does it chase me nor do I run away from it. One of these days we will meet.' "If we lose all our hope we should also wipe out the rainbow." "Be on the right or on the left, we are all bourgeois. There is no denying." "I keep young by being communist. Communism has always been the world's youthhood."Life made me do all I've done even though I'm lazier than Dorival Caymmi." "Time doesn't buy round trip tickets. I have memories, not pinings." -Radio has become a big record player. We have no programs anymore and the remote made me lazy."
BRAZZIL - JUNE 2002
I a 0 contra "Waite tempo, '4 do tam a " na 0 o Ora
Ronatdifl -...ájoga telmoso Felipla, 'ca e gotila Alicia obi.
t-9/t5n, Final: Brazil 2 - 0 Germany
The Survivor and the Stubborn This game of football exceeds the stupidity of human militarism by the group energy and psychological coherence a team manages to create in the hopes that each Side gets its proper due with fortune's love and blessings. NORMAN MADARASZ
BRAZZIL - JUNE 2002
Sporting a hairc t to end all football haircuts, Ronaldo a survivor—brought Brazil he victory that four years ago was stripped from its over-confident so 1. After three spectacular breaks in the first, the Milan Inter striker ook advantage of a loose rebound to put the Selection ahead. Shi rtly thereafter, he sealed Brazil's victory when breaking free from scramble just outside of the penalty zone. Luiz Felipe Scol ri, Felipao or Big Phil, had been criticized for stubbornly Molding he Selection in the mode of an Italian-Brazilian agrarian patriarch. B shing aside national pressure with the agility of one of the 4Rs, incl • ing President Cardoso's own, he doggedly left out of this year's Sel ction the saving grace of Brazil, leading scorer • Romario, star of the 994 championship team. With an ironsmi h's impassibility, he hammered together a team made up of mainly ,00r kids turned into international stars in highpaying European cl bs, but who, in the process, had forgotten the collective principles • fthe beautiful game. In doing so effectively, Big Phil welded back a nation and their team in the aftermath of the mysterious fit Rona so had suffered in Paris. The ensuing investigation ofh is relationshi with Nike led to a debacle in Brazil', s professional football associations clearing h im, but exposing afield below the pitch of secret bank acco nts, tax fraud and illegal commissions. Yet by June 30, razi I had become the favorites to win the final of the 2002 World Cup. It sawthe Selection meet Germany forthe first time in World Cup histo at Japan's Yokohama International Stadium in front of 69, 029 fans. Having charmed the Japanese, a majority ofthem donning the green- d-yellow for the match, Brazil went on to stun Germany through a solid stream of creative offensive tactics. Apart from grinding the o ly game their opponents seemed to know how to set up—the technic Ily perfect cross kick and header act they had been using to effec —every successive wave of whirling forwards ground at the gut o the German technical mind.
The belly of the defensive wall was pierced, individual players forced to pivot out of position, and goalkeeper Oliver Kahn made to bend into positions his body now had trouble predicting. Then a spinning midair twirl from a superb kick by Kleberson in the closing minutes of the first beat Kahn over his right shoulder only to batter against the bar for a thirty-yard rebound that landed in empty space. It was then that Kahn seemed to lose his selfassurance. If for no other reason, Brazil won the game out of patience, returning in play after different play to challenge the overhyped top keeper of the tournament. As it were, there were more, many more reasons behind their unequivocal victory. And Brazil took the Cup by winning each of the seven games played in the course of the tournament, historically its best result. Pentacampeao!Brasil,Parabens!!
At 67 minutes, Rivaldo wound up for a long shot from center position just outside of the penalty area. Kahn dove ahead to trap it, but as he fell onto the ball, its spin bounced it brutally against his upper chest and it fled like a swordfish drawn too quicklyto boat. Ronaldo, whose relentless ball chasing had grown frenetic as the game drove on, did not lose the opportunity. Swooping in on the rebound, he caught Kahn still sprawled on the field from the save. The goalie had no chance to recover as Ronaldo barreled the ball into the lower left hand side of the net. Brazil 1-0. Back home, it seemed like the South American country had vanished momentarily in a blur of explosions, fireworks and smoke. Then at 79 minutes, following a scramble outside of the penalty zone, Ronaldo dug at a turnover controlled by Kleberson and shuttled center toward Rivaldo, who let it roll into the legs of three defensemen. With the desperate Gerald Asamoah trying to fall over the ball in lost control, Ronaldo stubbed it ahead, pivoted and snuck the ball past Kahn's left hand side again. In the wake of the second goal, the Germans were scrambling like a line of ants after seeing their scouts get murdered. Their team had been psychologically wounded. For the rest of the game, Brazil's defense merely acted I ike a mirror to conjure the Germans' panic into a flipped image. Heavily marked, both Rivaldo and Ronaldinho were suffocating for most of the gameâ€”unfairly stripping the former ofmost valuable player status. The claustrophobic treatment only left Kleberson to perfect his art, in full bloom since the brilliant victory against England in the quarterfinal. At the outset of the tournament, Felipao had desperately ' tried to replace Emerson, the team captain injured on the eve of the opener against Turkey. But he stumbled upon his discovery of splitti,ng the atom into Kleberson and Gilberto Silva only by accident. The two midfielders were instrumental in coalescing the tightest team playing Brazil had seen when Ronaldinho was unfairly sent off in the second ofthe quarterfinal thriller. Ever since then, as captain Cafu and Roberto Carlos shuttled the ball up on the-sides, the two midfielders spun concentric circles in the center, turning rival strikers into harried defensemen. On Germany's side, leading scorer Miroslave Klose was held to a fourth straight shutout, after having led the tournament with Ronaldo and Rivaldo for most goals scored. Worse, he seemed to shift his attention away from the net and toward players like Cafu, whom he kneed in the back without mention from the otherwise superb referee, Pierluigi Coll ina. But when he elbowed Edmilson in the face in a mid-air collision a few minutes later, Germany's roughneck tactics were swiftly silenced with a yellow card. To which Klose reacted two minutes later in front of a disbelieving Collina by getting into some Rivaldo-inspired theatrics, as he fell to the field on a pseudo-trip from Edmilson. The opportunity of catching Klose's maneuvering red-handed finally relieved the camera from its relentless tracking ofRivaldo as Norman Madarasz holds a Ph.D. in philosophy from the if in expectation of more of his alleged cheating. Rivaldo's self- University of Paris. He writes from Rio de Janeiro, and welcomes justification of his misplace reaction after being hit in the thigh by comments at normanmadaraszAhotm ail.com Hakan Unsal's unsportsmanly shot while waiting to kick a corner in the opener against Turkey was met by the anger only addressed Listen to the Globo radio broadcast of the second Brazilian
to a magician who reveals the secret of his tricks. In a s imi lar vein, David Beckham acted out two spectacular falls in the penalty zone during the quarterfinal against Brazil, which only the English press seemed to recognize as worthy ofthe yellow card. It only proved that play-acting is not the art in which Rivaldo excels, his antics standing out more for their eccentricity than frequency. His detractors should learn to recognized deception more acutely, especially when remaining at the mercy of what only the cameras pick up and highlight in replays. "It is natural in Brazil that to be second is to be last," Scolari lamented passionately in the post-match press conference. In his briefbut thoughtful comments, he may have succeeded better than most in drawing the ties between football, nationhood and international political relations. This manifold is determined not by the justice of who deserves to win over who does not. "The image of this Selection is one of players' courage, care, love and friendship. I'm not a politician, I don't like politics, but, by acting this way, we will always make Brazil grow," he emotionally explained. Football is not political because of the names of participating nations and their victorious triumphsâ€”these are minimal elements of which only war is based. This game of football exceeds the stupidity of human militarism by the group energy and psychological coherence a team manages to create in the hopes that each side gets its proper due with fortune's love and blessings. Perhaps the most moving sight, perfectly locked into Ronaldo's - elated tear shedding after leaving the field in the second,,was Mario Zagalo's message to him on Brazil's TV Globo post-match show. A futebol institution on his septuagenarian feet, Zagalo was himselfa scorer and key player in Brazil's first World Cup victory in 1958, and notably went on to coach the selection in their 1998 French campaign. Caught up in the controversy surrounding Ronaldo's nervous convulsion on the eve of the final, Zagalo spoke with the wisdom of history's corrective brush. Ronaldo, the fenomeno',spent two-and-ahalf years out, recuperating from a damaged knee ligament that required surgery. He had barely recovered his level of fitness by the time ofthe Selection's last friendly against Malaysia in May. But Ronaldo seemed to react to Fel i pao' s conviction that he would be the key player once again, and surged forth to blaze the fifth star on the Selection's tropical jersey. His eight goals were the most scored by a World Cup tournao ment player since 1970, and his total number of 12 has tied Pele's record. The ex-coach gazing into the survivor's eyes through the television lens assured him that 1998 had been corrected, and a long personal struggle vanquished. In what was hyped as a goalkeeper's dream encounter, it would be sad to part on the note of Kahn's error and failings. No sweetheart himself, Kahn does not deserve the blame for his team's loss as much as Brazil's Marcos does for its victory. For Brazil's outstanding offensive drive, played out with the grace of curved patterns, would hardly have obtained its style and distinction without the defense triangle's solid summit. Marcos may have been less active since Ludo, Edmilson and Roque Junior sealed the defensive cracks. By spectacularly stopping two key German shots from OliverNeuv i I le and Oliver Bierhoff, the keeper has been dubbed Sao Marcos (Saint Mark) in acknowledgement that Brazilians especially know how to confer. In the end, the five-time world champion team had no need for a savior like Romario, just vastly talented and creative irhprovisers. In a brilliant victory, the Green-and-Yellow has given the world again some of the tropical flavor of a country named BRAZZZZILLLLLL
goal by Ronaldo here: www.brazzil.com/gol.mp3 BRAZZIL -JUNE 2002
As the Italian referee, Pierluigi Collina, blew the final whistle, signalingthe end of regulation time in Japan's Yokohama stadium, millions of delirious fans around the world cried, hugged and danced, simultaneously letting out a sigh of collective relief while they watched Brazil win its fifth World Cup soccer championship. Brazil had just clinched a 2-0 victory over Germany in a much antic ipated final match. Brazil's team captain, Cafu hoisted up the FIFA World Cup trophy, cradling it like an infant in his hands. As he did so, he seemed to fulfill the hopes, dreams, and aspirations of practically every Brazilian and many a non Brazilian, who looked at this moment wit an indescribable joy. It was not just victory for Brazil, but really for the who! game. While fireworks exploded in th background, Cafu and his teammates ha every reason to be ecstatic. Putting be hind them a ghost from the past, in th form of the unfortunate loss in the 199 World Cup to France, they had rightfull claimed their stake as the greatest socce playing nation in the world. This June 30, Brazilians becamepent campeaes, five time champions. Hundred of millions of people, in every time zon gathered around their television sets many bursting into a sort of imprompt global party, tuning into the mostwatche sporting event on the planet, (an esti mated more than 1.5 billion people watche the final game live) With emotions running high in Brazil, crowds spilled into the streets, beaches and city centers to join in the euphoria that would sweep every part of this great nation for at least the next few days. During the final match, churches postponed masses, businesses remained shuttered, and traffic virtually ceased to exist as the entire country came to a standstil , glued to watch their team play thousands of miles away, in the first World Cup championships to be held on Asia soil. For ninety minutes, the world witnesses Brazil's original and unique way of pla ing soccer, jogo bonito, the beautif 1 game! The victory couldn't have ben sweeter as it also marked a milestone n soccer history. Brazil is the only nation n the world to win the FIFA World C p championship five times. These inclu e wins in 1958, 1962, 1970, 1994 and no 2002. The Beginning The World Cup's origin goes back 1904, to the formation of the Federati Internationale de Football Associati (FIFA), when European football assoc tions from France, Belgium, Denm Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and Sw tzerland banded loosely together to cre te a transnational football body. FIFA wo Id hold the first World Cup competition in 1930, in Montevideo, Uruguay. The a
BRAZZIL -1 JNE 2002
Top of the World Brazil triumphs at the jogo bonito, beautiful game, again. An estimated 1.5 billion people watched the final game live. Hundreds of millions of people, in every time zone gathered around their television sets, many bursting into a sort of impromptu global party. BENJAMIN D'SOUZA
of the competition was to determine the best soccer playing nation in the world. Only four European teams played in the first competition. The lack of convenient mass transportation and other logistical hurdles made the first few decades of the FIFA World Cup a narrowaffair. Brazil itthe only country that participated in every single World Cup since its beginning. Played every four years since then (except during World War!!), today the FIFA World Cup has become a truly global championship, with qualifying matches starting as early as two years before the actual month of the final competition. As weaker teams are eliminated in a league format, the final group selection (groups determine how teams are paired up in the opening matches of the competition) is greeted with much interest in practically every corner on the earth.
FOLHA DE S.PAULO
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The 2002 Games In the 2002 competition Brazil found itself in a group nested with Costa Rica, Turkey and China. With an "easy" group selection, Brazil was expected to at least make it to the next knockout stage of the competition, which is after the league Pentacam de stage. Not much was expected beyond todos os copboentes that point. To say Brazil has come a long way would be an understatement. After almost being eliminated in the qualifying round, Brazil went through dozens of players and four coaches before deciding on the final player and coach selection, which would represent it at the 2002 FIFA World Cup being jointly hosted by Korea and Japan. Their first opening match brought forth an average performance against Turkey, which was considered a reasonESTADO DE S PAULO ably strong European contender. After this initially hiccup, Brazil went on to 0 maior campeao do mundo finish at the top of their group, as subsequent wins over China and Costa Rica came more easily. A 2-0 win over Belgium in the knockout stage, saw Brazil pitted against England in the quarter-finals. England, another much touted team in this competition, could not hold up against the relentless Brazilian onDIARIO DE S.PAULO slaught and despite conceding a goal 4,1"le early on in the game, due to a tragic error by a Brazilian defender, Brazil recovered to win 2-1. In the semi-finals Brazil faced Turkey again. However this time around, the Brazilians were more prepared and even a spirited Turkish fight would not hold as Brazil emerged victorious to meet Germany in the final, t was the first ever match up between the two giants. Germany is a three time World Cup winner against Brazil's four previous wins (excluding 2002).
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If there were three names, which dismantled an opponent's defenses in the 2002 championship, they would have to be Brazilian strikers Ronaldo, Rivaldo and Ronald inho. The triangular offense they created managed to evade and eventually defeat everyteam that Brazil would play. Their combination of both individual skill and a synchronized effort, allowed Brazil to channel a lethal attack from which most opponents could not recover. Ronaldo would score eight goals in the 2002 FIFA World Cup, earning him the Golden Boot award © (given to the highest goal scorer in the tournament). Affectionately called the "phenomenon", comparisons between Ronaldo and Pele (the Brazilian considered to be the best soccer player to have ever played the game) abound, and probably will continue to be made in the future. Ronaldinho, another forward, proved his mettle in the game against England, when a free kick he made 35 yards from the goal, snaked its way over the English goalkeeper and gave Brazil the lead. He would prove to be crucial in Brazil's front-flanked strategy. Rivaldo, the third person in the three-man Brazilian offense, had his own share of goals which.tallied five when the competition ended in Yokohama. In the month that the competition was held, each of the three men would become household names, and the subject of numerous coffee shop conversations everywhere. Collectively, called the three Rs, they worked effectively to break down defenses previously thought to be unbeatable.
The 2002 Final In the final match, after a goal-less first half against a resilient German defense and several near misses, the Brazilians seemed to concede control of the ball to the German side much of the time. However, in the 67th minute, Ronaldo put the team ahead, with a quick shot into the net off a deflection, from the German goalkeeper, Kahn. Twelve minutes later, a pass from the right forward confused the German defense, when Rivaldo faked a shot at goal. Instead he simply skipped over the ball. The ball now found its way to Ronaldo, who skillfully kicked it past the goalkeeper and found the net. Germany's fate was sealed and the Brazilians never looked back. Brazil, is probably the only country in the world where the actions of the na-
Na catedral da Copa, os caedt raiecs '(It) penta
BRAZZIL - JUNE 2002
Brazil 2 England 1 tional soccer coach are scrutinized more than its leading political leaders. Brazil's samba-style soccer, has endeared it to fans around the world. It includes a graceful handling of the ball, using quick short passes, punctuated with sudden unexpected flashes of individual brilliance. When the current coach, Luiz Felipe Scolari, was selected for the Brazilian squad he knew he had his work cut out. With an uncompromising Brazilian press, he went into the competition knowing all too well the team's shortcomings. What he did have on his side was that he was not coaching just any team. This was Brazil. In the vast country, which samba calls home, soccer is more than a game. It's a part of the national psyche and identity. (Pele often jokes that Brazilian children first learn to use their legs with a ball, before they learn to use them to walk) Scolari, repeatedly had one comment for the Brazilian press as his team inched their way to the final. He used only one word. "Believe!" Maybe now they just will. As Henry Winter wrote in Great Britain's Sports Telegraph: "The No 9 with the panther's instincts enchanted all of Brazil by sweeping them to a fifth World Cup. He gained the gratitude of the watching world for making the closing night of this Oriental drama so fascinating and for showing that skill and adventure have a role to play on a stage dominated by coaches' strategies.(...) That is why Brazil's triumph is so important. Their people cherish this trophy and they do it great honour by chasing it with such wit and enterprise. That is why Ronaldo cried, why their players knelt in prayer offering up thanks for this magical moment, why Rio convulsed into an early carnival. As long as there is life in Brazilian football, the world's game will reign. If Germany had prevailed, the face of football would have carried a look of frustration, not elation."
The Gaucho's Wild Ride Lined with the finest set of strikers in the worldâ€”the "Three R's" of Rivaldo, Ronaldo and Ronaldinhoâ€” all Brazil lacked was to play like a team. NORMAN MADARASZ
Brazil's youngest football superstar had been playing a background role to the national team's uneven performance in FIFA's 2002 World Cup. Although providing Rivaldo with a textbook perfect pass that led to the first of the Selection's two goals, and eliminating Belgium in the process, Ronaldinho Gaucho still lay in the shadows. He had yet to demonstrate the dashing dribbles with which he has been thrilling fans ofthe Paris Saint-Germain this year. Only true football diehards would have seen these highlights re-transmitted on Brazilian TV. For the rest ofthe country, the promising Ronaldinho had simply vanished. Back in 1999, Ronaldo de AssisMoreira was part ofthe champion Gremio team from the southern Gaucho state of Rio Grande do Sul, before being transferred to Manchester United. After suffering knee problems, his ties to the dream of European club success started to flounder. Parting paths with Manchester, he ended being barred from playing as his future wove its way from negotiation to rejection with a handful of interested teams. The 22-year-old striker first came to prominence during Brazil's 1999 Copa America victory, and then as leading striker in the Confederations Cup of the same year. When at last rid of the red tape, Ronaldinho reappeared and reemerged in Paris, France. In the meantime, his muscle density had been pumped prominently to provide flying buttresses to his spiraling attacks. Brazil entered its semi-final confrontation with England almost with its collective head bowed. Following a truly pitiful performance against Belgium but for the last ten minutes when victory was sealed, the world's sports press went on to declare Brazil unworthy ofbeating Beckham's boys. In the vindictive verses ofFrance's L'Equipe, and Italy, Spain and Argentina's press, Brazil won its match in the Round of 16 mainly with the referee's help. When Belgian captain Wilmots went up for a header late in dying minutes of the first half and sunk the ball past Marcos, the referee ruled out the goal. In what could only be de-
Benjamin D'Souza (firstname.lastname@example.org ), is a writer who lives and works in Toronto, Canada. His interests include traveling and Latin America. 1 .3
BRAZZIL - JUNE 2002
scribed as a discreet hold committed against defenseman defenseman lost control as it bounced from his chest— Roque Junior, the referee admitted later to erring on the call. with Owen crawling up his back. As Marcos sprinted out As much as the Brazilian "Selection" have recognized of the zone to slam down Owen's range, the Liverpool the many problems afflicting the team, the avowal has only striker clipped one just over the tips ofhis miscalculating transformed them psychologically into underdogs—or fingers. 'zebras' in local parlance. Uncharacteristically lined with As for the living link between England's football the finest set of strikers in the world—the "Three R's" of culture and pop trends, Beckham's passing was meaRivaldo, Ronaldo and Ronaldinho—with midfield charged sured astutely with balls cutting through the air in up by dervish Roberto Carlos, the team is capped by a beautiful,geometric patterns. Still, the perfection of the keeper as famous for the kiss that converts his crossImperial system wilted when faced with the fuzzy logic of signing as for the spider-like grip he uses to immobilize the the samba strikers as Ronaldinho burstthrough England's ball. All Brazil lacked was to play like a team. defense at 39 minutes, passing to Rivaldo only after Some would add that what they needed was to confront having completely drawn four defensemen off balance. a team that mattered. England, flying high from the massacre Rivaldo's left foot tore Seamen's arms beyond extension, of the Danish court, had everything it took to frame Brazil hopping underneath and filling in the lower left corner of in a mock comedy. At times England appeared stricken by the net. Hamlet's doubt. Judging by the look on keeper Seaman's Ronaldinho's free kick, 5 minutes into the second ; face, the King's ghost itself was guiding Ronaldinho's 39half, trumped the defending Englishmen, who were eviyard free-kick as it stretched into a gravity defying curve to dently expecting across. As the ball tied Seaman's limbs seek out the upper heights of the net. Not that the kick left into a mariner's knot, Brazil's jogo bonito, beautiful team England asking the perennial Shakespearean quesgame, turned into the world's most exciting show. tion. It was Hamlet beckoning inShades of the 1970 final, instead, as if bowing to their masters: deed. Captain Cafu, who had "Speak to us, Ronaldinho, for thou warned the weak-hearted to sleep art a scholar!" through the game (broadcast at As if to correct the well-publi3:30 AM Rio time), could not temcized issue of overly sympathetic per the smile pasted on his face. referees to Brazil's team, Felipe "We won it for Ronaldinho," he Ramos Rizo sought neutrality, which said. The Gaucho's wild ride actually provided Beckham with brought the Selection the key rush some touch proof whistle blowing. and pass for the tying goal, and the After having dashed France's hopes free-kick winner. Yet for the fans in the qualifying round by dismissback home, perhaps most imporRONA I IAN II ing Thierry Henry 15 minutes into tant was the redemption he brought their second match, Mexican referee to the team in this victory. With Rizo now decided to send the Gadcho punishing refereeing against the + star off for a walk. The fancy footer Selection, grounds for claiming from the PSG had just confused favoritism were wiped clean. Danny Mill's foot with the ball in Nor was there the shame of what was clearly an unintentional hyper-individualist brilliance foul, although a recurrent one. He gained only at the expense of team Afrp,a4Tur,wirytk,loplpdo pentacampronato Mt Ilditia112,4:iJ hktlitiaJni COrmi will side with this thought while cohesion. Big Phil's greatest vicsitting out the semi-final match tory finally happened with the peragainst Turkey. fect oscillation of a team whose This is also why a yellow card looseness he profoundly believes would have slapped the appropriate is the source of its creative explohand. But in dismissing Ronaldinho, sions, but whose fabric had thus to the amazement and panic of his far fallen short of ideal tautness. teammates, the referee converted the red into a green card Still an underdog whose every step is chained to for Brazil to tighten up their failing group dynamic into PrOmethean tasks? Big Phil would not have it any other claustrophobic cohesion against which England's clamorway. History may have dribbled strange psychological ing charge came to nil. reversals in this Cup. After all, France had fanned in an Midfielder Kleberson, replacingJuninho following the inverse repetition to what Brazil had suffered in the 1998 latter's confused performance against Belgium, not only final when their star player was reduced by injury. And aligned Brazil's defense in a block formation the team had now impermeable defense squads shifted sides under only hallucinated about achieving. He also pushed the the dramatic strain ofa 30-minute 1 I -to-10-man game. reduced 10-man squad up into the opponent's end for at ' By contrast, the results of 1970 when Brazil put least halfofthe 30 minutes ofgrace England was bestowed. England away at 1-0, as 81bs of each player were dediBrazil's coach Filipao, "Big Phil," then made the key cated to the scorching afternoon Mexican sun, is a change to his performance in this Cup. In a move to relieve constant the whole country has joyously relived. Ronaldo from a painful knee and suffocating 3-man mark Bmzll paralyzing him for most ofthe game, Scolari sent in Edilson. Drawing nimble arabesques around the stumbling English Norman Madarasz is Docteur en philosophie from defense and midfielders, the former Flamengo striker had the Universite de Paris and works as a communications them wondering whether he would be sprinting forward or consultant out of Rio de Janeiro. Apart from publishback. And the court jester kept the ball at safety's distance ing philosophy research, he regularly writes political from the penalty area. and economic analysis for CounterPunch and Outlook Much earlier in a seemingly different game, Michael (India). He welcomes comments at Owen managed England's on lygoal on what was a backfield normanmadarasz@hotmail corn. error committed by the otherwise impeccable Lucio. As the ball was shot forward from midfield, the Bayer Leverkusen
FOLHA DE MAO
Brasil busca titui — o e hegemonia
BRAZZIL - JUNE 2002
We all want Brazil to win the World Cup. And it's not just because we don't like the Germans. Defeating the Germans will be a triumph of flair over efficiency, of passion over rationality, of the Third World over the First. The triumph will show that Brazil is a contender, not just in football, but in the modern world. Or so we like to believe. However, there is an ugly side to the jogo bonito, the beautiful game, and, if Brazil wins on Sunday, this side has the most to gain. The biggest loser could be Brazil itself. Before the World Cup started, I spoke to Tostao, who played for Brazil's glorious 1970 team and has subsequently become the country' s most eloquent football writer. "A good performance in the Cup will delay vital reforms," he told me. "The party atmosphere will mean that the need for change is forgotten."! spoke to Socrates too, from Brazil's classy class of1982, who despite— or perhaps because of—his name has internalized his role as football's philosopher. "For things to really improve, perhaps what is required is a great humiliation," he said, "like Brazil being knocked out in the first round." Would Bobby Moore have ever spoken so positively about England losing? Brazil was run by a dictatorship betwebn 1964 and 1985. Its first presidential election was held in 1989. In the past 13 years much has changed—the country is slowly becoming a modern democracy. But of the few parts of Brazilian life that have been impervious to change the most visible—and symbolic—is the world of football. The men in charge behave just the way the dictators did, with arrogance, incompetence and impunity. Look what happened in 1994, the last time Brazil won the World Cup. The victorious team flew back from the US to Rio with 15 tons of baggage, mostly of electronic goods bought by the players and the CBF (Confederacio Brasileira de Futebol—Brazilian Football, Confederation) entourage. On arrival at customs, Ricardo Teixeira, the CBF president, demanded that the products pass through without inspection, thereby saving huge sums on duty. He said that the team would refuse to parade if they were not allowed to pass. The matter was resolved only when the government intervened. The team was allowed through, and despite a public outcry, the CBF got away with it. The incident illustrates the CBF's attitude. "Ethics," according to their catchphrase, "is for philosophers?' The CBF is power-hungry, self-serving and greedy. It is not interested in setting a good example,
Damn, Brazil Won! A Good Reason Why Brazil Should Have Lost the World Cup For its own sake Brazil should have lost Bringing the World Cup home will be a triumph for corruption. (This article was written before the world knew the result of the final between Germany and Brazil.) ALEX BELLOS
in helping the country or its dispossessed millions. It breaks the law without fear of the judiciary—possibly because it has funded trips to the World Cup for judges and their wives. Funding political campaigns means it has Congress in its pocket too. The "football lobby"—powerful enough to block legislation—is one of the most reactionary groups in Parliament. When the national team is doing well, no one minds the corruption. But when the team plays badly, public pressure grows. That's what happened two years ago, when the under-23s' defeat by Cameroon in the Olympics combined with disgust at Nike's sponsorship of the national team and lingering doubts ab9ut what happened to Ronaldo in the 1998 World Cup, provoked two parliamentary inquiries. It was the first time football had been the subject of such high-level investigations. The inquiries found that much of Nike's millions had disappeared and recommendedthat more than 30 people should be prosecuted. Ricardo Teixeira was accused of 13 crimes, including tax evasion, withholding information, giving misleading information, lying on his tax return and using CBF money for his private needs. But instead of resigning, Teixeira con•tinues as if nothing had happened and Brazil's success in Japan and Korea has strengthened his position. Internationally it gives him more power within FIFA (Federation Internationale de Football Association), where he is aligning himself to be Sepp B latter's successor. That men like Teixeira are brought to account is important for Brazil, where football is the greatest symbol of nationality. How can Brazilians feel truly proud as a nation if their cherished sport is seen as rotten to the core? One of the consequences of the recent football inquiries was a bill signed by President Fernando Henrique Cardoso a fortnight ago to force football clubs to abide by ethical business practices. It is the first step in trying to clean out the sleaze. Other changes will come as the process of democratization continues. Only one thing now will accelerate their arrival: a good drubbing by Germany. If Brazil wins, the reforms will be put on hold and Teixeira will have the last laugh. Alex Bellos is the author of FUTEBOL: Soccer, the Brazilian Way (Bloomsbury, May 2002). He is the correspondent in Brazil for the British paper The Guardian (www.guardian.co.uk) and can be reached at alex.bellosQeuardian.co.uk 15
BRAZZIL - JUNE 2002
IN PRAISE OF FUTEBOL To the rest of the world the big news this week is not a possible war between Pakistan and India but the World Cup in Seoul, Korea. We recently returned from a trip to France. While there when I told the French. -.le suis their faces would light up and they immediately assumed I knew everything about the upcomin World Cup. How could you be a Brazilian an not know? I knew enough that France had a chance at the championship (Senegal took care of that) and Brazil had a poor chance. Americans do not appreciate that soccer or futebol is agame that takes no money to play. no special equipment or fields. It is asport available to the poorest country, and the poorest child. Nor do you need to be a Neanderthal. As a child in Rio, my birthplace, I often saw kids make a ball of old newspapers and play on the streetsâ€”both free. The beaches to this day are their playground. Every kid could play. I remember ayoung black kid with one leg and the cheapest, crudest set ofcrutches, playingfutebo/ on the beach. He fell a lot but he played. Pele, one of the world's greatest. came from a poor orphanage. Not being great soccer enthusiasts somehow separates the United States from the rest of the world. Perhaps our new immigrant population will change that. You are invited to participate in thisdialogue Write to Letters to the Publisher P 0 Box 50536 Los Angeles,CA90050-0536 or send E-mail to email@example.com
LAND OF THE FREE? On Sunday, June 30,1 went to celebrate with my Brazilian brothers and sisters at the intersection of Broadway & Steinway Street in Astoria. It was about 9 AM and there were many Brazilians with flags cheering in each corner of the intersection notblocking traffic. Soon a huge amount of New York Police Department officers from the 114th Precinct landed at the place with their sticks out. Asking for the cars not to honk their horns and to put away the Brazilian flags. Also, they told the people in the corners to disperse and "go to the patios of your houses, to the parks but not here. If you don't move we will have to arrest you." I believe our constitution grants us the right to congregate. This was a peaceful crowd that wanted to celebrate the victory of the World Cup. They were not drinking and they were not violent. They were tax-paying families whose children are learning to not like the NYPD. I wonder if the NYPD would have had the same reaction if it was the World Series. What happened to their Community Affairs staff?
Manuel Lacayo S. Ozone Park, New York DANCE TIME Our thanks to the Brazilian football team for their wonderful display of football. When it is football the favorite are always the Brazilians forus. Celebrations began in Calicut too and have not yet ended. Sunday night was simply terrific, hundreds of people streamed into the streets waving Brazilian flags and posters of Brazilian players. Some youngsters even painted their face in green and yellow and danced to the tune of music, fireworks cracked across the sky. The victory sparkled wild scenes of celebrations at Calicut beach also where cars drove blaring horns loudly paying homage to the Brazilian team.
Vasisht.M.C. Calicut, India GO, BRAZIL As a German I'm very proud that Brazil made it to the final of the 2002 Worldcup! Wish you all the luck!
Karl G. Rum pel Germany
George Pichel Dana Point, California
RACIST? NOT US. Your piece on musician Wilson Simonal ("In the Black List" -http://vvww.brazzil.com/ p07iu100.htm) sounds like bad American propaganda. There is no racism at all involving Simonal. I knew him personally. Brazilians are not racist. Of course, he dated blonde and very young girls, but who doesn't? I do, and lots of Brazilians do it too, and it is not necessary to be rich and famous to do this. Ipersonal ly don't believe he was involved with the military regime, but who knows. Only he and God can answer that. Bad things happen anywhere. Even right here in the USA there is a lot of injustice going on.
Via Internet waldyrmOaoLcorn SOUNDS SWEET We would like to thank Brazzi/magazine for the article on Ney Matagrosso ("Sweet Sixty"
- www.brazzil.com/musmay02.htm) last month. Kirsten's article was very informative and is the best that we have read on the singer. She really shows good insight and expertise in her piece on Ney and she is a really good writer as demonstrated by her writings for Brazzil. Brian C and Carminha
Salvador, Bahia, Brazil
NOT SO BEAUTIFUL GAME lam not a Brazilian, but I thinkyourwebsite is simply amazing. It is a true wonder that the Brazilian football team made me want to discover your website even more. The Brazilians came to Malaysia and managed to beat our boys by 4-0. Congratulations! I am more concerned about what happens to the football clubs in Brazil and Mr Alex Bel los ("More than a game a soul trip- - WWVv.brazzil.com/p27may02.htm) makes a strong point that the football clubs have succumbed to high level corruption. I simply think that I need more information on this article. I am a student and I intend to base my research on corruption in this story. Ronaldo, The Phenomenon himself, is rather quiet about this case, but I think it is good to inform a wider audience about his suffering. I simply think that corruption is a real nightmare. I wi libe taking, my business ethics course this semester and I ' (like to get Mr. Alex Bello's e-mail address so that I will contact him directly and get clear, fresh, first-hand information
FINALLY Hello Bruce, The reason I'm writing you today is to tell you that Ijust got a hold of Brazzil's issue with Trio Mocot6 story ("Unerring Light" - http://www.brazzil.com/ musapr02.htm) and really enjoyed. I've been a huge Jorge Ben/Chico BuarqueNinicius fan (60s and 70s) and is ,reat to see them getting some serious recognition after so many years (in the dark). Keep up the great work. Paz.
RoccoE3idlovski Los Angeles, California
ORPHEUS AFICIONADO Love your magazine! I've been reading it for a few years now. lam ajazz aficionado who was introduced to Brazilian music and culture through my love of jazz and bossa nova music. From those experiences I have broadened my knowledge of true Brazilian music and culture through the cinema; music from the great Brazilian musicians and composers; books; and of course, your interestingly beautiful magazine.
Kevin A. Johnson Union City, Georgia bopdoc1018Ahotmail.com
Lina Via Internet
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Votes for Sale For all its self-congratulatory slaps on the back, the Brazilian marketeering establishment is not without its sins. Some even believe that it's time to doubt its own hype. FRANCESCO NEVES
From 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. on October 6, Brazilians will be going to the polls to choose a new president, after eight years of Fernando Henrique Cardoso, who, according to the Constitution cannot be reelected a second time. If necessary, there will be a second round on October 27. Since in Brazil, the vote is not only a right but most ofallan obligation very few souls will skip their duty. Three months before the elections there are four main contestants: Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva (the front-runner opposition candidate), Jose Serra (the President's choice), Ceara's exgovernor Ciro Gomes and Rio's former governor Anthony Garotinho. To a less attentive observer, however, it seems sometimes that the candidates are only two and that their names are Jose Eduardo (Dtida) Mendonca and Nizan Guanaes, both marketing wizards. Mendonca has dramatically changed the way da Silva dresses and presents himself. He is the presidential candidate's marketing consultant. This is the fourth consecutive time that the former union leader runs for the presidency, always 5 coming as a strong second. It started in the 1989 election when Lula lost to ; Fernando Collor de Mello, who ended up being impeached on corruption charges, in 1991. Then, twice the PT (Partido dos Trabalhadoresâ€”Workers' Party) candidate lost to the sitting president, Fernando Henrique Cardoso. Before Mendonca's ;. intervention, Lula had appealed to his rough and unrefined charm, wearing bargain clothes and an uncultivated beard. ' Duda has pared down Lula's beard, furnished his wardrobe and toned down the - candidate's candor, rage and rhetoric. Guanaes took the challenge to sell former Health Minister, Jose Serra, an uninspired and non-charismatic politician who was a senator from Sao Paulo before I joining Cardoso's cabinet as Health Minister. Despite all the government machinery in his favor Serra has been rising very slowly in the polls, never threatening ; Lula's leadership, who has maintained an , advantage of 20 percentage points over his opponent. Guanaes and Mendonca are celebrities in their own right. They have won !innumerable prizes for their advertising icompanies. To add a savory twist in this !dispute, Guanaes and Mendonca are two Baianos (from northeastern Bahia state) who made good in the South of the country and Guanaes once was Mendonca's employee. Mendonca better known simply as Duda, wasalready a well-known publicist when young Guanaesâ€”call him Nizanâ€” knocked on his agency's door looking for a job. Nizan would soon buy his master's business, the DM9 advertising agency, and transfer it to Sao Paulo. While Guanaes went on to become an internationally known and much-awarded ad professional, Mendonca has been dedicating most of his time to political cam-
18 BRAZZIL - JUNE 2002
paigns and consulting for political candidates. Is this a dispute between creature and creator? This is a notion that Guanaes tries to dispel. "Beyond the fact that he is the biggestname of the Brazilian political marketing, Duda Mendonca is my professional father." That's what Guanaes wrote in the preface of Casos e Coisas (Cases and Things) Mendonca's book released last year. Right, Left and in Between
talking properly." "I would never ask a politician to change glasses or the way he dresses," answered Nizan, nitpicking on Duda, who in 1992 convinced candidate Paulo Maluf to change the glasses, which the marketeer considered too heavy. Leonel Brizola, president of the leftist PDT (Partido Democratic° Trabalhista Democratic Labor Party)and on the tick with Lula as vice-president in the 199 elections, says in his feisty style that Lul has become practically a traitor: "Ifl m t Lula in the street today I wouldn't reco nize him, as much as he has changed h s way of dressing, the impeccable hair. le barely has a beard these days, he trimme so much that it became a downy beard. e now has an affected tone of voice and h s language became too sophisticated." Paulo de Tarso da Cunha Santos, t e man who created the memorable Lula a (Lula There)—the 'there' being the Palk o do Planalto, the Brazilian White House presidential campai jingle for the 1989 is now taking care ofthe PSDB (Partido a Social Democracia Brasileira—Party if Brazilian Social Democracy) image. Thai's the party of President Fernando Henriq e Cardoso. Cunha Santos also plays the hidi g game, even though he confided to frien s that he did not vote for Lula in 1998.0 e ofhis favorite sayings, "I'm against mag c, but in favor of enchantment."
For Mendonca, Guanaes, and Paulo de Tarso da Cunha Santos, who constitute the Holy Trinity of Brazil's political campaign gurus, their main product in the few weeks before the elections will be politicians. Nobody seems to worry that like politicians they change their allegiance according to the winds of opportunism. Duda, now in charge of the presidential campaign of leftist leader Lula, is the same who in 1992 shaped the campaign of right wing Paulo Salim Maluf, who ended up winning as mayor of Sao Paulo, South America's largest city, with a population of morethan 10 million people. Malufhas been a fierce foe of Lula and the Workers' Party and in 2000, in a particularly mean and dirty campaign, lost the Sao Paulo mayoralty to PT's candidate, Marta Suplicy. A good adman does not make public the products he favors. Pressed to tell whom he is going to vote for, Duda says, "I'm too intelligent a marketeer to reveal such a thing." Nizan is also very reticent. When asked to reveal his real political This Lady is for you preferences he says, "When people ask me this kind of question I quote Cacilda Guanaes doesn't even like to be aBecker (actress and stage producer, 19211969), "Don't ask me for something free be led a marketeer. "Marketeer? Not me," that I have to sell." Does he lean to the left he uses to say with a touch of irony. or to the right? "I'm for the middle," he "Marketeer is Duda. I'm a publicity professional. I only work with easy candianswers. Guanaes and Mendonca don't miss dates, people I believe in. When the case an opportunity to throw jabs at each gets complicated they call Duda." And he other. During the recent Sao Paulo adds, "It's nonsense to say that you can Maxivoto, an international meeting on sell a candidate like a beer or margarin e." It was like a beer, however, that marketing—among the participants there were BillClinton's marketeer, Dick Morris Guanaes tried to sell the idea of a woman and George W. Bush's media adviser as the next president of Brazil. The adman Mark McKinnon—Guanaes made fun of was behind the overnight surge of Mendonca, who said he had accepted to Roseana Sarney, the governor of Mawork in Lula' s campaign because the PT ranhao, as a viabJe candidate to the presidency. candidate had matured. In January, Guanaes put on the air an "I have also matured in the last few year," said Guanaes, "but this doesn't ad for Roseana Sarney that would promean that I'm prepared to run the coun- voke cartoons, essays and all kinds of notes in the media. In it, the then presitry." On that same occasion, Duda com- dential hopeful appeared ebullient And plained that Nizan was spreading jokes light in an MTV-like clip, with festive about the PT, comparing the party to the music and an air of celebration. Smiling Taliban. Duda also criticized those who and confident, Maranhao's governor are questioning Lula for showing up al- raised the index finger in a gesture that in ways wearing suit and tie: "Before, people Brazil means number one. It seemed like a would blast Lula because he didn't dress beer TV spot. It was-a beer spot. Plagiawell and was too radical. Now they vilify rized from a memorable campaign sta lled him because he is dressing nicely and in 1991 for Brahma beer, which put the BRAZZIL - JUNE 2002
whole country pointingthe finger up to denote first place. In a few weeks, from practically unknown, Ms Sarney was threatening in the polls the leadership of Lula. "It makes lots of sense," pointed a piece that circulated in the Internet. "Maranhao, after all, is first in the poverty index, in illiteracy, in infant mortality, in school evasion, and as the worst distribution of GDP." Writing in Veja, Brazil's largest-circulation magazine, essayist Roberto Pompeu de Toledo commented: "You don't see any beer, but whoever remember the Brahma spot—and who doesn't?—will have his mind invaded by images of bottles being opened and glasses being raised in celebration, swallows being deliciously pushed down the hatch and running foam. The spot is the apbtheotic marriage of politics with barley and hops, of the "little blondie" with the intention to vote, of the pleasure and the high with the ballot. PT House Representative Aloizio Mercadante made fun of the TV ad commenting, "It's a danger that Roseana mixes her presidential hopes with beer because the voter will end up thinking that he can only vote for her if intoxicated." Despite being the head of one of the poorest and worst managed states in Brazil and the daughter of a discredited former president (Jose Sarney, 1985-1990), Ms Sarney, thanks to a barrage of TV ads, went in a few weeks to the top of the polls, in the biggest challenge so far to Lula's first place. Her hopes were short lived, however, since she became involved in a scandal dealing with stacks of illegally obtained cash for the financing of her campaign. Roseana and her aides were never. able to explain the origin of the money and the whole effort fizzled as fast as an opened beer bottle. Duda seems to thrive in missions impossible. After orchestrating Paulo Maluf s campaign for mayor of Sao Paulo, four years later he was also able to make from Celso Pita, Maluf s unknown Finance Secretary, his successor in City Hall. He doesn't see any incompatibility and incoherence in the causes he embraces. "I have a style. I don't use low blows, dirty tricks, or lies. And I refuse to work with certain candidates," he says without disclosing who is on his blacklist. The same Duda has faced a series of failures in the 1998 elections though. ' Candidates who he worked for in Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Minas Gerais and Goias, all lost. These disasters, however, haven't dampened his prestige. Hard-Sell Candidate Nizan had promised not to embark on 19
another political campaign, but he could not resist the temptation of being in the spotlight. President Cardoso was trying to enlist him to join the Serra effort even when Guanaes was producing the snazzy spots for Roseana. "I'll do anything that Fernando Henrique Cardoso asks me to," admitted the publicist. He even found an explanation for having helped Ms Sarney, who had become a serious threat to the government candidate. "I haven't changed my candidate. It happens that Roseana was linked to a party allied to the government. When it became clear that we would have serious differences, I placed myself where I have been these last eight years: beside Fernando Henrique Cardoso." And, on another occasion, he added, "I'm going to do this for my children. The world has become a tough place and we have to help the country." Guanaes admits that it was a big mistake to have worked for the Jose Serra campaign for mayor of Sao Paulo in 1996, another occasion on which cordial foes Nizan and Duda were in direct warfare. And now that he is again working for Serra, the adman talks about the difficulty of the task: "Serra is no Our Lady of Congeniality. Lula is more congenial, but he is also less prepared for the presidency." For the publicist, his choice as government candidate for the presidency would have been Tasso Jereissati, the PSDB governor of Ceara state, whom he considers charismatic. Serra has been such a hard sell that the Cardoso administration almost went into panic mode. According to weekly newsmagazine Ivo E, the despair among the government allies was so acute in recent weeks that some suggested that the President should try do change the law so he could run for a third time. But Cardoso, who has already benefited from a change in the legislation that allowed him to be reelected, nixed the idea. Lula, for months, has kept the first ranking in the polls, hovering around 40 percent, while Serra, the government candidate only in June was able to reach a little above 20 percent. The economy, however, has not reacted too well to the PT candidate's success. The opposition, on the other hand, seems interested in linking Lula' s good ratings to the increase in the dollar, the fall of the stock market and the record peaks for the socalled Brazil risk, measured by the J.P. Morgan EMB I (Emerging Markets Bond Index). That index had risen to 1,770 points on June 21. The risk factor has become an important index, divulged daily by the main Brazilian publications. Thanks to this Brazil became the riskiest country in the world losing only to Argentina with 6,362 points. Right behind Brazil are Nigeria and Ecuador, in the third and fourth places respectively. This index is calculated using the difference, in centesimal percentage point, between the 20
interest paid by the US Treasure bonds they can blow up in their laps and this will (considered zero risk) and the interest not serve anyone. Because we are losing paid by the country's debt conversion credibility, we are playing with serious bond. According to investors, the bigger stuff, and soon we will really lose the the index the bigger the chances for a control of everything in this country." country to declare a moratorium. Lula has also turned his guns against A Brazil risk of1770 points means that those he calls "foreign loan sharks. They a foreign investor demands an interest are carrying out terrorism against Brazil rate of 17.7 percent a year above what a with the government's help." He also US T-Bond pays yearly to buy a Brazilian said he wOuld not surrender to internaforeign debt bond. On June 21 the 30-year tional pressures to present his governUS Treasure bond was paying 5.3 percent ment program: "I'm not the president and a year, meaning that the expected interest I cannot take any initiative under the for the Brazilian paper was 23 percent. pretext of saving Brazil. The speculators Tired of being made scapegoats for all are not worried with millions ofhealthless the bad new in the economic front, the PT Brazilians, with the jobless or youngsters leaders reacted angrily. June 12, House without an opportunity. We will present Representative Aloizio Mercadante de- our government program to the Brazilnounced a complot to blame the Workers ians. To the speculators I have nothing to Party for the country's economic woes: say." "There is a serious problem with the public finances," he declared. "After eight Too Many Polls years in which our foreign and public debts went out of control, the governThe owner of ad agency W/Brasi I, ment tries to transfer this responsibilityt Washington Olivetto, one the high priests to the election and to Lula. Our party has of the Brazilian ad world, has harshly to be careful to prevent such a plot and , criticized the way marketing is being used has to make clear to the population that , in politics. Writing in the daily Folha de the government is responsible for ;this. Sdo Paulo on June 9, he blasted the media crisis." for naïvely attributing miraculous powMarta Suplicy, the mayor ofSao Paulo, ers to marketeers: "What is perhaps more who is also a petista (from the PT), went surprising, however, is the naïveté of tip to radio to try to calm her constituents: candidates who start to think that in order "Lula has publicly been defending the , to be elected they need to become the currency's stability, the respect to con- character that someone told them they tracts, fiscal responsibility, the search for t, should look at the eyes of the consumer." the primary surplus, inflation control and 4 And he continues: "The daily and the opening of our currency. The present weekly voracity of newspapers, magafragility ofthe country will end when Lula zines, radios and TV stations lead the is elected," she concluded. media to use every poll—when it doesn't Mercadante also blamed international have one, it creates its own—to generate speculators for the sinister economic cli- headlines. It publishes and divulges inmate. "There is a wing from the govern- formation that is less than forecast or ment party and from the administration premonitions, little more than nothing. It itself working on the basis of the worse tells millions of citizens what a few hunthe better, which is the strategy of inter- dred ill-informed and ill-questioned national speculators," he said. "It's not Misterjohns and Mistressmarys anby chance that these speculators with swered they would do if the elections Soros in the lead, have former minister1 ' were today and not in 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5... Jose Serra as their preferred candidate." months." Angry at the accusation that his canOlivetto says that he will only work didacy is responsible for destabilizing for private companies and that he has no the market, the PT candidate accused the intention of ever working in a political Cardoso administration of setting a bomb campaign. He believes that pol itical marin the economy and fomenting specula- keting can benefit a few candidates that tion: "The only way for the government are very honest but with little charisma, to prevent us from winning the elections "but, from anotherstandpoint, it can harm is by creating panic in society. They need entire populations. It's something if an to stop playing with pipe bombs because aide helps a soccer player to dress in an . tArmani suit, but it's something very difA COIAcA0 DA AIOEDA4' ferent if he wants to alter their personal ities." courts** 2.702 L For all its self-congratulatory slaps i 2.714 on the back, the Brazilian marketeering establishment is not without its sins. Some ven believe that it's time to doubt its wn hype. Writing for Observatorio da .tnpr en sa www.observatoriodaimprensa.com.br), n online media watchdog, journalist and ,TV director Nelson Hoineff, commented: vgry time we get close to the elections - , BRAZZIL - JUNE 2002
we have to deal with the myth of Brazil's political marketing excellence. It's a given that this is something above any suspicion, like the quality of the Brazilian soap operas or the superiority of our soccer. However, the soap operas are not as good as we believed they were, and when I write soccer is not even among the world's best teams. And the facts everyday challenge the quality of the Brazilian political marketing beyond a mere immediatist efficiency. "If Roseana was a marketing creation, her demise was precipitated by the inexperience of Haroldo Cardoso, the marketeer who took over for Guanaes, when he answered the President's appeal to join the PSDB campaign. In the two TV spots prepared to explain why the federal police found so much unaccountable cash at Lunus—the company from Roseana's husband and financial director—the presidential hopeful appeared in a sorrow state. Just the opposite of the ebullient woman from the initial TV spot." "It's natural that a woman under such pressure would show it in her face," marketeer Cardoso tried to justify. He was crucified anyway by more seasoned marketing professionals who teach that "what's bad we hide." Wrote journalist and TV director, Paulo Jose Araujo da Cunha, "Any TV office boy knows that television is never neuter. Who is exposed to it goes up or down. If the woman had a PMS face, the ads should have been thrown in the trash, period. In TV is better not to show than to show badly." Bad Boys, Good Boys "He is the Roberto Carlos of political marketing," says adman Fernando Barros about Duda. Roberto Carlos, naturally, is the King, the romantic composer whose mellow songs for three decades have been selling in the millions in Brazil and Latin America. Guanaes lives in a nervous pace, always trying new challenges. In 1999 he left the helm of DM9DDB, his ad agency, to direct a free Internet provider portal, the iG (Internet Gratis). The experience was a success, but without the captain aboard, his company started to take on water when large companies like Microsoft, Compaq and Antarctica decided to jump ship. Worried about the mass desertion he went back to his company in March. And DM9DDB seems to be back on track again. Chico Malfitani, one of the pioneers ofpolitical marketing in Brazil, has repeatedly chastised those for whom he once served as a model. The journalist and sociologist from Sao Paulo has compared political marketing experts to Joseph Goebbels (1897-1945), theNazi Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda. In an interview with Folha de Silo Paulo, the newspaper with the largest circulaBRAZZIL - JUNE 2002
tion in Brazil (an average of 400,000 cop- vate companies and even foreign banks ies a day), Malfitani complained that po- like Bank of America. Some politicians litical marketeers have become celebri- suggested that the practice be investities: "There were never so many lies. gated by a House Enquiry Committee. For Mauro Francisco Paulino, general They say that Duda Mendonca, Nizan director of DataFolha, Guanaes, Nelson Biondi — 1company from the Grupo are geniuses. They are r — — Folha, which also conall over valued." trols the Folha de Sdo For Malfitani, politiPrtce T g: $25 million Paulo newspaper, some cal marketing is being polling services are disused in a criminal way, Trying t estimate the costs torting the real objective putting at risk the buda candidate Ilface for funning ofopinion polls. He corna presidential campaign in 2002, ding Brazilian democpares the polls' results foramerethr months, Profesracy. "It's a crime. Marto portraits: "But in this sor Gauden io Torqtiato, in a keteers are helping to study prep ed for weekly campaign these polls radicalize the ideathat all arrived Epoca, newsmagazi c also have been used as politicians are the same. at these amo ts (in dollars): levers when taken right All campaigns are the TV and io prograins: $7 after a TV programs of same, everything's Big million one of the candidates. Mac, everything was gloCampaiSn staff: $5 million It's like taking a picture balized. The publicist Transportation and fuel: $3 of many models, but who peddles products million choosing a better angle 70 million cards, posters also sells lies, but there for one of them." and leaflets: $3 million is a difference. If I don't Stump speeches and moNot so fast, says like the beer I change to bile caravana: $2 million Carlos Augusto Monteanother one. Not with the 5 million T-shirts and caps: negro, the president of politician. You'll have to $1.5 million lbope (Institut° Brasileistay with him for four 10 million a flags and butrode Opiniao PUblica e years. There's no return. tons: $1 mil ion Estatistica—Brazilian That's why we have this Telern keting: $1 million Institute of Public Opin700 billboards: $1 million great responsibility. You ion and Statistics) BraPolls: 00 thousand n cannot act as Pontius zil's most traditional and Food: Pilate and wash your of Rent and maintenance most respected opinion .__ hands and say that this office s-a I 0 thousand p gauge. "If we start to is a job as any other. It is think like this, then very not. It's very different." to Lula w soon we will forbid reMalfitani, who is not , butspend this it at least $1 s expected searches like the one afinvolved in any imporamount sho Id increase considter Jose Serra started his tant campaign ("I would campaign in the media." e i ts raal e o d bily eP P attY L (Ps art enild ia the ian jer t h t th work for the PT, for noc; Pollsters have prolifal Party). Liberal former president Itamar erated in recent years, Franco due to his coherfollowing in the steps of nounceedtSh rl candidate campaignhansnaence and against any$22 mi.11io budget. Radio and IBOPE, which exists thing that represents TV alone, under the supervisince 1942. The new (and Paulo Maluf.") levels sion of Ni Guanaes, should not so new) kids in the serious criticism against ntofthis money. absorb40 block have names like Guanaes and Mendonca. AnthoP Garotinho has iniVox Populi (The People's And he doesn't forgive tially $11 in' illion budget, like Voice), Sensus and tehnds to ask inchGuanaes for glamorizing Ltd - a luperj (Institut° Univerof 1 real vidun.a114ce Roseana Sarney, "How sitario de Pesquisa do o .t. (30 cents) Olraise can you say that the Ciro mes isethnenms° fru Rio de Janeiro—Univerpeople of Maranhao live to spend st $9sitarian Research Instiwell when 64 percent of gal of all, lanning million' Tins, naturally, might tute of Rio de Janeiro). the families there are bechange if e starts showing bet"In an ideal world," low the poverty line? ter in the olls. says Vox Populi's direcThen a marketeer uses a f By co panson, the Center tor Marcos Coimbra, parody of a beer cornnsive Politics esti"polls would neutralize t Rdestl'h t during the 2000 mercial, the number 1, to :;ate conjunctural effects, in American residentialelections compare it to the goverorder to be as balanced I Al Gore ant 120 million on nor. Ain't that cute?" e. G eorge I as possible. his camp ign, while Bush He doesn't spare 1 spe t$186 million According to these either, Mendonca -.I same polls, Brazilians are . "What has Duda won I- -- — -4more and more distrustthat was important, recently? He's always talking about his ing of polls. In 1994, 23 percent of Brazilvictories, but he loses a lot. He oes ians considered them unreliable. By the several campaigns, at the same tim , in end of last year the number of doubting several states, using the same pieces nd Thomases had increased to 39 percent. While seven years ago 16 percent of changing only the candidate's namq." In the last few months, some cr tics Brazilians accused pollsters of manipuhave questioned the constant use of elec- lating the data, today 30 percent blame tion polls by the media, the parties, pri- them for manipulation, more than they do 21
politicians, for example. Person vs. Product Chico Santa Rita, journalist and author ofjust-released Batalhas Eleitorais - 25 Anos de Marketing Politico (Electoral Battles —25 Years ofPolitical Marketing) believes that there is a big difference between political marketing and advertising campaigns. The former reaches the public as a positive message about the candidate, the latter sells the candidate as a consumer product. "The best campaign may not lead the candidate to victory," says Paulo de Tarso Santos, in charge of the PSDB image at the national level. He illustrates that with the 1989 presidential campaign when Lula's marketing effort was considered better even by those who voted for the opposing candidate, Fernando Collor de Mello. "But when it wastimeto vote, Other criteria came into play, like the middle-class conservatism, which ended up electing Collor de Mello." In 1989, political marketing as we know today was just starting in Brazil. Collor himself had no professional help when the "Lula La" (Lula There) jingle swept the nation and hinted that Lula's victory was inevitable. Only then, the former governor of Alagoas hired the Setembro ad agency to help him. Lula la! Hilton Acioly theme song of Lula's '89 campaign Passa o tempo e tanta gente a trabalhar De repente essa clareza pra notar Quern sempre foi sincero e confiar Sem medo de ser feliz! Quero ver chegar... Brilha uma estrela! Lula-la! Cresce a esperanca! Lula-la! No Brasil crianca e na alegria de se abracar... Lula-la! Corn sinceridade! Lula-la! Corn toda a certeza! Pra voce meu primeiro voto pra fazer brilhar nossa estrela! Lula-lot! E a genie junto! Lula-la! Valeu a espera! Lula-lee Meu primeiro voto pra fazer brilhar nossa estrela!
Lula there! Time passes and so many people working Suddenly it becomes so clear to see Who always was sincere and to trust Having no fear of being happy! I want to see this coming... 22
Lula-there! A star shines! Lula-there! Hope grows! 'Lula-there! In child Brazil and in the joy of embracing Lula-there! With sincerity! Lula-there! With all certainty! To you my first vote To make our star shine! Lula-there! Everybody together! Lula-there! The wait was worthwhile! Lula-there! My first vote to make our star shine! You can hear this song in our site at http://www.bra77il.com/lula.mp3 or http:/ Avww.bra77il.com/lula.ram Professional marketing was able to derail the well-oiled Lula victory train with a bomb revelation, just five days before the elections. A statement by a former Lula girlfriend was inserted into an hour-long TV program, which buried any hope of presidency for the candidate. The woman revealed that the candidate had had with her an out-of-wedlock—up-until-then undisclosed—child and that the PT candidate had asked her without success to have an abortion. Blooming Marketing "Brazil reunites now the essential conditions for an explosion of the political propaganda market," says consulting marketing expert Andre Torreta. "And these conditions are a strong democracy, creativity and relevancy." After electing Janio Quadros for president in 1960, Brazilians had to wait another 40 yearsto choose another president. From 1964 to 1985, the country was a dictatorship led by generals, and the first civilian president to emerge after two decades of military domination was chosen by Congress. Marketing professionals are fiercely being sought this year. After all, besides electing anew president the 115.2 million voters will be also choosing governors, senators and House representatives. These marketing wizards are interfering not only with the clothes, appearance and gestures of their candidates, but
with their message itself. For journalist Santa Rita, they are in a strong enough position to choose the slogans and themes their candidates will use: "The main idea ofthe final phase of the presidential campaign will be the resumption of the economic development in order to create more jobs and a new policy for substituting imports, which, at the same time will protect the national productive sectors and guarantee a better international competitiveness for the national product." There is no denying the strong influence of the American way of political marketing in Brazilian politics. TV debates, button, TV spots, jingles, billboards and lots of terms (and slang) are borrowed from the US marketing machinery. For adman Andre Torreta, it was in the '40s, during the Genllio Vargas administration, that Brazil saw the dawn of political marketing. In 1960, however, with the presidential campaign ofJanio Quadros---who would succeed Juscelino Kubitschek, the man who built Brasilia— marketeers started to emerge. , In a master stroke, the Quadros' campaign adopted the broom as the symbol for his candidacy. The broom, which appeared in pins, buttons, posters and other political paraphernalia, represented the candidate's_ promise to clean the government and the country from corruption. The broom jingle became a hit and people used to sing it in the streets. Varre, varre, varre, varre, varre, varre, vassourinha Varre, varre a bandalheira Que o povo ester cansado De softer desta maneira Janio Quadros é a esperanca desse povo abandonado
Sweep, sweep, sweep, sweep, sweep, sweep, little broom Sweep, sweep the roguery Because the people is tired Of suffering like this Janio Quadros is the hope of this abandoned people You can listen to the Janio jingle here: http://www.brazzil.corn/janio.mp3 or http://www.brazzil.com/janio.wma The generals also used marketing in an effort to legitimize their administration. Among the successful ones there were the nationalistic appeals of the "Brazil, love it or leave it" campaign, in the late '60s. In the '70s, with a highly indebted country, which was experiencing fast economic growth, the military orchestrated the "Brazil Power" drive, with the slogan "Ninguem segura este pals" (There is no holding back this country). BRAZZ IL - JUNE 2002
Dear Reader, The World Cup has dominated the headlines at home but a lot of other things have been happening on the political and economic front. However, rather than summarize recent events or concentrate on one subject let's take a day at random—Tuesday, June 25— and sample from a veritable gallimaufry of political riches: *** President Fernando Henrique Cardoso opened, in Rio de Janeiro, a UNsponsored meeting on sustainable development, only hours after gunmen had launched a nighttime attack on the mayor's office during which they fired 275 shots and threw two hand grenades. Instead of a picture of Cardoso shaking hands with the visiting South African president and the Swedish prime minister we see him holding spent cartridges and looking genuinely shocked. Violence and insecurity had gone beyond the limits, he declared, and threatened to do something about it. Empty words indeed. Less than a week earlier the handyman who looked after the President's country retreat was shot , dead apparently for criminal, rather than this year, mempolitical, motives. Earlier, bers of the MST (Movimento dos Sem Terra—Landless People's Movement) invaded a country home owned by the President's family and made themselves at home, watching TV and drinking whisky. If the President himself is a recurrent victim of crime then how can the rest of us feel protected? ***The PT's presidential candidate, Lula, compares Cardoso to the captain of the Titanic in his handling of the battered Brazilian economy. Cardoso should stop going to "parties of the elite and pay attention to the iceberg ahead",
letter from theFront A Day in the Political Life of Brazil Cardoso tried to reach Bu h by phone, but ended up talki g to Condoleeza Rice, Bus 's national security adviser. Bet er this way. The Americ n president's knowledge of Br zil is embarrassing. JOHN FITZPATRI
Lulasaid, whatever that means. His comments came after he had sent an "open letter" to the Brazilian people pledging not to take radical action which could upset the economy even more, such as defaulting on debt or ending the war on inflation. If Lula thought the financial markets would be relieved by this statement he was wrong. The country risk is rising; the Brazilian currency, the real, is falling and the markets are all over the place. If this is how things are going so far ahead of the election how will they be nearer voting day on October 3? The markets are rightnot to trust Lula, but Lula is right not to trust the markets. Why? See next item. *** A CNT/Sensus poll shows that the government candidate, Jose Serra, is finally on the rise. He gained 7 percent and leapt to around 21 percent, whereas Lula lost 4 percent and fell to 36 percent. Following this announcement the dollar ended the day 2 percent down, the Sao Paulo stock exchange rose by 3.5 percent, the benchmark C-bond rose by 9 percent and the country risk fell by II percent. However, as the markets are rollercoasting wildly, these "improvements" are meaningless. Speculation rather than investment is driving the market these days. Lula' s open letter was naïve but, at least, he deserves credit for publishing it. The fact that the market "ignored" it, will strengthen the hands of the radicals within the party (and who knows whether Lula is still one ofthem) and we could see the PT moving further to the left. The PT has plenty of ammunition. It can point not only to sky-high interest rates, a falling real and rising unemployment, but also to the latest financial scandal in the United States involving WorldCom, which is the owner of 23
BRAZZIL - JUNE 2002
Embratel, the former state-owned international telecom carrier. "Neo-I iberal ism" (the term leftists use to describe Cardoso's market-friendly policies) never really caught on in Brazil and is becoming an easier target every day. As it is essentially American in origin it is also a good stick to wave at the gringos who are always a handy scapegoat. (Incidentally, your correspondent was recently manhandled in a Sao Paulo cafĂŠ by a ragged Brazilian lout who said he hated gringos as they were only in Brazil to steal the country's money.) *** Cardoso praises Lula's letter to the Brazilian people. Asked whether he would take up an offer by Lula to meet him, the President says: "He hasn't said anything to me.- He probably never will because there would be no meeting of minds and why should the incumbent talk to a candidate like Lula who has never even run the tiniest municipality? *** Reports say that Cardoso tried to talk to George Bush on the telephone on June 20 to complain about comments by the US Treasury Secretary, Paul O'Neill, that he did not support more IMF aid to Brazil. (As Brazil had not suggested it would ask for more aid one can under-
stand the government's annoyance. O'Neill m ight have been a good executive in the aluminum business but has shown little diplomacy in relation to Latin America.) Some reports say Bush was in Florida helping his brother, state governor Jeb Bush, raise money for an election campaign. Others say the US president was in Air Force One and, for technical reasons, the call could not be transferred. Instead, Cardoso spoke to the national security adviser, Condoleeza Rice. Maybe it's as well the two presidents did not speak, because Bush's knowledge of Brazil is so limited as to be embarrassing. According to the German magazine Der Spiegel, at a meeting with Cardoso last year Bush asked whether there were any black people in Brazil. Cardoso could not hide his astonishment but once again, Condoleeza Rice, who is black, stepped in to help and told her boss that there were probably more black people in Brazil than in the US.
Your correspondent PS: I attended a meeting recently at which a well-connected former minister in the Cardoso government said the PT believed that Lula needed to win the first round of voting by a minimum margin of 15 percent in order to win the second round. This source has been reliable in the past, even though he is anti-PT, and it is worth keeping this in mind in the months ahead.
With the World Cup out ofthe Way we return to normal political life. With only three months to go to polling day we can expect more ups and downs as Serra tries to make up ground and catch up on Lula. Yours faithfully,
John Fitzpatrick is a Scottish journalist who first visited Brazil in 1987 and has lived in Sao Paulo since 1995. He writes on politics and finance and runs his own company, Celtic Comunicacoes, which specializes in editorial and translation services for Brazilian and foreign clients. You can reach him at
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It is a mere coincidence that Mother's Day falls during the same week as the commemoration of Princess Isabel' s 1888 signing of the Law of Abolition. But that coincidence allows us to remember that slavery and the persistence of poverty have been the result of the politics practiced by men, and that a new abolition of the essential needs will demand a change in thinking: politicians should begin caring for the people instead of merely administering their economy. In the same week as Mother's Day and Abolition Day, four presidential candidates presented their proposals to the Brazilian industrialists. Their speeches focused upon the administration of the economy, upon how to produce in Brazil. None of them called upon the Brazilian industrialists to produce a new Brazil. None ofthem clarified their commitment to a new abolition: that of the entire population's essential needs. Anyone listening to the long debate could have imagined what it would be like to have been listening to the proposals of 1870s candidates who did not speak explicitly of the abolition of slavery. Once slavery was abolished, Brazilian industry proved its ability to produce in Brazil that which earlier had been
imported, but it did not discover how to, did not try to, or could not produce a Brazil in which the basic needs would be abolished, in which all Brazilians would have access to the essentials: food, education, healthcare, public transportation, and a dwelling with potable water, garbage collection and sewerage. Although it is taking place in the 21'' century, this year's electoral debate is less ethical than were those of the second half ofthe 19th century. A that time, people 1 ik Joaquim Nabuco, wh represented Pernambuc in the Congress, used thei mandate in the struggl for the abolition of sla very. Today the candi dates limit themselves t proposing a return t growth; at the most, alto them defend the distribu tion of income that, if i occurs, will benefit thos who are already include in modernity, witho reaching the excluded. In the presidential candidates' debat at the CNI (Confederacao Nacional d Inastriaâ€”National Confederation if Industry), not a word was said about radical commitment to the abolition if basic needs, a second abolition in Brazi Nor were any clear proposals presente on this topic. The candidates forgot th t we were about to celebrate the annive sary of abolition, as well as Mother s Day. If they had remembered the fir .t occasion, perhaps they would ha e thought about the need for a second ab ii lition; had they remembered the secon they would have perceived the need fo a new way of thinking in which caring fir Brazil is as important as administeri g the Brazilian economy. Using the logic of economic admin trati on, ifthere' s no food in the house, t e man goes out looking for a job; when e finds one, he works until he receives is first paycheck and then takes the mon y home; the family, therefore, goes hun for a month. Using the logic of caring, if there's no food in the house, the wom n either seeks out a relative or friend a d asks for a loan, or she goes to a neigh or to ask for a little rice; in either case, at night everyone in the house has so ething to eat.
The persistence of poverty in Brazil stems from the fact that, instead of investing directly in satisfying the needs of society, we endeavor to administer the economy. It was surprising that during the presidential candidates' meeting at the CNI, an entrepreneur, Horacio Lafer Piva, president of FIESP (Federacao das Inchlstrias do Estado de Sao Pauloâ€”Sao Paulo State Industry Federation), was the only person to deal explicitly with the matter of social exclusion and the need to resolve the problem of poverty in Brazil. He came the closest to using feminine logic in the matter of poverty. In India, a state called Kerala has the same low per-capita income as the rest of the country, but the infant mortality rate, the rate of literacy and basic schooling are all close to European standards. The difference between Kerala and the rest of India is a series of social policies maintained over the decades, thanks, above all, to the power of the women living in the small communities. It is not known if Emperor Pedro II allowed his daughter Isabel to sign the Law of Abolition in his place because he did not want to pick a quarrel with the big landowners or because he wanted to assure her place in history, but it can be imagined that feminine sensibility helped to promulgate the cause of abolition, which was centuries late in arriving. This is not to say that women in power always bring to office a commitment to care for the people and the logic to do so. Prime Minister Thatcher of the UK is the example of how-a woman in power can be even more imprisoned by the logic of economic administration than are male politicians. But, all in all, feminine logic is more committed to the urgency of finding a solution for social problems than masculine logic, imprisoned in economics. It is a shame that the candidates do not perceive how much they can learn from mothers and abolitionists, by discovering the importance of the verb "to care" in the strategy of creating a new abolition in Brazil. Cristovam Buarque (cristovambuaraueuol.com.br) is the President of the NGO Missio Crianca and the author of the book A Segunda Aboliciio (Abolishing Poverty: A Proposal for Brazil). He is the former governor of the Federal District of Brasilia and ex rector of the University of Brasilia. Translated by Linda Jerome (LinJerome(lics.com )
25 BRAZZIL - JUNE 2002
The Euro, Now! With Lula almost certain to be Brazil's next President the only way to avoid chaos and an economic meltdown of the Brazilian economy is for Brazil to adopt the euro immediately. And use the strength of the currency to hold up the country. RICARDO C. AMARAL On December 12, 2001 I sent the enclosed letter to the president of the European Central Bank, regarding Brazil adopting the euro as its new currency. In January 2002. I received a letter from a senior official of the European Central Bank in response to my letter. I was pleasantly surprised by the content of that letter. It is clear to me by their answer, that the door is open to Brazil at the European Central Bank, if Brazil decides to adopt the euro as its new currency. In my letter to the president of the European Central Bank I mentioned that the US dollar was overvalued overthe price of gold at US$ 295/oz at that time and the euro trading at US$ .850. Six months later, on June 4, 2002, gold was trading at US$ 325/ oz and the euro was trading at US$ .950; during this period the US dollar declined in value by 10.2 percent in relation to gold and also declined by 11.8 percent in relation to the euro. The alarm bells finally started ringing in the United States and abroad. The Business Week magazine issue of May 6,2002 had an article entitled "Debt Overseas Stirs up Trouble at Home," in which the magazine stated, "The growing current-account deficit might set the U.S. up for a fall. U.S. financial obligations to the rest of the world are once again on the rise as America grows ever more dependent on foreign capital to finance its growth. Back in March, Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan noted that over the past six years, about 40 percent 26
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of the increase in the U.S. capital stock was financed by foreign investment, a pattern that will require an ever-larger flow of interest payments going out to foreigners. "Countries that have gone down this path invariably have run into trouble," said Greenspan, "and so would we." The Economist magazine issue of April 27th- May 3rd, 2002, also had a similar article on the US current-account deficit. It was called "The O'Neill doctrine". According to the British publication, "America's huge external deficit is an accident waiting to happen. (...) The International Monetary Fund says that America's currentaccount deficit poses one of the biggest risks to the world economy. (...) Ifcapital inflows were to dry up, the current-account deficit would have to shrink, either through a slump in domestic demand or a fall in the dollar, or both. "A study by the Federal Reserve of large current-account deficits in developed economies found that deficits usually began to reverse when they exceeded 5 percent of GDP. And this adjustment was accompanied by an average fall in the nominal exchange rate of 40 percent along with a sharp slowdown in GDP growth. America is likely to move into this danger-zone by the end of the year." The New York Times published on May 2, 2002, the article "Dollar Falls as Top Official Casts Doubt on Intervention". They wrote: "After saying his goal was to avoid upsetting the financial markets, Treasury Secretary Paul H. O'Neill did just that today by sparring with members of a Congressional committee about the nation's financial condition and leaving some investors with doubts about his willingness to defend the weakening dollar. On May 16, 2002, The New York Times reported in an article by Jeff Madrick that Jerry Jasinowski, head of the National Association of Manufacturers; Thomas Palley, assistant director of policy at the A.F.L.- CIO.; and J. Fred Bergsten, of the Institute of International economics, have argued that the dollar is overvalued 20 to 25 percent. (...) The greater danger is that a change in dollar policy could precipitate a run on the dollar and the very collapse we fear most." The Washington Post had an article on May 29,2002 by Robert J. Samuelson: "Superdollar: Friend or Foe " In it, Samuelson writes, "If you want to scare yourself, contemplate the following. The dollar begins to fall. That is, its value slips relative to other currencies. Foreigners with massive investments in U.S.
stocks and bonds begin to sell their holdings. They fear currency losses on their American investments because a depreciated dollar would fetch less of their own money. The selling then feeds on itself. The stock market swoons. Ameni can consumer confidence withers. Th recession resumes and spreads to the res of the world through lower U.S. imports (...) There are huge foreign investment in the United States that could be so! quickly. At the end of 2001, foreigner owned $1.7 trillion of U.S. stocks an $3.2 trillion of government and corpo rate bonds. The conditions for a dolla crisis exist, but that doesn't mean on will happen". Avoiding Chaos in Brazil
for the capitalist world. With only four months to the presidential elections in Brazil, at this point a Lula victory seems almost certain. After trying to be elected president so many times, finally, Lula will achieve his goal and he will become the next president of Brazil. There is an option available to the Brazilian government to avoid the possible collapse of the Brazilian economy similar to what is happening in Argentina. The only way out to avoid an economic meltdown of the Brazilian economy is for Brazil to adopt the euro immediately, and use the strength of the euro as a support to hold up the Brazilian economy. Now that we know for a fact that adopting the euro is a viable option for Brazil, then it is imperative that the Brazilian government move in that direction as soon as possible, before the smart money starts leaving Brazil and starts a stampede.
The economic situation in Argentin has been deteriorating and has becom chaotic. I don't know why the Brazilia government does not adopt the euro i mediately to try to stop the cOming ec nomic catastrophe and collapse of th Letter to the Brazilian economy similar to th European Central Bank Argentinean experience. With the polls showing Brazil's pres dential front-runner Luiz Inacio da Silv December 12, 2001 known as "Lula", widening his lead ov r Dr. Willem F. Duisenberg the rest of the pack, with the increas d President chances of a Lula' s victory in the comi g European Central Bank elections, Wall Street started having n Postfach 16 03 19 anxiety attack. Wall Street began wo D-60066 Frankfurt am Main ing that the left-wing Workers Party ca Germany didate may increase spending to fu d social programs and jeopardize macr Dear Dr. Duisenberg: economic stability in Brazil. If Brazil does not adopt the eu o In the last two years I have written immediately, and decides to keep its c r- various newspaper articles published here rent currency the real, and Lula is elect d in the United States regarding Brazil and president of Brazil in the coming el c- the euro. Enclosed is a copy of my last tion, what will happen to the value oft e article of that series. 1 have been recommending that Brazil replace its current real? Look at Argentina today and you c n currency the Real for the currency of the see the future of the Brazilian econo y. European Monetary Union the euro. If chaos, anarchy, devaluation, and aIn the coming years most countries of jor economic crisis is what the Brazilii n the world will have to make a drastic government wants, then their goal will e decision; they will have to decide if they accomplished in the near future. will adopt as their new currency the euro, Brazil is a democracy and Brazil i ns the US dollar or some other currency should honor the result of the electio if from Asia. I believe that Brazil should Lula becomes the next president of B a- adopt the euro and also should integrate zil. But I still believe it is not a good is ea its economy with the European Union's to elect a left-wing president in Bra il, economy. mainly now that Brazil could become an Keep in mind that it will be just a option for investments for the mo ey matter of time for the European Central leaving the United States for a safer a- Bank to be forced to deal with that issue ven (see "The religious war that chan ed triggered by some major international the USA" published in Brazzil Ma a- monetary crisis. zine, March 2002, pg. 20.) The elect on Today, the Brazilian economy has an of a left-wing president in Brazil wo Id Achilles heel, which is its currency the undermine the Brazilian image ne es- real. On January 1, 2002, the internasary for Brazil to become that safer ha en tional monetary game played in the last 27
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30 years comes to an end. Starting in January the US dollar will not be the only game in town. I believe the euro will become a major competitor to the US dollar, and will be accepted around the world as a major currency. The euro will become an important part of the monetary reserves of most countries. When the time comes for the European Monetary Union to make the decision to accept Brazil as one of its members, that decision will be very important not only to Brazil, but will have a major impact on the international monetary scene for decades to come. It will be for the benefit of the members of the European Monetary Union to offer Brazil membership in that monetary club. Brazil has a young and vibrant population and can offer to the European Union a growing market with 170 million people. The adoption of the euro by Brazil would stabil ize the Brazilian economy and would open the door to many new economic opportunities between Brazil and the members of the European Monetary Union. This new stable monetary environment would provide new opportunities for European investments in Brazil. I want you to keep in mind when the European Monetary Union debates the merits of accepting Brazil for membership, that the country Brazil is one of the jewels of our planet. Brazil has a privileged geopolitical location on our globe. Brazil has an up-coming emerging market economy with abundant natural resources, including the magnificent Amazon jungle, and also a modern economy evolving and adapting very fast to accommodate the new technologies developed around the world. The next time that Brazil decides to change its currency again, they will have only two alternatives to choose from this time around; either they adopt the euro or they adopt the US dollar. I believe that it would be a privilege for the European Monetary Union to have Brazil as a member of that club. Brazil and the members of the European Monetary Union will have much more to gain from that association than if Brazil adopts the US dollar. Please be prepared in the future to welcome and to offer Brazil membership
to the European Monetary Union. I believe that the Brazilian economy matches much better with the economies of the countries which comprise the European Monetary Union than to the economy of the United States. From a Brazilian point of view, it is more appealing to adopt the euro instead of the US dollar, â€˘ because of the US dollar's vulnerability to the international monetary market system. The long term US trade imbalances have created a large pool of US dollars in the hands of relatively few central banks around the world. These nations continue to run large trade surpluses with the United States, and they continue to increase the pool of US dollars held by their central banks. Forbes Magazine's columnist Steve Hanke estimates that today 70 percent of US currencycirculates outside the United States. The major holders of this currency are the euro countries, Japan, China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea, Indonesia, and Singapore. Probably today, there is an oversupply of US dollars outside of the United States. Gold at US$ 295/oz might be undervalued when compared to the US dollar. At US$ 295/oz gold provides about 15 percent of official world monetary liquidity. Central banks hold only onethird of the above ground gold supply available. Gold is the second largest cornponent of international monetary resetyes after the US dollar. Gold and the euro will becani creasingly important parts of the interna. tional monetary reserve system and their gains will be at the expenseofteJS dollar. If any of these countries decides to move their monetary reserves from the US dollar into gold, the price of gold, would increase versus the US dollar. If that happens in the near future we will have a major international nonetaryrisis in the world. About 75 percent of the US d circulating outside the United State0 in the hands of these few Asian central, banks, and if any one of these countries decides to sell their US dollar monetary reserves to buy gold it will produce, a stampede to exit the US dollitr, creatiNia gold and euro buying panic. Remember the euro countries have a large supply of US dollars, w they can use to buy gold. When the E pean Central Bank moves from US doll into gold, the euro will become stro versus the US dollar, in turn gikflO
incentive to the, other countries to move their international monetary reserves also from US dollar into euro or gold. When this US dollar collapse becomes reality, the less developed countries will be the most devastated by this event, because these countries hold only a small fraction of their reserves in gold or euro. This oversupply of US dollar circulation outside the United States mightprove to be the Achilles heel ofthe US economy and also can become a nightmare to the Federal Reserve. The Federal Reserve would need to raise interest rates in the US, creating a major problem for the US economy and the financial markets. I believe that it will be too risky for Brazil to adopt the US dollar because of this oversupply of US dollars circulating around the world. It will be better for the Brazilian economy in the long run for Brazil to adopt the euro. The current US dollar based international financial system is about to go through a dramatic change because of the new competition from the euro. I don't know, when or what will trigger the coming events, since no finance minister or central banker wants to be blamed for launching the world into a major internanal monetary crisis. I hope you will enjoy reading the enclosed article about Brazil adopting the euro, and please share this information with the Finance Ministers of the countries which are members of the European Monetary Union. Thank you for our attention to this niatter. Sincerely, Ricardo C. Amaral , Author! Economist By Ricardo C. Amaral ' email: email@example.com Ricardo C. Amaral, a frequent contributor to Brazzil, is an author and economist. He can be reached at amaralAalumni.fdu.edu BRAZZIL -JUNE 2002
Brazil Needs the Bomb... Like a Hole in the Head People hit by the bomb will be vaporized before the electrical signals from their sense organs can reach their brains. These are the luckiest ones. The light from the explosion will immediately and permanently blind every living thing whethertheireyes are opened or closed. THOMAS J TOWLE I was disheartened to read Mr. Amaral' s recommendation that Brazil get into the nuclear weapons business ("We Need the Bomb,"Brazzil, May 2002). As a Carioca in my soul, and an American planning to live in Rio de Janeiro, I asked myself: Why would I. as a Brazilian, want to have atomic weapons? Who would be the enemy against whom I would use them? Whom do I fear in Latin America or BRAZZIL -JUNE 2002
elsewhere? Why would any country want to attack me? What possible benefits would accrue to Brazil except the highly questionable "attention getting" that Mr. Ricardo alludes to...that nobody will pay any heed to a country without atomic weaponry? I find that absurd! Further, the.fact that many Brazilian business people speak more French than English is not only immaterial, but is probably not an accurate statement. Be that as it may, who really gives a darn who speaks what language when it comes to developing nuclearcapabilities? As an American, lam di ligentlytryingto learn Portuguese! I want to learn your Brazilian ways and language; not vice versa. (I'm still struggling with silo and pitio...but I'll get the hang of it sooner or later!) Additional specious reasoning offered is that Brazilians should get France to help because some Brazilians speak French and we framed our constitution on the French example. Finally, because Brazilians know Paris better than they knowNew York. Well, so do I know Paris better than I know New York. ..so what? These are terribly weak arguments for such a profound and far-reaching conclusion that Brazil should enter the nuclear race in order to achieve some kind of spurious world recognition as a nuclear player. The implications would be staggering. I speak only for myself, as an American planning to spend the remainder of his years in Brazil, and say: Don't fall for the simplistic reasons that are being offered. Start to consider the ramifications. Think about the size and shape of your country; and about the threat to your major city centers. Think about concentrations of populations...the 18 million in Sao Paulo and the 11 million in Rio, for example. In spite of the length and breadth of your borders, these large city populations are very vulnerable to nuclear attack...although by whom I have no idea. Look at the current daily feud between India and Pakistan and ask yourself if you would want that sword of Damocles hanging over your head and the heads of your families. You don't want that! (I want to say "we don't want that," but I don't feel I can exercise that privilege until I live with you). Mr. Amaral says that "nobody" will take Brazil seriously unless they develop nuclear weapons...that Brazil will not be considered acceptable for inclusion in the United Nations Security Council. Big deal! Let's just look at the composition of the UNSC as of now: the big five permanent members are, of course, US, China, France, Russian Federation, and the UK. 30
Now I6'ok at the temporary members and their nuclear capabil ity: NONE!!! And look again at the names of those countries and compare your enthusiasm for them vis-à-vis your own marvelous country of Brazil. They are: Argentina, Bangladesh, Canada, Jamaica, Malaysia, Mali, Nam ibia, Netherlands, Tunisia, and the Ukraine. Did you find any nuclear powers in the above list often? No! Yet all ten are on the United Nations Security Council. Brazil could very easily qualify to serve on the council without a nUclear arsenal.
o map a nuclear blast. Let's drop a 25-megaton bomb in downtown Rio. (The bombs dropped by the Americans over Hiroshima and Nagasaki had 12 and 22 kilotons respectively. They killed 120 thousand people immediately. A 25-megaton bomb is roughly the equivalent of2000 Hiroshima bombs or 1000 Nagasaki bombs.) That's the response you will get from the site:
The Shock When the Bible talks of the "nuclear family," it is not talking about weapons of mass destruction. It's talking about mothers and fathers and their children, all of whom would be placed in immediate jeopardy in a nuclear conflict. Just what would happen to Rio, for example, if a nuclear device were exploded over the city? Let me give you some idea if such :a catastrophic event were to occur. I dont, claim to be an expert in nuclear weapons, butt am not without some qualification having studied the matter as a US Army officer during the "cold war" with the USSR. Too, a great deal of information can be obtained on your own simply by going to your web browser and searching under -nuclear effects." That's all there is to it. Now, on to Rio. In this scenariNtwe find that a 25-megaton bomb has been exploded over the city. It's a beautiful, sunny Sunday afternoon, the beaches are packed, and the sidewalks are crowded with walkers and bikers from Leblon north toward Gloria/Catete. It's an airburst ut the vicinity of Flamengo or Laranjeiras, which is fairly central. By recent surveys, there are about 1 1 million men, women and chi1d4ren in Rio. What happens to them will chill your soul. First, I will offer an overview of the tremendous forces that are unleashed by the bomb, then I will have Someone describe the incredible pains that will* experienced by so many familiet...not, in Rio, but in the outlying areas, perhaps around the entire world.
I 2mi I
1"Ring - 12 psi Radius: 6.5 miles [Note: The outside edge ofth is shaded ea represents the 12 psi (pound per square inch) ring. Blast pressure within Wering is greater than 12 psi; blast pressure outside the ring is less than 12 psi.] The remains of some buildings' foundations are visible. Some of the strongest buildings—those made of reinforced, poured concrete—are still standing. Ninety-eight percent of the population within this area are dead. 2" Ring - 5 psi Radius: 10.7 miles Virtually everything is destroyed between the 12 and 5 psi rings. The walls of typical multi-story buildings, including ; apartment buildings, are completely blown out. As you move from the center toward the 5 psi ring there are more structural skeletons of buildings standing. Single-family residences within this area have been completely blown away—only their foundations remain. Fifty percent of the population between the 12 and 5 psi rings are dead. Forty percent are injured.
3rd Ring -2 psi Radius: 20 miles Any single-family residences that are not completely destroyed are heavily damaged. The windows of office buildThe Test ings have been blown away, as have some oftheir walls. The contents ofthese PBS has an Internet page (utivi buildings' upper floors, including the www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/601110/ people who were working there, are scatsfeature/mapablast.htm I) that allowsydu tered on the street. A substantial amount BRAZZIL -JUNE 2002
of debris clutters the entire area. Five percent of the population between the 5 and 2 psi rings are dead. Forty-five percent are injured. 4th Ring - 1 psi Radius: 30.4 miles Residences are moderately damaged. Commercial buildings have sustained minimal damage. Twenty-five percent of the population between the 2 and 1 psi rings are injured, mainly by flying glass and debris. Many others have been injured from thermal radiation--the heat generated by the blast. The remaining seventy-five percent are unhurt. Note: All ofRio de Janeiro will fit in the center ofthe burst out to the 2 ring, which has a radius of 20 miles/32 km)... You might now try a similar experiment with another bomb over Sao Paulo or any other city in Brazil you may choose. The Horror Now let's paint with small brush strokes. The 25-megaton bomb described above actually beggars the imagination. It simply does not hit close enough to home...which is not intended as a play on words. By permission of Russell D. Hoffman, author of The Effects qfNuclear Weapons,we will reach into your gut and describe the horrors...those instant, and those lingering overtime. Please prepared to be shocked. And, while it is not my intention to manifest fear in the reader, some fear must be experienced if you are going to understand even a glimmer of the catastrophic results of a nuclear attack. Excerpts from "The Effects ofNuclear Weapons" Copyright (c),1999 by Russell D. Hoffinan (c) 1999: "A year ago this month (May, 1999), India surprised the CIA—and nearly everyone else except, perhaps, Pakistan, who seems to have been nearly ready— by setting offseveral underground nuclear explosions. Then Pakistan, claiming selfdefense, followed suit. But what would actually happen if India and Pakistan had a nuclear exchange? Most people in India and in Pakistan (and in the U.S. and Brazil) probably do not know that as many as 9 out of 10 people—or more—who die from a n uclear blast, do not die in the explosion itself. Most people probably think that if they die from a nuclear blast, they will simply see a flash and get quickly cooked. This will be true for many, but not for all! BRAZZIL - JUNE 2002
At this juncture, we turn our attention to what would happen to the families in Rio de Janeiro, for the outcomes are universal; Indian or Pakistani; American or Brazilian; rich or poor; fat or lean...t e outcomes are the same for all nation Those in Rio, within approximately as x square mile area (for.a 1-megaton blas , will indeed be close enough to "grou d zero" to be killed by the gamma ra s emitting from the blast itself. Ghostly sha ows ofthese people will be formed on a concrete or stone that lies behi them...and they will be no more. They literally won't know what it them, since they will be vaporized befo e the electrical signals from their sense rgans can reach their brains. Of the m y victims of a nuclear war, these are t e luckiest ones. Outside the circle wh e people will be instantly vaporized from the initial gammaradiation blast, the Ii ht from the explosion (which is many ti s hotter than the sun) is so bright that it ill immediately and permanently blind ev ry living thing: every man, woman a d child...and farm animals, pets, birds wh le in flight...all whether their eyes are open - d or closed. This will happen for perhaps 10 miles around in every direction—furt er for those who happen to be looking owards the blast at the moment of deto ation. Even from fifty miles away, a 1megaton blast will be many.times brigh er than the noonday sun. Those look ng directly at the blast will have a large sot permanently burned into their retin s, where the light receptor cells will h ve been destroyed. The huge bright cl ud being nearly instantly formed in fron i of them (made in part from those close to the blast, who have already "beco e death"), will be the last clear image th se people will see. Most people who will die from he nuclear explosion will not die in the ini ial gammaray burst, nor in the multi-spec ral heat blast (mostly X-ray and ultravi let wavelengths) which will come abo t a tenth of a second after the gamma b st. Nor will the pressure wave which foil ws over the next few seconds do mos of them in, though, it will cause blee sing from every orifice. Nor even will ost people be killed by the momentary igh winds which accompany the pres ure wave. These winds will reach veloci ies of hundreds of miles an hour near the epicenter of the blast, and will reach velocities of 70 miles per hour as far s 6 miles from the blast. The high winds ,:nd flying debris will cause shrapnel- 4 pe wounds and blunt-trauma injuries ogether, the pressure wave and the acc mpanying winds will do in quite a few, and
damage most of the rest of the people (and animals, and structures) in a huge circle—perhaps hundreds of square miles in area. Later, these people will begin to suffer from vomiting, skin rashes, and an intense unquenchable thirst, and their hair falls out in clumps. Their skin will begin to peel off. This is because the internal molecular structure of the living cells within their bodies is breaking down, a result of the disruptive effects of the high radiation dose they received. All the animals will be similarly suffering. Since they have already received the dose, these effects will show up even ifthe people are immediately evacuated from the area— hardly likely, since everything around will be destroyed and movement will be minimal. But this will not concern them at this time: Their immediate threat after the gamma blast, heat blast, pressure wave and sudden fierce wind (first going in the direction of the pressure waye—outw ardly from the blast—then i moment later, a somewhat weaker wind in the opposite direction), will be the firestorm which will quickly follow, with its intense heat and hurricane-force winds, all driving towards the center where the tadioactive mushroom-shaped cloud will be rising, feeding it, enlarging it, and pushing it miles up into the sky. The cloud from a 1-megaton blast will reach nearly 10 miles across and equally high. Soon after forming, it w ill turn white because of water condensation around it and within it. In an hour or so, it will have largely dissipated, which means that its cargo of death can no longer be tracked visually. People will neecl to be evacuated from under the fallout, but they will have a hard time know ing wh ere to go. Only for the first day or so will visible pieces of fallout appear on the ground, such as marble-sized chunks of radioactive debris and flea-sized dots of blackened particles. After that the descending debris from the radioactive cloud Will become invisible and harder to track; the fallout will only be detectible with Geiger 31
counters carried by people in "moon fire burns so hot that the asphalt in the= suits". But all the moon suits will already streets begins to melt and then burn, even be in use in the known affected area. as people are trying to run across Probably, no one will be tracking the literally melting into the pavement themcloud. One U.S. test in the South Pacific selves as they run. Victims, on fire, jump resulted in a cigar-shaped contamination into the ocean or rivers, only to catch fire area 340 miles long and up to 60 miles again when they surface for air. Yet it is wide. It spread 20 miles upwind from the hard to see even these pitiable souls as test site, and 320 miles downwind. Where the least lucky ones in a nuclear attack. exactly it goes all depends on the winds For the survivors of the initial blast and the rains at the time. It is difficult to who do not then die in the firestorm that predict where the cloud will travel before follows, many will die painfully over the it happens, and it is likewise difficult to next few weeks, often after a brief, hopeful track the cloud as it moves and dissipates period where they appear to be getting around the globe. While underground better. It might begin as a tingling sensatesting is bad enough for the environ- tion on the skin, or an itching, which ment, a single large above-ground explo- starts shortly after the blast. These sympsion is likely to result in measurable glo- toms are signs that the body is starting to bal increases of a whole spectrum Of break down internally, at the molecular health effects. But the people who were level. affected by the blast itself will not be The insides of those who get a severe worrying about the fallout just yet. dose of gamma radiation, but manage to A 1-megaton nuclear bomb creates a survive the other traumas, whose organs firestorm that can cover 100 square miles. had once been well defined as lungs, A 20-megaton blast's firestorm can cover liver, heart, intestines, etc., begin to renearly 2500 square miles. Hiroshima and semble an undefined mass ofbloody pulp. Nagasaki were small cities, and by today's Within days, or perhaps weeks, the vicstandards the bombs dropped on them tim, usually bleeding painfully from every were small bombs. The Allied firebombing hole and pore in their body, at last dies of nearly 150 cities during World War and receives their final mercy. Two in Germany and Japan seldom deBut this too will probably not be how stroyed more than 25 square miles at a most victims ofa nuclear attack will die. A time, and each of those raids required significant percentage, probably most, of upwards of 400 planes, and thousands of the people who die from a nuclear attack crewmembers going into harm's way. It will die much,later, from the widespread was not done lightly. And, they did not release of radioactive material into the leave a lingering legacy oflethal radioactive contamination. In the span ofa lunch hour, one multiwarhead nuclear Missile caridestroy mOre cities than all the incendiary raids in history, and the only thing the combat= ant needs to do to carry off such a horror is to sit in air-conditioned comfort hundreds orâ€˘even thousands of miles away, and push a button. He would barely have to interrupt his lunch. With automation, he wouldn't even have to do that! The perpetrator of th is crime against humanity may never have seen his adversary. He only needs to be good at following the simplest of orders. A robot could do it. One would think, that ONLY a robot WOULD do it. Nuclear war is never anything less than genocide. The developing firestorm is what the 'survivors of the initial blast will be worrying about--ifthey can think straight at all. Many will have become instantly "shell-shocked"--incapacitated and unable to proceed. Many will simply go mad. Perhaps they are amongthe "lucky" ones, as well. The firestorm produces hurricaneforce winds in a matter of minutes. The 32
environment. These deaths will occur all over the world, for centuries to come. Scattered deaths, and pockets of higher mortality rates, will continue from cancer, leukemia, and other health effects, especially genetic damage to succeeding generations. Nuclear weapons do not recognize the end of a war, or signed peace treaties, or even the deaths of all the combatants. They simply keep on killing a percentage of whoever happens to inhale or ingest their deadly byproducts. Some deaths will occur hundreds and even thousands of miles away, because low levels of ionizing radiation are capable of causing the full spectrum of health effects, albeit at a lower rate within the population. Not to mention the radioactive runoff from the rivers and streams that flow through the blast area and the area under the radioactive mushroom cloud's drift. It may carry its deadly cargo for thousands ofmiles, raining a fallout of death only on some cities, and not on others. It will land upon nations which had not been involved in any way in a nuclear exchange, for nuclear weapons do not recognize international borders. My country (the United States) has lived under the Russian and Chinese threat of nuclear war for many decades now, and it is not a pleasant thought. This is nothing to dance about. There is no benefit to having, or using, nuclear weapons." Saying No There is more to Russell's article, and I recommend you complete the reading of it sometime soon. And, as Russell further admonishes, he thinks, and I heartily agree, the world would be a better place if we all stopped and said, "I will not be part ofthis. I do not need these weapons, for I would never commit this sin against my own children, noragainst my neighbor's children, nor against my enemy's children, nor even against my enemy. I choose not to be a part of this madness." There is a greater battle mankind must fight than against each other. Humanity's fight right now, is for humanity's general survival despite depleted and poorly used resources, environmental degradation (there is none greater than that from a nuclear explosion), dwindling effectiveness of antibiotics and other wonder drugs, an uneven distribution of available food, knowledge and wealth, and against weapons of mass destruction." Russell D. Hoffman maybe reached - at firstname.lastname@example.org Russ's primary area ofexpertise is in the BRAZZIL -JUNE 2002
high tech field of electro-magnetic pulse effects from nuclear weapons, but his contribution to Brazzil above is greatly appreciated. His URLs: http:// www.animatedsoftware.com/environm/ no_nukes/tenw/nuke_war.htm to see rest of article, or http://www.geocities.com/ mothersalert/nuclearwar.html Well, that's a harsh pill to swallow, I know, but I don't apologize for it. I asked myself if, as an American, I am on firm ground when I criticize the arguments of Mr. Amaral because it is, in fact, his country and not mine. As a former US Army officer, however, who is very cognizant ofthe devastating effects ofnuclear weapons, and ofthe extremely long-terrn rad iation effects on both victims and real estate, I became dismayed at the very thought that anyone would suggest Brazil enter this arena. I further felt that, as an economist, he might be better occupied ,with trying to solve some of the oppressing ills of the poor and under-privileged. ..perhaps by analyzing the trade offs of the costs of a nuclear program vis-Ă -vis alleviating the economic conditions described in the same May 2002 issue of Brazzil entitled "Two Brazils", where we learn that "one in every four workers (24.4 percent) in Brazil earn the minimum wage of200 reals,
around $80) or less a month. In the Northeast the situation is even worse, with 46.2 percent of the workers making minimum wage or less." Another item in the article reveals that approximately 7,500,000Bra-zilians don't have refrigerators in their homes, therefore, have no way to preserve their food. Ye gads, let's have some meaningful priorities in government programs, bu don't make The Bomb one of them. An please don't accuse me of being "brai dead" if I disagree with the need for "th bomb". Brazil doesn't need an "atomi saber" to rattle to gain respect in th international community. She is alread quite the Lady, and worthy of the great respect with which she is currently held, at least from my view. Brazil doesn't need atomic bombs t prove her worth, for her worth i apparent...which begs the question: Why does Mr. Amaral think Brazil is not respected? Where does that idea corn from? Well, I'll close with a recommenda tion, a concept of a Brazil being neutr like Switzerland. Be the Switzerland South America, if you can. _ Don't ever be stampeded into a nude program. Make up your mind that yo won't ever embark upon such path...come hell or high water.
Colonel Thomas J. Towle, the author, is a retired US Army officer ' Who has served in a number of very responsible positions. In addition to his formal education, which includes a BS in Marketing, an MS in Management and Economics, and a Doctorate in Ministry, he attended the Army's Command & Staff College at Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas. He is a former Army aviator, who served as a company commander in Germany in the Third Armored Division, and as a Battalion Commander in Vietnam, culminating his career as the Army's Chief Armament Officer on the General Staff in the Pentagon. He knows weapons! He hastens to add that he hopes Mr. Amaral realizes that his remarks (Tom's) are not "ad hominem," but simply a heartfelt response to ay suggestion that Brazil should enter the atomic arena...a suggestion that almost moves Tom to tears. He sees it as a sword of Damocles that will hang over the necks of every country that has nuclear weapons, including his own USA. He finally reminds us, as did our Cristo Redentor, that "those who live by the sword must die by the sword." Towle can be reached at: towletAiuno.com
1-888-7-BRASIL 1-888-727-2745 510- 655-9904 , ariza@tropicaltournet
4170 Piedmont Ave., Oakland - CA 94511
BRAZZIL -JUNE 2002
For Monica Roizenbrunch, who lives in Israel and in the left side of my chest.
Clear Act of Beall') with the Unexpected The more he thought the more the desire pierced him, the more his body begged for that creature to be his. The more his love burned, day and night. He couidn't tell at what time his torment hurt the worst. JOYCE CAVALCCANTE
A inda que a bodega nao fosse o principal, Calico e mais vibrante ponto de encontro do vilarejo, Alain despenderia a eternidade em exam inar suas prateleiras e contar, de uma por uma, as garrafas de bebidas expostas desordenadamente, umas pela metade outras ainda por abrir, sO pelo gosto de estar perto daquela por quem seu coracao Sc arcoirizava. Clara. Clara como a prOpria paisagem que envolvia o local cheio de sol, som de mare repuxo de vento. 0 vento que zunia a qualquer hora e muito mais a noite, depois que todos ja tinham ido deitar. Ele sempre iadeitar sozinho. As vezes vestido mesmo, ficava o I h ando oteto no escuro. Sem esperan gas, apagava o candeeiro que era pra nao desperdicar gas sem mais nem menos, e deixava que apenas a claridade do fogo em seu interior, aceso como as labaredas do inferno, queimasse seu peito e seu ventre entupido de desejo insatisfeito. Aqui lo devia ser condenacao pelo mal que jรก tinha feito aos outros, principalmente as mulheres quantas e quantas. Talvez Clara fosse a vinganca de alguma deusa que as protege. Seria tao bom se conseguisse restaurarse e in iciar uma vida inocente de pessoa comum, corn urn pequeno emprego de onde tirar seu sustento e nao ter de levar essa existencia insegura de ator ex6tico que procurando a fama procura os lugares mais escondidos do mundo pra se encontrar. A verdadeira vida era corn uma mulher pra cuidar, e no futuro, filhos pra assistir crescer e ve-lo morrer. E a mulher devia ser Clara, a filha do bodegueiro. De apenas 15 anos e peitinhos empinados, coxas morenas, ventre quase nada, parecia umatabua. Risada de perdicao quando mostrava os dentes brancos e enfileirados. Alain . se derretia quando pensavaem enfiar sua linguasazonada por entre aquela trincheira de dentes; e conseguindo, experirnentaria da lingua verde da men ina intocada. Nesses pensamentos seu corpo ia logo avisando que queria muito mais, queria tudo, e se avblumava dentro das calcas se corn elas estivesse. Se estivesse nu se rocava na mao e lamentava ter que agir ass im. Nunca tinha lhe faltado mulher. Muito melhor seria ter a moca por perto para brincarem. Era tao men ina que ainda gostava de vadiacao. Naqueles tres meses em que ele ja se encontrava por la, adorava assisti-la dancando de roda corn outras menores, cirandando. Outra diversao era assisti-la bolinar corn os bilros quando fazia a renda, ajudando a mae a atender as encomendas da cidade grande. Diziam que o ganho era quase nada, mas todas as mulheres do vilarejo praiano trabalhavam naquilo desde que se entendiam por gente, conseguindo uns trocados para ajudar nas despesas. Clara embolava a saia ea prendia entre as pernas enquanto exercia essa habi I idade. Quantas e quantas tardes Alain nao perdeu escondido atras do pe de tamarindo, sO pelo gosto de contemplar os movimentos da moleca, que de olhos baixos, se entretinhaconcentrada no seu que fazer. A cada um desses movimentos, por mais sutil que parecesse, o coracao do homem pulava de onde estava guardado querendo voar. Num dia em que a estava seguindo, embrenhou-se na mata perseguindo-lhe a trilha, curioso, querendo saber o BRAZZIL -JUNE 2002
que ela ia inventar agora. Andava corn cuidado, sem fazer barulho e guardando distancia, mas assim mesmo foi apanhado. Se encontraram sozinhos e em pe, urn de frente para o outro, sob as folhas crocantes. Teve intencdo de deitd-la all mesmo, abracd-la realizando o ritual do casamento de seus sonhos. Mas nao era assim desse jeito, ndo. Percebeu que eta era timida, muito timida, pois avermelhou-se diante de seu olhar azul e meteu o pe na carreira, de vez em quando olhando pra tras. Ele no se moveu envergonhado temendo que eta tivesse, corn seus olhos amarelados, lido seus pensamentos profanos. Se sentia como urn menino besta. Nem parecia aquele homem conquistador que fora corn: Mariange, a mde de seu filho ja. corn vinte anos, que ate hoje era capaz de aceita-lo de volta. Gilda, que o seguiu do Brasil a Franca para obrigalo a dar-Ihe seu amor nem que fosse sob a mira de urn revOlver. Naterci a e Tereza, as duas atrizes que se dispuseram a dividilo entre si por mais de dois anos, ja que ele era incapaz de oferecer exclusividade a qualquer mulher. Silvia, a milionaria que deixou corn que ele se divertisse a vontade corn sua fortuna. Amores maiores e menores que passaram pelo seu leito e quase nem the arranharam o coracdo. Amores que de to numerosos e feericos o tornaram descrente do amor, ate que ele viesse, já maduro, parar naquela praia rasa, corn a suspeita inconsciente de que era la que acharia a mulher que nunca tinha tido. Os olhos de Clara eram iguais aos de um lobo Guard. E a elegancia quando caminhavatambem. Por isso ndo arredava o pe de perto dela, enquanto eta, a seu ver, nao dava mostras de saber que ele existia. Tudo seria sO fantasia de sua cabeca? Nem por isso ia desanimar. Fazia amizade corn o pai dela, Seu Jair, trazendo-Ihe coisas e novidades de suas breves viagens, contando-lhe est6rias da Europa, lugar onde tinha nascido, e justamente por isso era mais conhecido como o Frances. Ninguem por ali o chamava pelo nome proprio. Clara como as espumas que chiam do mara praia. 0 nome Clara é o nome do ceu azul que aqui se espalha. Nunca viu Alain ninguem nesse canto usar oculos escuros fora ele. Por isso, pedindo permissdo ao bodegueiro, fez questa° de presentear urn dos seus aquela cujo pai nem desconfiava de nada. Era um pai desses valente que quer porque quer que a filha se case, e por isso no a deixa procurar marido. Ai dela se levantasse os olhos pra algum vagabundo que cisca pela bodega. E ai do vagabundo BRA7_ZIL -JUNE 2002
que demonstrasse ao menos notar su ex istencia, mesmo que fosse eta prOpri quem servisse a cachaca de cada dia ao pe do baled°. Nessas oportunidades, Alai no saia de la se obrigando a beber n intuito de observd-la mais de perto. Urgh. Ndo sei como eles agtienta essa coisa corn gosto de remedio. Detestando ou no, se embebedav igualzinho aos outros que apreciavam maldita. E foi somente bebado qu conseguiu coragem para confessar-se. Foi em plena tarde de terca que suspeitando da falta de testemunhas seguiu Clara enquanto essa ia corn u balaio cheio de roupa suja debaixo d braco para lavar no rio. Urn rio toldad que se encontrava corn o mar bem pertinh da vila. Já corn as pernas tropegas, co dificuldade desceu a ribanceira s agarrando nos arbustos que sustentava a ladeira de terra. Encantado assistia agilidade imensa corn que a menin parecendo dancar, caminhava veloz, se nem prestar cuidados ao que fazi olhando para os lados, para o ceu e p tras. Foi assim que eta avistou o esforc de Alain para já quase alcanca-1 Assustada eta mudou de rumo entran na igrej inha sem missanaquelatarde, m de portas abertas, como sempre. 0 Pad e morava Id. —Deixe de algazarra, Clara— ralh u Dom Fernando. —Tenha modos. Is 'o ndo é jeito nem traje para se entrar a igreja. Clara olhou pra tras e vendo Ala n ainda em seu encalco, respondeu q e queria se confessar. 0 padre foi dirigindo ao confessionario e, ven o tambern Alain que nunca ia a missa, sop a provocar perguntou-lhe: —E voce, que desej a? Vemtambem e confessar? —Tambern.— Respondeu o Frances sem outra desculpa mais plausivel. — Agora ia ter que inventar pecado. E que inventasse logo pois Clara no demorou nem cinco minutos aos pes do padre. Foi entdo sua vez. Ele a perdeu de vista. Suspeitava que eland° gostava dele, pois sempre escapava de uma prosa. Quanto mais pensava assim mais the espinhava o desejo, mais seu corpo pedia aquela criatura como sua. Maissseu amor ardia, tanto de diacomo de noite. Nem saberia dizer a ue horas o tormento era pior.
Foi quando soube que eta ndo sabia ler. Soube tambern o porque disso. Escutou na bodega pela boca do prOprio Seu Jair: era que em tendo muitos filhos no sobrava dinheiro para botar todos na escola. Mas a escola pub' ica nao é de graca? — perguntou Alain. — E. — Respondeu o velho carrancudo, limpando o baled() corn urn pano encardido. — E. — Repetiu pensativo. — Mas os sapatos que eles usam pra ir pra Ia custam caro. No tenho dinheiro pra calcar todo esse povo. Penalizado o Frances sentiu, como primeiro impulso, muita vontade de oferecer urn ou mais de um par de sapatos a sua amada. Saiu da bodega malinando urn jeito. Pensou, revirou o pensamento de costas, de frente, de costas de novo e bumba: A ideia the caiu como urn ovo na calcada, espatifando-se em pianos. la oferecer-se pra ensina-la a ler. Mesmo que ndo soubesse muito bem o portugues, mesmo que eta ficasse alfabetizada metade em sua lingua me metade noutra, ia encarar essa tarefa. la ensind-la a contar tambern. Al nem precisava muito, so os primeiros rudimentos da aritmetica bastavam. Darla como justificativa o fato dela ter que ajudar o pai na bodega e pra isso ter que saber fazer as contas pra cobrar direitinho, e a escrever pra anotar os fiados. Ficariaassim convivendotodos os dias corn sua menina que Ihe prestaria toda a atencdo durante muitas tardes. Por al talvez surgisse o namoro. Primeiro secretamente, coisa s6 entre os dois. Depois falaria corn seu pai, pediria a mdo da moca afirmando suas serias intenceles. Casariam nacapelinha, sendo abencoados por aquele padre azedo. Mas cade coragem pra enfrentar o bodegueiro corn a proposta? Ele poderia desconfiar, ficarcismado, sei Id. Era urn povo cheio de nove horas, esse daqui. Olhavapela janela pedindo conselhos a paisagem. Olhava pra dentro de seu quarto cheio de soliddo. Imaginava-se numacasinha ali perto, toda asseadinha, corn Clara calcada e alfabetizada the cuidando. Por medo resolveu primeiro tentar falar corn eta, perguntar sua Em vdo tentou aproximar-se. Quandoela ndo corria pra longe, ficava calada sem deixa-lo perceber se tinha entendido ou ndo sua proposta. Talvez ele ndo Ihe inspirasse confianca. 35
Gastou muito esforco tentando se comunicar sem sucesso. 0 jeito era fazer as coisas atraves do pal, como era o uso. Portanto, bebeu umas talagadas de cachaca all mesmo no balcao e cheio de coragem expos seu projeto a quern ja considerava seu futuro sogro. 0 homem the dirigiu um olhar descrente balanoando a cabeca pra la e pra ca. Depois perguntou se ele no tinhanada melhorpra empalhar seu tempo. Teoricamente presentes SO os dois, mas podia-se perceber Clara escutando por detras da porta. Silencio que finalmente o Seu Jairrompe: — E por que entao ce num ensina logo a cambada toda a ler, de uma vez? — Como? Non Seu Jair. Non é uma boa iddia. Non acho que se deva tirar os meninos da escola pra aprender comigo. — Num to falando dos meninos machos n o, mas das tres meninas. Quern sabe elas sabendo ler vao ter mais serventia. Por essa o Frances no esperava, mas n o deixou que o homem percebesse seu embaraco e concordou. laser o professor de Clara, a mais velha; de Joana, de 10 anos; e de Judite, a de quatro anos. Comprou cadernos, lapis e borracha nacidade mais pert°, pois na vila nem isso tinha. Do i s dias depois recebeu as meninas na copa de sua casa corn ar de autoridade. Estava todo feliz quando comecou, mas depois deu pra se impacientar porque a pequemininha nao prestava muita atencao. Voltou ate o pal delas para sugerir que so as duas maiores estudassem. No futuro, quern sabe, ele ajudaria tambem a menor. 0 bodegueiro nao so concordou como ficou elogiando, pra todos falando na bondade do Frances: — Imagine que ate merenda ele cla pras meninas que é para elas aprenderem melhor. As outras meninas iletradas da vita comecaram a olha-lo corn jeito pia() e suas maes tambem. Ainda bem que ninguern tinha coragem de aborda-lo. Era sO o que faltava. Ora. Tinha que superar imensasdificuldades corn apenas aquelas duas alunas pois, na realidade, no sabia escrever em portugues de forma nenhuma. la improvisando. la improvisando, enquanto elas aprendiam tudo torto. Estava mesmo apaixonado. Sonhava 36
todas as noitescom a clarissima miragem, Pes descalcos, pernas lindissimas por sentia seu cheiro, notava o brilho de seus serem apenas pernas que se mov cabelos e tinha vontade de corner seu mentavam ondulando a minissaia de sorriso. Eta agora ja se dirigia a ele, e, fazenda barata e desbotada. Ao ve-la como a Irma, s6 o chamava de professor. abaixar-se pra apanhar o lixo corn a pa Ele, que nunca tinha ouvido o som de sua vislumbrou sua calcinha. Fazendo a voz, deliravacom aquilo. Respondia com emocao nao cega-lo, ia se retirando. Nao meiguice, ja quase avancando, todo poderia tanto sofrer. Ah Clara, quando derretido enquanto as duas jam se que vamos casar? desasnando. Adivinhando-lhe quern sabe os Mas ai houve o caso do Dico, urn pensamentos eta the dirigiu urn olhar quase men ino e simpatico correspondente. Derrubando a yassoura, pescador, corn Neusa, a a timidez, a vergonha, a infantilidade e filha do Neco, urn outro tudo Clara atirou-se ern seus bracos pescador ja calejado. espantados. Ofereceu sua boca virgem Neusa e Dico andavam de para ser esmagada por urn beijo que nao chamego desde pirralhos. veio. E confessou tremula: Mal botaram corpo se —Nao tenha medo. Nao pense que o deram a praticar as coisas papai vai se zangar.\ Ele ja sabe. Te amo ha do amor como Deus disse muito tempo. Desde quando voce chegou que era pra fazer. E num é aqui. Eu nem sei mais viver sem pensar em que a menina embuchou e voce. assim fazendo condenou E no seu linguajar de radionovelas o namoradinho a ter sua falou muito mais coisas, incluindo garganta sangrada pela casamento. Seus bravos esqualidos de peixeira de Neco. Foi urn crianca subalimentada ainda envolviamcorre-corre na vita, que lhe o pescoco. Seu halito era viciado inclusive preservou a como de quern nao escova os dentes. honra de Clara por muito Alain tomou uma pouca distancia, mais tempo. 0 Frances, se quisesse mesmo encarnado de vergonha. Olhou tudo de te-la em seus louros e cabeludos bracos, perto. Uns peitinhos que eram quase nada, teria entao duas alternativas: ou casar ou parecia urn rapaz. Ventre magro, ossos casar. Mas eu caso, garantia-se Alain. pontiagudos se sobressaindo no vestido Pois num e mais ou menos isso que eu puido. Urn cheiro estranho de fumaca saia quero? Basta eta me querer, eu quero. pelos seus cabelos. Pobrezinha, pensou Para obte-la fariaqualquer sacrificio. E se o rapaz que subitamente passou a enxergar perdia em fisicas satisfacides solitarias tudo por outro angulo. enquanto, claro, Clara ndo se entregava. Enquanto eta repetia — Eu te amo — Depois, tudo mudaria. cabisbaixamente o Frances saia de cena, Clarissimamente eta ainda lhe fugia tendo como public° toda familia de Clara como mulher, embora como menina por que, esperando uma conclusao feliz, a ele demonstrasse adoracdo. lsso depois tudo assistira pelas frestas da janela. que o teve por mestre, mas sO isso ele nao Lembrou-se imediatarnente que teria que queria. Desejava-aapaixonada, entregue, retornar para o de onde tinha vindo. indefesa em seus bracos como as tantas Joyce Cavalccante is the president outras que possuiu.Tudo passava pela of REBRA (Rede de Escritoras cabeca do apaixonado estrangeiro Brasileiras—Brazilian Women enquanto bebia sua cachacinha diaria na Writers Network) - http://rebra.org. bodega do futuro sogro. Um sogro forte She is considered one of the most e macho que nao se separava da peixeira compelling contemporary women nem para tomar banho, como ele mesmo writers in Brazil. Cavalccante is the afirmava. Se era assim, Alain falaria corn author of seven book, among them 0 Clio Chupando Manga. Her books in ele de macho pra macho, apesar do receio de toda aquela violencia inserida na Portuguese and English can be found at www.amazon.com. cultura selvagem dal i. Por eta faria qualquer coisa. Iria expor suas boas This unpublished short story, called intencks e o convenceria, mas so no dia "Claro Ato de Lidar corn o Inesperado" em que tivesse certeza do claro amor da in the original, will be included in her men ma da cor do cacau. next book: Longos Trechos de Dias Embevecido contemplava sua musa. Liquidos. Learn more about her at http:/ /www .geocities.com/—ioycava/ Que o esperassem nas grandes cidades, Cavalccante can be reached at no velhomundo. Pensavaenquanto fitava iovcavaArebra.org Clara varrendo o chdo de barro da bodega. BRAZZIL -JUNE 2002
One cannot dispute the reputation Brazil has in the international "eye." It is the place where despite all the economic troubles and social turbulence, people seem to know how to live in some kind of harmonious struggle. Brazil, as one would expect from any developing South American country, also harbors hidden pain and terrible stories of fear, corruption and impunity. On March 1St 2002, the citizens of Montes Claros, in the state of Minas Gerais, were shocked by a tragic event. A well-known dancer, actor and choreographer had been brutally murdered. His name was Igor Xavier. He was 29 years old. Since then, the man who shot him in cold blood has been at the center of a firestorm of controversy. His name is Ricardo Athayde, a proud homophobe, whose political connections have so far allowed him to literally get away with murder. Athayde's cousin is the mayor of Montes Claros and his brother works for BRAZZIL -JUNE 2002
A Cautionary Tale from Brazil. The laid of Sunshine, Festivals and Fear. To the police the murderer explained why he killed Igor: "The sight of a homosexual touching my kid made me go over the edge..." Police investigators accepted his , version even though the close . range shots clearly painted a different picture.
the federal government. But his victim, Igor, was a rising star of the artistic community who had many friends and some clout ofhis own. Some are now fightingto expose the depth of corruption and prejudice that runs deep in Brazilian society. I have lived in America since the mid eighties and right now, for the first time, lam ashamed to call myselfa Brazilian, for many parts of that country are absolutely not safe for minorities like gays, blacks, native Indians, the poor and others. Any simple Web search will show evidence of that. American tourists should heed my advice to think twice about visiting Brazil, do the proper research especially if they belong to any of these minority groups. Indeed, behind the exuberance of Rio's annual Carnaval and soccer fever and life-loving people lays a secret, dark world ofhate and corruption that authorities may not want you Americans, potential tourists to knOw about. To illustrate this harsh reality, here are the details of young Igor' s unimaginably senseless 37
murder. On the night in question, middleaged Ricardo Athayde was sitting among several local artists at a popular bar frequented by local intellects and artists where he was sharing his views on philosophy and sociology. At around midnight, he invited Igor, whom he later claims he had never before met, back to his place to lend him some books as research material for Igor's next play. Once inside his nearby apartment, Igor, armed only with a smile and a carrying case containing his work, was severely beaten and shot four times with not one, but two different guns. Two of those shots were at close range, execution style, one in the back of the neck, one on the forehead, the others in the chest and arm. All of that happened within a couple of hours. Then, Igor's bloody body was dragged down two flights of stairs, leaving behind a trail of warm blood across the hall and stairs. Once on the street, the lifeless body was thrown in the back of a pick up truck. Then the body was driven several miles out of town and ditched from a cliff on the side of a semideserted road. The nearest small town is called Sao Joao da Vereda and the murderer's rich family owns a farm in the vicinity. Perhaps because of his political ties, he felt he had enough clout to calmly return home that night and call on two of his brothers and apparently his son Diego (who later gets deeply involved in this) for a late night offloor-scrubbing to wash away evidence before heading out to mom's house in a gated community to concoct his story that later surfaces as an incredible web of contradiction. Igor's Story But Igor, who comes from a poor family, was not a complete 'nobody.' He was an artist who lived to break artistic boundaries. Igor had been taking artistic risks and taking quantum leaps in theater and dance since the late 1980's. He toured the country as an actor on Hilda Furacdo, a play that later became a highly rated TV series and is now airing on Telemundo Network in Spanish all over America. He also had his hand in choreographing, teaching and writing. Igor Xavier taught dance at Unimontes, the local university and at the Jaqueline Pereira Studio of Ballet and bad conducted several dance/theater workshops in the state capital, Belo Horizonte. His last theatrical venture was an original adaptation of 38
a compilntion of works by the renowned Brazilian: author Carlos Drummond de Andrade .`,alled "My Refrigerator Does Not Worle,"j,ocal and regional papet*all Igor a "rtfung star." By qpnrast, Athay4 IS a 'Weal "farmer,,hbugh it is a known fact athong those who know him that he does not hold a steady job and is habitually spotted drinking at bars and eating out, living off family money. Now he is the toast of all of his homophobic beer-guzzling friends. But to others he is also a disturbing topic of conversation in the bars and cafĂŠs and in the streets. Indeed, terrible rumors started tar thru the city perhaps not even 12 WIrS after the murderer tried to hide Igor's body from the police. A passerby on a horse and carriage had spotted it. The police was called and a police reporter recognized the body and called upon other people in the media. By the time Igor's parents got a phone call that tore their hearts to a million pieces, by the time Igor's father had to come identify his son's beaten and executed body, the murderer and his son, aided by his brothers, were already hundreds of miles away on a family cottage near the city of Belo Horizonte, Po Ilice,Sto, It did luyi take long for the slow and sloppy Brazilian civil police to come up with a suspect. It was just too obvious to miss. In a perfect world one would think that justice is underway, that having a prime suspect who admits to the killing, it would be easy to build a case. But it seems like in that country, if you are a first time offender, without any registered priors, you actttally can kill someone and be allowed to go free. It is fair to note that,the opposite can also be true if the acc,ttid has no money or political connection* Igor's body was viewed at the enits Cultural Center. There were so many people, and the streets were blocked In front of the theater/gallery. It was cl everyone who was behind the the police had already found the vie blood at the fugitive's apartment a g with a small plastic carrying case containing Igor Xavier's belongings. The police report contained speculations and rumors, but it did not contain the statement pf potential eyewitnesses such as a nai bor who allegedly heard the shots and 'saw a body being dragged down theqtall late that night. The report did not contain statements from some key people who were present at the bar the night before the, murder.
course, speculations aside, the police in certain South American countries just do not have the resources and the training to get to the bottom of things, even if the ease is a no-brainer and especially when the / prime suspect is rich and well conhected. About a week after the murder, amidst demonstrations and protests, the murderer returns, armed to the teeth with expensive lawyers from the capital city. Ready to confess and willing to tell his version of the truth. And his truth and the reason he slaughtered an unarmed, innocent human being is HOMOPHOBIA. He says that late that night, after being at the hat for se-veral hours, he and the victim Wenn() his place to see about some books. kle said he had never met Igor until that night. So he took a "stranger" into his home after midnight. Just what anyone would expect from a nice, trusting man. He stated that, as they walked in, his son Diego was in another room watching TV. He called for Diegoto keep his "friend" company while he went to the bathroom. He then alleges that when he returned to the living room, Igor was sexually harassing his little boy, the 19-year-old, 6 tall, I90-lb Diego. He stated that Igor had a hand on Diego's leg and possibly genitalia and that he heard Igor call Diego "cute" and "charming." To the police he stated: "The sight of a homosexual touching my kid made me I go over the edge... I DESPISE hOmosexu' als.â€? He did not yell or kick Igor out. Instead, he went to a drawer in the living room and took out two guns (the police did not bother to check if the weapons were even registered). As he was walking towards Igor Xavier pointing the gun, he claims he "slipped" and shot Igor once. Then, when Igor, trying to stop the attack, got off the couch and stumbled towards him, he, desperate and confused, shot again. Police investigators accepted that version even though the close range shots clearly painted a different picture. After the police interviewed him in a room crowded with out-of-town defense lawyers, the murderer was simply allowed o go home free and await developments, ust to run into relatives and friends of the victim outside the police station who confronted the killer, yelling and shouting out ',smurderer" and "coward" as he was tined into a car by detectives and = uniformed police officers and shielded by lawyers. In Brazil, generally the police have 30 days to conclude an investigation and submit a report to the DA's office. Meanwhile, the confessed killer kept hanging ut at restaurants, going shopping and BRAZZIL -JUNE 2002
even walking the streets as if nothing The people are outever happened.P raged and some folks even shouted him out of a supermarket where he was seen along with two bodyguards. On the l 4" of March, Diego Athayde made a statement to the police and repeated almost verbatim his father's story. Some papers reported this statement being identical, even in the punctuation. It was the same with the statements from the brothers who aided in disposing the body of the choreographer. Story Retold When the police report finally got into the hands of the DA's office, it was considered dubious. The Ministry of Public Justice denied the accuracy and legitimacy of the report calling it "sloppy" and "weak," so the prosecutors took the time to reconstruct the report and found new witnesses and new evidence. After two months of hard work aided by Igor Xavier's family lawyer, who's basically working pro-bono, Adenilson Veloso, the district attorney, has submitted anew report to the judge, Frederico do Espirito Santo, who on April 27th issued a warrant for Ricardo's arrest. This report cited Ricardo Athayde and Diego Athayde as authors of the brutal crime and Mardi) Athayde as co-author. Athayde has been "out oftown" since late March and now his lawyers say they are unaware ofhis whereabouts and therefore he has not been notified about the warrant. Athayde was supposed to turn himselfin on May 14th and was a no-shovv. Then the district attorney simply rescheduled for June I 4th. Still nothing. Now he is simply a fugitive, but there is nothing being done to find him. And like most things in dresigned society, the longer it takes the less of a priority it becomes. Impunity wins. Beyond all the clear facts, there have been numerous rumors about the murderers, rumors that even though not proven, add possible twists to the investigation. The murderer's brother, Luis Antonio Athayde holds a federal job in Brasilia at the Development Ministry and that could be a reason for aâ€˘ less than aggressive search for justice given the way things tend to be done in small'towns in Brazil (the so-called jeitinho brasileiro or little Brazilian way), then again politics become ammunition for heated talks. There have been no comments from the local mayor, Jairo Athayde. It is also heard among the artistic community that Ricardo Athayde has in the past approached several other gay men for dates BRAZZIL -JUNE 2002
and was rejected. Becoming outrageous angry. Protesting artists say that they a e afraid for their lives and would not thi k of testifying to that effect. In fact the final D.A,'s report co eluded that there was some form of sexu affinity between Xavier and Athayd Therefore the story concocted by t confessed killer was bogus and untru Whatever the nature of such affini whatever transpired between victim a d killer, hatred and/or homophobia we e the reasons for the senseless murder. Fir those watching this case unfold, it spears as a classic case of a closet horn.sexual moved by rejection and anger. The newspaper Hoje em Dia (Be o Horizonte, March 3'd, 2002) printed so e intriguing questions about the killi g having been committed by more than t o people because of the particulars oft e event i.e. two guns, close range shots, t e getaway on a borrowed pickup truck a d other intricate details in the medical eport that indicate the Igor had been everely beaten before he was shot wh n Igor was a strong, tall man and was in perfect shape. Also the fact that Die o, the son, apparently just sat and watch -d all this unfold before his eyes.. .none of this makes sense and at the same ti e none ofthis is remotely taken into cons deration. While all this is happening, or ot happening, a mother has lost her ch Id and the last memory she holds is of is bruised, battered body and his swol en face, punctured by a bullet hole to he forehead. A city has lost one of its mist talented and courageous cultural tr. blazers. People still talk about the custo ary impunity for the rich and the pol tically well connected. Some wonder ift is whole affair will probably blow over w. h,Out any real sense of justice. There have been three other gay m rAers in that city alone during the rst three months of2002, all unsolved, m ch like the massacre of street children in Ao Paulo and Rio by the so-called de th squads in the late eighties and early ni eties, Brazil seemsto be able to continu to hide its dirty secrets. People are take by fear. Bad economy and inflation take he back seat now. It's the new era in Bra il. The era offear. Meanwhile, in America we alw ys hope that such brutality and hatred dies not hit home because we know that w en it does, we instantly become part of he experience. We become responsible for any future action and committed to m e a difference. We unite and we stand! If! am to not be angry and scared of hat might happen in my own life, if I amto ive
free from oppression, then I must do my part by exercising my democratic right to protest loudly about injustice both here and in my native land. â€˘ That is the only way I can live with the inexcusable and unacceptable death of Igor Xavier. Only with the interest of the ever-influential media and strong organizations in America will the government and the people of Brazil try to reform its judicial system to save itself from further em barrassm ents that could affect the flow of tourism dollars and foreign aid. Hopefully, the American arts community and the gay communityand communities with anything at stake will also rally behind this cause for justice and show people in Brazil the true meaning behind the inalienable freedoms and rights that make America such a great nation. The fight for justice will have to continue, whether or not we like it or want it or have any disposition left. One brick at a time, one word said at a time, for you and I know and can no longer ignore the only truth: "Evil flourishes when good men stand by and do nothing". Andre Lacerda is a writer, actor and Corporate Event producer in Los Angeles, California. For several years, Lacerda served as a radio host in Washington D.C. at the now extinct Jazz90 (WDCU FM) and has written music reviews for RhythmLA.com besides working as a web music community builder for Beatnik.com. The author is willing to ask for what all of us want: freedom, a voice, and the end of 71st century colonial type oppression. He can be contacted at lacerdapacbell.net
Among many other sources: http://rmtonline.globo.com/ms/ materia.htm?id=27735&ca_id=67 (National) http://www.glsplanet.com/cgi-glsplanet/ searchnews.cgi?keyword=assassinado (Gay related website. National) www.guiamontesclaros.com.br/ Noticias.asp?CD=2068 (statewide news) www.guiamontesclaros.com.br/ Noticias.asp?CD=2324 http://www.sinop.com.br/nacionais/ mostra.php?id=28463&cat=brasil (Site for national news) http://grandeminas.globo.corn/ noticias.php?id=10497 (Local TV staion. See other news on that page) Newspaper clippings not online.
The program has been successful in rehabilitating 30 percent of the children. The remaining 70 percent, however, grow up to be criminals, going to jail or ending up dead by the hands of drug dealers. DANIELLE NEWMAN PHOTOS BY GUSTAVO MAGNUSSON
On a sunny day, by the traffic light near McDonald's, in a town called Campinas outside of the city of Sao Paulo in Brazil, a group of children hang out together having fun. They are not having fun because they are heading to McDonald's to enjoy a Happy Meal like regular children do. They are there because they are children who live on the streets and have nothing better to do, so they try to have fun together. They spend most of their time asking people, in cars stopped at traffic lights, to help them get through the day with some spare change. These kids may not have a house, good education, or good nutrition, but surely they have creativity. One of them, a boy named Marcelo, age 13, relatively short for his age, 4'7" feet tall, sporting a big smile, makes flipflops with cardboard and plastic straws because he doesn't have any shoes and asks, "Hey there, what do you think of my flip-flops? Aren't they nice?" Many misfortunate children like Marcelo have been suffering from the psychological, emotional and physical impact that results from being a rejected citizen in the world. According to Unicef(United Nations Chidren's Fund) 36 percent of Brazilian children are poor. This means almost21 million children under the age of17 live with families considered poor, their monthly income corresponding to half of the minimum if age, which is R$ 100 (one hundred reals, or approximately forty dollars). Furthermore, in 1999 at least 450 thousand children between ages 10 and 17 were not studying, working or helping in any way at home. Since it's difficult to find specific data on street kids, this number could represent roughly the number of kids who live on the streets of Brazil. Marcelo has lived on the streets for three months. Previously, he was in a rehab house. "I stayed five days in the rehab and it was good. I left because bigger kids were beating me up," he says. He can't go back to school because some people in his neighborhood are blaming him for something he claims he didn't do. If he goes back, he says, "They will kill me." Marcelo doesn't like his life. "I can't really sleep well on the street. You close your eyes BRA7_ZIL -JUNE 2002
and you never know ifsomeone will come to light a match and set you on fire while you are sleeping. Sometimes I don't sleep at night, I prefer to sleep during the day when everybody is watching out." Marcelo continued to explain that he dropped out from school in 1" grade and that his mother doesn't want this kind of life for him because she also went through this. Marcelo's dream is to study again and get a job. Brazil has been experiencing positive transformations since 1990, when the political scenario changed from a repressive military dictatorship to a democratic nation, after 27 years of military power. Consequently, economic changes came along; the opening of the market in 1990 brought businesses to the country, which generated more jobs. In 1994 the current president, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, implemented an economic package called the Real Plan with the purpose of controlling exorbitant inflation ratesâ€”in 1993 it reached 2700 percentâ€”and raising economic standards of the poor. Despite Brazil's economic and political progress since 1990, the country continues to carry a huge social debt from the past. This social debt has existed since the 19'h century and is still visible on the streets today, reflecting directly on kids who live in such conditions. Old Problem According to Gilberto Dimenstein, author of 0 Cidadcio de Pape! (The Citizen of Paper, published by Editora Artica), the root of the problem has its origins in slavery. Brazil was the last independent nation in the world to abolish slavery in 1888. Because of preconceptions against blacks at that time, opportunities for children of slaves were very limited. It was very difficult for them to gain access to basic education and jobs, therefore, the children started hanging out on the streets. The other part of the problem is a history of uneven distribution of income within the Brazilian society since the imperial period, in the early 17th century. For instance, more recently in 1995, 10 percent of the population in Brazil held 48 percent ofthe wealth, whereas in the U.S. 10 percent of the population held 23.3 percent of the wealth. Marcelo's friends Wesley, 14, and Leandro, 17, have their own disheartening stories as well. Their stories differ from one another; they are unique, yet they all have a common starting point, disagreement in the family. "I don't go back home because my BRAZZIL -JUNE 2002
father drinks [alcohol] and beats me up every day. If I try to go back it doesn't work because he keeps beating me up," says Wesley whose deep green eyes contrast with his slightly dark skin. Wesley feels safe on the streets because nobody beats him up. He would like to go back to school again but the barriers are several: no home, no books, and no clean clothes. He washes himsel in a nearby fountain. Wesley would change everything i his life if he could. Among all his friends, he was the one who so desperately neede a chance, and certainly would make goo use of it. He speaks clearly and deter mined, choking back tears from time t time. Leandro is a very smart and sensitiv teenager. Signs of puberty are stampe on his face. He is a young man who seem to be questioning his current situation Leandro has lived on the streets for thre years. He left home because there is to much fighting there. His stepfather is no the typical case of alcohol abuse, but thi makes matters even worse for Leandro. "Because my stepfather doesn't drin he shouldn't mistreat me. But since I' not his son he was always beating me up My mother said that if I wanted to sta home it would have to be his way. The I left," he says. "I'm nothing, actually I' a vermin because I am here at the traffi light begging. The police officers com by and tell me I'm garbage," a disturbin testimony from Leandro. Leandro's onl wish is to return to his mother and sib lings. Is there any solution? "It's not good for you to stay her near the traffic light," says police offic r Nelson, 38. He explains that when kids hang o t near the traffic light, they cause fear f assault on people driving by. "The ci offers some solutions but very often the are not interested. They can receive seve days of rehab and informal education but they prefer the streets because food and money come easily. In addition, on the streets they have easy access to the r addiction to drugs like glue sniffing and crack. So it's difficult to combat the problem," says officer Nelson. The officer deals with this problem daily and he thinks the solution should come from local authorities. He admits that the available rehab programs are not strict enough, which makes it easy for them to escape or find bad influences. "if they could get a strict education while n rehab, the program could work just fine"
he says. Civil rights in Brazil are usually respected, nevertheless, the most devastating incident involving street kids and police in Brazil occurred in 1993, when eight boys were killed by three military police officers and one civil officer, while they slept on the door steps of the Candelaria church, in Rio de Janeiro. Fazenda do Padre Haroldo is an institution located in Campinas that has been providing an example of how seriously each and every troubled child should be treated. The institution is a complex of houses and farms founded by an American priest from Texas. His name is Harold Rahm, 83, well known as "Padre Haroldo", or Father Harold. Padre Haroldo came to Campinas in 1964, and has been integrating solutions for the misfortunate in the region ever since. Maria Angelica Leal Sandoval, 69, director of the Padre Haroldo Program, which has been in place since 1989, sees the problem of homeless children being directly related to two main factors: poverty and drugs. "I think that in a certain way the number of children living on the streets is going up. This is due to the growing number of children using drugs. Although not every one of them uses drugs, most often than not they do," says Mrs. Sandoval. She also states that the problem begins within dysfunctional families, with parents that use drugs and alcohol, parents who are drug dealers, and the lack of support from the society in general. Their program works closely with boys between the ages of 12 and 17. (As of today, they do not have enough funds to work with street girls). The program is segmented in three phases. "Educators go to the streets to convince the children to accept treatment and take them to the program. We call this phase the "educational flirt," says Mrs. Sandoval. The other way kids end up there is through a judicial order from the court or through the institution that protects the rights of children and adolescents. They propose that the kids remain in the second phase for six months, which consists of drug detoxification. The third phase is called "social reintegration." It's when they prepare the child or teenager to go back into the society by directing them to formal or professional schools, where they learn skills in computing, arts, and electronics. This phase can take up to three months. The institution receives financial support from private companies, City Hall, and charitable donations, in 41
addition to offering courses and speeches to the population in general in order to raise funds. The program has been successful in rehabilitating 30 percent of the children who go through the treatment. Unfortunately, the remaining 70 percent grow up to be criminals, living their lives in jail or ending up dead by the hands of drug dealers. Children as Investment
Waldir Passarel la, 54, an entrepreneur who lives in Brazil, expresses his opinion about the problem: "The children represent the mirror of our society. The same finance principle of 'return on investment' could be applied to this case." He explains that if a society treats its children with respect and invests in them, offering a decent life, education and preparing them for the job market, the return will be a positive one to the nation. On the other hand, if the society "throws" its children on the streets, the country will miss many good chances to grow economically and thrive as a successful nation, because the people who should be developing good ideas and producing wealth are instead dealing with drugs and committing crimes.
Mr. Passarella thinks that until authorities recognize street kids as the worst of al I problems, the population itself k,k, ill have to deal with a dysfunctional and hypocritical society, besides having to face growing violence that originates from kids who become criminals. He heard about the Padre Haroldo Program and says, "There are several institutions like Father Harold's Program out there trying to "fix" the problem on their own after the children leave their homes, however, prevention of this problem should be a priority in politicians' agendas." How should prevention occur? According to Mr. Passarella, "Ifthe problem of street kids is directly related to poverty, lack of education and drugs, then the government's job should be to ensure that the standard ofliving in Brazil continues to improve through a better distribution of income. Moreover, it is crucial to establish a solid and consistent educational system. Lastly, extermination of drug operations is a global issue that needs to be worked out among all the countries in the world." Someday in the future whenever this problem is solved, the street kid will be seen in the same way we now see slavery; as something that shamed us all, some-
thing that should have never happened. Danielle Newman is a Paulista (native
of Sao Paulo) and has been living in the U.S. for five years. She earned a Bachelor's degree in Advertising in Brazil in 1995, a Master's degree in International Marketing at Saint Joseph's University, in Philadelphia in 2000, and is currently working on a certificate program in journalism, at New York University. She has had an international corporate experience working for Xerox in Brazil and she currently works for The Gallup Organization in New York, as ar assistant to a best-selling writer. Danielle Newman lives with her husband, Bryan, in New York City. She can be contacted at dani43(&hotmail.com
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In the early 20" century, Lusophone (speakers of Portuguese) boasted tha theirs was the only European languag having Christian week name days
segunda-feira, terca-feir a, quarta-feir a quinta-feira, sexta-feira, then sabado ah domingo. It was an empty claim becaus
Of Gods and Pods To complete the week, English strangely paid homage to a Roman god, Saturn, in its Germanic translation. So they got Saturday. WILSON VELLOSO
the names actually meant "second marke day," "third market day" and so on. No much Christian. Thererefore, only sabado, from th Hebrew shabbath, day of rest, an domingo, from the Latin dominicalis, "o the Lord" had a religious origin. All th others were merely trade names, busi ness names. With the aggravation tha even the Day of the Lord was a busines day, as it may be inferred from primeira feira, the first market day. In that calen dar, every day was a business day, ba none. By inheriting Portuguese, the Bra zilians adopted the entire nomenclature Their only concession was to orga nize the calendar with Sunday as the firs day of the week, contrasting with othe calendars—like usually the English which have the week beginning on segunda-feira, Monday. In reality, what the Portuguese mean was that all other languages had "hea then or pagan names", as they mentione deities like the moon, Mars, Mercury, etc Mostly Roman gods and goddesses. Bu English, as a Germanic language, followe different gods. Monday, of course, is the "day of th moon" just like in French lundi, Italia lunedi, and Spanish lunes—all "heathe names". But Tuesday is notthe day of th Roman god Mars. It's the day of Hu, th Germanic god of war and the heaven although it is mardi in French, martedi i Italian and manes in Spanish. Wednesday is the "day of Odin or Wotan," the Germanic equivalent of Mercury (French mercredi, Italian mercoledi, Spanish miercoles). However, for quarta feira the Germans now use a "practical" name— Mittwoch, the middle of the week. For quinta-feira the ancient Anglophones (speakers of English), forsook the Roman god Jupiter and replaced him with another Wagnerian character, Thor, god of thunder and lightning. So they got Thursday. The French, Italian, and Spanish names are jeudi,
giovedi, juev es . For the next day, Friday, they scanned Scandinavian mythology and pickedthe god-
BRAZZIL -JUNE 2002
dess Frigg or Frigga, Odin's wife and patron goddess of married life and of the home, letting go of the Roman Venus, who was simply goddess of love, all kinds of love. Venus gave her name to the French vendredi, Italian venerdi, and Spanish viernes. She also gave her shirt to Brazilians in the shape of a condom—
camisa de Venus, cam isinha. To complete the week, English strangely paid homage to a Roman god, Saturn, in its Germanic translation. So they got Saturday. The Romance equivalents are samedi, sabato, and sabado. And, of course, the sun sponsored Sunday—a direct translation of the Latin Solis dies, the day of the sun. Outside the calendar, another Hebrew term, Amen was adopted by all European Christians. It means verily, certainly, truly. For other items, the Portuguese adopted a number of Arabic terms, when Spanish, for instance, kept Vulgar Latin. Alfaiate, tailor, sastre in Spanish, is one of them. Tcimara for date (fruit of a palm tree) is another. But then there is tamarindo, English tamarind. This is an Arabic term, comes from tamer ul Hind-tdmara da India or date from India. Incidentally, the tamarind is the largest legume. Legumes are plants that produce seeds in pods, favas or bainhas. It was the French who started calling all table vegetables legumes, a crass error, as lettuce alface, tomato tomate, carrot cenoura are NOT legumes. All sorts of beans, navy beans, white beans, red beans, and also. feijao mulatinho, fetjelo branco, feijdopretoare legumes the same as all favas or vagens.
An interesting case is that of the vanilla, a legitimate legume, used in culinary arts. It comes from the Spanish vain//la, little vaina which they got from the Latin vagina. The Portuguese softened the V into B and today call it baunilha. Perhaps now everybody understands why the French were, and still are, wrong. You all know how Spanish has penetrated American English, specially with Mexican words in the West and Cuban and Central American words in the East. I am not talking only of food terms, tacos, tortillas, chalupas, chimichangas, pupusas. Spanish is all over the place. It has even displaced old English words such as coriander, Spanish cilantro, Portuguese coentro. We have in the past mentioned chocolate and cacauhetes. What would you say of alligator being a Spanish word, you know,jacare in Portuguese? The Spaniards called this saurian El lagarto. Soon it became ellagarto and, by simple vowel metastasis, it became ellagator, then elligator and finally alligator. Curiously, the Portuguese word lagarto, a first cousin ofthe Spanish term, is often pronounced "largato"â€”with a different kind of vowel metastasisâ€”special ly by natives of Rio
de Janeiro to the North. This tongue slip communicated to another animal, very common in warm lands, the miniature lagartixa (diminutive lizard) which apparently emigrated from Africa with the slaves. It inhabits gardens of flowers and vegetables and eat bugs by the thousands. Cariocas tend to call it largatixa. Buffeted by a very rich language like English, living and working with Spanish-speaking people, whose language is at the same time so similar and so different, the poor Brazucas seem to be losing the race. Then they meet the computer and fell under the dictatorship of the geeks who know !hulas (nothing, zilch) about Portuguese and most other languages. But the geniuses of Silicon Valley have the power and abuse it. If you are using an American computer to write Portuguese, you soon discover that you cannot "jogar nada for a", I mean the 4-letter word that means out. The computer CORRECTS IT FOR YOU, inserting a space between
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for and a. This is pretty stupid and plain buttinski. The Latin plural of"forum" is "fora" but you have to know a couple of tricks to escape the eagle-eyed computer. I write forsssssa then go back and carefully delete the esses. It usually works. Try it. Ou jogue o computador fora (Or throw your computer away.) This time I had no space to answer letters and consultations. But my policy is to keep the door open to those who have e-mail. All others, please write c/o
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Bossa Nova, Meu Amor illossa Nova, My Love] The typical fanatic can listen to thirty different versions of the song "Corcovado," or any song for that matter, straight in a row without going crazy. Nonstop, nonstop. MELINDA WONG
BRAZZIL -JUNE 2002
To count ev ty flora and fauna species in the Amazon would be to cou t the multitudes of people (Brazilian or not) who hold a war spot in their heart forthe lady—the one who takes hearts awa , guiding them somewhere along the Ipanema beach to the to 's of the Corcovado mountain where the Christ Redeem r statue stands; the ever so sweet singing seductress, surr al and lovely; the one so sadly humble but majestically fab lous—they call her the bossa nova. Duly a worldwide respi nse, sultry waves of acceptation roar from those who liste and understand this uniquely Brazilian "New Wave" o music; it was a beat far due. The movem nt was not produced from the hands ofgiddy society kids, but n stark contrast, by deep victims ofemotion and prototypes of man's story that simply sounded the songs brooding i their hearts—a love for nature and beauty, the infamous u translatable longing for someone called saudade, the res lessness of being lost but in the same way found, melanch ly, and the great fight known as life. Thus, understanding o her is quite universal, even for the nonmusical type. In scientific t rms she is the stimulus provoking the taxis. Artistically, she is the chosen form of art lauded by art patrons. To inte lectuals, she is the knower of sadness and happiness, exist ng before time, except only now she has a name. Let her be capsule ofperpetual freedom to politicians, unfettered and r volutionary. To the religious she gives a glimpse of heav n and a greater longing for God. And so, it was only natural for the musician.; who started the style of Brazilian bossa ova music to translate their convictions into the fitting beau we get to listen to today. Thank you, Tom Jobim, Vinicius de Moraes, Luiz Bona, Joao and Astrud Gilberto, and th exhaustive list that always follows. It is for all teople that I endeavor to classify types of individuals base on their affiliation with the bossa nova and her counterparts on a scale of I to 4 (4 being the most infatuated): I—Deprived Let us first I sok at the poor individual who has never heard ofthe mov mentat all, or the mere mention ofa girl, one from Ipanema th t is. A crisis to be sure, there is an alarming percentage of s ch deprived ones (generally in countries outside of Brazil , who sadly, will never taste her song. It may not be ii eir fault. Their deprivatio lies simply not in ignora ce, but in blindness—the simply have not been exposed, partly because o he domination of other musical genres and toda 's popular culture (pop st rs?) ever looming upon th younger generation and even the older too. Littl do they know the treasur s' waiting to be reaped. But it is their loss. For this dest tute person, I would reco mend the Antonio Carlo Jobim Songbook: The jr/from Ipanema as a go d selection of starter sons. There is at least one per on we all 45
know who is "deprived" and there's only one remedy: share with he or she a piece ofBrazil. 2—Recognizing Then comes the stage of recognition. This person has at least heard of some tunes, usually the most popular, "The Girt from Ipanema." This person deserves a bonus if they have an inkling that the song came from Brazil. Bravo. Dichotomizing from that category are the ones who like it and the ones who don't. They are of course, free to their own judgments on whether they like it or not. Some prefer to forget the sounds as a mere specter of past, and to others it is just a song with a different beat. We will leave these aversed ones in the dust, for they are a lost cause. But for the one who has any slight hint of affection, it shouldn't be hard for them to venture deeper into the sounds. 3—The Fond Admirer • Next is the fond admirer. A rather famous admirer is the American singing legend, Frank Sinatra. At a time when he was the biggest singer in America, he found himself drawn to the irresis;ible breeze of innovation coming from Brazil's young bossa novans. He admired it so much that he recorded two albums with Jobim. Based on the postulate "like recognizes like," it Was destiny that Sinatra and Jobim would meet—two men, (it is hard to call them just "Then") wonderfully eccentric, who digged genuine music. From celebrity admirers to the nubile.
the fond admirer has no restrictions. Recently,! stumbled upon a fond admirer. After giving my friend a CD with bossa nova songs on it for happy listening, she reported to me that her mother stole the CD for herself because she had fond sympathies for"The Girl from Ipanema," a song from her childhood. She kept the CD in her car for a couple weeks to sing along with. I applaud my friend's mother for resurrecting the classic music, which obviously withstood memory through time. The admirer may not be obsessed, they may not be fanatical, and they may not be captivated; however, they can appreciate a good sound when they hear one. 4—The Follower Lastly, there is the hardcore follower. How many words could justly describe what Brazil's bossanovamovement means to the follower? Infinitely many, too many to be mortally spoken. The follower's experience is remarkably personal and positive, with the vast amount of things the beat has to offer: comfort, euphoric pain, sadness, joy, love, and restlessness. I imagine the followers reading this right now who adore Jobim, both Gilbertos, Getz, Bonfa, Moraes, and the rest of the bossa nova' s family players are getting excited, because they always perk up at the very act of reading anything that mentions their heroic names. I will also venture to say that this person will have countless CDs of the aforementioned names, and plays them nonstop. Yes, the typical fanatic can listen to thirty different versions of the song "Corcovado," or any song for that matter, straight in a row without going crazy. Nonstop, nonstop. It may annoy the neighbors, but the ears of the faithful follower never tire. Guessing their favorite movie isn't hard; can it be...surprise...Black Orpheus, the Brazilian film whose musical score was written by Moraes, Bona, and Jobim?!!? On the bookshelf of the follower would be a wide array of bossa nova readings; to name a few, authors Ruy Castro and Gene Lees. For an example of a follower I nominate myself. Listening to my three pioneering CD's: Jazz Samba Encore: Stan Getz-Luiz Bonfa, The Antonio Carlos Jobim Songbook: The Girlfrom Ipanema, and Jazz Round Midnight with Astrud Gilberto coupled with two personal email's , sent to me from Astrud Gilberto herself— the woman who originally sang "The Girl
from Ipanema"— was enough to push me to devotion. I embarked on a journey lam still traveling every day of my life. The bossa nova and her singers revealed to me her deepest pathos as I indulged in vast listening, solitary days on sun-drenched beaches, and hanging around jazz musicians in the wee hours. Here, I found my unnamed place somewhere among the frantic sounds of the percussion, piano, brass, guitars, drums, vocals, etc., in the colorful mural of life. Though I'm not "tall," or very "lovely" for that matter, I am "tan, young" with dark hair, so it was only natural for the mythical "Girl from Ipanema" to become my role model. Furthermore, I'm not a native or Rio, aCarioca—I live in charming coastal southern California, a place that I hope can somewhat be analogous to gorgeous Rio, making me almost a Carioca except I would technically be the Californian beachcomber. Still, I figure that's as close as I can get in America, right?
Sitting on the sunny beach with my boombox playing sensual bossa nova tunes can really get to a jazz junky like !. With Joao strumming his guitar, Astrud's voice of tristeza and felicidade (sadness and happiness), and the tide's ebb caressing my ear as I stare into the clear blue sky beyond swaying palms, soaking up sun is almost like "Agua de Beber" or "Drinking Water." After too much bossa nova, after the unforgettable Brazilian dance beat named samba, after many stupors ofsaudade, the melancholy effect is fatally splendid: I fly away and never come back. A Southern California resident, Melinda Wong seems to always find herself many places along the coast where she is a jazz groupie, beachcomber, •and dabbler in photography and • painting. "I am tremendously and hopelessly a jazz junky—I'm free" she says. Currently she is working ,on a novel and can be reached at • pumpkin362Avahoo.com BRAZZIL -JUNE 2002
In the year 2000, Brazil marked 500 years since its "discovery." At the instigation of Ricardo Cravo Albin (who came up with the scenario), the state of Rio de Janeiro commissioned the composer Francis Hime to write a popular symphony to commemorate the occasion. For Hime this couldn't have been an easy task, as the symphonic MPB path had already been trodden by none other than Tom Jobim, who composed the first Sinfonia do Rio de Janeiro in 1954, with Radames Gnattali as orchestrator and conductor. There are a number of similarities between the two compositions. Both utilize popular rhythms in orchestral settings. Francis Hime's Sinfonia do Rio Both employ a recurring leitmotiv that punctuates a series of individual move- de Janeiro de Sao Sebastiao DVD ments. Both highlight various aspects— celebrates the Cidade Maravilhosa good and bad—of the city. And both feature a group of well-known vocalists, in grand style. each singing a solo part. There the similarities end. Tom's DANIELLA THOMPSON Sinfonia, co-authored with Billy Blanco, was a relatively brief(15 :40 min.) contemporary portrait of the city, a cocktail of impressions that mixed admiration for its SINFONIA natural beauty (Rio de Janeiro/que eu sempre hei de amar/Rio de Janeiro/a DO RIO DE JANEIRO montanha, o sol e o mar) and scenes of DE SAO SEBASTIAO daily life (Sete horas, quanta gente vai a rua procurando Onibus, trem!/Nelo vem o lotaccio!/Atrasado pro trabalho/ Resultado: cortfusilo!)filled with carioca tidbits like the cafezinho habit, gafieiras, football games, the beach, and focusing on the contrast between the Zona Sul and Wu, 1.1.0ema, - tome • PAU NMI WOO the morro. The pre-bossa nova music and arrangements owed a heavy debt to Broadway. Francis Hime's Sinfonia, with lyrics by Geraldo Carneiro and Paulo Cesar Pinheiro, is a broader (and longer-50:38 min.) canvas, painting the city's entire history in five chapters, each represented by a rhythm typical to its period: the lunduofColonial Rio (from the discovery until the declaration of Independence by Dom Pedro 1 in 1822); the modinha of Rio de Janeiro Imperial Rio (1802-1889); the choroofthe Aguas de Marco Belle Epoque, (1874-1930); the samba of Rosas de Abril the so-called Epoca de Ouro (1930-1957); and contemporary Rio (from the introThe long vocal section ofthe Abertur duction of the bossa nova until now). The opening movementhits hard with closes with an orchestral parade through four staccato stanzas, each one in a single all the themes that will make an individua appearance. Lenine sings the vigorou note; here's the first: lundu movement, whose lyrics tell th story of the discovery from a contempoDante, se pint asse rary point of view. He's followed by Z Nessas paradas aqui Renato, cast to type for the romantic rol Talvez proclamasse: in the modinha movement. The chore 0 purgatorio é aqui! [...] movement was given to Leila Pinheiro, With the introduction of the expan- who's a natural in this genre and does sive leitmotiv, we gqt an homage to Tom justice to Paulo Cesar Pinheiro's lyrics a catalog of choronames well in his style. Jobim (and to Dorival Caymmi): Cast against type is Olivia Hime, wh sings the samba movement in an erudit Sol de Dezembro style that makes for an interesting con
Let's Hear it for Jobim.
BRAZZIL -JUNE 2002
trast with the lively instrumental accompaniment. The fifth movement, sung by Sergio Santos and dedicated to contemporary Brazilian song, is an occasion to pay tribute to the fathers of the bossa nova: [...] Levando a garota de Ipanema Corn aquele balanco bossa-nova Da Rua Vinicius de Moraes (Foi assim, foi demais) Pro aeroporto Tom Jobim (Foi demaisjoi assim) [...] The finale closes the piece the way the latter began, with single-note stanzas such as this, taking back to Tom Jobim's Sinfonia: Rio seresteiro Meu menestrel sedutor Rio de Janeiro Estou morrendo de amor Hime is able to offer his listeners a luxury not at Jobim's disposal: the new Sinfonia is available on DVD. The primary footage consists ofthe concert given at the Teatro Municipal on 30 November 2000 under the composer's baton. Into this are intercut numerous stunning views of Rio. The modinha movement is laced with historic art, while the samba movement chimes in with images of Carnaval. During the concert one can observe not only Hime and the soloists but individuals in the chorus (e.g., Eveline Hecker and An Bispo) and the orchestra—Wilson das Neves, Jorginho do Pandeiro and his son Celso Silva, Tutti Moreno, Luciana Rabello, and Vittor Santos are some ofthe notables. And that's rot all. You can watch the Sinfonia whole, movement-by-movement, or with commentaries by the principal personages involved; with or without subtitles; in four screen sizes; and with two Dolby options. There are biographies of all concerned on the disc, in addition to a bilingual booklet with lyrics and notes by Flavio Marinho and Ricardo Cravo Albin. Sinfonia do Rio de Janeiro de Siio Sebastitio is a thoroughly professional and satisfying production that doubles as an exciting travelog. And that's saying a lot. Audio samples are available at http://wwvv.cliquemusic.com.br/br/ Artistas/ aitistas.a.s0Status=DISCO&Nu Disco=10186 Francis Hime: Sinfonia do Rio de Janeiro de Silo Sebastilio (Biscoito FinoCD B FS04/DVDBF507; 2002)50:38min. Orchestrated & conducted by Francis Hime 47
1.Abertura (Francis Hime/Paulo Cesar Pinheiro/Geraldo Carneiro)- all 2. 10 Movimento - Lundu (Francis Hime/Geraldo Carneiro)- Lenine 3.2째 Movimento - Modinha (Francis Hime/Geraldo Carneiro) - Ze Renato 4.3째Movimento-Choro (Francis Hime/ Paulo Cesar Pinheiro) - Leila Pinheiro 5. 4째 Movimento - Samba (Francis Hime/Paulo Cesar Pinheiro) - Olivia Hime 6. 5째 Movimento - Cancao Brasileira (Francis Hime/Paulo Cesar Pinheiro) Sergio Santos 7. Final (Francis Hime/Paulo Cesar Pinheiro/Geraldo Carneiro)- all Antonio Carlos Jobim & Billy Blanco: Sinfonia do Rio de Janeiro: A Montanha - 0 Sol - 0 Mar (Sinfonia Popular em Tempo de Samba) (Continental/Warner 450999180-2; 1954/1995)15:40 mm. Orchestrated & conducted by RadamesGnattali Hinoao Sol - Dick Farney & Os Cariocas Coisas do Dia - Lucio Alves & Os Cariocas Matei-me no Trabalho - Gilberto Milfont Zona Sul - El izete Cardoso Arpoador - Dick Farney Noites do Rio - Doris Monteiro & Os Cariocas 0 Mar - Elizete Cardoso Copacabana - Lucio Alves A Montanha - Emilinha Borba 0 Morro - Nora Ney Descendo o Morro - Jorge Goulart Samba de Amanha - Dick Farney
Leo Peracchi, then and now: A remarkable disc is reprised in a new mantle. Leo Peracchi (1911-1993) was one of Brazil's most important arrangers. Along with Radames Gnattali, he's regarded as the great modernizer of popular music orchestration. In 1958, Peracchi created orchestral arrangements for thirteen unknown songs written by 29-year old composer Antonio,Carlos Jobim and his 44year old lyricist partner, the diplomat Vinicius de Moraes. The songs were recorded by Peracchi's wife, the soprano Lenita Bruno, accompanied by an orchestra conducted by the maestro. The following year, these recordings were released under the title Por Toda a Minha Vida by the small Festa label, which specialized in poetry albums and had released Elizeth Cardoso's 1958 LP Cancdo do Amor Demais, also compris48
ing songs by Tom and Vinicius and heralding the bossa-nova age through Joao Gilberto's participation in "Chega de Saudade" and "Dutra Vez." Por Toda a Minha Vida is a spectacular album, more art song than pop. All the songs recorded on it are classics now. Their orchestral arrangements are considered by music writers like Joao Maximo and Mauro Dias to have been the font from which younger arrangers like Tom Jobim drank (Jobim called Peracchi "meu professor"), as evidenced in Joao Gilberto's first three LPs and the work of international arrangers like Claus Ogerman. The album was reissued on CD in 1999 and soon disappeared from sight again. Peracchi's arrangements, however, survived intact in the possession ofhis daulthter Myriam. Meanwhile, Mauro Dias, obsessed with the idea of Peracchi's being the link between the character ofJobim's compositions and Jobim 's arrangements, played the album to Paulista composer Eduardo Gudin, who had been Peracchi's student. Thus was born the idea of recording the same arrangements again, utilizing up-to-date techniques. The recording took place during a live concert at Sesc Pompeia in Sao Paulo, with Gudin conducting the Orquestra Jazz Sinfonica and six of Sao Paulo's best singers standing in for Lenita Bruno: Celine Imbert, Monica Salmaso, Tete Espindola, Na Ozzetti, Van ia Bastos, and Jane Duboc, joined by Myriam Peracchi. The result, recently released by Dablio as 0 Mestre Leo Peracchi e a Jazz Sinfonica-Cancoes de Tom e Vinicius, is as spectacular as the original. Naturally, the interpretations vary more than they would with a single vocalist, but the whole retains remarkable cohesiveness, with the lyrical qualities of the original magically preserved. 0 Mestre Leo Peracchi e a Jazz Sinfonica will no doubt take its place as a classic side-by-side with Por Toda a Minha Vida.
0 Mestre Leo Peracchi e a Jazz Sinfonica-Canciles de Tome Vinicius (Sesc Sao Paulo/Dablin Discos DB0106; 2001/02)49:02 min. Eduardo Gudin conducting Leo Peracchi's arrangements 1. Por Toda a Minha Vida - Celine Imbert 2. Serenata do Adeus - Celine Imbert 3. As Praias Desertas - Monica Salm aso 4. Soneto de Separacao - Monica Salm aso 5. Valsa de Orfeu [Valsa de Euridice] - Tete Espindola 6. Cai a Tarde - Tete Espindola 7. Modinha - NA Ozzetti 8. Estrada Branca - Na Ozzetti 9. Canta, Canta Mais - Vania Bastos 10. Eu Nao Existo Sem Voce - Vania Bastos 11. Cancao do Amor Demais - Jane Duboc 12. Sem Voce- Jane Duboc 13.Eu Sei Que Vou Te Am ar -Myriam Peracchi 14. Eu Sei Que Vou Te Amar - all Lenita Bruno e Orquestra: PorToda a Minha Vida (FestaFT- I 802;1959/1999)37:59 min. Arranged & conducted by Leo Peracchi 1. Por Toda a Minha Vida (Antonio Carlos Jobim/Vinicius de Moraes) 2. Serenata do Adeus (Vinicius de Moraes) 3. Estrada Branca (Antonio Carlos Jobim/Vinicius de Moraes) 4. Soneto de Separacao (Antonio Carlos Jobim/Vinicius de Moraes) 5. Val4a de Orfeu (Vinicius de Moraes) 6. Cancao do Amor Demais (Antonio Carlos Jobim/Vinicius de Moraes) 7. As Praias Desertas (Antonio Carlos Jobim) 8. Eu Sei Que Vou Te Amar (Anton io Carlos Jobim/Vinicius de Moraes) 9. Canta, CantaMais (Antonio Carlos Jobim/Vinicius de Moraes) 10. Modinha (Antonio Carlos Jobim/ Vinicius de Moraes) 11.Cai aTarde (Antonio Carlos Jobim) 12. Sem Voce (Antonio Carlos Jobim/ Vinicius de Moraes) 13. EuNa'o Existo Sem Voce (Antonio Carlos Jobim/Vinicius de Moraes) The writer publishes the Web music magazines Daniella Thompson on Brazil http://daniv.blogspot.com and Musica Brasiliensis http:// www.brazzil.com/daniv. She can be reached at danivAips.net. BRAZZIL -JUNE 2002
Written by Miguel Falabella and Maria Carmen Barbosa and directed by Miguel Falabel la and Josimar Carneiro (music)
Jantar Entre Amigos - Pequenos Terremotos—A couple (Karen and Gabe) decide to make an inventory of their own 12year-old relationship when their best friends (Beth and Tom) tell them they are splitting. With X uxa Lopes, Otavio Mueller, Renata Sorrah and Mario Shoemberger. Written by Donald Margulies, directed by Felipe Hirsch. 0 Homem do Sobretudo Escuro (The Man ith the Dark Overcoat)—Based on Agatha Christie's short stories. A young couple who owns a boarding house in England is visited unexpectedly by a police inspector. Directed by Silvio Tadeu and Ina Carvalho, with the troupe Cia. Target de Teatro.
ilist-releisel it re-releuel Amerim
III Amor, Re'igloo e Sexo (Love, Religion and Sex)—Seven inmates share their experiences and interact with each other in jail, undressing themselves figuratively and literally. Written and directed by Wellington Amorim with Wellington Amorim. Anderson Clayton and Edino Aviso aos Navegantes (Notice to Mariners)—Ms Media (Midia) and Mr. Dollar Sign (Cifrao) go to Internet in search of a Brazilian Cabral. Pedro Alvares Cabral was the Portuguese navigator credited with the discovery of Brazil. Written by Brazilian playwright Thomas Bakk, directed by Andre Paes Leme, with Claudio Mendes and Marcia do Valle. As Bodas do Rei (The King's Wedding)— A crazy lady dreams with a lost kingdom. Written by Paulo Marcos de Carvalho, directed by Jose Sisneiro, with Toninho Ferreira and Adriana Medeiros. A Roda do Mundo (The World's Wheel)— The struggle of the Brazilian black to survive and integrate into the Brazilian society seen through the eyes of dance and martial art capoeira. Written and directed by Marcio Meirel les, with the ensemble Cia. dos Comuns.
SA1 PAULO Urn Pijama para Seis (A Pajama for S i x)— A group of friends play a swinging game during a weekend in a country house. Jacqueline loves Robert, her husband's best friend, while Bernardo, the husband, is in love with Mari lu. She pretends to be the fiancée of Roberto just to be close to her lover. Written by French playwright Marc Camoletti, directed by Rogerio Fabian°, with Luciana Coutinho, Jayme Periard and tido Romar.
South American Way—Multi-awarded show on Carmen Miranda comes to Sao Paulo after being seen by 150,000 spectators in Rio. Nineteen actors play Carmen and interpret, among other songs, "Adeus Batucada, -Tar and "Tico-Tico no Fuba.BRAZZIL -JUNE 2002
Ice Age (A Era Do Gelo), The Sum ofAll Fears (A Soma de Todos os Medos), Gosford Park (Assassinato em Gosford Park), Blade 2 (Blade 2 - 0 Cacador de rampiros), Wu! holland Drive (Cidade dos Sonhos), E. T. - The Extraterrestrial (E. T. 0 Extraterrestre), Star Wars: Episode 2 - Attack of The Clones (Guerra nas Estrelas: Episodio 2- 0 Atague dos Clones), Spiderman (Homem-Aranha), Unfaithful (Infidelidade), Kate and Leopol (Kate & Leopold), Lilo& Stitch (Lilo & Stitch), The Count ofMonte Cristo (0 Conde de Mont Cristo), The Man Who Wasn't There ( Homem Que Na9 Estava La), Long Tim Dead (0 Jogo dos Espiritos), Dragonfly ( Misterio da Libelula), The Panic Room ( Quarto do Panico), Some Like It Hot (Quant Mais Quente Melhor!), Showtime (Showtime) Spirit: Stallion of ,the Cimarron (Spirit Corcel Indomcivel), A Beautiful Mind (Um Mente Brilhante) Janela da Alma (Window of the Soul) Brazi1/2001—Directed by Joao Jardim an Walter Carvalho. With interviews wit musician Hermeto Pascoal, writer Jos Camargo and filmmakerVirn Wenders, thi documentary probes how blind people an those with sight problems deal with th world. Viva Sao folio (Long Live St John)—Bra zi1/2002—Documentary. A journe throughout the Brazilian Northeast's coun try side showing songs, traditions and be haviors of the Nordestinos. Directed b Andrucha Waddington. Timor Lorosae- 0 Massacre Que o Mund Nilo Viu (Timor Lorosae — The Massacr the World Didn't See)—Brazil/2001 Documentary. The story of East Timo tragedy at the hand of Indonesians, befor getting its independence. Directed by Luceli Santos. Abril Despedacado (Broken April, Behin the Sun in the English Version)—Brazil Switzerland-France/2001—Based on Alba nian author Ismail Kadare's book Broke April. In the Brazilian Northeast, followin a family tradition, ayoung man is compelle to avenge his brother's murder. The youn ster, however, decides to question this bloo cpde. Directed by Walter Salles, with Rodrig Santoro, Jose Dumont, and Rita Asseman Latitude Zero (Latitude Zero)—Brazi /
I999—Lena. who is pregnant and lives in a tavern by the road, gets involved with a former policeman after being dumped by her boyfriend. Directed by Toni Ventura. with Debora Duboc and Claudio Jaborandy.
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Fernando Henrique Cardoso entered his eighth and final year as President of Brazil in remarkably good shape. According to an interview with the Financial Times, life was serene in the Alvorada Palace. Warm breezes wafted through the corridors and Cardoso emerged refreshed each morning from his swim in the Olympic sized pool. Of course, there were political crises, but he took these with a grain of salt. telling the interviewer that "since I've been in office there have been only two years when there wasn't a crisis." Certainly Brazil's crises paled into insignificance when compared to Argentina's disintegrating economy. Venezuela's coups and counter-coups, and Colombia's escalating civil war. As his presidential term approached its end, even the intellectual and journalistic communities were coming to a new appreciation of his virtues. On March 9, 2002, one of Brazil's most respected economic columnists, Luis Nassif, published a remarkable tribute to Cardoso's leadership in the Folha de Sao Paulo:2
The Bottom line Cardoso was elected because of his success, as Finance Minister in the previous administration, in ending Brazil's hyperinflation. Eight years later, this remains his most remarkable accomplishment.
-In 1995, we still had a backward political society. The impeachment campaign had placed new politicians on the scene. But even thefal I ofFemando Collor, as his entire political history, was much more the result of his incapacity to ally himself with the regional political chiefs. "Almost eight years later, the political chiefs are disappearing one by one. There are those who see behind each of these disappearances the direct involvement of Fernando Henrique Cardoso. And there are those who believe that everything has happened despite him, as part of the spontaneous maturing of the country's political institutions. "What happened in this period was something more subtle that can be traced back to the beginning of the first FHC administration, as I stated in a column called "A Work of Political Art" that! wrote on July 3, 1995. The strategy consisted in building an alliance with the old political machines, conceding to their philosophy of gov-
ernment by distributing favors, so long as it could be done without compromising the administration's project of definitive political reform. "At the same time, FHC, the intellectual, played his best role, that of professor. In these almost eight years, he did away with the personalism that always transformed the President ofthe Republic into a father figure for everyone. At times he even exaggerated his professorial role, not even assuming responsibilities that really were his. But, day after day, this depersonalization of power and social policy, and non-interference with state government and the other branches of the federal government, enriched the institutional life of the country. Everything else was consequence."
Cardoso had accomplished his life's major goal: the reestablishment of political democracy in Brazil. There was no question that he would finish his term in office and be succeeded by the winner of legitimate, democratic elections. Of course, this maturing of the country's political institutions was not his personal achievement, but Brazil's. If it had depended on a single individual, it would not have been real or lasting. The essence TED GOERTZEL of democratic leadership is helping the system to act effectively instead of depending on a charismatic leader or on ideological gimmicks. Cardoso Jiad worked on that project all his professional life, in a variety of roles and through many crises, and his work was bearing fruit. The general public, also, had become more appreciative of his efforts, despite his limitations as a communicator. His standing in the public opinion polls, which had dipped sharply after the 1999 devaluation, had recovered. In a March, 2001, Sensus poll his positives exceeded his negatives for the first time since December, 1998, with 33.3 percent giving him a positive rating, and 26.5 percent a negative rating. The percentages vary according to how the questions are phrased; other polls available to Cardoso's office at the same
BRAZZIL -JUNE 2002
time showed him at 30 percent -excellent or good," 50 percent "regular" and 19 percent "bad or awful.'9 Of course, maintaining democratic continuity was not his only responsibility. Brazilians wanted economic growth, a lessening of poverty and inequality, better health and education, safety from crime, environmental protection, cultural development, and all of the good things that people everywhere want for the taxes they pay. Cardoso stated that -liberty is fundamental, but democracy is not limited to party or electoral institutionsâ€”it is extended to society. It requires a more agile and competent state. It is possible within the limits of democracy, to carry out social pol icies that lessen the amount of poverty."' As a sociologist, Fernando Henrique had always believed gathering the best objective, statistical data to evaluate any social program. Asa pragmatist, he asked to be judged by the results of his programs, not by ideological principles. Brazilian government agencies have long gathered excellent statistics on economic and social trends, and at the end of his term of office, Cardoso and his staff began to gather the data for an assessment of their accomplishments and of the challenges that remained. Cardoso's annual messages to Congress read like a social science report, full of statistical data and scholarly explanations of the forces behind the social trends. His report to Congress on February 15, 2002, was titled "Eight Years of Stability, Development, and Social Conquests."' It was his report to the nation on his presidency. He frankly acknowledged that there had been problems in the previous year, the most serious of which was a sustained drought that forced electricity rationing because of the country's very heavy reliance on hydroelectric power. Economic growth had been only 2 percent for the year, instead of the 4 percent to 5 percent that had been anticipated. Nevertheless, Cardoso was convinced that Brazilians should "feel confident when they think about the last seven years and remember how much Brazil has advanced.., it is impossible to deny, in light ofthe facts, that the reforms have been profound and that they made life better for Brazilians."' But in a democracy there are always those who deny and disagree. Leftist critics James Petras and Henry Veltmeyer
argue that "from the point of view of national economic development, there is very little doubt that FHC will be the worst Brazilian president of the twentieth century."' They accuse Cardoso of leaving the country in a state of"regression and stagnation."' Their book, Brasil de Cardoso: A desapropriaccio do pals, was published in 2001, and their criticisms reflect the mood caused by the exchange rate crisis of 1999. Their arguments provide a useful counterbalance to Cardoso's optimistic account. A more balanced appraisal can be found in the book Brazil in the 1990s: An Economy in Transition, edited by Renato Baumann, the head of the United Nations/Economic Commission for Latin America office in Brazil. We will make use ofCardoso's annual report and these two independent sources in our evaluation ofthe social and economic record of Cardoso's presidency. Our argument is supported with statistical data and graphs, many of which are from a presentation by Eduardo Graeff of President Cardoso's office that is available for download from this author's WEB site at http://crab.rutgers.edu/-goertzel/ fhc htm "(Editor's note: for technical reasons, Brazzil had to omit the graphs.) These statistics are from standard sources available to anyone. The disagreements are not about the statistics, but about their interpretation. Economic Indicators Cardoso was elected because of his success, as Finance Minister in the previous administration, in ending Brazil's hyperinflation. Eight years later, this remains his most remarkable accomplishment. Even his severest critics, Petras and Veltmeyer, acknowledge that one of the greatest errors committed by Lula and by the PT [the Workers Party and its leader], in 1994... was to grossly underestimate the social and political impact of hyperinflation and of Cardoso's plan to stabilize the value of the Real."Â° Maintaining a stable currency was absolutely central to Cardoso's credibility, and he kept this commitment to the Brazilian people, as Chart One" shows. The remarkable oscillations in this graph recall many dramatic events in Brazil's recent history: the failure of the Cruzado plan in 1987, the Bresser plan in 1988, the summer plan in 1989, the Collor Plans in 1991 and 1992, and finally the success of Cardoso's Real plan in 1994. The graph's stability since
1994 disguises the drama of the near failure of the Real plan in 1999 when speculative pressures forced Cardoso to allow the Real to float against the dollar. At that time, Brazilians were fearful that everything Cardoso had accomplished was lost and that the country would return to hyperinflation and economic recession. Petras and Veltmeyer were writing in the aftermath of that crisis when they accused Cardoso of leading the country into regression and stagnation. But Cardoso and his team brought the country through the crisis of 1999 without reverting to hyperinflation. This economic stabilization was not without cost. In the first three quarters of 1999, Brazil was in a mild recession with declines in the Gross Domestic Product of-0.21 percent, -0.65 percent and -0.41 percent. In the fourth quarter of 1999, however, there was a positive growth rate of 0.79 percent and growth resumed to over 4 percent by the last two quarters of 2000 and the first quarter of 2001. 2 The remainder of 2001 was disappointing because of the electricity crisis, the crash of -dot.com" stocks in the United States, and contagion from the collapse ofthe Argentine economy. Fortunately for Brazil, the United States recovered quickly and the relationship with Argentina had already been minimized because of the incompatibility of Brazilian and Argentine exchange rate policies. The Brazilian economy ended 2001 with a growth rate of about 2 percent, and was expected to resume better than 4 percent growth in 2002.'3 Forthe eight years ofCardoso's presidency, Brazil's per capita economic growth has been moderate, with significant variations from year to year, as shown in Chart Two." Therewas a period of rapid growth beginning in 1993, as the economic stabilization plan took hold. The first few years were ones of great enthusiasm, sustained by an artificially high valuation for the Real. Imports were cheap, wages were up, everyone seemed to be doing well with no bill to pay. But the country was living above its means, depending on borrowing at high interest rates. Cardoso warned that there were problems, and kept trying to get Congress to raise taxes and cut spending, but it was hard to create a sense of urgency when everything seemed to be going so well. Economists advised that it was necessary to lower the value of the Real, but Cardoso and his advisors were
reluctant to do so for fear of re-igniting inflation and hurting Cardoso's chances for reelection in 1998. Economic pressures kept building until the Russian crash in 1998 forced a devaluation in 1999. After the devaluation, growth resumed. Cardoso's economic policies have imposed significant hardships, most especially on state employees and on relatively well paid workers in state industries. Privatization of state industries has generally meant downsizing and the loss of jobs by workers who enjoyed job security under the statist system. As Chart Three's shows, unemployment in Brazil's metropolitan regions increased sharply in 1998 and 1999, due in large part to the exchange rate crisis. This high unemployment, among relatively well paid and politically vocal workers, contributed greatly to Cardoso's low ratings in opinion polls during this period. Unemployment has begun to come down with the revival ofthe economy afterthe 1999 devaluation, but it remains a source of significant distress. This distress, however, has not been felt primarily by the poor, but by relatively advantaged workers. As critics never cease to repeat, Brazil has a great deal of poverty and a higher index of inequality than most nations. Cardoso is acutely aware of this, and just as committed as anyone to improving the lives of the poor. The question is, what impact have his policies had? A comprehensive study released in 2002 by two of Brazil's top specialists on measures of inequality—Marcelo Neri, Chief of the Center for Social Policies of the Fundacao Get6 lio Vargas and Jose Marcio Camargo, Professor of Economics at the Pontificia Universidade Catolica in Rio de Janeiro, concluded that "1990-1997 is the most interesting period, owing to the implementation ofeconomic reforms. Our benchmark inequality measure falls from 0.748 to 0.699. This downward movement is followed by almost all inequality measures." By the best measures the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America has, Cardoso's reforms have lessened inequality in Brazil. But inequality is not the most important measure of a society's accomplishments. What is more important is the absolute level of poverty and misery, not how the poor compare with others. There are a number of measures of this, including
the poverty index shown in Chart Four.'' of all, Brazil has been much more stable As Chart Four shows, Brazil's pov- and consistent in its social development erty index declined significantly in the than in its economic development. The immediate aftermath of the Real Plan, 1980s are often referred to as a -lost although not as sharply as it did in 1985 decade" in Brazil because of the lack of and 1986 under the Cruzado plan. This economic growth. But it was not a lost is understandable because inflation is decade in terms of social welfare, the most burdensome for the poor who have social indicators continued to improve little ability to shelter their incomes. steadily. Second, the social indicators Since 1995, poverty has remained stable do not fluctuate in response to shortat about 30 percent of the population, term changes in economic policies or with a little less than half of these se- inflation rates. Social conditions change verely poor or "indigent." It has not much more slowly than economic condireturned to previous levels as it did after tions. Of course, human welfare is not the failure of the Cruzado plan. Another what it should be, especially in theNorthuseful measure is the ratio between the east. But this cannot be blamed on minimum wage and the cost of a stan- Fernando Henrique Cardoso or on dard market basket of commodities, as "neoliberalism" or any other relatively shown in Chart Five." This chart shows short-term phenomenon. Nor can we a sharp increase in the purchasing power , credit Cardoso for any dramatic improveof the minimum wage in 1995, and a ment in social indicators. Under his administration, Brazil continued to make slow improvement since then. slow but steady progress, just as it did Social Indicators The United Nations Human Devel- under the preceding governments. Educational Policy opment 1ndex'9 was created because Despite the progress that has been many people thought that too much attention was being paid to economics and made, Brazil continues to be one of the not enough to human factors such as most unequal societies on the planet. health, literacy and education. The meth- This fact is well established. The more odology for computing the index is com- difficult questions are: why this is the plex and has changed slightly over the case and what should be done about it? years, but it does provide a good bal- All market societies have considerable anced measure of how well a country is inequality, but why is Brazil worse than providing for its people. As Chart Six2" many others? The most important varishows, Brazil's Human Development able that effects the amount of economic Index has improved steadily over the inequality in a society is educational years since 1980 with a slight increase in inequality. This is especially true as an the rate of improvement during the economy modernizes, because more and more of the better paying jobs require Cardoso years. This chart may be surprisingto many literacy and other skills people learn in readers, since one hears a great deal schools. In their study of the causes of more about Brazil's problems than about inequality in Brazil. Neri and Camargo its progress. But Brazil is not excep- found that "the marginal explanatory tional in this respect. The United Na- power of schooling—by far the most tions Human Development Report shows important variable—rises from 25.7 persubstantial progress in most regions of cent in 1976 to 26 percent in 1990 and to the world, with important exceptions in 26.4 percent in 1997."22 The marginal sub-Saharan Africa and the countries of explanatory power of the two next most the former Soviet Union. Brazil's record important variables—the age distribuof steady progress is more convincing tion and the proportion in the working when one looks at specific indicators. class—were 5.9 percent and 8.7 percent Infant mortality is usually considered to in 1997. This means that by far the most be the single best measure of the welfare important step a government can take to of a society's most vulnerable members. lessen inequality is to raise educational As Chart Seven2'shows, infant mortality levels. And educational policy has improved in Brazil has declined steadily since the 1980s in each of Brazil's regions. The significantly during the Cardoso years. decline has been greatest in the North- Even Petris and Veltmeyer concede that east, which is the poorest region. "basic education is widely recognized as These statistics reveal some facts one area where the federal government which are not widely appreciated. First has had success in the planning and
BRAZZIL - JUNE 2007
implementation of social policy."" One of the most important reforms has been to force local and state governments to spend at least $300 per student per year, which has provided a guaranteed base salary for all schoolteachers. Petris and Veltmeyer acknowledge that -this certainly was a conquest."" Brazil had been making slow but steady progress in school attendance rates throughout the 1970s and 1980s, and the trend continued during the Cardoso years, as shown in Chart Eight." The rate of improvement for primary school slowed slightly, but this is because Brazil was approaching full enrollment for this group. The rate of increase accelerated most for the college age group, an area that has caused much conflict because of the shift in emphasis from state to private institutions. Brazil's state and federal universities are free of tuition, and serve primarily students from affluent families who are able to afford expensive private secondary schools. Cardoso would like to charge tuition from students who can afford to pay and make the public universities more accessible to students from lower income groups. These reform efforts have been bitterly resisted by students and faculty at the public universities who have often gone on strike. The propensity for striking is encouraged by remarkable legal provisions that often allow faculty to receive their regular paychecks while on strike. The government has responded to this conflict by channeling more and more resources to the private universities, which generally serve students from less affluent families. As Chart Nine shows, enrollment has increased in both public and private sector higher education, but much more rapidly in the private sector. With primary school enrollments approaching 100 percent, the next step is to improve the quality of education once students get there. The Cardoso government made improving primary education a top priority because the need is so great. Under new federal legislation, which began to be implemented in 1998, states have been required to concentrate their spending, and their use of federal monies, on primary education. Funds are pooled and distributed to schools in proportion to the number of primary schoolchildren actually attending. At least sixty percent of the total resources of the fund must be spent on improving
the pay of primary school teachers, critically important profession that h.. been woefully underpaid in Brazil. Despite their obvious importance these measures were strongly oppose. by many state and local governments including some controlled by suppos edly "leftist" parties, because they pe nalized states that were not focusin!A enough of their efforts on elementa education. But this resistance was overcome because of the strong public support for the issue. Sonia Draibe reports that within one year the increase in per capita spending on schoolchildren was about 22.7 percent nationwide, and that it was higher in the poorest regions-47 percent in the North and 90 percent in the Northeast.'" Organizationally, the emphasis has been on decentralization, with each school given increased autonomy. The rules encourage increased parental involvement in the schools, and some funds are sent directly to parent-teacher associations in each school. A distance education program, with satellite television reaching to remote areas, helps to cut regional inequities, a computerization program brings schools into the digital age, and a school book and school library program helps schools to catch up on traditional printed media. Substantial funding is made available for school meals. Studies have shown that decentralization has led to improvements in efficiency and effectiveness, but improvements in the quality ofteaching are slower and more difficult to measure." The government is also devoting resources to teacher training, improvement of curricula and materials, and national assessment schemes. There has been a substantial lessening of social and racial inequities in education. In 1992, one of every four children from a poor family was not in school. By 1999, this proportion fell to 7 percent. The percentage gap in school attendance between the richest children and the poorest children fell from 22 percent to less than 6 percent. The gap between white and black children diminished from 19 percent to 6 percent. Few can disagree with Cardoso's statement that "this is social inclusion of the most unequivocal and lasting kind. It signifies, in the last analysis, more citizenship and a more just society."28 Health Health is another area where Cardoso
administration continued and developed reform policies that were begun by previous governments. Prior to the 1980s, the Brazilian health care system was fragmented and focused more on treatment than on prevention. Health care was especially poor in the rural areas, and in urban slums. Lack of sewers and sanitary water supply was a major problem, and there were powerful pressures for reform as democracy was restored. Many of these reforms were included in the 1988 Constitution which called for a Unified Health System, but implementation was slow. The Cardoso administration's greatest accomplishment has not been in changing the model of health care, but in making it more of a reality. Implementing legislation was passed in 1995 and 1996 to diversify and expand the sources of funding for health care, redistribute resources to basic ervices, and decentralize public health management. Programs have been targeted on the poor, including family doctor programs, basic pharmacy programs, vaccination programs, women's health programs and programs combating infant mortality." The effectiveness of these policies can be seen in the continuing decline in infant mortality rates, as shown in Chart Seven, and the continuing improvement in life expectancy in all regions of Brazil, as shown in Chart Ten.'" In these cases, Brazil under Cardoso has continued the steady progress achieved under the preceding administrations. Progress on health and sanitation was maintained during the "lost decade" of the 1980s, despite the economic crises. One area in which improvement has been much more rapid under Cardoso is Brazil's response to the global AIDS epidemic. Brazil was one of the first countries in the world to challenge the high prices charged for AIDS drugs by American drug companies and to produce generic AIDS medications. Brazil has provided free health care for people with AIDS." As Chart Eleven" shows, there has been a sharp decline in deaths since 1995, primarily due to the free distribution of AIDS medications through the public health networks. Brazil has an AIDS problem similar to that in the United States instead of one similar to that in South Africa, an outcome that was by no means certain. To be continued.
Notes: Raymond Colitt and Richard Lapper, "Cardoso keeps a cool head," Financial Times, April 19, 2002. http:// globalarchive.ft.com. Luis Nassif, "Uma obra de arte politica," Folha de Sao Paulo, 9 March 2002. "Em 1995 ainda se tinha urn pals politicamente anacr6nico. A campanha do impeachment havia colocado novos atores politicos em cena. Mas mesmo a queda de Fernando Collor, coin todo seu historic°, foi muito mais fruto de sua incapacidade de se aliar aos corondis politicos regionais. Quase oito anos depois, os coroneis estao desaparecendo um a um. Ha quern veja por tras de cada operacao dessas a interferencia direta de Fernando Henrique Cardoso. E ha quern considere que tudo ocorreu apesar dele, pelo amadurecimento institucionalidade partidaria e eleitoral— espontaneo das instituicOes. se estende a sociedade, requer um Estado 0 que aconteceu neste periodo foi mais agil e mais competente. E é possivel algo muito mais sofisticado e que estava sim, dentro da democracia, levar politicas delineado desde o comeco do primeiro sociais que dim inuam o nivel de pobreza." govern° FHC, conforme se podera con ferir 'Fernando Henrique Cardoso, Mensana coluna "Uma obra de arte politica," que gem ao Congresso Nacional, Brasilia: escrevi em 3 de julho de 1995. Presidencia da Repablica, 2002. DownA estrategia consistia em montar uma loaded from: http://www.planalto.gov.br/ alianca corn as forcas fisiolOgicas e se publica.htm. 'Oito Anos de Estabilidade, valer do imediatismo da fisiologia para Desenvolvimento e Conquistas Sociais" distribuir favores em um nivel que nao ' !bid, p. vii. "Temos ainda mais razdo comprometesse a gestao, visando as para nos sentirmos confiantes quando reformas que mudassem definitivamente passamos em revista os Ultimos sete anos o modelo. e verificamos quanto o Brasil avanParalelamente, o intelectual FHC cou...nao é possivel negar, diante dos cumpriu seu melhor papel, ode professor. fatos, que as reformas realizadas sao Nestes quase oito anos, acabou corn o profundas e que mudaram para melhor a personalismo que sempre transformava o vida dos brasileiros." presidente da Repfiblica em especie de pai ' James Petras e Henry Veltmeyer, de todos. As vezes exagerou no papel, Brasil de Cardoso: A Desapropriacao do eximindo-se ate de responsabilidades que Pais. PetrOpolis, RJ: Vozes, 2001, p. 14. eram suas. Mas, dia apOs dia, essa " Ibid. "retrocesso e estagnacao" despersonalizacao do poder, a impes-Oito Anos" a Powerpoint presentasoalidade das acOes sociais e a nao- tion by Eduardo Graeff of the Office of the interferencia nos Estados e nos demais President in Brasilia, is available, with poderes foram gradativamente liberando interpretative notes, in both English and as instituicOes, garantindo a autonomia Portuguese versions at http:// dos poderes, oxigenando a vida insti- crab.rutgers.edu/-goertzel/fhc.htm. tucional. 0 resto foi consequencia." '" Petras and Veltmeyer, Brasil de ' Silvia Faria, "Popularidade de Fl-IC Cardoso, pp 56-57. "Urn dos maiores erros a Major Desde 98," 0 Estado de S. Paulo, cometidos por Lula e pelo PT, em 28 March, 2001. http:// 1994.. .foi subestimar grosseiramente o vvww.estado.com.br. "6tima, boa, regu- impacto social e politico da hiperinflacao lar, ruim e pessima". e o piano de Cardoso para estabilizar o 4 Demetrio Weber e Lu Aiko Otta , valor do Real." "FHC prega Estado agil e competente," 'This chart is from Graeff, op. cit. Agencia Estado, March 10, 2002. http:// 12 Fernando Henrique Cardoso, Sete www estado com br A liberdade e funda- Anos do Real: Estabilidade. Crescimento mental, a democracia nao se restringe e Desenvolvimento Nacional. Brasilia:
Presidencia da Republica, 2001, p. 19. Mensagem ao Congresso Nacional, p. vii 14 This chart was prepared with data http://www.ibge.net/home/ from estatistica/economia/contasnacionais/ tabela5.shtm The figure for 2001 was estimated based on data from the Mensagem ao Congresso Nacional. '5 This Chart is from Graeff, op. cit. 16 Marcelo Neri and Jose Marcie' Negri, "Distributive Effects of Brazilian Structural Reforms," in Renato Baumann, ed., Brazil in the 1990s: An Economy in Transition, New York: Palgrave, 2002, p. 307. '' This chart is from Graeff, op. cit. This chart is from Graeff, op. cit. ' United Nations, Human Development Report 2001, at http:// kk WW. und_p.org/hdr2 00 1 /. 'This chart is from Graeff, op. cit. 2 ' This chart is from Graeff, op. cit. " Neri and Camargo, op. cit., p. 308. 29 Petras and Veltmeyer, op. cit., p. 100. "a educacao basica e amplamente reconhecida como uma area onde o govern° federal teve exit° no planejamento e implementacao da politica social." 24 Petras and Veltmeyer, op cit., p. 100. que foi certamente uma conquista." 25 This chart is from Graeff, op. cit. 26 Draibe, op cit., p. 126. 27 Wide° de Estudos de Politicas Publicas, Avaliacao da Descentralizacao de Recursos do FNDE e da Merenda Escolar. Unicamp, Campinas, 1998. 2X Fernando Henrique Cardoso, Mensagem ao Congresso Nacional, op. cit., p. 57. "Isto é inclusao social da forma mais inequivoca e duradoura. Significa, em Ultima analise, mais cidadania e urn Pais mais justo." " Sonia Draibe, op. cit, pp. 104-113. 3" This chart is from Graeff, op. cit. 3 ' Cardoso, Mensagem ao Congresso Nacional, op. cit, pp. 113-114. 32 This chart is from Graeff, op. cit. This is the first part of the concluding chapter of the Brazilian edition of Fernando Henrique Cardoso: Reinventing Democracy in Brazil to be soon published in Portuguese by Editora Saraiva. The chapter is called "Eight Years of Pragmatic Leadership in Brazil." The book's author, Ted Goertzel, Ph.D., is a professor of sociology at Rutgers University, in Camden, New, Jersey. He can be reached at goertzelAcrab.rutgers.edu
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