MUSIC: Ney Matogrosso at Sixty, Sweet Sixty
Will A WOMAN SAVE SERRA?
THE BALL THAT UNIFIES A COUNTRY
OPINION: WE CAN'T LIVE WITHOUT THE A-BOMB
GOODBYE: DELAMARE, PEDIATRICIAN Of US All
SHORT PENELOPE BY DALTON TR
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12 Brazzil may be a tad later than usual this month, but we are trying to make it up to you with the freshness of the news and several offerings for all those interested in Brazilian culture. Our cover story shows a bipolar country as revealed by the latest Census data, with a marked improvement in education and childcare in the last ten years while still presenting a dramatic disparity between the very poor and the very rich. The Census also shows a nation less Catholic and less inclined to formal marriages. The presidential elections are coming this October, but the candidates will have to wait their turn while the nation gears up for something much more exciting: the 2002 World Cup. Through the eyes of a British journalist we discuss.futebol as a unifying force in Brazil. And then, we couldn't forget that it's June and it's time for Festas Juninas. We talk about bonfires, typical food, and traditions. We even offer some recipes to warm up any Saint John's party. RM Send mail to: P.O. Box 50536 - Los Angeles, CA 90050-0536 Ads/Editorial: (323) 255-8062 Info: (323) 255-8062 Fax: (323) 257-3487 Brazzil on line: http://www.brazzil.com E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Publisher and Editor: Rodney Mello Assistant Editor: Leda Bittencourt Art&Design Director: Marina Yoshie
(email@example.com) Entertainment Editors: Sam & Harriet Robbins Book Review: Bondo Wyszpolski Music Editor: Bruce Gilman Brazil Bureau Chief: Marta Alvim
Cover CensUs shows changing face of Brazil Cover by Aylan Mello
Contents 11 01 08 BO
Sao Paulo Bienal 1000+ pose in the nude.' For art's sake. Religion The sawdust carpet for Christ Tribute Rinaldo DeLamare was our Dr. Spock Ciao Adelino Moreira, from tacky to cult Indy 500 Helio Castroneves, the dĂŠjĂ -vu hero
11 21 21 22 24 28 2/ 31 31 33 31 41 43 44 54
Opinion Brazil = e+j, efficient and just. We can do it. Politics Rita Camata for Vice President Elections Can anyone stop the PT? The sad state of television programming TV Opinion Brazil needs the A-Bomb Media Opening the door to foreign capital Futebol More than a game, a soul trip Culture A ball unites Brazil and Kerala Impressions Brazilians breathe soccer Short Story "Penelope" by Dalton Trevisan Money The Virgin Mary and the Brazilian currency Language English for Brazucas VIII Music Review Brazilian Love Affair 3 & Partido Novo Music The sixty lives of Ney Matogrosso Traditions Festas Juninas: fire, dance, and all that jazz
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org TIME TO RENEW? Sorry, we don't send reminders. Look at the label to know when your subscription ends. BRAZZIL (ISSN 1091 -868X) is published monthly by Brazzil 2039 N. Ave. 52, Los Angeles, CA, 90042-1024.Periodicals Postage rate paid at Los Angeles, CA. Single copy sold for $2. One year subscription for 12 issues is $3 (three dollars) in the U.S., $15 in Canada and Mexico, and $18 in all other countries. No back issues sold. Allow 5 to 7 weeks to receive your first issue. You may quote from or reprint any of the contents with proper copyright credit. Editorial submissions are welcome. Include a SASE (self addressed and stamped envelope) if you want your material mailed back. Brazzil assumes no responsibility for any claims made by its advertisers. The Library of Congress ISSN: 1524-4997
06 Rapidinhas 19 letters 49 Cultural Pulse 51 Classifieds 52 That's Brazilian
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Art Strip Cheese The S5o Paulo Biennial is the third most important art exhibit in the world surpassed only by Italy's Venice Biennial and Germany's Documenta exposition held in Kassel. The international display celebrated Salario baixo el eva emprego formal its 50th anniversary last year and to start the second half of its first century of existence, it introduced some significant changes in the 25th edition of the art show. The latest version of Bienal Internacional de Sao Paulo, which started March 23 and will be open to the public until June 2, is showing the work of 190 artists from 70 countries and had already seen more than 300,000 visitors by the end ofApril. The theme ofthe expo: Metropolitan Iconography, with an explanation from the promoters: Ht's the metropolis that essentially defines artistic practice." For the first in its history:, however, the Bienal chose a foreign curator. German Alfons Hug. The expo also abandoned its traditional practice of creating special spaces to present masters of painting like Van Gogh, Picasso and Francis Bacon, who were shown in the past, thus boosting attendance. The Poulisto Biennial, however, has not abandoned its vocation for controversy. And American photographer Spencer Tun ick, who provoked scandal in the US and faced jail time Parroira mancia o for his Naked States installation—he took open-air pictures of naked groups in every state Corinthians atacar ,1 Sao Gaetano of the Union—took his camera to sao Paulo to stir the spirits and strip people from their inhibitions and clothes in the name of art. New York-based Tunick ended in Sao Paulo the largest South American metropolis, t with 10 million inhabitants—its Nude Adrift tour, which took him during six months to 30 countries from the seven continents, including Antarctica. In Australia. 4500 people Policia prende 14 e volunteered for collective nude pictures and 2500 did the same in Canada, but the art abotta resgatp am earlaia photographer was particularly pleased with 1200 people vv ho showed up at six in the ()gElln Hitt/111f 'iSI morning of a cloudy Sunday in lbirapuera, Sao Paulo's largest park to take off their clothes. a He commented that the number of people who turned up for the performance was 414: ctrst 0 DESAFIO DE SER three times what he averaged in Europe. Quite a few of the naked models were press JOVE M EM BRASILIA , , people who wanted to describe in the first person the nude statue feeling. One of them, Rede TV reporter Wagner Sugamelli was the first one to get naked and gave what other i71;/71" journalists called a show of exhibitionism and bad taste. Tunick talked about his disappointment with the small number ofwomen participating (about 10 percent when the average had been 45 percent) and the almost total absence of blacks. Black artist Ana Lucia Silva Santos told Brasilia daily Co-reio Brozilienw, "Unfortunatelyculture in Brazil is far from the people. That's why there are few blacks IA here. I was able to overcome my fear, since it's hard for me even to go to the beach on a bikini.- Attorney Florivaldo de Almeida, 71, complained about the cold cement where people had to lie down for the second of three series of pictures. hut "thehuman warmth improved the thermal sensation," he added. JORNAL DO BRASIL The Sao Paulo civilian police intervened to prevent tive-year-old Penelope Inacio from participating in the naked bodies carpet. The little girl was already naked and ready for 14.1.11n Lk! the shot when she was spotted by a policeman, who forced her father to dress the child and take her out. Indignant, engineer Jose Carlos Ignacio, who was with his wife and Penelope's mother, lambasted the police action: "This is pure hypocrisy. There are children starving in the streets who should inspire more concern to the police than my daughter." crrcfe num, tI, o For the Brazilian media, the event was big news guaranteeing large front-page pictures in the countries largest and most influential newspapers and sizeable articles inside. Writing for Sao Paulo's Jornal do Tarde —sister publication of respected centenary conservative o Estado de S. Paulo---, reporter Armando Serra Negra confided: "All nudity was photographed. And I was there. How delicious. I felt a marvelous and subtle sensation (...) It was funny to see a zit in somebody's butt, the sexytattoo on a lady's derriere, or vice-versa. Some pricks bigger than others, bellies too, pretty and ugly buttocks. Who cares. By and large the human body, be it perfect like the one from the brunette by my side, or from the fatso man or woman, full of tattoos spreading through their old age, is very pretty."
FOLHA DE STAuto
B RAZZ IL - MAY 20C2
It's approaching midnight as restlessness permeates the town. A quiet commotion is stirring as villagers steal out of their homes in the middle of the night and head for the historical center of the 421 year-old town, where time has stood still. Laden with sacks, buckets and blueprints, they head to their designated area to execute their portion of the plan. By five a.m. numerous conspirators have joined the force and, by sunrise, the coalition is in full swing. ' It's not a political uprising or coup d'etat. Only a stones throw away from Sao Paulo. Brazil, one of the largest cities in the world, 44, the smalltown of Santana de Parnaiba is celebrating Corpus Christi. These people have a unique way to do it. About mid May, after selecting a picture-pattern from the town's priest, participants begin to prepare for the event. They will reproduce this picture directly onto the road on the day of Corpus Christi (this year on May 30). Using a variety ofelernents, including painted sawdust, coffee powder, flowers, seeds and quicklime, they ss ill create a two-kilometer-long rug for the church procession to walk over, starting and ending at the Main Church of Sant'Ana. Each artist must color enough sawdust, with homemade paint, to make their own three-meter portion. The 1,700 bags of sawdust (four truckloads) used by the artisans are acquired from the local furniture factory. Hoping for calm. dry weather, they head out to the streets long before sunrise so they have time to complete their creations by 3:30. Then, follow ing afternoon mass, the procession leaves the church to walk the carpeted streets carrying the ostensorium. Santana de Parnaiba, 35 kilometers from Sao Paulo and older than Sao Paulo itself, is famous for its connection to the past. The buildings of the historical center ha v e been restored and are maintained true to their heritage, worth a visit in their own right. Most of the festivals in the town are practiced as they have been since the festivals Does this mean the villagers have been creating these striking, sawdust compositions for over four centuries? Not quite. This fairly new way of celebrating the holy day was contrived by a young lady named Emilia Gil d'Assuncao in 1967. Prevrously, homes and offices in town were decorated with pots of red Sao Joao flowers. HOW, ever in '67, the day of observ ance fell on the same day as 0 Dia dm NamoradoA, Brazil's version of Valentine's Day, June 12. Thirty-one year old Emilia was working as a schoolteacher in Santana de Parnaiba, though her family lived in another town. Salto de Itu. As was usual, they expected her home , for the religious event. Her father had no idea that Emilia had a boyfriend, and she was not about to tell him. Desperate to come up with a reason why she should stay in Santana close to her beau, Emilia thought of the carpet making. She ran the idea by the priest, the may or and the school director. Everyone approved. 1 ogether with her fellow teachers, the first street carpet was created and this form of the celebration has been growing every y ear since. Today , Santana de Parnaiba attracts over 30,000 people who come and go throughout the day. Some come for the morning, or noon mass, some to watch the carpets being made, visit the craft fair and have lunch, and some to \ vatch the procession. Formerly, artisans were free to create their own - peacefu I and religious" pictures. But the year that the procession walked over Jesus Christ carry ing a ghetto blaster on his shpulder, the priest decided to preside over , future design distribution. Emilia hasn't participated in the rug making since 1971. That is v hen she got married and started her own familvâ€”y es, with the same young man who inspired her to start the sawdust rugs in the first place. Thirty years later, they are still married and Santana de Parnaiba still celebrates Corpus Christi in the same curious yet resplendent, manner. It's simply grand. Elizabeth Willoughby is a Ca,nadian freelance ysriter currently living in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Her columns, "Letters Home" and Going Places" appear regularly in Sao Paulo media. She can be reach ed at rekw@jhotmai l.com
He spent his life taking care of other peoples babies. He even wrote the Brazilian bible on tending to infants, A Vida do Bebe (The Baby's Life). First released in 1941, the book had its 41 edition expanded and updated by the author published De Lamare was inspired by Guira dos Mcies (Mothers'Guicle), last year. Despite all his hands-on work with tots, Dr. Rinaldo a book writ en by Brazilian pediatrician Germano Wittock. The good doctor moved his clinic to Copabacana, in the De Lamare confessed recently that he never changed a soiled diaper. "In 1950, any manwho would this would be ridiculed." affluent south of Rio. in the '50s. 'There he would amass an he commented. "As for me, I didn't do it just because I didn't archive ofncore than 60000 patients. In 1964, De Lamare was invited by the military regime that took over the country that have the time." His death at age 92, on April 28, at his home in Rio--he year to head the federal Departamento Nacional da Crianca (National Child Depai tinent). He stayed in hated hospitals—was not front page material that post until 1968. and most Brazilian papers buried the news in Upon v isiting extremely poor families in an obscure section of an internal page. but the Northeast. which had in average six kids, those who heard about his passing could not the pediatrician proposed a federal family help but feel that someone from their family planning that would limit to two per couple had gone, someone like a dear grandpa or old the number of kids allowed. The military godfather, someone who knew the answer nixed the idea alleging that they didn't want when a little baby started to scream in the to face neither theCatholic Church nor the middle ofthe night or a fever won't go down. Army brass who favored a larger population De Lamare was in bed since Septemberoflast to occupy Brazilian extensive frontiers. year when he had a stroke. When offered the job ofHealth Minister A VidadoBebesold 5 million copies or6.5 by president Costa e Silva he declined saymillion according to another version. Any ing he didn't feel prepared forthat challenge. figure you accept the book comes as the allHe took care of the grandchildren of three time champion among Brazilian books sold in military presidents: General Humberto de Brazil. Cap itaes de Areia by Jorge Amado, a Alencar Castello Branco, General Artliw- da novel first published in 1937, comes in second Costae Silva and General Emilio Garrastazu with 74 editionsand4.5 million copiessold. (0 Medici. Alquimista by Paulo Coelho, first published A ,f Vda do Bebé is divided in chapters showing month to in 1988, has already sold morethan 11 millions copies, but this includes editions in dozen of countries. Coelho has sold 8 month how nfants are to be dealt with in that phase of their lives. De La na:e made significant changes to his book after million copies in Brazil ofhis 12 books.) reading American Benjamin Spock' s (1903Born in Santos (state of Silo Paulo) in January 2, 1998) The Common Sense 1910, young Rinaldo went to Rio Nthen he was 16 to Book of Baby and Child Care (Meu study medicine at Universidade do Brasil, known Men Tes.ouro My Child, My Treasure, in today as Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. At Brazil)from 1946. The Brazilian doctor abanthat time, youngsters would choose between three dolled the authoritarian German view on careers-engineering, law, medicine," he said two child rearing in favor of a more open apyears ago. "I chose the profession that fascinated me proach in which children's wills were taken the most." De Lamare was only 22 when he opened into account. his first clinic in Madureira, a poor Rio suburb and Unlike Spock who made few alterations soon he would be seeing up to 100 children a day I le to his original work, De Lamare kept updatstayed there for eight years. Diarrhea being the main i ing his book every four years. In child cause of child mortality, the doctor introduced a rearing he was in favor ofdiscipline, but also simple recipe to help parents save their kids: a serum flexibility. "Today we know that freedom in made with a tea spoon of salt and dessert spoon of sugar added to filtered water. The home medication, which is excess does not bring good results to the human being. It's still used in poor communities in Brazil today, wasn't well,: :wise the phrase of the Latin revolutionary: "Hay que received by other doctors, according to Del .amare. "Doctors endurecerse, pero sin perder la ternura jamas—One must get got paid a 20 percent commission from the pharmacist for the tough without losing tenderness ever," he used to say citing Argentinean Ernesto Che Guevara. prescriptions sold. The more syrup they gave He only stopped seeingkids in his office after children, the better for their pockets." Due to his he had the first of five bypass surgeries, in 1985. unorthodox approach his clients used to consider him more a shaman or medicine man than a doctor. By then he was already 75. The doctor was 81 "There were neither antibiotics nor vaccine at when he was chosen to preside the Academia that time and every month we had lots of cases of Nacional de Med ic ina. De Lamara was also pres contagious diseases such as measles, chicken pox, cknt of the Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria in whooping cough," the doctor recalled. There were 1948 and 1949 and titular professor at Rio's PUC also cases of polio and meningitis. "It was wonder('ontificia Universidade Catolica—Pontifical ful when a polio vaccine was discovered in 1953 it Catholic University). because it was too distressing to tell a mother that Ili( De Lamare has also had his detractors. Many her child had infantile paralysis and not a cold." c insider his advice out of step with today's In 1940, the busy doctor moved his office to so, odd. He used to accept the criticism with a dose Avenida Nib o Pecanha, in downtown Rio, and suddenly he had plenty of time in his hands and very few patients. It would ofhumorand irony. 1 knowI'm old.- he told interviewers more take him three years to form anew clientele. That gave him the than once. -I'm a pediatric ian from the 20" century, that is, the idea to use the free time to write a book on caring for babies. past century,7 CAW
BRAZZIL - MAY 2002
In the '50s and '60s he was "cujima"(tacky), in the '70s he was "brega" (tacky), but since then Adelino Moreira has become cult and his death at 84, on May 7, was widely reported. He died in his sleep from a heart attack at his Rio home. His tune "A Volta do Boemio" (The Bohemian's Return) sung by late Nelson Goncalves sold more than 20 million discs and "Negue" (Deny), another of his popular songs had more than 140 versions. Moreira was atireless composing machine having written more than 1000 tunes without a partner. In the last ten years he, hadn't composed, but he'd still sing, and play the guitar for his grandchildren. The basic theme of his songs was alway s the same: love pain caused by freakups, fights. unrequited passion. He has been called Rei da Fossa (King of Blues) and his cult status was onl possible hanks to re-recording of some of his old tunes by the first team of Brazilian singers, interpreters like Gal Costa and Maria Bethania. Born in Oporto. Portugal, on March 28, 1918, Adelino Moreira de Castro moved to Campo Grande, a Rio suburb, with his parents beforetuming two. He was already working as agoldsmith like his father when he decided to try his hand atmusic composing. He never finishedhigh school and married Maria da Conceicao when he was 18 (themarriage lasted until 1951). Moreira started his musical career in 1938 playingthe mandolin. In 1945, invited by Braguinha (Joao de Barro), who was the director of the recording company Continental, he recorded four of his compositions, a samba ("Mulato Artilheiro"), a lhos d'Alme and "Anita". marcha ("Nem Cachopa, nem Comida") and the fades Moreira represented a musical vein (nnisica de dor de cotovelo—literally el bow pain music) thatthrived in broken-heart and love-gone-bad songs. Other famous representatives of this kind of music also known as intisica de Ihssa (lit, cesspool music) were Dolores Duran, Antonio Maria and Maysa. Moreira together with Nelson Goncalves became the golden duo of this kind of music after meeting in June of 1950 on the elevator of Radio Nacional, the hit maker media of the time. The partnership started with "Ultima Seresta", a tune penned with Sebastiao Santana. "A Volta do Boemio" was first recorded in 1955. Throughout the next decades Moreira and Goncalves would team in more than 400 hit songs. Other fruits ofthe partnership that became famous: "Fica Com igo Estalloite,-(1961)and "Meu V icio E Voce" (1957). Nelson Goncalves died on April 18. 1998. (See Brazzil online http:I/www.brazzil.com/p13may98.htm) Basso nova. Vs ith its understated even minimalist way of singing about the niceties of life, buried in the '60s the melodramatic boleros andsambacancaes authored by Adel ino Moreira. While other dor cle cotovelo composers like gazicho Lupicinio Rodrigues were recognized later as outstanding authors, More ira kept for a long time the campy stigma. In 1966. Moreira had a dispute with Nelson Goncalves and after that promoted singer Carlos Nobre, who imitated Goncalves. Only in 1971 they patched thing up. For many year, the composer was head of Sbacem (Sociedade Brasileira de Autores, Compositores e Escritores de Masica—Brazilian Association of Music Author, Composers and Writers). He was one of the few composers in Brazil that was able to live com fbrtab I y from his royalties.
A Volta do Boemio The Bohemian's Return Adeline Moreira Boemia, aqui me tens de regresso E suplicante lhe peg° a minha nova inscricao Voltei pra reveres amigos que um dia a chorar de alegria„ me acompanhao meu viola() Boemia, sabende que andei distante Sei que esta genie fal ante vai agora ironiz.ar Ele voltou. o boeinio voltounovamente Parti LI daqui to contente. per clue razao quer voltar?
Bohemia, knowing that I've been far away I know that these gossipy people will mock me He came back_ the bohemian came back again He left so happy. hy does he want to come back?
Acontece que a mulher que floriu meu caminho meiguice e carinho, sendo a vida do meu coracao Compreendeu e abracou-me dizendo a sorrir Meu amor VOCe pode partir, nao esqueca o teu violao Va rever os teus ries, teus montes, cascatas cantar em novas serenatas e abracar teus amigos leais
It happens that the w otnan who bloomed my way With tenderness, sweetness and care, being my heart's life Understood and smiting embraced me saying Darling you can lea \ c 110 \N. don't forget your guitar Once again go see your ri \ ers, your mountains, cascades Go sing in new serenades and hug your faithful friends
V a embora, pois rnc resta o console e alegria 'EM saber que depois da boemia e de mim que voce gosta mais
BRAZZIL - MAY 2002
Bohemia, you have me back And imploringly I ask for a new admission I'm back to once again see friends that one day I left crying for joy, my guitar at my side
Go away, with me rest the consolation and joy Of knowing that alter bohemia its me that you like the most
PHILLIP WAGNER Brazilians sneaked into last Unstoppable Brazil year's Indianapolis 500 and captured five of the top seven places in front of 400,000 unsuspecting race fans at what marketplace. But success is known as the 'Greatest Spectacle in Racing'. This year finds its own way for crethe Brazilians mounted an undisguised frontal assault, ating demand. Several fans qualifying in three ofthe top six spots with Bruno Junqueira in Brazil had indicated to taking the pole position. The pit crew of defending cham- me, since last year, that pion Helio Castroneves dominated a pre-race pit crew they were warming to the competition. Tony Kanaan, who qualified in the fifth po- idea of splitting their intersition, added an exclamation point by posting the fastest est and wished the Indiaspeed on a day that tradition has mandated should con- napolis 500 would be tinue to be called 'Carburation Day'. shown there. This year, no The word 'carburatorâ€˘ isn't even recognized by most doubt owing to last year's spell-checkers anymore. And carburators haven't been spectacular showing by used at Indianapolis for as long as anyone can seem to the young Brazilians, their emember. Raul Boesel qualified third. Hello Castroneves wish came true. TV Record thirteenth and Gil de Ferran fourteenth. A sixth Brazilian. International, headquarAirton Dare only managed to qualify thirtieth in the thirty tered in sao Paulo, conthree car field, but even the slowest car among the 2002 tracted to show the race entries qualified at a faster speed than the 200 I pole sitter. through Ice Miller, a highly If the weather would cooperate, 'a sprint to the respected 90 year-old Inpromised to be an apt description for this year's 200 lap dianapolis law firm. They featu re . no doubt weren't disappointed. The controversial nature of the last second dash beA bright race day sun warmed the two and a half-mile tween Castroneves and Canadian Paul Tracy notwith- oval that, for most of the month, had been anything bu standing, Brazil can hardly lose. Before 2001, Brazilian warm, or dry. Cold wet rain had caused many practice-days, drivers had gone largely unnoticed at Indianapolis, if not and the second day of qualifications, to be cancelled. It Formula Indy. To his credit, Raul Boesel consistently threatened the ability for race teams to secure one of the, ; presented a good image at Indy. But like so many great then nine, still open slots on last chance 'bump day'. But -- drivers, found fortune lacking at the 'Big oval'. So the severe storms rolled through the day before the race and extraordinary talent of Brazil's native sons remained as cleared away any vestiges of bad weather. cloaked as 'sleeper" agents in the international intrigue it Just before the singing of "Back Home .4 gain in Indi, has become but no longer. Brazil has always represented ana" and the legendary pronouncement of "Gentlemen an enormous potential market for Formula Indy which has start your engines", a stealth bomber, escorted by F- I 6 jet struggled to get attention there. Ironic, since Brazilians fighters, glided over the track. My impression was that it drivers have struggled to get attention here. looked like an extraterrestrial bird of prey. It's ominous TV G lobo's marriage to Formula One, coupled with its shadow reminded everyone that the international atmodominant role among Brazilian media, has never made it sphere surrounding this year's event was more serious easy for Formula Indy to gain exposure in the Brazilian than it had been in 2001. Finally, a roar of engines enveloped the roaring crowd as thirty-three sleek, powerful silhouettes sped toward the starters flag; a clean start. But the race nearly had to be restarted. Adrenaline pumped drivers had spread to nearly unacceptable spacing on their first approach to the start finish line. 1E1(114..1 Even after the start, race officials considered waving Seie ao na arena da Copa the field back in. prr, 1.2,11 Junqueira jumped out to a quick lead, but almost immediately began to experience problems. Bruno and his team devised a work-around over the radio and he quickly recovered to set a blistering pace. Raul Boesel, who has perhaps more experience and name recognie tion than any otherBrazilian driver, also laid early claim as a contender. When Greg Ray piled his car into a wall on lap 29, I:14-111v,i11,ffir the yellow caution flag made its first appearance and 1.03 d3 1..11 1.4,1,` Junqueira pulled in for a pit stop. The gearbox problem that slowed him early had caused his car to stall, and the lead was lost. But Brazilians Tony Kanaan, Gil de Ferran and Raul Boesel were running third, fifth and seventh at time.
JORNAL DO BRASIL
BRAZZIL - MAY 2002 "
Helio Castroneves, last year's winner, quickly rose to taking another pit stop, assumed the lead on lap 178. It w as the -.N. 21st lead change and he became the fourth ninth. By lap 50, a quarter of the way into Brazilian to lead in the race. the race, Kanaan was in a225 mile an hour Although his crew resolved his tire three-car wide drag race on the straight-aproblem, de Ferran had fallen to eleventh way fighting for the top spot. South Afriplace. As the race entered lap 187 of 200, can Thomas Scheckter he Id (North) Amerithe question on everyone's mind was can Sam Hornish Junior and Kanaan at whether Castroneves could complete the bay. But Kanaan slipped into second two race without another pit stop. If the anlaps later, with de Ferran, Boesel and swer was yes, we might see the same Castroneves still in fifth, seventh and driver, a Brazilian in his only two appearninth. Castroneves moved up to eighth ances ever at the track no less, in the by lap 60, at which time Junqueira was winner's circle for the second straight running twenty-first. year. Thirty laps had already passed since Kanaan inherited the lead on lap 63 his last pit stop. Forty-two laps without when Scheckter took a pit stop, but gave a pit stop would be a surprising accomit up on lap 67 to pit his own car. By lap 80 plishment. Conventional wisdom said it Kanaan and de Ferran were running one couldn't be done. and three. As the race neared its midpoint, As the clock ran down, Castroneves Brazilian fortunes changed dramatically. began to stretch his lead. Second place Junqueira's engine blew, spilling oil onto Frenchman Glatt-One struggled to pass the track. Tony Kanaan's car, following slower cars on the crowded track. Soon close behind, spun on the slick track and crumpled as it met the wall. So Kanaan, who was leading at there were only 6 laps to go. Castroneves began to slow and the time, and Junqueira, who had won the pole position and GiaffOne threatened to take the lead. The Canadian, Paul Tracy, Islipped past GiaffOne. Tension mounted had jumped to an impressive early lead, were as Tracy pulled alongside Castroneves suddenly among the first six cars to leave the with barely more than a lap to go. Aprace. De Ferran moved into second place by proaching the final lap Tracy appeared the midway point of100 laps, with Castroneves to take the lead. But there was an incistill running eighth. ` dent on the track behind the leaders. The De Ferran inherited the lead after 121 laps yellow caution flag was waving as the when Scheckter pulled in for a tire change, then pass occurred, and it was disallowed. conceded it to Frenchman Felipe Giaffone sevTrack officials motioned Castroneves eral laps later to do the same. Pre race talk back into the lead and he crossed the among race teams had been that wear on the "Brickyard's" start-finish line as the prorack standard Firestone tires would be a probvisional winner. lem, particularly under the sun. But the tires De Ferran finished tenth, Dare thirheld up better than expected. teenth and Boesel twenty-first. All in all, De Ferran had already recovered to third another remarkable showing by Brazilby lap 130, and almost immediately moved inta ians driving their way into the hearts of second behind Scheckter. At lap 142 de Ferran was still in second. Helio Castroneves had moved into North American racing fans. Especially considering the misforseventh and Airton Dare had climbed all the way to six- tunes Junqueira, Kanaan and de Ferran. As Brazilian soccer teenth, but Raul Boesel had slipped to twenty-third. Only fortunes have waned, their Formula Indy fortunes have risen. 58 laps, little more than a quarter of the race, remained. De Perhaps Rubens Barrichello should consider trading in his Formula One credentials for Formula Indy I Ferran re-inherited the lead at lap 150 when ' opportunities where, apparently, BrazilScheckter again pulled in for a pit stop. De ian drivers are encouraged to compete to Ferran held that lead until lap 161 when he gave win. We'll see Rubens here in any case it up to Alex Barron, a San Diego native. That when Formula One returns to Indianapomarked the seventeenth lead change among lis in September. eight drivers in the race. Three of those, of â€˜47.Elizsrainotv course, had been Junqueira, Kanaan and de Phillip Wagner is a free-lance Ferran. It appeared that one more pit stop per photojournalist, a frequent driver would be needed. traveler to Brazil and a regular South African Scheckter, who bad regained contributor to Brazzil. Phillip's focus is the lead, was collected into the track wall before on Brazilian culture and lap 175, caving in the right side of his car. "constructive social engagement" Frenchman GiaffOne moved in front under the that helps Brazilians to become selfsufficient. Phillip is a 1979 yellow caution flag, and it appeared that de graduate of Indiana University and Ferran would shortly recapture it. But, unberesides in Indianapolis; visit his Brazil lievably. de Ferran's car lost a wheel coming out Web Pages at http:iiw Nkv, .ici.netl of the pits. Defending champion Hello a _ ner/hrazilhome.htm and/or contact him directly at Castroneves. who had quietly been moving up in the field, pwagnerdiei.net and decided to gamble that he could finish the race without
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Two Brazils Infant mortality is down, but social inequality is up. The Catholic Church lost more than a few believers to the evangelicals, and marriages have become less frequent. The Indian population has more than doubled and the number of telephones has increased, but the earning power of the poor has not. It's time to take on Brazil's Census latest figures. FRANSCESCO NEVES
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The new numbers culled from I BGE's (InstitutÂ° Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica-Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) 2000 Census put the Cardoso administration into a celebratory mood. And there was plenty of reason to celebrate, they said. After all, Brazil has shown that it was taking better care of its kids, being able to lower by 38 percent the infant mortality to 29.6 deaths per 1000 live births from 48, in 1991 when the previous census was taken. (Compare this to 6.76 deaths per 1000 in the US, 4.46 in France, and 3.47 in Sweden.) In otherwords, from1991to2000,404.130 children less than one year old didn't have to die in Brazil. This improvement made it possible for the country to reach the UN goal for 2000, envisioned at the 1990 Word Summit for Children, of32 infant deaths per one thousand born alive babies. In the Northeast, the decline of the death rate in a decade was almost 40 percent, going from 73 deaths per 1000 babies to 44 deaths, what is still well above the United Nations goal. Commenting on this information, political scientist and social sciences professor Fernando Abrucio, said, "These are the only figures that show a qualitative improvement in the life ofBrazi I ians." Another bright spot was the revelation that 94.9 percent of all children between the ages of seven and 14 are enrolled in school. Still according to the census data, 120 million Brazilian are able to read and write. While in 1991 the percentage ofpeople able to read was 59.9, this number has raised to 72.4 in the last census survey. In the rural area, this number went from 59.9 percent to 72.4 percent. Despite the improvement, though, Brazil still has 17.6 million illiterate people 10 years old or older. Indian Nation An information that might warm the hearts of indigenists and ecologists the world over: the indigenous population in Brazil has grown by 138 percent since the last census in 1991. There are now 701.462 Indians in the country, representing 0.4 percent ofthe Brazilian population. People involved with the Indian movement were expecting that would be only 400,000 Indians in the year 2000. How to explain this Unforeseen increase? For some indigenist leaders it has to do with the Indians themselves taking control of their plight. In an interview with Rio's daily OGlobo, Maiunma native Genival de Oliveira dos Santos, suggested that this growth has to do with the fight of the Indians to assure that their rights are respected. According to him, an important factor was the Indian assuming its identity. "We're not afraid of being Indians anymore," said dos Santos. "Today the Indian is assertive in revealing his origin because he understands that he BRAZZIL - MAY 2002
is a citizen and not an insignificant some one." For Idenicio Suzana Bastos, a council man in Benjamin Constant and director o Federacao das Organizacdaes e dos Ca ciques e Comunidades Indigenas da Trib Ticuna (Federation ofTicuna Tribe's Orga nizations and Chiefs and Indigenous Corn munities) the Indian population is probabl even larger than reported. He is skeptical o the census results and wonders if censu workers interviewed people in farawa places like his own town, which is 693 mile from Manaus, the capital ofAmazonas stat Benjamin Constant has 27,000 residen and a demographic density of 3.11 inhabi ants per sq km. On the other side of the argument ar those who think that these numbers mi t have been inflated. Benedito Rangel, r gional administrator of Funai (Fundaca Nacional do Indio-National Indian Fou dation), for example, does not believe th t the Indian population grew so much in last decade and says, "To be an Indian it s not enough that you say that you are on You also have to be recognized by t people as such." Wired and Connected The I BG E found out that 80 percent rn f homes in Brazil have radio, television an â€˘ a refrigerator. Amongthe 44 million residenc in the country, 37.2 million use a refrigerat .) 38.9 million have a TV set and 39.1 milli .n listen to the radio. The consumer goo â€˘ s that had their biggest jump in popular' since the latest census, however, were telephone, the washing machine and t automobile, all goods that can be consi ered superfluous in Brazil. Since the previous Census in 1991, e number of Brazilians with a washing m chine increased by 26 percent, and tho with a car by 42 percent. While ten years a o only 18.6 percent of the families had a telephone, today this number went up o 39.7 percent. Home computerswere includ for the first time in the study and they present in 10.6 percent of homes. Some basic needs had a substan al improvement in a decade. Electric powe is now present in 93 percent of all homes p from 86.9 percent ten years ago. Sewera e, which could be found in only 52.4 perc nt ofhomes, now exists in 62.2 percent ofthe still a very low number. It was also found that people are find' their own space to live. While in 1991 percentage of homes in which more three people had to share the same ro 4m was 17.7 percent, this number has falle to 9.3 percent -in the last census. Accordingto Sergio Besserman, IBG s president, Brazil is starting the new cen ry with advancements in the areas of edu ation and infrastructure, but it has littl to
show when the subject is income distribution. From 1991 to 2000, the economic gap between the richer South and Southeast and the poorer North and Northeast did not change. But he is optimistic and also says that the data show "a dynamic society, which is in the move, improving the conditions of life for the Brazilian people." Gray Area There was no reason for jubilation over some ofthe findingsthough, like the revelation that one in every four workers (24.4 percent) in Brazil earn minimum wage (200 reais, around $80) or less a month. In the Northeast the situation is even worse, with 46.2 percent of the workers making the minimum or less. Earning disparity in the country continues to be one of the worst in the world. A mere 2.6 percent of workers make more than 20 minimum wages a month ($1600). Most of Brazilian workers (51.9 percent) have to survive with around two minimum wages. As a consequence of being the capital of Brazil until 1961, Rio de Janeiro has a disproportionate number of retired public servants. This gives Rio a large population of retired workers earning more than 20 minimum wages a month. While in the state of Piaui, 59.4 percent of workers earn one minimum wage or less, Rio has 15.2 percent ofworkers in this situation, with most of its workers (26.5 percent) making between one and two minimum wages. Despite the fact that the presence of a refrigerator is almost universal in Brazil today, approximately 7.5 million people don't have one at home. This situation led Elisa Lustosa Caillaux, an IBGE researcher, to comment, "Refrigerator is one ofmost basic goods and necessary to survival. Who are those seven million who live without having a place to conserve their food?" The last Census number show also a country with a large population with some kind of physical deficiency, with 24.5 million Brazilians, or 14.5 percent ofthe population showing some incapacity. There are, for example, 16.5 million visually impaired, and 159,000 of them are blind. Another seven million have tetraplegia, paraplegia or herniplegia. And 8.3 percent ofthe population suffers from permanent mental impairment. There is much disparity between the regions of the country. While the Southeast presents sometimes numbers that rival those of a First World nation, in the Northeast the situation is much worse. Case in point, infant mortality is more than double in the Northeast (44 deaths for every 1000 kids born alive) when compared to Southeast states, which include Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Espirito Santo and Minas Gerais.' The Northeast, as the case has been for decades, continues to export its population 13
mostly to the Southeast. From 1995 to 2000, 1.4 million people left the Northeast, 70.9 percent of them going mostly to Sao Paulo and Rio. The number of foreigners, however, is on the decrease. They were 767,000 in 1991 and have become now 734,000. President Fernando Henrique Cardoso, who is a world-renowned sociologist, didn't like some of the numbers revealed by the Census Bureau. He questioned the study's accuracy, criticized the discrepancy between income and consumption and even suggested changes in the methods used to collect data. "Either we have not consumed that much or we have not earned so little," he declared. End ofa Myth The Census data seem to put to rest a national and world perception • ,• , that Fluminense (Rio state residents) are laid back, lazy even, and that they • work little. Paul istas (those from Sao • Paulo) have carried for decades the reputation of being much more hard workers than their countrymen from Rio. As the numbers see it, the Paulista superiority in work ethic was just a •myth. • While 44.3 percent ofRio workers (2.39 million people) toil for 45 hours every week or more, the percentage of those from Sao Paulo who do the same • is 43.5 percent. According to the 1988 Brazilian Constitution, the workweek • is limited to 44 hours and workers must have a weekly rest period of 24 con- • • secutive hours. Every minute worked over44 hours is considered overtime and excessive overtime is forbidden by the meticulous constitution. Nationally, 43.7 percent of workers labor more than 44 hours a week and this situation is more accentuated in the Midwest, where 31 percent of the workforce sweats past 49 hours a week. Brazil might be getting older, but the median age ofBrazilians is sti1124.2. Between 1991 and 2000, the median age of the population-the middle • value between the older and younger „ •• Brazilians-increased by two years and a half. Rio has the highest median, with half of its population below the age of28.1, while the state of Amapa has the lowest median, with 50 percent of the population 18.3 years old or less. In Brazil a whole, for every 100 children 15 years old or less, there are 20 people who are 65 ormore. In the previous census, there were 14 elderly people for every 100 kids. While the number of youngsters, in the period between 1991 and 2000, has decreased from 34.73 percent of the population to 29.60, the senior population has grown from 4.83 to 5.85 percent.
Black and Proud Many people were surprised to find out through the Census figures that more Brazilians have decided to assume their blackness. Now, 6.2 percent of the respondents have stated that their color is black. In the previous census, 5 percent of them admitted being black. At the same time, there was less people calling themselves pardo (mulatto, the official denomination for people of mixed race in Brazil), preferring instead to classify themselves as white. Following an international model of sampling in which the interviewee states his own color, the Brazilian Census bureau found out that 53.7 percent ofBrazilians call themselves white; 39.1 percent,pardos;6.1
Journalist Ni lza Iraci, 52, interviewed by Brasilia's daily Correio Braziliense, was one of the 5.3 percent Brazilians heard by the Census who stated their color as being black. Iraci could have called herself white as 53.7 percent of Brazil ian did, after all, it's there in her birth certificate: white. She could have preferred the word pardo to classify herself-39.1 percent ofBrazilians have done this. "I see myself as black," she says. "And I know that to accept this is not an easy process." For her, the pride of being black came with her political formation. "When! present myself, socially, as a black, I know that I am depriving myself of a series of advantages. When there is an interview for a job, for example, I have an advantage when competing with someone with a darker skin than mine. In this case I'm consid• ered brunette. When the competitor is a white person, then I am the black. There is a racial pyramid in the country." Being from mixed race she has also faced prejudice from blacks. In a racism congress in the early '90s she heard an activist like her commenting, "1 didn't know our organization is already accept- • ing whites." And when defending the rights ofblack women in another meeting, • she was questioned by a white colleague, "But why are you saying all these thingl when you are not even black?" Commenting on this phenomenon, Lucia Helena Rangel, an anthropologist at PUC-SP (Pontificia Universidade CatOlica de Sao Paulo-Sao Paulo Pontifical Catholic University) told weekly newsmagazine Isto E, "Black people are • learning to appreciate themselves, but it's still a lie that blacks make up only 6 percent of Brazilians." Catholic Decline
percent black; 0.5 percent, yellow; and 0.4 percent indigenous. As expected, the majority of those who consider themselves white live in the South ofthe country where there was a significant influx of European immigrants mainly from Italy and Germany. In the South, 84.2 percent ofthe respondents said they were white. This percentage fell to 64.2 percent in the Southeast. In that region, 30 percent stated that they were pardos, while 6.6 percent opted for black. In Bahia-a northeastern state-there was the largest contingent of blacks andpardos: 75.7 percent.
Surprising also was to find out that the number of evangelicals in Brazil almost doubled in the last decade, going • from 9.1 percent ofthe population to 15.4 • percent. Rio de Janeiro and Rondonia • were the two states in which this growth • was more evident. While Rond6nia is a frontier land, open to immigrants and new ideas, Rio is known for its lay down approach to life and mores. In Rio, only 57.2 percent of the respondents admitted being Catholic and 15.5 percent said to have no religion. As for the evangelicals, they represent a bigger chunk of the population in the states of RondOnia (27.7 percent), Espirito Santo (27.5 percent), Roraima (23.6 percent), Rio deJaneiro (21.1 percent), Goias (20.8 percent) and Acre (20.4 percent). For anthropologist Regina Novaes, a professor at UFRJ (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro-Rio de Janeiro Federal University) and coordinator of ISER (Instituto de Estudos da Religiao-InstiBRAZZIL - MAY 2002
tute forthe Studies ofRel igion) the numbers are a portrait of Carioca life, "Rio embraces diversity as a positive sign. People without religion, which I use to call religious individuals without religion, are those who link several different concepts and synthesize them." The 71 percent growth ofevangel icals11 million people were converted to an evangelical religion from 1991 to 2000— came at a heavy cost forthe Catholic Church, which lost 12 percent of its flock. The number ofCathol ics fell from 83.8 percent in 1991 to 73.8 percent in the year 2000. This loss seems less dramatic, however, when we know that the vast majority of Brazilian Catholics don't practice their religion and rarely go to church, very differently from evangelicals who are an active minority. Since the population grew 15.6 percent in the nine year period between the two Censuses, evangelicals multiplied at a rate five times bigger than that ofthe Brazilian population. "The evangelical god is much more attuned to the interests of the believers," says Novaes. A typical example of the new convert, Danielle Franco, 36, from Rio, Who grew up in the Catholic faith, told Rio's newspaper Jornal do Brasil, "After my parents broke up, I felt abandoned and looked for help at an evangelical church frequented by a ffiend. There I felt welcome. People are committed to the religion and the pastors give you more attention." As Antonio Miguel Kater Filho, president of the IBMC (Institut° Brasileiro de Marketing Catol ico—Brazilian Institute for Catholic Marketing) commented, "Evangelicals are very aggressive when looking for and maintaining their adepts. They catechize as an Avon's sale representative. They use advertising, are excellent in word of mouth and prepare their pastor with persuasion techniques." The Cathol ic demise can also be seen in other areas. In the last five years alone 130 schools maintained by the Catholic Church were closed, with a loss of200,000 students. While pastors look after smallcommunities of1,000 faithful or less, priests are overburdened with parishe§ that can have 20,000 BRAZZIL - MAY 2002
people or more. The largest percentage of Catholics are in the Northeastern states starting with Piaui, where 91.3 percent of the population confess to be Catholic. In Ceara there are 84.9 percent Catholics; in Paraiba, 84.2 percent; and in Maranhao 83 percent. The evangelical boom in Brazil h been the subject o social studies and dozens of theses haybeen written in the last two decades abou the phenomenon, according to Jornal d • Brasil. In one ofthem, "Anal ise Sociologic Sobre o Crescimento Pentecostal no Brasil" (Sociological Analysis About the Pente costal Growth in Brazil), from 2001, sociolo gist Ricardo Mariano, from Universidad de Sao Paulo (USP), tries to explain wh protestant religions are not as successful i the Brazilian Northeast as they are in othe regions of the country: "Less than 10 per cent ofNordestinos were converted to evan gelism. They have a popular Catholicis deeply ingrained, which offers cure an miracles the same way as Pentecostals do.' The number of Brazilians who say tha they have no religion has also increased b 55 percent. They are 7.3 percent accordin to the latest census and were 4.8 percent i the previous study. Many people who pre viously called themselves Catholics, ap parently, think they are more truthful whe they say that they have no religion. Som studies have shown that a mere 15 perce of Brazi I i an who say they are Catholic prac tice their religion. In the 1890 Census, when there were 1 million Brazilians, less than 150 or I perce t responded that they were evangelical. Th t same year, 89.8 percent of the populatio declared to be Catholic. Curiously, in th latest Census, a mere 1.4 percent admitte being spiritist and a number unbelievabl low (0.3 percent) confess to be umbandist and candoblecistas (religions rooted in A rican tradition). For Regina Novaes,, so have converted to Pentecostal denominations, but "others continue defining themselves as Catholics, without abandoning the centros and terreiros (Candomble and Umbanda temples) And nothing prevent them from combining beliefs and practices with others coming from the "new era" universe."
Marrying in the Church as well as in a civil ceremony is still the rule for Brazilian couples, but in one decade it has increased by 55 percent the number of those who opted for a common law union, which doesn't require any kind ofvvritten contract. In 1991,57.8percent ofmen and women who lived together were formally married and 18.3 percent assumed being in a common lawunion. In 2000, legal marriages fell to 50.1 percent, while consensual unions rose to 28.3 percent. Officially then, 54.2 percent of Brazilians are single, 37.2 percent are married, 4.6 percent are widowers/widows, and 3.7 percent are separated. Curiously, the IBGE remarks that among the single population, 45.9 percent are between 10 and 19 years old, an age period in which there is a high rate of consensual unions. Families are getting smaller. While a family had an average of3 .9 people in 1991, this number fell to 3.5 in 2000. Women are now responsible for 26.7 percent ofthe 48.2 million Brazilian families. In 1991,20.5 percent of women were head ofthe household. For Brazilian women, life does not get easier when they get older. While 70.9 percent ofmen are living with somebody by the age of 70, women often have to live alone in their old age. Between the ages of15 and 19, there are five times more married women (15.1 percent against 3.3 percent) than married men. The rate ofmarried women start to fall when they reach 35. Men start marrying after they are 20 and go through life in stable relationships. "This difference expresses awidely recognized social behavior concerning the difficulty of remarrying that women have starting at certain age," observes the IBGE report. According to Mireya Soarez, from UnB's (Universidade de Brasilia) Department of Anthropology, "the typical partner for the Brazilian man is a woman in her reproductive phase, while women look for a financially established man as the ideal partner." The information gathered from the Census, she notes, also reflects the option for individualism of the modern woman. "Women have been opting for a professional life," Soarez points out.
Man Rules 15
The IBGE, as a matter of principle, afĂŠc completely ignores the impression that C interviewer might have about the race C ela of the interviewee. "We do this in order Canela notto embarrass people. The interviewee caSIAO â€˘ is e one who indicates his/her own c tuil color and the census workers are cast structed to never discuss or question an Chocol answer for more absurd that i t might c seem," explains Walker Moura, director of the IBGE' s research department. To ease the prejudice they have todS their own skin co kir Bra; lians use the most unusual names. Two years ago, during an IBGE study with close to 34 million Brazilians, calle4:1"The Denominated Color", interviewees were asked 0) "What is your color or racer The institute didn't present any option for the Crioula respondents to choose from. There were 127 different answers, including, white, Enxo brunette, mulatto. Brazilian, brown, Eshranquec chocolate, cinnamon and Mixed . In another survey, this one from 1976, there were even more answers: 134. They are 11 here, in alphabetical order, as found at e www.zonalatina.com site :astanhada(eashcw like tint; caramel cobo egacia(Galician white) va pure white) va.escura (dark or off-white) verenta (or aliviero, "shadow in the ) ita (tinted or bleached white) osada (Or .laniote, roseale, white with ghlightsl ed; white-washed) b I (yellow) (yellowish) .queirnada (burnt yellow or ochre) a (yellowed) da (tannish) iada with blood the skin)
Morena-bronzeada (bronzed tan) Morena-cartelada(cinnamonlike brunette) Morena-castanha (cashewlike tan) Morena clara (light tan) Morena-cor-de-canela (cinnamon-hued brunette) Morena-jambo (dark red) Morenada (mocha) Morena-escura (dark tan) orena-fechada (very dark, almost mulatta orenito (very dusky tan) erena-parda (brown-hued tan) a-roxa (purplish-tan) rena-ruiva (reddish-tan) Morena-trigueira (wheat colored) Moreninlm((offeelike) Mulata (mixture of white and Negro) Mulatinha(lighter-skinned white-Negro) ) Negra(negro) Negrota (Negro with a corpulent body) Pal ida (pale) Paraiba (like the color of marupa wood) Parda (dark brown) Parda-clara (lighter skinned person of mixed k , race) Polaca (Polish features; prostitute) Pouco-clara (not very clear) Pouco-morena (dusky) Pi eta (black) Pretinha (black of a lighter hue) Puxa-para-branca (more like a white than a mulatta) uase-negra (almost Negro) eimada (burnt) eimada-de-praia (suntanned) Queimada-de-sol (sunburned) Replar(regular; nondescript) 124:Unto (layered" dark skin) Rosa (roseate) Rosada (high pink) Rosa-queimada(burnishedrose) Roxa (purplish) Ruiva (strawberry blond) Russo (Russian; see also polaca) Sapecada (burnished red) Santa (mulatta with reddish kinky hair, aquiline nose) Saratiba (or saraiva: like a white meringue) Tostada (toasted) Trigueira(wheat colored) Turva (opaque) Verde (greenish) 1 Vermelha (reddish)
inho (deep bluish ca (ver white) V' -;B RAZZ IL - MAY 2002
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BRAZZIL - MAY 2002
country might mean the definition of war is never met. I suspect your assertion "According to UN guidelines, a countr with over 25,000 assassinations per year is considered in a state of war..." in inaccurate, and it weakens your coverage of the situation in Brazil.
people ask about the "topless beaches." Even the "victory" of some 40-something women two years back didn't change a thing. Hope you'll straighten your readers out about it. Tchau!
Derek Butler St. John's, Canada ANSWER WAS SILENCE
DOWN WITH FERRARI As a Formula I fan, I consider the Ferrari's attitude in the Austrian Grand Prix 2002 vet)/ dirty, deplorable and unsportlike, to say the least. Barrichelo made a perfect work since Friday, but his deserved victory was denied by some very narrow-minded people. They did not need to do such dirtiness! This event will bring serious damage to Ferrari's image. Here in Brazil, Ferrari has instantly lost 170 millions fans and I hope it will lose a lot more in the World, including sponsors, as they will not want their images linked to dirty people.
I am not a Brazilian, although ever since I was 13 (over 30 years ago) I have wanted to be one. I am a Brit now living in Canada. Since I found your website I have been to it daily reading articles and entering the forum. I have a very serious question regard in n immigration/permanent status in Brazil which'I have not seen asked or addressed ever before. I have written to several agencies in Brazil (Immigration services as well as twogovernment agencies specifically dealing with immigration) regarding my question and not received any answers. Would anyone there know howl could get an answer to an immigration question? Hoping someone can come up \A, ith an idea.
Hello Shimada Sao Paulo, Brazil THANKS FOR SUBA
Paul Ravenhill brazzaboy@hotmaiLcom PLENTY TO OFFER You are invited to participate in thisdialogue Write to Letters to the Publisher P.0 Box 50536 Los Angeles,CA90050.0536 or send E-mail to: brazzil@brazzilcom
OUR MISTAKE It was recently brought to my attention by a reader of Brazzil, that in my January 2002 article, "The Finest Art," - www.brazzil.com/ p38jan02.htm - I included some incorrect biographical information about Brazilian artist Francisco Brennand. After contacting Senhor Brennand personally, it should be clarified that the Brennand family immigrated to Brazil from England, and not Ireland. Also, the Brennand family never worked as peasant farmers, but as associates in English companies. Additionally, Brennand Senior was not a nouveau riche, as the family had obtained wealth in earlier generations. Finally, Francisco Brennand spent a total of less than three years studying not only in Paris, but throughout Europe. This is opposed to the thirty years of uninterrupted study in France that I claimed. Unfortunately, the book I referenced (Lonely Planet. Brazil. Bookmaker Pty Ltd. China. 1998, p. 507) includes false information about the artist. Of course this does not serve as an excuse, as I should have cross-referenced more materials during my research. My apologies go to Senhor Brennand, whose artwork [do admire. Despite biographical inaccuracies, the focus of my article remains the same. The purpose of the article is to present the artwork ofPaulo Ramato a wider audience here in the US, and abroad. Although the plight ofthe "starving artist" is universal, it appears that Afro-Brazilians, and blacks throughout the African Diaspora face greater obstacles to becoming successful artists. It remains my objective to engage this topic in dialogue, and help open a pathway to change. (It should also be noted that the "Mercado Pobre" mentioned in the article is actually called the "Mercado Pop")
Jean Pinner ronaldocaesar@hotmaiLcorn IMPRECISE FIGURES I am curious as to the source of the UN definition you use â€” "Big City Nightmare www.brazzil.com/p I Oapr02.htm. I am doubtful that a simple figure of 25,000 makes for a definition of state of war. If such an approach is used in defining war, it would be on a percentage basis, not gross numbers. 25,000 in a small
Bruce Gilman, thankyou toryour excellent article on Suba in Brazzil -"New World Sonority"- www. bra 77i I. corn/musmar00.htm. A song ofhis was featured in CBC radio here in Canada, and I bought his album and did some research. Anyway& thank you for writing it, It was beautiful and I forwarded it to all my friends.
Undoubtedly this is one of if not the best magazine website I have seen. 1 definitely can appreciate the accessibility of information. I love leami nn about Brazi I and I think that Brazzil has very W.. C:11 written articles. Go Brar.-zil.com!
Robert Beamer San Diego, California NUDE BEACH? IN YOUR DREAMS!
You're crazy, folks! Topless beaches in Bahia? Surely you jest. (The Summer of the Topless - www.brazzil.com/p06jan00.htm). I've lived in Salvador for the last five years, spent a lot oftime on beaches from the litoral forte, to Morro, Boipeba, Barra Grande, and down to Porto Seguro, Arraial, Trancoso, and Caraiva. There is ONE beach in Trancoso ( -nudism") where some people go topless sometimes. (On arare occasion in high surruneryou might see some European trying to go fully nude. They don't last long.) Topless is a rarity. I've never ever seen a person nude on the beaches near Salvador. Why spread this misinformation about Brazil? The vast majority ofBrasileiras wouldn' t be caught dead going topless. There are no topless 'beaches in Rio either. My girlfriend is a Cariocaand she grew up in Copacabanaand hung out every summer day from the age of 14 to 20 on the beach in Ipanema - she -laughs when
Nicholas Ursa Canada THANKS FOR THE SOUNDS I'm a music event promoter in Canada and just wanted to say that Brazilian music is such a gift. Music, art, and nature, creative essence. I find great sadness that we are no longer blessed with the creative, musically diverse gifts of Suba's enormous talent -bless his soul' .These days Hook for Brazilian music past and present. So rich, colorful and full oftexture. It fi Ils my soul and enriches my life. Thank you, the people of Brazil. Much love and respect. Peace.
Graeme Duddy Vancouver Canada FAMILY WAY It was mentioned to me to search for a medicine in Brazil that helps to get someone pregnant. It has been nine years and we would like to get pregnant. My husband is Portuguese and does not understand this problem that [have getting and staying pregnant.
Joao 8, Shirley Pina Via Internet
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BRAZZIL - MAY 2002
The future will walk on two legs— social justice and high tech—upon a terrain of stable democracy. In the last few years, great advances have been made in the paving of the terrain, but the future still walks lamely upon one leg only, the technological advance. From the socialjustice point of view, the results have already proven to be disastrous. The governments seeking authoritarian, State-imposed social justice were unable to solidify democracy or to create a satisfactory dynamic for the technological advance. Those seeking to deceive the people through populism remained technologically backward and created political and monetary instability. Both alternatives gave way to the modern capitalistic developmental model of high technology with unemployment, poverty and social exclusion. Perhaps the most symbolic pole of this modern capitalism is the Seattle Microsoft complex of around 150 buildings. In the lobby of its convention center stands a large piece of what used to be the Berlin Wall. It is not difficult to imagine the dual significance of that historical chunk of cement. First of all, it signifies socialism's incorporation into the world ofglobal capitalism. More than any other enterprise, Microsoft symbolizes the overpowering force ofthe West, exposing Eastern European socialism's inefficiency of production. Second, m ore than other enterprises, Microsoft plays a fundamental part in the technology that is constructing another wall, a gold curtain that separates the world's rich and its poor. . In a conversation, Steve Ballmer, the Microsoft CEO, said that his ten-year-old son was playing chess by computer from Seattle, with no idea as to where his opponent lived. Then he asked and discovered that the other player was a young man ofsixteen living in Italy. Ballmer told this story to show how the world is totally integrated for those who use computers, no matter where they live or what their age. Upon hearing this, I asked how he imagined that Microsoft, besides integrating the wealthy world's young peop le, could help incorporate into the world of his son and his son's Italian friend all the hundreds of millions ofchildren excluded from modernity by poverty and child labor. Did he, I asked, see a political role for himself and Bill Gates in mobilizing the resources of world wealth to tear down the gold curtain that separates the included from the excluded, after the fall of the Berlin Wall, which separated capital-
On Two Legs Brazil is the country that can undertake a lucid program encompassing the two legs of progress: high technology and social justice. CRISTOVAM BUARQUE
ism from socialism? His reply was frank: he recalled t at Microsoft has a reputation for arrogan e, for having an answer for everything, ut said he did not know what proposal to offer. He was being modest two ti es over: by claiming not to,know the answ , as well as by neglecting to mention he social programs financed by the Bill d Melinda Gates Foundation, which c ncentrates chiefly upon vaccinating c ildren all over the world. Nor is tearing down the gold curt in necessarily a role that Ballmer and G es or their Microsoft should assume. This is one of the roles of goy ments, especially in a country like Bra il. Since all their children are already included within information-age modern ty, the governments of the rich coun ies• need not think about ending social ex lusion. The very poor countries do ot have the means to accomplish this. Br 11 is a country that has both the problem nd the resources, as well as the know le ge necessary for tearing down the gold ur-
tain. In this case, we can teach something to Microsoft, Bill Gates and Steve Ballmer. Seen as a single entity, Brazil is the country that can undertake a lucid program encompassing the two legs of progress: high technology and social justice. If the next government has a wellplanned program allocating the resources for these two areas with responsibility and efficiency, all the rest will follow in natural progression. The two challenges of the 21st century are the abolition of essential needs and the creation of a technological development infrastructure. Thus, all Brazilians will be guaranteed access to basic services and the country will not distance itself from the centers of the world, thereby eliminating the present risk of definite isolation from modernity, both social and technological. At Microsoft I had the opportunity to learn to do what is called "e.govemment," the government that makes use of electronic technological advances to improve its efficiency. But I sensed a lack of proposals to construct a socially just world: managerial efficiency was discussed as if the entire world had already reached the 'socioeconomic standards of the rich. Despite what we in Brazil have already accomplished with our Internal Revenue (Receita Federal), with the Superior Electoral TribunaL(TSE) voting system, and with the Department of Transportation (Detrans), we still must learn how to acquire the efficiency of electronic government, e.government, from Microsoft. But it is we who have to invent a j.government and teach them how to make it serve the entire world. Forming the two legs ofthe future, the technological and the ethical, high tech and social justice, an (e+j) government, efficient and just. Brazil has the means to move forward on those two legs; we only need to put an end to our inferiority complex v is-a-vis the rich ofthe world and our lack of sensitivity vis-à-vis the poor of Brazil. Cristovam Buarque — cristovambuaraueuol.com.br —the former governor of the Federal District of Brasilia and ex-rector of the University of Brasilia, is a professor at the Center for Sustainable Development, University of Brasilia, and the author of the book Admirdvel Mundo Atual (Brave Real World). Translated by Linda Jerome (LinJerome@cs.cpm) 19
BRAZZIL - MAY 2002
JORNAL DO 13BASIL
Shooting on Goal Presidential hopeful Jose Serra's decision to choose a woman as running mate could spur other candidates to also pick a female. This could add sparkle to the campaign but it is doubtful. No one votes for vice-president. JOHN FITZPATRICK
in e Malt
Brazilians have a lot to celebrate at the moment. Firstly, we have gained our first saint, proclaimed by the Pope himself in a ceremony at the Vatican, attended by President Fernando Henrique Cardoso (a future saint himself?) and various political attention seekers. The fact that the saint, Madre Paul ina, was born in Italy is not important as it is virtually impossible to find anyone in southern Brazil whose granny was not Italian. Secondly, Brazil will soon be in action in the World Cup finals. Although the team is not as good as one would wish (thanks to the coach's spiteful decision to leave out brilliant bad boy Romario) it should coast through the first round against minnows like Turkey, Costa Rica and China. Unfortunately these games will take place at unearthly hours like 3:30 a.m. and 6 p.m., but patriotic Brazilians will set their alarms clocks and support the ir team through bleary eye's. Thirdly, the World Cup will distract attention from the goings on of our political masters in the run-up to the presidential elections. Even at peak viewingtime few Brazilians will be cheering on any of the would-be presidents. The presidential campaign has become like a boring novela (soap opera), which appears every night but no one watches any more. Even when the plot is spiced up a bit— with a bit of glamour and corruption—it makes no difference to the ratings. Let's look at glamour and corruption in terms of the government's preferred candidate, former Health MinisterJose Serra. Glamour entered late last month in the shape of
Congresswoman Rita Camata who was named as Serra's running mate. Not only is she good-looking and a million times more photogenic than Serra, she has a good legislative track record, too. But does anyone really care? After all, she was Serra's third choice—perhaps fourth if you believe some reports that he favored Senator Pedro Simon, but was overruled by President Fernando Henrique Cardoso. The first choice, Pernambuco State Governor Jarbas Vasconcelos, retreated earlier this year, scared that Serra would not improve his abysmal opinion poll ratings. The second, House Representative Henrique Eduardo Alves from Rio Grande do Norte, was ditched after allegations that he had money stashed away in undeclared bank accounts abroad. Even Ms Camata expressed little public enthusiasm when her name was put forward. In constitutional terms the vice-presidency is very important and two recent vice-presidents—Jose Sarney and Itamar Franco—became full presidents due to the respective death and resignation of the bosses, Tancredo Neves and Fernando Collor. However, during Cardoso's less dramatic mandates the vice-president has become almost invisible. Probably most electors could not even namethe incumbent, Marco Maciel. Serra's decision could spur the PT candidate, Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, to pick a female running mate. This could add a bit of much-needed sparkle to the campaign but it is doubtful. No one votes for vicepresident. Introducing corruption has also done nothing to boost the ratings. Early May, the magazine Veja brought up Serra's name in a report alleging that a former director of the state-owned Banco do Brasil, who was close to Serra, had demanded payment from a businessman to pay for earlier political campaigns. For almost a week the media was in a feeding frenzy, but what was Serra's response? He waved it aside with a few curt dismissBRAZZ IL - MAY 2002
als, and left itto others, includingCardoso himself who called it "reheated", to deal with the allegations. Today it is no longer an issue. Serra walked away from what could have been a public relations disaster not because people think he is necessarily more honest or innocent but because they are fed up with politics. Hardly a day passes without the release of a new opinion poll. Lula is always well ahead of the pack, with Serra and Rio's former Governor Anthony Garotinho far behind. In this particular case, it was interesting to note how the media backed off in a way they did not do with Senators Jader Barbalho and Antonio Carlos Magalhaes who were hounded out of office last year. Is the fact that Serra is from Sao Paulo— where the media is strongest and most anti-Lula, while the other two were from the Nprth and Northeast—relevant? Serra is right to be dismissive and offhand because he knows he is the only serious contender against Lula. Just as France's right-wihg president Jacques Chirac got the left-wing vote against Le Pen so Serra will get the center and rightwing votes against Lula. Serra is waiting for the apples to fall into his lap and they have already started. The PFL, which left the government over allegations that Serra and his supporters had sabotaged the plans of its candidate, Roseana Sarney, was talking about lining up with him against Lula. The media is also generally on Serra's side and is full of articles questioning whether the PT has really changed its stripes and prophesizing dire consequences if he wins. For the next couple ofweeks sport not politics will dominate the mediagiving us all a well-deserved break: Roll on the World Cup and, in the sad absence of Scotland, let's all cheer on Brazil! 9
The Fear of Being First By making Lula look Ii e someone who could win, the P L hopes to scare the main government parties into getti g rid of its current presidenti I candidate and choosing one mo e to its liking. JOHN FITZPATRI K There's something rather odd ab ut the latest opinion poll, which gives t e left-wing PT candidate, Luiz Inacio L la da Silva, a commanding lead over riv Is Jose Serra and Anthony Garotinho, w o have both lost support. First of all, the poll was carried out or the center-right PFL party, whose a-
tional leader, Senator Jorge Bornhausen, lost no time in warning that economic turbulence could follow a PT victory. Secondly, Garotinho, the former Rio de Janeiro state governor, claimed that the GPP Institute which carried out the poll was linked to the mayor of Rio de Janeiro, Cesar Maia, who is a PFL member. Thirdly, instead of rejoicing, Lula made no immediate comment and even during Wednesday's May Day celebrations kept quiet. Instead, a leading PT member, Jose Dirceu, accused Bornhausen of irresponsibility. He claimed that those who supported the idea that a PT victory would lead to,an economic crisis were blackmailing Brazil. The PT is now realizing that Lula is finally shaping up as a possible winner and the party is nervous that any wrong move or complacency could set it back. To its annoyance, four foreign financial institutions—Morgan Stanley, Merrill Lynch, ABN Amro and Santander—early May recommended investors to reduce their Brazilian holdings, partly on the PT's rising chances of success in October. This spooked Sao Paulo's Bovespa stock market, which fell over 4 percent on the news while the dollar rose by almost 1.5 percent against the Real and the Brazil country risk also increased. In response to the Morgan Stanley and Merrill Lynch reports, PT members in Congress prepared a motion repudiating "the unwarranted interference by American investment banks and foreign brokerage houses in the electoral process." Lula could also not resist the temptation to criticize the "gringos." (Imagine the uproar there would be if an American presidential 'politician referred to Latin Americans as "spies". However, this is a cross we resident "gringos" must bear with good humor in politically incorrect Brazil.) Why should the PFL, which does not even have a potential presidential candidate, be publicizing the findings of its surveys? Political parties generally keep these results to themselves. The answer is that the PFL fancies itselfas a kingmaker and wants a greater say in who will be the official government candidate. Since the party's own choice, Roseana Sarney, withdrew in the midst of a financial scandal, the party has had no candidate and does not look as if it will propose anyone. By making Lula look like someone who could win, perhaps even in the first round, the PFL hopes to scare the main government parties—the PSDB of President Fernando Henrique Cardoso and the PMDB—into getting rid of its current 21
B RAZZ IL - MAY 2062
presidential hopeful, Jose Serra, and choosing a candidate more to its liking. Bornhausen was due to meet Cardoso to discuss the poll findings. He has extra ammunition in the form of an internal survey, which shows that 87 percent of the PFL's 118 Congressmen would accept a PSDB candidate providing it was not Serra. The PFL hates Serra because they believe he or his allies were behind the police raid on a company jointly owned by Roseana Sarney and her husband, which unearthed 1.3 million reais ($515.000) in cash. Sarney and her husband are now facing a police investigation and due to appear in court in connection with the affair. In respon se to the raid, the PFL pulled out of the government and since then it has been squirming to get back inside. One recalls the American secretary of state Dean Acheson's famous comment that: "Great Britain has lost an empire and has not yet found a role." The PFL also does not like Serra because he is close to the PMDB and even invited one of its members, Pernambuco state governor Jarbas Vasconcelos, to be his running mate. Vasconcelos turned the offer down and Serra has been looking around for a possible candidate. During Cardoso' s two terms, his vice president has been Marco Maciel of the PFL and the party has got used to having its representative at high level. Whether the PFL will succeed with its tactics is not known, but it is certainly showing steel. Its plans may even be working because there is now a wing of the PSDB, which thinks Serra should consider nominating a PFL representative as his vice. Finally, one cannot claim that the PFL massaged the figures in the latest poll but paradoxically the excellent performance of its ideological opponent Lula must have gladdened its heart. For the record, the findings were as follows: Lula-38.7 percent (compared with 37.9 percent in the CNT/Census and 34 percent in the previous GPP poll) Serra-14.5 percent (compared with 16.1 percent in CNT/Census and 17.6 percent in the previous GPP poll) Garotinho-13.9 percent (compared with 15.2 percent in CNT/Census and 16.2 percent in the previous GPP poll) Ciro Gomes-13.8 percent (compared with 10.5 percent in the CNT/Census and 13.9 percent in the previous GPP poll). 22
Image Salesmen Brazilians are avid TV viewers and political parties know it. By law, parties are allowed free airtime on the airwaves, which is crucially important as it allows the politicians to get their message directly into people's homes. JOHN FITZPATRICK Brazil offers many pleasures but also many pains and I hope the reader will permit a briefpreambleon pain before we get down to the subject in hand, which, unfortunately, is not pleasure but televised political propaganda. For sheer vulgarity and crassness Brazilian television is hard to beat, whether from the more popular stations or those which think they are more select. Every night, a character by the name of Ratinho—this translates as "little rat" but, instead of an engaging little whiskered fellow from The Wind in the Willows our Ratinho is a large brute with a Stalin moustache who wields a long leather cosh to berate his victims—appears. His program has plummeted to the depths of bad taste to such an extent that it has even been fined by the normally placid broadcasting watchdog. Ratinho specializes in presenting freaks—
Se-WHOR. Vt 'FO ve 140 HO RAIMO PO4.(TICO, SA/ '& e SCOLsER. FAV'Olt r0
dwarves, midgets, obese transsexuals and so on—who cavort around the studio to the amusement of a noisy semiliterate studio audience, egged on by cheerleaders. Recently, he showed a video in which a pedophile doctor committed sexual acts on teenage boys whom he had drugged. The doctor had foolishly thrown the videos, which he had made secretly, onto a skip in the street where someone found them. When he saw the content, instead of informing the police, the finder gave them to Ratinho who had no compunctions in airing them. Such, is the popularity of this program that a viewer recognized the doctor who is now in prison. Ratinho is popular with criminals as well as self-styled vigilantes. One of his camera teams recently accompanied a gang of grave robbers who were sbown scaling the walls of a cemetery, breaking into tombs and interfering with bones and skulls in search of rings and jewelry. In one case the grave was quite identifiable as there was a photo of the deceased person on display, Italian-style. The teaser to one recent program was "Would you go into a cage with 40 rats?" leading this viewer to switch off on fear of what was about to appear. Switching off is the best advice as simply switching channels won't help, especially in Sao Paulo. As making money is an obsession with Paulistanos, there are several financial programs, which instead of providing useful information for viewers, are just conduits for their egotistical presenters. Two of these presenters are particularly irritating. The smugness with which they gaze at the cameras reminds you of the perverted doctor and you can well imagine them watching themselves later on and masturbating, mentally if not physically.
Ar...$40 WE 0 TO," HANKS.' TALVEL 0 TIM CARR.EY
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BRAZZIL - MAY 2002
One of them, a small serious type with glasses, which are too small, and suits, which are too tight, sits between two big-eyed, big-mouthed girls—one dark and the other (dyed) blonde. After pouting and smoldering at the camera these temptresses turn adoringly to the presenter who then hogs the limelight and gives an inarticulate, banal comment, accompanied by excited arm movements. On another channel the presenter, a little leprechaun, smirks and primps himself as though making his first-ever television appearance and knowing that his whole family—from great grandmother to second cousin twice removed—is proudly watching. His eyes sparkle with self-adoration and he bears the smile of the successful con man, knowing he has the audience in his hand. Neither has any television skills but have marketed themselves well and are now celebrities. They both dress very badly in ill-fitting suits and gaudy ties. The credits of one show even lists a company called "Mr. Tie". There are few intellectual or cultural programs and soap operas, sport, sex, children's programs, chat shows, and similar fare make up the rest of television here. Brazilians are avid TV viewers and political parties know it. Bylaw, parties
are allowed a certain number of minu es offree airtime on TV and radio. This iee airtime is crucially important as it allo s the politicians to get their message • 1rectly into people's homes. Former finance minister Mailson de N6brega ecently pointed out that not only do SØ percent of Brazilian homes have tele ision but the lower social classes use ii as the main source of information. Vot rs from this section of the population t d to form their opinions from what they ee on the screen. Nobrega also highlighted surve s, which showed that, in the 1994 and I 98 campaigns, most voters only decided on their favorite candidate three mon hs before voting day i.e. between July d September. That is why so much hopS Is being pinned on the official start of V campaigning, after the candidates h ye been chosen by their parties in June. I he camp ofthe probable government ca didate, former Health Minister Jose Se a, is pinning great hopes on the battl of the TV screen. If the pro-governm nt parties—PSDB, PMDB, PPB andthe P L, which recently left the ruling allianc — rally round Serra, he will enjoy gre ter television coverage than candidates f em individual parties or smaller alliance... However, Serra is currently lagg'ng well behind the left-wing Workers P rty candidate, Luiz Inacio Lula da Silv,, in
CARROS REVISADOS E COM GARANTIA
opinion polls. Lula has really spruced up his image of late and is being treated as a serious contender this time round. The image of Serra, by comparison, is feeble and it will need an amazingly successful TV campaign to sell him. Another problem is that the third runner at the moment, former Rio de Janeiro state governor Anthony Garotinho, is an experienced broadcaster. He was a professional radio reporter at one time and is at ease in front of the cameras. His populist message is also simple and can be understood by anyone. Whether Serra can compete on the small screen with people like this—and Ratinho—is doubtful. Serra had better hope that voters are swayed by his message rather than his image. John Fitzpatrick is a Scottish journalist who first visited Brazil in 1987 and has lived in So Paulo since 1995. He writes on politics and finance and runs his own company, Celtic Comunicacoes, which specializes in editorial and translation services for Brazilian and foreign clients. You can reach him at firstname.lastname@example.org Fitzpatrick's articles are originally published at InfoBrazil (www.infobrazil.com)
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On March 10,2002, TheNewYorkTimes had a front page article outlining the new American nuclear weapons strategy. The Times reported that the American government is in the process of "a broad overhaul of American nuclear policy; a secret Pentagon report calls for developing new nuclear weapons that would be better suited for striking targets in Iraq, Iran, North Korea, Syria and Libya." The New York Times obtained a full copy of the report. It calls for the development of new earth-penetrating nuclear weapons to destroy heavily fortified underground bunkers, including those that are used to store chemical and biological weapons. It argues that the United States may need to resume nuclear testing. One of the most sensitive portions of the report is a secret discussion of contingencies in which the United States might need to use its "nuclear strike capabilities" against a foe. ...The Bush administration seems to see a new role for nuclear weapons against the 'Axis of Evil' and other problem states.... Among Iraq, Iran, Syria, or Libya none has nuclear weapons... "Significantly, all of them have signed the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. Washington has promised that it will not use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear weapon states that have signed the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty unless those countries attack the United States or its allies "in alliance with a nuclear weapon state"." Remember, the United States is the only country in history to use nuclear weapons against another country. President Truman unleashed atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki—killing over 100,000 people with one shot. Personally, I never understood why it was necessary for the US to drop the second atomic bomb in Nagasaki, since they had shown to the Japanese the power of the atomic bomb that destroyed Hiroshima. Declassified government documents in the U. S. show that John F. Kennedy considered a pre-emptive atomic weapon strike against the Russians in East Germany in 1961. Richard M. Nixon also suggested to his secretary of state, Henry Kissinger, the possibility of using atomic weapons in Vietnam. Today, the Bush administration is suggesting to the world that in the future the US will use nuclear weapons on preemptive nuclear strikes. The US government will treat, in the future, the use of nuclear weapons as just one more instrument or tool that it has available in its arsenal. The entire world knows that the US means business when it comes to using arms of mass destruction. We all know that when the US government implies that it will use nuclear weapons, you can count on it. I would like to make just one more point on this subject: the US never used atomic weapons against a white/Caucasian state including the Russian Evil Empire and Nazi Germany, but the US used the atomic bomb against another race—Japan a yellow/oriental state. If race again becomes a major factor in the consideration of where the US will drop an atomic bomb, then matters will become 24
We Need the Bomb The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, in force since 1970, became obsolete overnight in 2002. It's time for Brazil to wake up and join the nuclear weapons club. As a sovereign country, Brazil does not need any authorization to develop chemical, biological and nuclearweapons. RICARDO C. AMARAL
more complicated in the war against Islam—the range of race in Islam and the Muslim world is as wide as in the human race because it includes white, black and • yellow people. Last Resort No More Since the attack on Nagasaki in 1945, there has been an international understanding that the ultimate weapons of terror (nuclear weapons) would remain weapons of last resort, as they were up to now. There was also an understanding that a nuclear weapons country would never use such a weapon against a non-nuclear weapons country. Since the break up of the Soviet Union in 1989, the world became a much more dangerous place in terms of the proliferation of nuclear weapon states—the Soviet Union split into various nuclear weapon states. The other problem is that since the 1960's, many other states became nuclear weapon states such as France, China, South Africa, Israel, India and Pakistan. These are some of the states that have been reported in the press as the new states that have been able to acquire nuclear weapons capabilities since 1960. How about the states which we don't know! The nuclear weapons genie is out of the bottle, and the current US change in policy and strategy reflects that fact. The US is adapting its policies and strategies to be able to handle the new nuclear weapons reality around the world. Information released by the US State Department regarding this subject indicates that the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Treaty (NPT) was concluded in 1968 and became effective in 1970. Fear ofnuclear weapons proliferation in the 1960's motivated 187 countries to sign that treaty. Only India, Israel, Pakistan and Cuba remain outside that treaty. The significance of the NPT lies in the fact the five nuclear-weapon States defined in the Treaty—that is, the USA, the Russian Federation, Great Britain, France and China—are not permitted to transfer their nuclear weapons and that all other States Parties (the so-called non-nuclear-weapon States) are allowed neither to receive the transfer of these—thus gaining control of nuclear weapons—nor to develop nuclear weapons themselves. I am not going to bore you, the reader, with further details of this Treaty since the Treaty has become obsolete! The idea of a country's sovereignty was developed in Europe over the last 400 years. It is a concept closely associated with the rise of the nation-state system from the ashes of the feudalism system of the Middle Ages. Jean Jacques Rousseau in his major work The Social Contract gave us the idea that sovereignty resides in the people (one of the earliest expressions of democratic thought and ideas) rather than with the monarchy. Sovereignty implies the concept of power, both internal and external: internal sovereignty is the ability of the nation-state to demand obedience to the laws of the nation-state within its borders; external sovereignty governs the relations between nation-states, and implies the premise that BRAZZIL - MAY 2002
these states are theoretically equal under international law. Modern international law recognizes the concept of nonintervention. The concept of nonintervention has been codified over the years in many treaties and international agreements. Nonintervention means that sovereign states have the right to be free from interference by others in their domestic affairs. This concept is part of the United Nations Charter. For a political community to be sovereign, it must meet some specific criteria; it must have the following qualities: 1) territory, 2) population, 3) effective rule over that territory and population, and 4) recognition of the other nation-states. Sovereignty Brazil needs nuclear weapons to protect its claim of absolute sovereignty over its territory and population. Today, the more a state has the capability to use violence at will, the greater is its contempt for sovereignty, that is, for the sovereignty of other states. We can see all over the world this contempt for sovereignty and international law. There is one fact which is obvious for any one who is not brain dead—you can't count on your allies to come to your rescue when your country is under attack—unless there is some ulterior motive for the assistance, such as your country is a major oil producing country. A recent example brings this point to our attention and also can serve as a guide to the future, as to why any country shouldn't rely on old allies to come forward and put everything on the line to help them when they are under attack by a foreign power. When the US attacked Serbia and destroyed that country's entire infrastructure, Russia, a long time ally ,of Serbia, did not came to its rescue. Instead the Russians barked a few times on behalf of Serbia, then they rolled over and played dead. These events also highlighted to the world how far Russia has declined and how they lost all their clout and weight in international affairs. If you don't understand that many parts of what is considered international law and treaties have been trashed lately, then you have been living in La-La land. For example, in May 2002, the United States decided to renounce formally any involvement in a treaty creating an international criminal court and has officially "unsigned" the document signed by the Clinton administration. As reported in The New York Times on May 5,2002, "in doing so the US simultaneously "unsigned" the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, a 1969 pact that outlines the obligations of nations to obey other international treaties. Article 18 of the Vienna Convention requires signatory nations like the United States to refrain from taking steps to undermine treaties they signed, even if they do not ratify them." US Bad Example I was surprised to find out how simple the process is to repudiate a treaty which a country has signed. How easy it was for the United B RAZZ IL - MAY 2002
States to withdraw from the International Criminal Court Treaty—the Bush administration officials just notified the Unite Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan o May 6, 2002 that the United States w withdrawing from the International Crimt nal Court Treaty. The United States, as one of the leadin countries in- the world, set the example t everyone how simple and easy it is t "unsign a treaty" which is no longer wante by that country. The United States action make it clear to the world that treaties ar made to be broken and that treaties jus have a certain useful purpose. After an treaty ends its useful life it becomes ohso lete and has to be scrapped—as in the cas of the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weap ons Treaty. In another example of worthless trea ties, the United States and the Soviet Unio signed treaties in the past decades in whic they agreed to stop research and produc tion of chemical and biological weapon Neither country honored any of these tre ties, and both countries continued in clandestine way the development of ne chemical and biological weapons. By definition, any sovereign count must have the right to produce nude , chemical and biological weapons if th t country so desires for their national d fense. If countries are not allowed to pr duce these modern weapons to protest themselves, then we can't consider thes countries as having actual sovereign These countries should receive a new cl s rating in a new international sovereign rating system; they should be classified a third rate class of countries with a sem sovereignty status. The world has changed drastically in a very short period of time. Today we live • a much more dangerous world, and many if the old international rules have chang since September 11,2001. Brazil and the Bomb Without nuclear weapons Brazil w II never be taken seriously by the major cou tries of the world. India or Pakistan will e considered ahead of Brazil to become a permanent member of the United Natio s Security Council. They will not even both -r considering Brazil, without a Brazili nuclear weapons capability. As a sovereign country, Brazil does n need authorization from any other coun
if it decides to develop chemical, biological and nuclear weapons for defense purposes. If there is any obstacle, such a treaty, it is easy to "unsign" such a document. Which country should help Brazil develop such weapons? The answer is very simple. France should help Brazil. You might be asking yourself: what connection there is between France and Brazil, and why should France be interested in helping Brazil? The French had a major impact on Brazilian culture since 1555 when Villegaignon established a French colony in Brazil close to where Rio de Janeiro is located. The greatest French influence on Brazilian culture came as a result of the French Revolution. Jose Bonifacio de Andrada e Silva, the architect of Brazilian independence from Portugal, was studying in Paris at the Royal School of Mines in the years 1790-1792. Jose Bonificio had direct exposure during this period to the best intellectual minds of that time who were having a major impact on the events of the French Revolution. In 1808, when Napoleon's army invaded Portugal, the Portuguese Royal Family moved to Brazil and they stayed in Brazil until 1821. This move by the Portuguese Royal Family had a very positive impact on Brazil. In 1823, the Andrada brothers (Jose Bonifacio, Martim Francisco and Antonio Carlos), with their leadership, had a major impact on the Constituent Assembly. They guided the proceedings of the process of framing the first Brazilian Constitution. This Constitution was effective December 13, 1823. They used as a model the French Constitution of 1816, which is also referred to as the "Lamartine Constitution". French culture had a major impact on Brazilian culture; to this day many Brazilian company executives know Paris much better than they know New York City, and they can speak French and not English. The Brazilian legal and judicial system is based on Roman law and the Napoleonic Code. The French should once more reaffirm their close ties to Brazil by helping Brazil on its new nuclear weapons development endeavor! Ricardo C. Amaral, a frequent contributor to Brazzil, is an author and economist. He can be reached at amaral®alumni.fdu.edu
Opening the Gates Many journalists and media executives tend to believe that opening the media to foreign capital is their final hope for survival. PAULO REBELO As expected, on April 4th, the Senate's Constitution and Justice Committee has approved a bill opening up Brazilian media companies to foreign capital. Until now, a 60-year old law banned foreign ownership of the country's media. The foreign participation cannot exceed 30 percent of the voting stockholders. Officially. This means that from now on any company in Brazil may be a major shareholder or own a media vehicle, such as radio and TV stations, newspapers, magazines, etc and have access to the stock market. Before the approval of the new law, media companies in Brazil had to be owned (officially)by a Brazilian citizen or someone naturalized Brazilian for at least ten years. That explains why the media in Brazil is commonly called a big family business, in which media companies are passed from father to son for generations. The new foreign investment law intends to help the organization and, especially, assist in getting fresh loans. The editorial policies from broadcast and newspaper companies should remain as defined in the Brazilian Constitution: exclusive responsibility of native or naturalized Brazilians. According to SAo Paulo Senator Romeu Tuma, from the rightwing PFL (Partido da Frente Liberal—Liberal Front Party), the project has already been classified as "urgent" by the Senate. It still has to be approved by the full Senate, but no one is expecting any surprise there. Professionals from the media believe that major companies will start getting foreign investments for floating capital right away. BANKRUPT MODEL—Qualifiedprofessionals being fired, magazines being 26
closed, and lack of high-quality content in newspapers are just some ofthe plagues affecting the Brazilian media industry these days. There is also the pressure of the so-called risk Brazil, that is, the currency devaluation and the economic retraction together with the decline in consumption, which in plain economese characterizes a full-grown recession. The risk Brazil has direct influence upon newspapers, magazines and radio and TV stations, all on their knees due to products and services they have imported in the last few years. Those who work in the media are feeling deeply the pain. Those who don't, may follow what is happening through the news. Companies have accumulated huge debts in U.S. dollar a few years ago, when one dollar bought one "real" (the Brazilian currency). But thanks to the currency devaluation, now one dollar is worth about 2.6 reais— a 260 percent increase. Many journalists and media executives tend to believe that opening the media to foreign capital is their final hope for survival. Is that so? Foreign companies are not willing to participate in bankrupt businesses neither are they interested in buying stocks from archaic family companies before these companies clean the house themselves. In South America, Brazil isthe leading country, occupying almost 50 percent of the continent's territory. It has close to 8 million people connected to the Internet, an avid population for goods and services. The foreign capital will indeed arrive, but no one knows at what price. For sure, it won 't come for free, it never does. It's not hard to find journalists, sometimes in a bar, saying that Brazil willsee a new hiring frenzy when the money ar-
rives. It's a sweet illusion, made better by a few beers, when basic concepts of economy are usually forgotten. NO FREE MEAL — It's well known that there's nothing in the books that can prevent, in the near future, the insertion of a new paragraph in the law allowing foreign participation to exceed 30 percent. For those who don't remember or aren't very familiar with the matter, the original bill didn't include any restriction against foreigners managing TV stations. The Senate introduced such restrictions only after being challenged by protests. Few people believe that the Brazilian government has enough resources (and will) to insure that the 30 percent limit of participation in the media companies will be observed. Theory and practice may be worlds apart, and often they are. With or without foreign money there is a deepening crisis in the Brazilian media. It's quite hilarious to imagine the presumption of smaller companies thinking that they will be able to get easy loans or to put their little hands on foreign funds, after the project gets definitely approved. Many seem to forget the economic rule of thumb: there's no free meal. COUNCIL FOR FRIENDS — Right now, Brazil's government is putting together the Social Communication Council, with primary goals yet to be defined. It will be comprised by politicians, artists and employers' representatives, which will represent the Congress in order to deal with media companies and discuss programming on Brazilian TVs. Many believe the Council might lead to a new, legalized, kind of censorsh ip. Others suggest that such an invention Won't solve anything and that the market itself will create its own rules. Nowadays, about 70 percent of radio stations and 25 percent of TV stations in Brazil are controlled by politicians. These stations are not big companies—don't have the same credibility as the major outlets—and probably aren't attractive enough to foreign investors. Which makes even more important a debate about the Council's role, since there will be politicians in it. Until now, no one knows who will they be. Will they be exempt people? Of course no one is thinking the Council as being an action between friends. Or is it? Paulo Rebelo ( rebelo(emz.net ) is an assistant-editor at www.webinsider.com.br and the correspondent in Brazil for Wired News.
BRAZZIL - MAY 2002
Braziiiiiiiiiil How could something as apparently benign as a team sport become the greatest unifying factor of the world's fifth largest country? What d Brazilians mean when they say, with jingoistic pride, that they live in the 'football co ntry'? ALEX BELLOS
Football arrived in Brazil in 1894. e 'violent British sport' did unexpectes ly well. Within decades it was the strong st symbol of Brazilian identity. The natio al team, as weal! know, has won more Wo Id Cups than anyone else. The country as also produced Pele, the greatest player of all time. More than that, Brazilians nvented a flamboyant, thrilling and gra eful style that , has set an unattaina le benchmark for the res i of the world. Britons cal it •the 'beautiful game'. B azilians call it`futebol-ar e', or art-football. Whiche er term you choose, noth ng in international sport as quite the same allure. I arrived in Brazi in 1998.1 didn't do badl either. I became a fore gn correspondent. It w a job I'd always cov ed and, journalistic Ily speaking, Brazil is irre istible. The country is ist and colorful and dive se. For a start, it has ore blacks than any other country except Nig ria, more Japanese than nywhere outside Japan as well as 300,000 indige ous Indians, including m ybe a dozen tribes who ave not yet been conta ed. Brazil is the world's! ading producer of or nge juice, coffee and sug . It is also an industrial zed nation, curiously on of the world's leading airplane-makers, and i has an impressive artistic eritage, especially in usic and dance. And, of course, they've got an ful lot of football. Soon after I arrived I went to se the national team play. It was at the Mara ana,
the spiritual home of Brazilian—ergo world—football. When the players filed on to the pitch, we jumped and cheered. The noise was like an electric storm, a rousing chorus cif firecrackers, drumming and syncopated chants. It crystallized what I already knew; that the romance of Brazilian football is much more than the 'beautiful game'. We love Brazil because of the spectacle. Because their fans are so exuberantly happy. Because we know their stars by their first names—as if they are personal friends. Because the national team conveys a utopian racial harmony. Because of the iconic golden yellow on their shirts. We love Brazil because they are Braziununil. As a sports fan, I immediately took an interest in the domestic leagues. I read the sports pages, adopted a club and regularly went to matches. Following football is perhaps the most efficient way to integrate into Brazilian society. As a journalist, I became increasingly fascinated with how football influences the way of life. And if football reflects culture, which I think it does, then what is it about Brazil that makes its footballers and its fans so...well...Brazilian. That's what this book is about. I first wanted to know how a British game brought over a little over a century ago could shape so strongly the destiny of a tropical nation. How could something as apparently benign as a team sport become the greatest unifying factor ofthe world's fifth largest country? What do Brazilians mean when they say, with jingoistic pride, that they live in the 'football country'? If football is the world's most popular sport, and if Brazil is football's most successful nation, then the consequences of such a reputation must be far-reaching and unique. No other country is branded by a single sport, I believe, to the extent that Brazil is by football. The research took me a year. I flew, within the country's borders, the equiva27
BRAZZIL - MAY 2002
lent of the circumference of the world. I interviewed hundreds of people. First, the usual suspects: current and former players, club bosses, referees, scouts, journalists, historians and fans. Then, when I really wanted to get under the country's skin: priests, politicians, transvestites, musicians, judges, anthropologists, Indian tribes and beauty queens. I also interviewed a man who makes a living performing keepie-uppies with ball bearings, rodeo stars who play football with bulls, a fan who is so peculiar-looking that he sells advertising space on his shirt and I discovered a secret plot involving Socrates and Libya's Colonel Muammar al-Gadaffi. I was not interested in 'facts', like results or team line-ups. Brazil is not big on facts anyway; it is a country built on stories, myths and Chinese whispers. The written word is not—yet—as trusted as the spoken one. (One of the country's more infuriating customs, especially if you are a journalist). I was interested in people's lives and the tales they told. The result, I hope, is a contemporary portrait of Latin America's largest country seen through its passion for football. Brazil is the country where funeral directors offer coffins with club crests, where offshore oil rigs are equipped with five-aside pitches and where a football club can get you elected to parliament. I started my research in mid-2000, exactly half a century after the World Cup was held in Brazil and thirty years after Brazil won, so spectacularly, the title for the third time. It was a convenient starting point for reflection on the legacy of . futebol-art. I claim no responsibility, but within weeks Brazilian football was plunging into its most serious crisis ever. The national team lost a sequence of matches and congress began two wide-ranging investigations into the sport. The situation got worse and worse. Brazil kept on losing and congressmen were shedding light upon a nasty and corrupt underworld. For a moment, the unthinkable that Brazil would fail to qualify for the 2002 World Cup—was a real possibility. I understand the crisis as a reflection ofmore general tensions. Sincethe 1950s, when Pele started playing, Brazil has gone from an overwhelmingly rural and illiterate country to an urban and literate one. It has passed through two decades of dictatorship and is learning, sometimes uncomfortably, about how to create a new society. Meanwhile, the world is different. Football is also different. The only constant seems to be the magic we 28
still invest in Brazil's golden yellow shirts. I followed the parliamentary investigations closely. I flew to Brasilia to see the hearings. I was there when Ronaldo was called to give evidence. He was being asked to explain to congressmen why Brazil was only second best in the 1998 World Cup. 'There are many truths,' the footballer told his interrogators. He said he would give 'his truth', and that he hoped it pleased them. But whether or not it was the 'true truth'—well, that was up to them. I immediately scribbled this down in my notebook. I thought it was the most unintentionally observant comment any footballer has ever made. Brazil has many 'truths'. This book is my search for the 'true truth' of Brazilian football. I hope it pleases you. Alex Bellos Rio de Janeiro November 2001
any distance, the precision of the shot being worth more than the fact that it is made close to the target. And it further states that the collective advance of the whole forward line is not necessary; it's enough for two or three players to break away with the ball, which, by its devastating speed, completely unexpected, disorientates the entire rival defence." Since most Brazilians learnt from informal kickabouts, it was likely that they would play in a way less constrained by rules, tactics or conventions. Since many started playing using bundles of socks, it was also likely that their ball skills would be more highly developed and inventive. Alternatively, one could explain the flashy individualism by pointing to the national trait of showing off in public. Brazil is the country of Carnaval, not of self-negating uniformity. Archie McLean, a Scottish League forward who moved to So HEROICFEET Paulo in 1912, put it down to irresponBrazilians play sibility: "There football differently. were great players At least they used there, but they were to. It does not matter that they might terribly undisciplined. Their antics would never again. The Brazilian style is like an not have been tolerated in Scotland. Durinternational trademark, which was regis- ing a game a couple ofplayers tried to find tered during the 1958 and 1962 World out who could kick the ball the highest. I Cups and given a universal patent in soon put a stop to that sort of thing." 1970. Its essence is a game in which proSome historians have suggested that digious individual skills outshine team reliance on the dribble evolved because tactics, where dribbles and flicks are pre- of the racism of the game's formative ferred over physical challenges or long- years. They say that the style was created distance passes. Perhaps because of the by black players who improvised artfulemphasis on the dribble, which moves ness as a way of self-protection against one's whole body, Brazilian football is whites. If you were black, you would not often described in musical terms—in par- want to have physical contact with a ticular as a samba, which is a type of song white player, since this could end in retaliand a dance. At their best Brazilians are, ation. Blacks had to use guile rather than we like to think, both sportsmen and art- force to keep the ball. An interview with ists. Domingos da Guia, the most talented It seems that they always played dif- defender ofthe 1930s, supports this view: ferently. Or at least as far back as we can "When I was still a kid I was scared to play tell. In the early years there were limited football, because I often saw black playoccasions for qualitative comparisons„ ers, there in Bangu, get whacked on the since international games were infrequent. pitch, just because they made a foul, or Yet by 1919, alter that year's South Ameri- sometimes for something less than can Championship, there were glimmers that...my elder brother used to tell me: 'the of what would enchant the world half a cat always falls on his feet...aren't you century later. In an article headlined 'Bra- good at dancing?' I was and this helped zilian Innovation', the journalist Americo my football...I swung my hips a lot...that R. Netto wrote: "As opposed to the Brit- short dribble 1 invented imitating the ish school, which dictates that the ball be miudinho, that type of samba." taken by all the forwards right up to the There is a revealing parallel here with opposition's goal and put in from the another Brazilian invention. Capoeira is closest possible range, the Brazilian a martial art, invented by Angolan slaves, school states that shots be taken from that was disguised as a dance to fool the BFtAZZIL -MAY 2002
slave owners. In capoeira, the two contestants never make physical contact. Instead, they taunt each other—usually to music—with deceptive kicks and tripups. The hip-swinging body language used by a capoeirista is very similar to samba dancers and Brazilian dribblers. Whatever the singularities ofthe Brazilian style really Were, they soon became indistinguishable from the interpretation given to them. In 1933, coincidentally the year professionalism was introduced, a young sociologist called Gilberto Freyre published a book that was to mark a watershed in the way Brazil was regarded in academic—and popular—thinking. In Casa Grande e Senzala (translated as The Masters and the Slaves), Freyre turned racial theory on its head. Until Freyre, Brazil' s racial mixture was seen as a weight around the country's neck. Freyre was the first person to say that their contribution to Brazil was good. Because of the high level of miscegenation—due, he wrote, to the traditional penchant of Portuguese men for dark women and the shortage of Portuguese women during colonial times—Brazil's many races got on in a different way than in other countries. Despite the brutality of the slave era, there was also a unique racial tolerance. Freyre said that the authentic Brazilian was a rich combination of European and African impulses—of, among other qualities, Apollonian rationality and Dionysian malevolence. (Freyre, unsurprisingly, is now regarded by many as as racist as his forebears). In the 1930s, however, his thoughts created anew, pro-mulatto view of national identity—which in football found its most powerful metaphor. Freyre took the negative and made it positive. He championed playfulness and mischief as national characteristics. The folkloric Rio figure of the malandro, a kind ofmixed-race artful dodger, was used to embody Freyre's theories. The malandro was a sublimation of whiteness and blackness. In football terms, the malandro took an orderly British game and turned it into a 'dance of irrational surprise'. In 1938, he wrote: "Our style of playing football contrasts with the Europeans because of a combination of qualities of surprise, malice, astuteness and agility, and at the same time brilliance and individual spontaneity...Our passes.. .our dummies, our flourishes with the ball, the touch of dance and subversiveness that marks the Brazilian style.. seem to show psychologists and sociologists in a very interesting way the roguery and flamboyance of the mulatto that today is in every true affirmation ofwhat is Brazilian."
Sports journalists adapted Freyr s theories, popularizing the idea that n only was there a Brazilian style but t at this style was a proud advertisement •r the country' sunique racial make-up. T is view became the consensus and found ts personification in the two outstandi g players ofthe 1930s—Domingosda G ia and Leonidas da Silva. As football was becoming linked id.ologically to national identity, it was al .o mobilizing unprecedented displays of patriotism. When, in 1908, a team of Argentineans came to play in Rio t e matches attracted larger crowds than h d ever been seen before. In 1914, w n Exeter City were on their way back frs m Argentina, they played a game against an all-star selection of Rio and Sao Pa lo players. The match is considered thesebut of the Brazilian national team. Abut 10,000 spectators saw Brazil win 2-0. Ne spapers reported the delirium ofthe cro d as 'simply indescribable'. In 1919, io hosted the South American Champ' i for the first time. Brazil won nd ship for (Arthur) Friedenreich, who scored he only goal of the final game, gaine a national prominence that until then no sportsman had ever,had. As a measur of the public's interest, his boots were sut on display in the window of a city ce ter jewelers. Football arrived at a time when Bra i t, which had only become a republic in I 8 9, was searching for its own identity. he game's rapid dissemination gave the urban population, lacking in national s bols, a common experience. Football as also seized on by politicians, who aw how it could build national pride. Pr• sident Getulio Vargas, who came to po er in a 1930 rebellion and stayed in po er until 1945, used the sport to feed his ideals ofnationalism and social harm. ny. He centralized sport, creating a nati s nal council, setting up regional federati ns and subsidizing Brazil's expenses at the 1938 World Cup—to which his daug ter accompanied the delegation. When Brazil traveled to the 1938W.rid Cup in France, the country was grips ed with unparalleled excitement. Journ a ists invested the nation's hopes in Domi gos and Leonidas. Domingos was an ath etic defender with such calmness and stre gth of character that he could dribble his ay out of danger. Le6nidas was a ce terforward whose acrobatic skills ea ed him the nickname 'Rubber Man'. Br zilians credit Leonidas with inventin the bicycle kick, in which the ball is ki ked when the player's body is suspe ded horizontally in the air. It was Brazil' s third World Cup. I the
first two—in 1930 and 1934—Brazil had failed to pass the first round. The first match in 1938, against Poland, showed how much the South Americans had improved. At 4-4, the game went into extra time. Leonidas was "simply amazing. He was our stick of dynamite. He did the impossible. Each time he touched the ball there was an electric current of enthusiasm through the crowd," wrote a Brazilian reporter. Brazil won 6-5, with Leonidas scoring the winnerbarefoot, after his boot came off in the swampy turf. "The shot, strong and unexpected, left everyone in Strasbourg's small stadium openmouthed," wrote another witness. "People were stunned. Europe's sports press, who thought they had already seen everything on a football pitch, reacted with fright, confusion and shouts of 'bravo!, bravo!, bravo'." Brazil were knocked out in the semifinals by Italy, who would be champion, and beat Sweden in the playoff for third place. Even though they were not champions, Brazil were the tournament's real sensations. Leonidas was voted best player. He was the top scorer, with seven goals in four games, and eulogized by the French, who gave him the nickname Le DiamantNoir—the Black Diamond. When Leonidas returned home he was the most famous man in Brazil. He became the first footballer to endorse a product. A confectionery company, Lacta, launched the Diamante Negro chocolate bar. The Diamante Negro is still around— it is Brazil's second bestselling chocolate bar and available in another ten countries including Japan, the United States and Australia. Le6nidas's success was seen not just as good fortune but as a national vindication since he embodied the essence of Brazil. Football played a la bresilienne was already the most potent symbol of nationhood—two decades before Brazil eventually won a World Cup. By the 1930s, there had been attempts to call the sport something less clunkily English than 'football'. But suggestions—including pebol, bolape (using pi, Portuguese for foot) and the Greek-inspired balipodo— did not stick. Instead, Brazilian journalists started to use the transliteration .futebol. Futebol was not the game that Charles Miller imported in 1894. Futebol was the sport that was played as a dance; it was the sport that united the country and that showed its greatness. Gilka Machado, held as the greatest poetess of her day, summed up the national feeling in the following poem, written about the 1938 World Cup: 29
BRAZZIL -MAY 2002
I salute you Heroes of the day You made us understand In a silent language, Writing with your entrancing, winged feet An international epopee. Brazilian souls —distant overcome the space mix with yours, follow in your footsteps to the rushing ball, to the decisive kick of the glory of the Fatherland (...) That the Leonidases and the Domingoses Fix in the eye of the foreigner The miraculous reality That is the Brazilian man The brains of the Universe Render themselves, reverent To your genial feet. The soul of Brazil Lays down a kiss On your heroic feet!
FUTEBOL: Soccer, the Brazilian Way by Alex Bellos (Bloomsbury, May 2002). Available at bookstores everywhere and online at amazon.com & bn.com. Please visit www.bloomsburymagazine.com/ usa for more information. Alex Bellos, the author, is the correspondent in Brazil for the British paper
television channel of India, started its telecast of world cup matches in Kerala only at that time.) But long before that, the football lovers of Kerala, through newspapers and magazines, were -already familiar with the Brazilian players and _their yellow jersey and blue shorts. People all tr he world watch whenever Brazilians play nd Keralites are not exception. In Kerala, the Sictories and defeats of Brazilian football teams Are treated emotionally by our people. Victories It was from Kerala that the of Brazil become celebrations and defeats cause Portuguese collected pepper and' disappointment and gloom. Pictures and posters Pele and other great Brazilian footballers like introduced it in Brazil. They also of Zico, Seicrates, Romario, Bebeto, Rivaldo, etc. are introduced cassava, pineapple a common sight in the homes of Kerala. Thelullaby by Bebeto and Romario during and rubber. Today, rubber is one the quarter final of the 1994 World Cup in the US was imitated by known and unknown footballers of the most important cash crops of Kerala, on the football grounds, after scoring of Kerala. goals. A tragic event in the football or sports of VASISHT M.0 Kerala is always compared to the tragedy of Ronaldo in the 1998 World Cup final. The style of India and Brazil are two large counfnotball play introduced by famous Brazilian tries, in two comers ofthe world. Ker , nit football coach Vicente Feola (4-2-4) was adopted is one of the states in India which can by the football teams and players of Kerala. The claim to have similarities with Brazil. death of world famous Brazilian motor car racer Brazil, a country that lies in the northAyrton Senna was a shock to the people of eastern part of South America, and Kerala. Kerala, a narrow strip of land lying in the Both in Brazil and Kerala one can see music southern most 'part of the Indian subccompanying football. When Brazilians play, continent, though situated thousands the samba music follows. Likewise in Kerala ofmiles apart, can still claim astounding football is accompanied by music of chenda (a similarities in many fields. It willbe very traditional music instrument of Kerala) and sounds interesting to compare the similarities qf bugle. Another similarity found in the societbetween the two territories. Fascination imit , of Kerala and Brazil is the presence ofcomposfor football, presence of various groups -culture. The culture of Kerala is a fusion of and races, coffee production, fascinatltures ofdifferent religions like Hinduism, Chrising camavals, etc. are the main features it)f Islam, Judaism, Buddhism etc. Similarly or characteristics of Brazil, through •f*ati an culture is a mixture of Red Indians Which the nation is popular all over the giro ans, Negroes, etc. world. High literacy rate, mixture of diIt is also noteworthy that Brazil and Kerala are verse cultures, cash crops cultivation, earlier centers of Portuguese domination. Vasco love for sports and games are the imporda Gama's voyage from Lisbon to Cal icut (1497tant factors generally associated with 1498) opened a new sea route to the East and in Kerala. 1500 another Portuguese sailor, Pedro Alvares One factor, which is most c(Aonto Cabral, linked Brazil with theoutside world. It was both Brazilians and Keralites, g their from Kerala that the Portuguese collected pepper everlasting love for soccer. The Braziland introduced it in Brazil. They also introduced ian footballers are household names in a number of Brazilian and South American prodKerala, especially Pele, ucts in Kerala. Tapioca or cassava was introwhols treated as the greatduced in the 17th century; papaya, a native of est player ever known to ' Central America was brought during the same the game. A talented century. Pineapple, another South American prodfootballer in Kerala is of, . tint was also introduced by the Portuguese. The ten compared with Pelt. Portuguese also brought rubber, a native of the The best example is I.M. Amazon valley ofBrazi Ito Kerala. Now, rubber is Vijayan, who is often deone of the most important cash crops of Kerala. scribed as Pelle ofKerala. It We know that Brazil is called the coffee pot was only from 1986 onof the world at the same time that India is also a wards that the people of leading producer of coffee. But in India, Kerala Kerala got the opportunity contributes a major share of the coffee producto watch the World Cup tion. People residing in areas near the high matches of Brazil on TV ranges—which is the main center of coffee pro(Doordarshan, the national ductio —especially the people in the districts of A
BRAZZIL - MAY 2002
Wynad and Idukki of Kerala eagerly watch coffee production in Brazil, since it certainly effects the price of Indian coffee in the international markets. Brazilian and Latin American influence is also visible in the cultural fields of Kerala. Well-known Malayalam short story writer N.S. Madhavan has written a short story titled "Higuita"â€”the famous Colombian goal keeper ofthe 1990 Italian World Cup. This is a good example to show the influence of Latin America and football on Malayalam literature. People of Kerala are now very familiar with the Brazilian films, often screened at various international film festivals of Kerala. Brazilian movies like 0 Tronco (The Trunk), directed by Joao Batista de Andrade and Atraves da Janela (Through the Window) directed by Tata Amaral are well accepted by the film lovers of Kerala. We can find many Portuguese words widely used in Kerala. The term used to denote window in Portuguese and Malayalam are one and the same:janela. Pablo Neruda, Gabriel Garcia Marques, Octavio Paes are the most popular Latin American writers in Kerala. It was the influence of Latin American poetry that helped the creation of a new branch of Malayalam literature in Kerala. From 1970 When Brazil did score, we we e onwards, Latin American literary works became popular in Kerala through ambushed by deafening hooti g Malayalam translation. The poems of Latin America, which created new ideas and hollering, pounding on tabl s, about human liberation and gave extreme firecrackers going off outsi e, importance to humanism, became popular among the political and cultural activ- honking horns and cheering. It ists of Kerala. was an event. In the 21" century, the relationship between Indian and Brazil needs to be ELIZABETH WILLOUGH improved. The visit of Indian President Mr. K.R. Narayanan to Brazil in 1998 and Though I'd heard most ofmy life fr the visit of Brazilian President Mr. Fernando Henrique Cardoso in 1996 has 'non-Canadians that we Northerners m st been milestones in the lndo-Brazilian re- be born wearing ice skates, I never p Id lationship. Football is one of the best much attention to this legacy. Not un 11 ways to improve the friendship. In the moved to Sao Paulo, Brazil in 1997, nd afuture, more and more Brazilian football quickly came to the conclusion that B zilians must be born wearing soccer sh es. teams should visit India, especially Kerala, Fascinating. They play everywhere: on which is one of the cradles of Indian the beach, on the street, on any patc of football. Occasional visits of Brazilian grass, including those at the cloverl af teams would certainly improve the stanentrances and exits to highways. Ric or dard of the game in India. The people of poor, male or female, player or specta or, India, including Keralites are eagerly they are out there. waiting forthe arrival of Brazilian players With the 2002 World Cup approa hand their football teams. ing, the powerful memories I have of he '98 games begin to resurface, includ ng M.C. Vasisht, the author, is a Brazil's painful final match loss to Fra cc. lecturer in history at the Malabar Reluctantly I admit that, prior to re idChristian College in Calicut, Kerala ing in Brazil, I never had much o an State, South India. He can be reached interest in soccer. But the emotion nd at yasishtmcgyahoo.co.in excitementbuilt up in this country reg rd-
Soccer in Their Soul
BRAZZIL -MAY 2002
ing soccer does not allow one to be a passive by-stander. At work, I was unable to escape the "buzz" about the World Cup. A selection of office personnel remained hardwired, incognito, from ear to portable radio or miniature television hidden in desk drawers, providing the rest of us with constant updates of scores and achievements of the day's games. My first surprise came with the announcementthat most companies, including the one where I worked, were to shut down at 11 a.m. so that everyone had time to drive home and watch the game on television. This led me to believe that it must be one of the final matches. Rather than fighting the overcrowded streets, hubby and I decided to go to a nearby churrascaria (Brazilian-style barbecue restaurant) and bide our time over lunch. As I dithered by the roadside waiting for my ride, I studied the favela (shantytown) across the street from the company's parking lot. There were shacks built upon shacks all the way down the slope; one-room shelters of brick and block with corrugated tin roofs and an occasional front or side window. Colorful laundry was strung throughout, adding a bit of life to the slum and detracting from the shallow stench of sewage and refuse. One vision, however, caught my eye. Sitting on wooden boxes just outside the front door facing their home were two youths. They were watchingthe previews to the game on a large color television, anchored on its own stand against the front wall. My ride arrived. We could feel the tension already building. It was in the air, growing as the game drew closer. Sketches were colorfully chalked on decaying roadways and banners were strung across streets. The cement walls separating pri31
vate properties from the public, normally reserved for graffiti and political slurs, now promoted individual players and the Brazilian team in general. Progress to the restaurant was very slow. Street vendors traipsed happily amongst the vehicles, offering their soccer paraphernalia, Brazilian flags, or just a cold beverageto help calm the motorists overheating in the rising, intoxicating atmosphere. When we finally arrived at the restaurant, we soon realized that we had not made good our get-away. There was, in fact, no escape. The excitement of outdoors was not limited to outside. It penetrated the walls of every house, every office and every other establishment. This particular establishment consisted of one very large room with rows and rows of tables surrounding a large, central fruit and vegetable buffet. Various cuts of roasted meat were continually brought to each table and sliced off long skewers onto plates by boys dressed up as gafichos (cowboys). But today there was an added attraction: televisions. There was nearly one per table, all tuned in to the game. lam not much ofone for watchingtelevision while I eat, but watching the Brazilians watch the game was very entertaining. So engrossed werethey on the screen, so tightly
wound, like an overfilled balloon bouncing dangerously close to a pin. And when Brazil did score, we were ambushed by deafening hooting and hollering, pounding on tables, firecrackers going off outside, honking horns and cheering. It was an event. ' My second surprise came the next day when I found out that this was only Brazil's first game in the series. The following weeks were filled with talk ofioccer: rehashing the previous game plays, Ronaldo their star player, an upcoming game, the impending Brazilian victory (yet again), party preparations, statistics, predictions and so on. The semifinal against Holland We decided, once again, to watch the festivities in a restaurantâ€”this time in a pizzeria, closer to home. The audience was high-strung, to say the least. A player on the screen had only to run towards the ball to send the crowded room into a hysterical frenzy. At the end of the game and after two periods of ovec-time, the score was still tied 1-L A penalty shootout would decide the game. It was a surreal experience. There! sat in a dreamy trance, watching the watchers in their delirious fervor as Brazil won
the shoot-out 4-2. The live band played, the crowd danced and sang and congratulated one another, hugging and kissing strangers and friends, the firecrackers outside again, chaos, screaming and yelling, cheering and crying, people pouring into the streets blocking traffic. I wondered, in my ignorance, "Was this the final or the semi-final?" Less than a week later, the mood was very different. The unexpected loss of the final to France hit hard and deep. There were no firecrackers or cheering, no horns honking and no congratulating. This time is was the silence that was deafening. Tears were bravely held back, disguised .by forced smiles. Voices strangled as lumps in throats swelled. A front-page photo of a fan said it all; the crackling green and yellow paint on his face could not hide the caustic anguish of Brazil's defeat. No more noise, no excitement, no discussions. It was back to business in silent torment. A few days later the coach was fired and nothing more was mentioned about soccer. But this year... Elizabeth Willoughby is a Canadian freelance writer currently living in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Her columns, "Letters Home" and "Going Places" appear regularly in Sao Paulo media. She can be reached at email@example.com
1-888-7-BRASIL 1-888-727-2745 510-655.9904
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BRAZZIL - MAY 2002
Penelope He eats with his head down, without a word. At night, he reads the paper and instead of reading the wife the funny news as he used to, now he only reads aloud the crime stories. While he reads, he keeps a watch of the woman's curved face, under the lampshade's blue shadow. DALTON TREVISAN
Na rua de casas iguais morava, há muitos anos, urn casal de velhos. Ela o esperava, costurando na cadeira de embalo da varanda e, quando ele vinha pela rua, corn urn pacote no braco, descia, de chinelos, os dois degraus da varanda e the sorria, corn o porta° aberto. Cruzavam o pequeno jardim e, apenas na porta, por causa dos vizinhos, mas ainda antes de entrar, ela lhe erguia a cabeca, sem nenhum fib branco, e ele a beijava na testa. Estavam sempre juntos, lidando no seu quintal, ele corn as couves, ela corn sua colecao de cactos. Quando deixavam aberta a porta da cozinha, os vizinhos podiam ver que ele enxugavaa louca para a mulher. E, aos sabados, safam para o seu passeio diante das vitrinas, ela, gorda, ainda bonita, de olhos azuis e ele, magro, baixo, de preto. Nas noites de veto, ela usava vestidos brancos, de pemas nuas, ele nao, sempre de preto. Havia urn misterio navida deles, que nenhum vizinho conhecia. Sabia-se vagamente que os filhos tinharn morrido num desastre, ha muitos anos. 0 casal de velhos abandonou tudo, casa, tumulos, BRAZZIL -MAY 2002
bichos e se mudara para aquela cida e, haquela rua. Eram os dois, sem cao, g o, passarinho, nem rnesmo galinhas. Tinh m medo de se afeicoar a qualquer coi a. Algumas vezes, na ausencia do mari o ela trazia ossos Para os caes vagabun os que cheiravam o porta°. Quando eng rdavam uma gal inha, a mulher se entern por ela e no tinha coragem de mata la. Entao, o velho desrnanchou o gal inh iro e no seu lugar, plantou uns pes de cou e. Arrancou a Unica roseira que crescia n m canto do jardim; nem a urna rosa se atreviam a dar os seus restos de amo Afora a viagem, que faziam uma ez por ano para visitar o tumulo dos fit os, mao saiam de casa, o velho fumando eu cachimbo, a velha trancando as agul as de trico, a•nab ser no seu classic° pas eio dos sabados.. E foi num sabado que ao abrira porta, eles achararn a setts Os, ma carta. Era estranho, porque ninguem es escrevia, os dois sozinhos no mund , e confabularam antes de se decidir a abr -la. Era urn envelope azul, sem qual uer endereco. A mulher propos rasga-lo, em
ler. Já tinham sofrido demais. Etc respondeu que ninguem podiamais fazerlhes mal. No queimou a carta, no se apressou de abri-la, deixou-a sobre a mesa. Sentaram-se urn diante do outro, sob o abajur azul da sala, ela corn seu tricô, ele corn seu jornal. As vezes, ela curvava a cabeca, mordendo uma agulhana boca e corn a outra contando os pontos. Quando cbegava ao fim, tinha de contar a tinha de novo: pensava na carta sobre a mesa. 0 homem liacom o jornal dobrado., no joelho, e leu duas vezes,cada linha para entendela: pensava na carta sobre a mesa. 0 seu cachimbo apagou, nao o acendeu, os olhos parados na mesma noticia, ouvindo apenas o seco bater das agulhas entre os dedos da mulher. Entao, pegou a carta e abriu-a. Achou urn pedaco de papel dobrado, corn duas palavras: cOrNo MaNs0, escritas corn grandes letras recortadas de jomal. Nada mais, data ou assinatura. Entregou o papel a mulher que, depois de ler, o olhou. Nenhum falou. A mulher se ergueu, segurando a carta na ponta dos dedos. Onde e que voce Vai? o 33
homem perguntou. Queimar... eta respondeu. No, ele disse. Dobrou o papel dentro do envelope azul e guardou-o no bolso. Juntou para a mulher a toalhinha que tinha caido no chao e continuou a ler o jomal e em cada 1 inha, aquela noite, leu as duas palavras da carta. NAo estava mais certo de que ninguem podia fazer-lhes mat. Antes da mulher se erguer e guardar a cestinha corn os fios e as agul has, segurou-I he a mao para consola-la: aposto, minha velha, disse, que a mesma carta foi jogada sob a porta de todas as casas da rua. As vozes das sereias cantam ainda no coracao dos velhos? Nem mesmo um pobre casal de velhos estava a salvo. Haviam-lhes tirado os filhos, os bichos, a cidade. Agora, queriam separa-los urn do outro. 0 homem esqueceu a carta no bolso e passou-se outra semana. No sabado, de volta do seu passeio, antes de abrir a porta, sabia que eta estava all, azul sobre o capacho. A mulher pisou na carta, fingindo que nAo a via. Ele a juntou e guardou no bolso. Quase no fim do seed°, sem erguer a cabeca da toalhinha, contando sempre a mesma tinha, eta perguntou: voce tido vai ler a sua carta? Olhava-a, fingindo que ha o jornal, admirando-lhe a beta cabeca, sem nenhum cabelo branco, os olhos que, apesar dos anos, eram azuis como no primeiro dia. Eu ja sei oque diz, ele respondeu. Entao por que Waco a queima? E um jogo, minha velha, disse, mostrando o envelope azul entre os dedos: nenhum sobrescrito e fechado. Rasgou-o numa ponta e tirou o papel dobrado: duas palavras, as mesmas, nas tetras recortadas de jornal. Soprou o envelope, sacudiu-o sobre o tapete, mais nada. A mulher tricoteava, como se nao visse a carta. Ele a guardou no bolso, com a outra e continuou a ler em cada linha do jornal aquelas duas palavras. Eta nao the perguntou, como se soubesse. Tinha o rosto oculto pela sombra do, abajur. 0 homem reparou que eta desmanchava um ponto errado na toalhinha. Eram os dedos que tricoteavam ou as mAos que tem jam? Ele acordou corn dor de cabeca, no meio da noite, levantou-se da cama e foi beber agua no filtro. Afastou a cortina e, na rua deserta, viu na sombra dum muro, o vulto daquele homem. Ficou au, corn a mac) crispada na cortina, ate o homem irse embora. Deitou-se, de costas para a mulher, (sabia que estava acordada e de olhos abertos para ele), imaginando quem seria o homem na sombra do muro. E pensou, pela primeira vez, se a carta ndo podia ser para ele mesmo. 34
Entao, revolveu no fundo das gavetas. De manha, esquectu a iddia e, de itado na cama, observava de &hos me lo Nao tinha tempo, ela voltaria logo. No fechados a mulher, que se vestia para ir as emprego, imaginava os passos de sua compras. Diante do guarda-roupa, eta, mulher pela casa. Quando a encontra no portao descobre nos seus olhos o reflexo escolhia urn vestido. Os seus vestido da gravata azul do outro. Observando-a, brancos a deixavam mais gorda. Esperou o para tomarem café juntos, como todasi de manha, na penumbra do quarto, as mantras e, quando eta fechou a porta,i suspeita que as sombras no seu gordo foi olha-la pelajanela. Era eta mesma, a sua! corpo nu sao de abracos do outro. Ele mulher. 0 hcimem se sentiu envergonhadoi quer erguer-the o cabelo da nuca para ver e fechou os olhos, dizendo: minha velha,a se na'o tern a tatuagem dos dentes do me perdoe... Quando os abriu, notou quel outro. Na sua ausencia, abre o guardaa mulher olhava para a janela, ainda que! roupa da mulher, cobre a cabeca corn seus nao pudesse ve-lo, grits da cortina. Por vestidos e cheira-os. Espreita os homens que olhara a janela? Para dar-lhe adeus, se t que passam diante da casa, ants da ele all estivesse ou para saber set, cortina. Conhece agora o leiteiro e o desconfiava dela? padeiro, jovens, de olhos falsos. • No sabado seguinte,_quis propor-the Pode contar, na volta do emprego, ficarem em casa, de luzes apagadas e quais foram os passos da mulher pela surpreenderem o autor das cartas. Ao ye- casa: se os mOveis tern p6 ou ndo, se a la tao alegre, porque lam passear, nao ; terra nos vasos de flores esta molhada ou teve coragem e sairam. Durante o passe io seca... Elc marca o tempo pelatoalhinha. pensou o tempo todo se era apenas ele Sabe quantas I inhas a mulher tricoteou. que recebia as cartas. Nao Podia abordar Sabe quando ela erra os pontos e deve urn dos vizinhos no porta° e perguntar- desmancha-los, antes mesmo de contalhe aquilo. As casas da rua, de aluguel, los corn a ponta da agulha. Nada tern contra eta e o homem ficou eram todas iguais. Podia ser engano, o envelope nao tinha endereco. Se, ao silencioso. Come de cabeca baixa, sem menos citasse nomes, horas, lugares... falar. Leo seu jornal, de noite e, em vez de Quando abriu a porta, la estava eta: a carta her para a mulher as noticias divertidas, azu I. Desta vez, nap a leu diante damullier. como antes, be apenas em voz alta as Guardou-a no bolso, junto tom as outras histOrias de crimes. Enquanto iê, vigia o epos-se a ler o seu jornal, sob o rosto curvado da mulher, na sombra azul abajur. Quando virava as pa- do abajur. Se ouve passos de noite na ginas, surpreendia o rosto da calcadavai espreitar pela janela, de pijama mulher debrucado sobre as e pés descalcos; a cortina esta amarrotada agulhas. Era uma toalhinha no canto pela sua mao crispada. difici I, porque hd meses trabaHouve somente uma cena entre eles, lhava nela. Como se Jesse no quando comprou urn revOlver. Etc o jornal, ele lhe contou a historia guardou sobre o guarda-roupada mulher. de Penelope, que desfazia de Eta perguntou: voce esta louco, meu noite a luz das velas, as linhas velho? Para que um revOlver? Ha muito trancadas durante o dia, para ladrAo nesta cidade. E olhou como se eta ganhar tempo dos seus pretendentes, fosse urn ladrao. Meu Deus, a mulher esperando a volta do senhor seu marido. gemeu, voce nao pensa que eu... e quis Pela primeira vez, pensou se Penelope abraca-lo, corn as maos estendidas, nao teria enganado ad marido auserite. quando o homem, para desvencilhar-se, Para quem era a mortalhaque eta bordava? empurrou-a e, como ndo o soltasse, the Teria continuado a trancar suas agulhas golpeou o rosto corn toda a forca. Ela apOs a volta de Ul isses? Homero Irk) fala. g cobriu o rosto corn uma das mAos e corn Nem a mulher, que nao perguntou sobre ; a outra pegou a sua, ainda fechada. a calla. Pensou que fosse morde-lo. Eta the beijou No banheiro, fechando a porta a i a ma°, antes que pudesse retird-la. 0 chave, abriu a carta. As duas palavras... homem sentiu pena, mas nao the pediu Ele tinha o seu piano: guardou a carta no perdao. Foi a Unica cena e, depois dela, a envelope e dentro dela urn fib de cabelo. mulher aceitou tudo. Pendurou o paleter no cabide, corn a carta Etc quer saber o destino de velhos visivel num dos bolsos. .Foi-se deitar, presentes, de jOias sem valor (desconfia enquanto a mulher punha o saco de pao que o outro é moco, eta deve dar-the n a jane la e a garrafa vazia de leite na porta. .presentes). Quern sabe, faca toathinhas No dia seguinte, apos o cafe, quando eta de trice), para o outro vender. No sera°, os saiu, corn a sacola das compras no braco, dois sob o abajur, em vez de her o jornal, exam inou a carta: estava no mesmo lugar, .vigia a mulher—o rosto, o vestido, as parecia intacta. Abriu-a e procurou o maos—atras dos dedos do outro. Cravapequeno fib de cabelo, nao estava mais. pre os olhos na mao (as maos que BRAZZIL -MAY 2002
acariciame nao tern memOria dos carinhos) a porta, olhou para a mesa e viu a fotografi ate que ela erra o ponto, tern que Eta comecou a chorar. Tinha pacotes n s mdos e ndo podia esconder as lagrima desmanchar a tinha. As vezes quando chega em casa ela nem enxuga-las. Olhava para o homem e nào o espera mais no porta°, (porque para a fotografia, e chorava. Eta na a finge no ve-la e passando por ela sobe disse, aquelas lagrimas eram de culpad os dois degraus, como se estivesse au i no 0 homem se deu por satisfeito. Era porta° a espera do outro) a casa esta provas que reunia, queria ser justo. 0 passeio aos sabados era seu Oniso silenciosa, ele aspira os odores no ar, passa a ma() sobre os moveis, apalpa vicio de velhos. Eta se arrumava, pun a entre os dedos a terra dos vasos. Adivinha seu melhor vestido, seu chapeu fora e onde a mulher esta. Esconde-se dele, nos moda. Fumando seu cachimbo atras a cantos escuros da casa e da-lhe as costas, janela, deixou-a que se arrumasse. E a paraquendo vejaos seus olhos vermelhos. sentou-se na poltrona da sala, corn s u Eram olhos azuis que sorriam a vida inteira chapeu de fibres na cabeca, a bolsa o para ele. Estdo vermelhos de chorar pelo braco, e ficou esperando. Ndo se viro , enquanto ela esperava, corn as ma s outro, por ndo ter podido ve-lo. Uma noite, acordou e achou o outro cruzadas. Ele entdo se voltou, olhou o travesseiro vazio, ainda quente da cabeca chapeu, a bolsa, as mdos vazias a da mulher. Sob a porta, viu uma luz na sala. toalhinha e disse: Pe ante pe, agarrou o revOlver sobre o —Meu Deus, que chapeu feio... N o guarda-roupa e abriu de subito a porta. posso sair narua corn uma mu !her que u a Sob o abajur, a mulher fazia o seu trico— um chapeu desses! Abriu o jornal e comecou a ler sempre a toalhinha para a mesa da sala. Era ela Penelope, desfazendo na noite o noticias policiais em voz alta, enquants a trabalho executado de dia? Tecia a mulher ouvia, sem tirar o chapeu, ja co mortalha para o marido antes de casar-se o trico na rndo. Aquele sabado nao ye o nenhuma carta. Foi ate a porta, abriu corn o outro? Erguendo os olhos da toalhinha, viu olhou para o capacho e para a mulher. E a o revolver na mdo do homem, mas ndo vigiado, ele tambem, o corn° manso, pe o disse nada. As suas agulhas batiam uma outro. Sentia faltadaquela carta. Era u a na outra, embora ndo tricoteasse e correspondencia inteligente entre out o estivesse olhando para o homem. Ele e ele, um jogo, como tinha dito uma ve a voltou para o quarto, fechando a porta, mulher. Urn dia, o outro revelariatudo, a preciso ndo interromper as cartas. Ent ndo sabia por que ndo a matava. No meio de umarefeicdo, ele a interroga continuaram a sair nos sabados. Eles saem, da o braco a mulher i o sobre seus velhos namorados, do tempo de solteira, de um primo que queria casar porta° e ndo falam durante todo o passe corn ela. Eta responde, enquanto ele passam diante das vitrinas sem par aprova corn a cabeca, fumando seu Como e gorda, ela cansa mais depres a, cachimbo, de olhos meio fechados. Agora pas ndo se queixa, nem ele diminui o sabe, tern todas as provas: eta o engartava passo. Na volta, sob a porta, junta a ca a corn o primo. Se nao fosse culpada, azul e, antes de abri-la, passeia corn ela a protestaria, fugiria de casa. Mas ndo: ouve mdo pela casa, para diante da mulher, e tudo, conta tudo. Se ela se contradiz, rosto azul sob o abajur. Ele a te escondi so, corrige-a batendo corn a ponta do de porta fechada, no banheiro, e guar a corn urn cabelo no envelope e deixaso ire cachimbo apagado no seu prato. a mesa. Em todas encontra depois o —Mos faz tanto tempo, meu... Nao tern coragem de charna-lo "meu cabelo, a mulher nunca mais leu as cart s. velho". Enquanto ela vai, corn sua sacola, Ou—ele pensa, corn uma nova ruga a de cabeca baixa, fazer suas compras, o testa—descobriu o seu segredo e le velho revolve as cinzas do foga°, para cartas substituindo o cabelo por urn d s saber se ela queima os bilhetes do outro. dela? Uma tarde, de volta do emprego, ab i iu De snbito, no meio da leitura em voz alta de um crime, ele tira as cartas do a porta e aspirou oar, como fazia antes se, bolso—sdo muitas, uma de cada sabado— entrar. Passou a mdo no canto dos mOve s: e le, uma por uma, como se fossem todas p0. Apalpou a terra dos vasos: seca. 0 diferentes. Guarda-as de novo no bolso, coracdo batia na ponta dos pes, enqua to porque nao se separa delas, e prossegue avancava pela casa. Entrou, ante pe, o quarto escuro e acendeu a luz: a mul er a leitura do jornal em voz alta. Achou, numa caixa de sapatos, cheia estava deitada na cama de casal, de cha u de fotografias, uma dela, menina, corn o de fibres na cabeca, a bolsa no bras o, primo, o outro. Ele colocou a fotografia segurando o revolver na mdo direita. le sobre a mesa da sala, de pe, contra urn ndo Ode fechar os seus olhos, outra ez vaso de cacto. Assim que a mulher abriu azuis. Eles sorriam de novo para o vet o. 5
BRAZZIL -MAY 2002
Ndo sentiu piedade, estava vingado. Chamou a policia que o deixou em paz, estava no emprego na hora em que a mulher se suicidou. Quanto o enterro saiu, os vizinhos repararam que, embora fosse um casal taro unido de velhos, ele ndo chorou nenhuma vez. Segurou na alca do caixdo e ajudou a empurra-lo no tumulo, (como fazem os velhos, ele o tinha construido ha anos) e antes mesmo de o pedreiro, erguer a sua parede de tijolos, ele deu as costas para a mulher e foi-se embora. Quando entrou em casa, reparou em qualquer coisaestranha: a toalfi inha sobre a mesa era nova. Era a toalhinha de trice! A mulher esperou terminar a toalhinha antes de se matar. Eta trancara sua propria mortalha. Penelope concluiu sua obra, o marido chegou em casa. Ele a tocou, na ponta dos dedos, estava lavada e engomada. NA° tinha mancha de lagrimas, nem ruga de dedos tremulos. Acendeu a lampada do abajur azul. Sobre a poltrona da mulher, diante da sua, ve as agulhas de trico cruzadas na sua cestinha. Era sabado, o velho pensou. Nada tinha a recear, nenhuma carta chegaria. Ninguern mais podia fazer-the mal. A mulher estaca morta, pagara pelo seu crime. E, entdo, pensou que a mulher podia ser inocente. A carta poderia ser jogada sob todas as portas da rua. Ou ser atirada sob a sua porta, por engano, eram todas as casas iguais. Havia urn meio de saber se fossem destinadas a ele, corn a mulher morta, ndo viriam nunca mais. Ndo. as acharia sob a porta, encostadas no capacho. Aquela fora a ltima: o outro teria visto, de tarde, a casa de portas e janelas abertas para sair o enterro. Teria visto ao crepasculo o carro funerario saindo do portdo. Teria seguido, ninguem sabe, o enterro, era urn dos que o acotovelavam para ver o caixdo entrar, rangendo sobre os grabs de areia, no tnmulo. 0 velho saiu de casa. Andava corn urn brag° dobrado, pelo habito de da-lo a mulher por tantos anos. Diante de uma vitrina de vestidos, alguns brancos, sentiu no braco a mdo de sua mulher. Ele tinha razdo, aquela carta fora a ultima. Nunca mais viriaoutra. Subiu os dois degraus da escadinha, parando corn o pe no ar diante da porta. Eu fui justo, e le se disse e abriu a porta para ver a carta azu I. Curitibano (from Curitiba, state of ParanA) Dalton Trevisan, born in 1925, is arguably the best short-story writer Brazil has ever produced. This piece, whose original name is "Penelope," was originally published in Maravilhas do Conto Moderno Brasileiro, Editora Cultrix, 1961. 35
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That Lady on the Money In the 112 years since the Proclamation of the Republic, Brazil has had scores of new economic plans and currencies. Throughout all the changes, however, something has remained untouched: the face of the Virgin Mary printed on the paper currency. LUIS FERNANDO OLIVEIRA
BRAZZIL -MAY 2002
On January 6th, 1984 my uncle Fá *o gave me an economy lesson. It was y birthday and for a present! got two not s. One was a 100 cruzeiros note with am le (Duke ofCaxias, 1802-1880) printed o it and the other wag a Cr$ 200 note wit a female (Princesslisabel, 1846-1921)prin ed on it. As far as 1 knew, the two notes ogether were simply good to buy an ce cream down the street, but for uncle Fa io they represented the principle by wh eb money could reproduce. Interesti g enough, I never questioned about he personalities printed on the money, to ly wondered about the options I had for he female figure, and forthis, my uncle m;ntioned the emblem of the republic, but he said she was not an option for reprod ction purposes, giving no further expla ation, as if he did not know it himself. Eighteen years later the Brazilian c rrency has changed five times. From e many faces and images printed on he currency, only one has remained o er time, the emblem of the republic. Ad itionally, it is the only face printed on e new currency called real, introduced in 1994. Thus, my uncle's economy lessen no longer functions, because there are o
males, and besides the emblem does not serve the reproduction purpose as he said then in 1984! In View ofthat, I finally begin to comprehend the emblem of the republic, and its pureness. From here, this essay departs, questioning how the image of the Virgin Mary got to become the symbol of a nation, surviving through every governmental failure since the proclamation of the republic and now, being used to encourage nationalism, passing from hand to hand all through Brazil on "printlanguage" or printed currency (Anderson, 1983). In order to explain the dmblem's advent and usage throughout time, I will discuss the emergence of nations and nationalism as a contemporary phenomenon in relation to an economical reality that is based upon Gellner's discussion on nationalism alongside the "imagined communities" and "invented traditions" by Anderson and Hobsbawm. Consecutively, I want to relate historical facts to the usage of the emblem, and how it ultimately represents the return to a traditional and yet innovative Brazil entering the new millennium.
Nationalism asa modern phenomenon According to modernist scholars such as Gellner, Hobsbawm and Anderson, nationalism is a product of modernization that has no "deep roots in the human psyche" (Gellner, 1983) but is at its roots a result of improved means of communication and contact between previously fragmented groups of people. Following industrialization, radical changes in the culture of Western World occurred. Absolutist political systems were replaced by central governments, standardized languages, access to the printing press and the establishment of standardized educational systems made people start to perceive themselves as belonging to larger communities, what Anderson calls "imagined communities" (Anderson, 1983). With the contribution of "intel lectuals", the notion ofthe 'nation' as the true basis for the state was cultivated for the citizens of the emerging nation-states through the new modes of communication. Nationalism became the legitimate "binding force" (Thiesse, 1999) that helped sustain the political and economic systems of the eighteenth and nineteenth century; it became"... a principle which holds that the political and national unit should be congruent" (Gellner in Hobsbawm). Invoking nationalist sentiments was a convenient way of uniting previously fragmented societies, and also simply necessary in the building of a coherent capitalist economy. Being a homogenous nationstate with a stable government and stable fiscal policies was "essentially economic" (Molinari in Hobsbawm). In the modernist view therefore, nations and nationalism did not evolve directly from pre-existing cultures. Nationalism in the Western world is essentially a recent invention. However, nationalist artifacts, myths and territorial ties stemming from the pre-nationalist world may be used in the fabrication of nationalism, but it does not arise ofthem. Hobsbawm; Anderson and Gellner 38
agree that nationalism could onIY emerge as a consequence of the presence of certain social conditions significant to modern society: "homogeneity, literacy, anonymity." (Gellner, 1983). Acquiring the ability to reproduce people's awareness of themselves as a community is key; "standard national languages, spoken or written, cannot emerge as such before printing, mass literacy and hence, mass schooling" (Hobsbawm). Nationalism is a reaction to change and a movement that signals economic and political change in the structure of society; it is an "external adjustment in the relationship between polity and culture" (Gellner, 1983). Because ofthe structure of modern society, with the state as the political unit, it is boundto become nationalist. But the nation in itself cannot and will not survive without its "political shell", which is the state (Gellner, 1983). Nation Identity Is Born The proclamation of the Brazilian republic marks a new beginning for the nation. The availability of printing press, and Other forms of mass communication as pointed above, provided the means by which the new state did and does foster a national identity that is vital for the existence of the state and the nation as a homogenous entity. Whilst most colonies in theNew World declared their independence as new republics, Brazil became an independent monarchy that lasted for part of the nineteenth century, until November 15th, 1889, when Marshall Deodoro da Fonseca (18271892) declared the Brazilian republic. Don Pedro II, the ruling king, was forced to leave the throne, and forget any hopes of maintaining the monarchy. Yet, according to some international examiners and neighboring nations, "confidence in the future of Brazil" as a new republic "was based upon its respect for the former monarchy" (Freyre, 1970). This was also accompanied by the rise of the military that became highly praised for its influence on the peaceful transference from monarchy to republic. They emerged as "non-partisan in the nation's affair" (Freyre 1970). With the monarchy in charge, the
Catholic Church had no difficulties in spreading its belief. However, during the period of transition between monarchy and republic, the Brazilian Positivist Church became aware that in order to survive under the new system, it would have to change and adapt to it. So as it may be, they began a mass propaganda based on the "appeal to the Marian cult" (Freyre, 1970) that turned out to be also useful for the new republicans. Consequently, the symbol of the new republic came to be the one of a "Perfect Woman" based upon the idea that "the ,children offervent idolaters ofthe Virgin" Should "respond with strongest sympathy" to a religion, which would "establish the cult of the woman and proclaim the supremacy of love" within the nation and its citizen (Freyre, 1970). This is an example ofwhat Hobsbawm (1983) writes about as the "invention of tradition." He argues that it "occurs more frequently when a rapid transformation of society weakens or destroys the social pattern for which old tradition had been design, producing new ones..." In the case of Brazil, there is the change from monarchy to republic. The church and the state although separated, set the symbol for the new nation that embodies old religious traditions with modern "invented traditions." It pleases both sides of the spectrum. Nevertheless, the republic could not sustain itself without fostering its existence as a nation. Quickly intellectuals started to promote "the republican mystique" and "its identification with the Concept of the Perfect Woman." Verses titled "The Republic" written by Junior, Mallet, and Filhoâ€”republican intellectuals who, during the early republic, opposed the leadership of Floriano Peixotoâ€”"exalted the republic in the image of the blessed Virgin" (Freyre, 1970). Mother-protector of peoples ...in her ruby lips... The pure nectar of the heavens, Mother-protector of peoples, Beautiful daughter of God. Statue fashioned of bronze That repulsed Louis XI Embrace and kiss Saint-Just; Lady of seductive glance, In whose benevolent shadow, Flourish the lily and the rose. Later, in a crescendo ofmystical exaltation of the feminine image of the ideal republic: Sheâ€”the constant victim BRAZZIL - MAY 2002
Of hatred and perversion Has for the sad—a smile, Has for the blind—a light. Ever grand, gracious, and good, She suffers, suffers but pardons The Judases, as did Jesus. She too was betrayed, She too was sold, She too has her Calvary, her Cross. ...tone of fervent mysticism Let us in our hearts Build an altar to this goddess, With our gift of reason Make secure her throne. When from the heights of mountains The guiding light sparkles On the pure spring water May we in the public square Shout: Long live the republic In the land of the Blessed Cross! In spite ofthe mass propaganda spread during the early days of the republic, the emblem did not seem to reach the masses as intellectuals assumed it would. The problem was that the new Brazilian government based their concepts of how to run the country on the past monarchy. In addition, the size of the country, and difficulties of access due to extensive areas covered by the Brazilian tropical forest, prevented the government from spreading its ideas the way it had planned. Assorted Currencies By 1942 there were around 56 different types of money circulating in Brazil. In order to standardize the money used in the nation, the government finally instituted the first change in the monetary scheme of the country. The old reis was replaced by the cruzeiro. This was only possible because modernization was finally reaching different regions of the nation. Despite this, little had changed in the mentality ofthe Brazilian republic. A clear example of this could be observed on the new currency named cruzeiro. Printed in the USA, the notes displayed notables such as old monarchs and recent politicians. The money looked almost like an American dollar. The text printed on the note read, Repiiblica dos Estados Unidos do Brasil (Republic ofthe United States of Brazil). On the front there was the image of Dom Pedro II, last king ofthe Brazilian kingdom. The emblem of the Brazilian republic was used on the back ofthe note. Observing the juxtaposition of the two figures, the dominant is obviously the monarch. The emblem is on the back, BRAZZIL - MAY 2002
as if there is a relationftEpueucAmErpas utuDoseninAsik ship between the two. However, the only link between the two is that the monarch had to step down in order for the other—the republic— to step in. Dom Pedro II was forced to give up his throne so the republic could be established. The emblem of the republic finally got to The presence of both identities on the be printed on the front of the Cr$1 note, same note demonstrates what was prey i which circulated from 1970 to 1984. The ously perceived by other nations at the emblem exalted the republic whilst holdtime ofthe transition: the Brazilian repub- ing on to the holy image of the Virgin. lic would respect the monarchy way. Nevertheless, despite all changes, and Hence, the emblem ofthe republic existed the desire for a better republic—free of merely as an intellectual ideal distant from the ghosts left by the monarchy—the the real achievements people expected problems continued. "Economic progress from it. was both uncertain and disorganized" In 1967, because of the cruzeiro de- (Bello), chronic ups and downs of the valuation, the government introduced the economy and an absurd level of governcruzeiro novo (new cruzeiro-1 cruzeiro ment corruption led the military to take novo was worth 1000 cruzeiros). The new charge after a coup, on March 31, 1964. currency lasted until 1970, when once For years the military had closely again, due to unbridled inflation, the Cen watched every Brazilian government, altral Bank of Brazil had to change the ways maintaining some form of control, currency back to cruzeiro. This is a time because there was a failure of representaof great importance for the Brazilian republic as a whole, BANCO (ENTRAL 00 UHASIL:"rvbecause of an intensifying nationalistic movement. It is important to remark that 12 years before the cruzeiro was substituted by the cruzeiro novo, Juscelino Kubitschek—popularly elected President ofBrazilgoverned from 1955 to 1960—had assumed the power under the watchfu tive democracy. Since the instauration of eye of the military, on October 3rd, 1955. the republic until recently, the alternative During his presidency, JK, as he was has tended to be either military rule or called, decided to move the capital of anarchy. The generals' hope was to keep Brazil (Rio de Janeiro) away from the At- the order, but they rarely succeeded. As lantic coast and proceeded to build a result, in the late sixties and early sevBrasilia, the new capital. In 1960, still enties, the military openly oppressed during Kubitschek's tenure, the seat ofl people by the use of direct force. government was finally transferred to From a certain perspective, this opBrasilia. It was a very concrete symbol oft pression had its virtuous outcome, bethe growing nationalistic movement. The cause it made people more aware of their capital was built in the interior of the own situation. It questioned the main country forcing people to look inward factor that perpetuated over the history and realize Brazilian's "untapped poten- of Brazil, the acceptance ofchange, which tial." facilitated "the continuation of practices Brasilia intended "to break the 'colo- that are contrary" (Fausto) to the prinnial' mentality ofthe Brazilian people and to reduce their traditional dependence upon the world overseas" and the monarchy (Bello, 1966). This was followed by gradual changes in the habits of the Brazilian people and the mentality of the government. 39
ciple of real changes. When Brazil declared its independence, there was no conflict, it was a peaceful transition. When the country became a republic once again there was a peaceful transition. There was never resistance or some form of struggle against the government tyranny. This shows why even after several changes in the nation, problems that were present at the time of the monarchy remained the same: corruption, poverty, and high illiteracy. Even though people started to be more active, it was still visibleâ€˘in the year of 1986 that more radical changes had to occur in order for Brazil to move away from its haunting past. The military peacefully stepped down, allowing an elected president to take office. Tancredo Neves the new president-elect, days before his inauguration. Vice-President Jose Sarney went on to become the new President and quickly attacked the increasing inflation with the Cruzado plan. A new currency was created, the cruzado, which was worth 1000 cruzeiros. But the government corruption remained the same, and the plan was not able to end the sad state of affairs. A combination of economic stagnation and inflation, the so-called stagflation, became the order of the day. The fram ework promoted by the positivist motto Order and Progress, at the beginning of the republic, was still far from the reality of the nation in the 1980's. Yet, there were those who believed in the nation, and wanted to find a solution. In 1989, President Sarney introduced again a new currency named cruzado novo and again three zeros were cut out (1000 cruzados equal 1 cruzado novo). The emblem of the Brazilian republic was printed on the NCz$ 200 note's front this time. On the back, a family was depicted embroideringthe national flag. This was the first time, the emblem was linked with a more universal idea shared by the Brazilian people: the family. It symbolized how everyone had finally the possibility to be involved in the 'progress and order' of the republic. Yet, there was a "generalized feeling of disillusion and mistrust" in the government and the economy that haunted the Brazilian people following the changes of 1989. In 1990, still another currency was introduced and the cruzado novo became overnight cruzeiro again. And it didn't stop there. 1993 saw the cruzeiro metamorphosing into cruzeiro real. The most recent change is still an eight-year child. Born in 1994, one real was initially worth a little over one dollar, 40
Bibliography but today if fell to less than 40 cents. Anderson, B. Imagined CommuniThe most interesting factor of this shift is that for the first time, the printed ties. Verso Editions and NLB. (London, currency carried no historical personali- 1983) Brett, R. L. Imaging the Community ties, but only the emblem of the Brazilian republic, presented as a sculpture. The emblem is repeated from note to note, which have on the back different drawings of the rich Brazilian fauna and flora. President Fernando Henrique Cardoso has brought new hope to the Brazilian people with his economical planâ€”the Real Plan, naturally. His admnistration has been forcefully attack- . from subject to citizen, state to nation? ing corruption and people increasingly Master Philosophy Thesis, University of Kent at Canterbury (Canterbury, 1997) have a say on the future of the nation. Barthes, R. Mythologies. Granada The real note shows a new Brazil that is still the old Brazil, always under the Publishing (Great Britain, 1973) Bello, J. M. A History ofModern Braboson ofthe Virgin. Nobody stands above the republic. The nation is the sanctuary zil, 1889-1964. Stanford University ofa rich fauna for which Brazilians should be thankful. And even though the emblem is the image of a white woman, it is seen as something of ambiguous human nature. Barthes (1973) says that "the ethnic 00 reality" is often "reduced to a vast classical ballet" that is made of "typology...to mask the real spectacle of condiPress. (Stanford, 1966) tions, classes, and professions." Fausto, B. A Concise History of BraIndeed, the emblem may be used to cover the oppressed, by placing all under zil. Cambridge University Press. (Camthe same nation, which is also what Ander- bridge, 1999) Freyre, G. Order and Progress, Brazil son argued about "imagined communities" that people imagined to live under from Monarchy to Republic. Alfred A. the same nation with a spirit of comrade- Knopf, Inc. (New York, 1970) Gellner, E. Nation and Nationalism. ship, where no classes or racial differences exist. Nonetheless, it does not take Blackwell. (Oxford, 1988) Hobsbawn, E. J. Nations and Nationaway the merit ofthe emblem ofthe republic in finally becoming what it was intend alism Since 1780. University Press. (Camto be at the proclamation of the Brazilian bridge, 1992) Hobsbawn, E. J. "Introduction: Inrepublic. The republic's emblem conveys the venting Traditions" in The Invention of idea of incessant innovation while main- Tradition. Eds. Hobsbawn E. J. and taining the ideal of the beginning of the Ranger T. Cambridge University Press. republic: order and progress. It (Cambridge, 1983) Thiese, A. M. Inventing National symbolizes not only the traditional principle upon which the Identity. Le Monde Diplomatique. (June, republic was declared, but also 1999) Warner, M. Alone of All Her Sex: the innovative manner in which it is presently used. The image of Myth and the Cult of the Virgin Mary. the 'Perfect Woman,' finally Pan Books Ltd. (London, 1985) found its way from the Catholic The author, Luis Fernando Oliveira, cradle to the altar of the nation has received his BA in Communication known as Brazil. She is the absolute mefrom Slippery Rock University, PA. He diator "between heaven and earth, for in later moved to Canterbury, England, her glorified body she belongs in both for his MA in Image Studies at Univerrealms" (Warner, 1985). sity of Kent. Today, he resides in Copenhagen, Denmark, with his wife.
BRAZZIL - MAY 2002
Flying Words Brazilians, in their eagerness to learn English, engenderterrible Anglicisms. A very sad one is cometer suicidio instead of suicidar or even suicidar-se, a double reflexive verb in Portuguese. WILSON VELLOSO
BRAZZIL -MAY 2002
It's a law of 1 inguisti s that words' meanin s change from time to ti e and as they move fro place to place. It is ev more so in the case of la guages that migrate, th is, in the majority ofthe s called Western language : If you ever read the Bible in English, King James's Version, you may realize that not all the words in that literary monument (which I consult often and not for religious purpose ) in today's America mean the same as the did in the XVII century England. One such term is corn, which in th English Bible means wheat (trigo). Sinc American Indians cultivated a simil r plant, maize, (milho)which was an exce lent food, the Pioneers got mixed up wit their (perhaps non-existent) botany an fell into the habit of calling maize cor Etymologically, wheat—derived from th Germanic weizen —means simply whit probably because of the color of its flou A warning though: corned beef, whic is called the same in Brazil (where it I manufactured in great quantity and e ported to the US), means spiced bee carne bovina, with grains of salt, preservation. No connection with th grain. Also, the colloquialism corny (bana simplorio, jeca, caipira, meloso) ha nothingto do with corn directly. It merel reflects a bias of the city dwellers of generation ago that farmers were les smart than their brethren who live in bi places. After a few generations, the c dweller learned better (se avivou)and th term is on its way out — except whe applied to foreigners. The Pioneers had become histo when the West was opene (desbravado)and won an the great herds of bison (scientific name Bison bi son) faced destruction. Th ignorant settlers cal le those animals buffaloe and proceeded to kill the by the thousands. In Por tuguese, the right name i bistio or bisonte. Now per haps it is too late to mak any change in America English as there are eve several places called Bu falo, including a big city' New York State. In Florida, there is a car nivore called local!
Florida panther, actually on its way to extinction. It is no panther but a cousin of the Brazilian ono. It seems that Americans are not too good in zoology, either, because they don't seem to know the difference between a camel (two humps) and the one-lumped, dromedary. Any alfabetizado (literate) Brazilian knows that dromedaries are not camels. Appparently, some American cigarette makers never learned that. Packages of the cigarette Camels are illustrated with the figure of a dromedary! On the other hand, Brazilians, in their eagerness to learn English, engender terrible Anglicisms. A very sad one is cometer suicidio instead of suicidar or even suicidar-se, a double reflexive verb in Portuguese. It comes from Latin se occidere (matar-se, kill oneself) and needs NO auxiliary verb. Neither should it be used with cometer. In Portuguese, cometer (which means todo—fazer, praticar to practice, to trust, confiar, encarregar to charge someone of, to deliver, entregar,aferecer, to offer, .to propose,propor, compreender,to understand, to try or to attempt, tentar) is the wrong verb in any case, shape or form. In short, you can cometer a crime, a disloyalty (deslealdade, safadeza), a treason (traicdo). Always to somebody else, never to yourself. Samanta P.R. sent me an amusing email message wondering why didn't Americans revert to the ancient Roman , numbering, IVLCM—for 1, 5, 10,50,100, 1000 — when they got so set on being "conservative" when they swallowed, hook, line and sinker, the whole incredible English systems of weights and measures. She added a question about how come the U.S. is now the only country in the world using the Fahrenheit thermometer? Dear Samanta, you must have noticed that anything connected with colleges and churches comes numbered Roman style still. As to the Fahrenheit thermometer, invented by the German Gabriel Fahrenheit in the 18th century, based as it is with water freezing at 32°F (why not 27'/2?) 'and boiling at 212°F (why not 333?), was for a short while used in France then adopted by the English-speaking world and only abandoned (by the English and the whole British Commonwealth) late in the 20' century. It still is the official measure for temperatures in America, one of those inexplicable things of American culture. Ignorance is defended in the name of"freedom ofthinking." What thinking? In justice, it must be pointed out that scientists and other thinking people have been, on the sly, using the universal Cel41
sius (or centigrade) scale with its decimal values. But there are still many odd things in the United States of America. We have Americans who believe, and argue about it, that God created the world at 9 a.m. on October 4, 4004 B.C.! There are others who reject evolution and want to replace it in schools with creationism, a vague teaching largely based on religious beliefs, full ofchronological holes. And, last but not least, even after photographs of the Earth taken from space and from the moon, there are Americans who swear that this planet is... flat! No wonder, then, that in matters of language, grammar, style, etc the mess (bagunca) reigns supreme. Americans mock the French, the Spaniards, etc. because their Academies try to keep things in good order and correctly defined. The obedient Americans who believe so much tripe their governments dish out, and accept phenomenal explanations, cannot accept anybody telling them that they are murdering the English language. I concede that it is not so bad as it is in Brazil where they are really shredding the Portuguese language without putting anything else in its place. Everything is copied, imitated, aped from English, usually bad English.
Fortunately for Americans, not asingle strongernon-English language exists that they may want to ape from. That is one of the advantages of being—and living in— the First World. But I digress. I have a few last tidbits for Bramca readers. What about the aspirated that in Brazilian translated comics (historias
em quadrinhos) is
There are today marmalades made of oranges, lemons, grapefruit, and all kinds of fruit. The modest Portuguese marmelada was derailed, got lost in the way. Even in Spanish the word mermelada— taken from English— describes that sort of jam, although in Spain they do grow membrillos (marmelos). So do the Italians, who do have their composta and call it "marmellata d'a ranee); or the French, who call marmalade a confiture d'oranges ameres, a
"translated" as Rrr, like in "Rra, rah, rah" to represent laughter? Isn't there in Brazil an editor, a supervisor with enough good sense capable of catching such false compote (made) of bitter oranges. steps? No wonder the Argentines, who live Let's conclude, however, on a posi- next to the Brazilians in South America, tive, or at least a facetious note. For many think that all Brazilians are cariocas. years, English visitors in Portugal took a t Tendremos el sabado el partido del great liking to marmelada, a sweet paste eqiiipo carioca de . futbol del Atletico made into bricks; sometimes spread on Mineiro. What does it matter that the bread and toast. Marmelada is made with Atletico is not from Rio? It's all the same marmelos, a tart apple-looking fruit whose difference as American teenagers say. English name is quince. But the English thought that marmelada was ANY fruit WV thanks readers who have compote, ANY fruit preserve. So they written to him, commenting on these "mai tracadas linhas". The address is took the name, imported Spanish Valencia the same as before: oranges and began making and exporting' firstname.lastname@example.org marmalade.
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Brazilian Love Affair 3, Various Artists, Far Out Recordings Partido Novo, Azymuth, Far Out Recordings When I left Brazil a year and a half ago, I must confess that I was then quite a bit disheartened with the state of the contemporary music of the land that gave us Tom Jobim, Joao Gilberto, Caetano Veloso and many other fine; world-renowned musicians and composers. Back then (and now), one was daily bombarded with the tasteless lyrics ofthe pagodeiros (a grotesque corruption of samba, whose words are only around physical attributes of their barely legally clad dancers) such as E o Tchan, Rio de Janeiro's sexually obscene Funk (Americans would, upon listening to that, relate the sound to 80's-styled rap blended with a bit of Miam i beat) or Bahia' s axe Music, which, despite a few talented voices (Dan iela Mercury, Ivete Sangalo), is nothing but an Afro-Caribbean-influenced dance beat that dominates the airwaves on TV 'and everything else. Of course, one could always rely on Caetano Veloso, Gilberto Gil, Rita Lee, Marisa Monte and many others, but then again, with the exception of Monte, all the greats have been around since the sixties—it's like having to depend solely on Bob Dylan, Paul McCartney or Eric Clapton for good English language songs. In the last few months, however, I have realized that Brazilian music is alive and well—but on alternative labels which have begun a , revolution of sorts, which has been slowly but steadily regenerating the quality of the sounds of Brazil. Which brings us to two new releases from Brit label Far Out Recordings: Brazilian Love Affair 3 and Azymuth's Partido Novo. Brazilian Love Affair 3 is a collection of new recordings by a mix of new and established artists. Two tracks that immediately stand out are "Disritmia" and "Olha Al," both by Jairzinho Oliveira. Oliveira began his career years ago as a child artist. During* eighties, he participated in Balao Magico (Magic Baloon), which was a kiddie group that also had its own TV show at that time. He is also the son of Brazilian, music samba legend Jair Rodrigues. Another great track is "Calados" (Quiet), sung by Luciana Mello. Written and arranged by Jairzinho Oliveira (who, by the way, is her brother) it is a very traditional-sounding samba which takes you back to the days when the rhythm was young. The song is followed by Joyce's "Samba de Silva" (Silva's Samba), which features MPB legend Elza Soares, BRAZZIL-MAY200M
Bertrami (keyboards, vocals, percussion), Alex Malheiros (bass, percussion, guitar, vocals) and Ivan Conti (drums, guitar, percussion, vocals) are weathered musicians who know their thing—and they deliver it quite well. The album opens with the very jazzy "Em Marica" (In Maria), which nowhere makes you think that the musicians in the band are Brazilians. The impression, however, disappears when the title track begins, with its 70s jazz-pop-samba sound There is a sad note about bo h and feel. "Tempo Classico" (Classic Times) works reviewed. The artists in th reminds the listener of Dave 13rubeck, are virtual unknowns in their o n especially for the way the drums and keyboard are played—the song, howlands, no matter how high y ever, showcases Malheiro's fine bass acclaimed they might be and thy guitar work—also present on "Meu Amigo'_' (My Friend). There are, of course, the not so good are not alone. moments. Take, for example, "Rede de Espera" (Waiting Web), a bossa-novaERNEST BARTELD S styled song. As far as the playing goes, the song is fine, but who told Alex Malheiros (the song's writer) that he could sing? who duets cleverly with Joyce, wh t se I can't understand what the band was career spans the last twenty years. trying to attempt with "Saudade do Another worthy track is "Ague le Gil" Doutor" (Still Missing the Doctor) . It (That Goal), by Wilson Sirnonini a. sounds like a blend of modern samba with Simoninha is the son of the late Wil n touches of Sergio Mendes—which backSirnonal, a popular singer from the 1961 s. fires badly to my ears. Simoninha sounds harr There is a single sad note about both ingly like his father, and is works: The artists in both releases are musical style (unlike is virtual unknowns in their own lands, no brother, Max de Castro a so matter how highly acclaimed they might present on the collection ith be and they are not alone. Many respected the weak "Pra Voce Lembr 51) musicians, such as Bebel Gilberto (Joao also makes us remember B a- Gilberto's daughter), Vin ici us Cantuaria, zilian music of the sixties to Eliane Elias enjoy fame and respect in the a point that I U.S. and in Europe—but had to check mostly fail to attain in Brazil the credits to the same levels of success 4-A4 check if his fathey enjoy abroad. ther was not present in the Both albums are, despite recording. their bad moments, someSome forgettable tracks thing I can surely recomare Otto' s "Retratista" mend, for they are examples (The Picture-Taker), which of how Brazilian musicians horribly backfires as it atstill (as they've always had) tempts to fuse sounds from have the ability to make great Northeastern Brazil with music—even though their more contemporary stuff. own countryfolk are mostly unable to The same goes with "Escravos de 6" enjoy it. (Job's Slaves), which not even Celia az can save from musical oblivion. For more information on these albums, Brazilian Love Affair 3 is a gi od log on to http://www.musicrama.com album to chill and listen to attentively as is Partido Alto, the newest release f sm Ernest Barteldes is an ESL and Brazilian jazz trio Azymuth (also pre nt Portuguese teacher. In addition to that, in the collection), a highly respe ed he is a freelance writer who has group, which introduced many electr ic regularly been contributing The sounds into their country in the se nGreenwich Village Gazette since ties and eighties. They recently reSeptember 1999. His work has also grouped, and their new album is q ite been published by Brazzil, The Staten ihteresting to those who appreciate m dIsland Advance, The Staten Island ern jazz. Register, The SI Muse, The Villager, In Partido Alto, acoustic and e ecGLSSite and other publications. He tronic sounds come together quite elives in Staten Island, NY. He can be lodically— something, that is not ry reached at ebarteldes(4vahoo.com easy to do. However, Jose Rob rto
Starting in 1986, Ney Matogrosso decided to incorporate a sober side to his "scandalous" persona. From then on he validated his work exclusively as singer and adopted a classic repertoire of MPB. KIRSTEN WEINOLDT
2001, a year that saw so many life-changing and tragic events, also brought with it a wonderful and life-affirming day that involves one ofBrazil's great interpretersofmusic—Ney Matogrosso. On August 1st, the lithe, provocative, controversial and abundantly talented singer and producer, turned sixty, produced a new CD, Batuque, and a new show by the same name. A strong force on the Brazilian scene, he still continues to develop his ability with no sign of slowing down. Batuque (generic name for Afro-Brazilian dances in general) is a show and CD, in which Ney Matogrosso returns to the 30's and40's to recover sambas, chorinhos, and maxixes (dance that is a mixture oftango, polka and habanera with lundu). It dates back to the 19th century. The show also pays homage to Carmen Miranda with several songs made famous by her. The CD was the result of a thorough research on his part with the help of Jairo Severiano, Zuza Homem de Mello, Fausto Nib, and Paulinho Albuquerque. At a time when the country's radio stations do not tire of opening space for what the singer calls "heavy malice," Batuque celebrates the contagious swing and cunning ingenuousness of sambas, choros, and marchinhas, which define a „ golden era ofMPB--Musica Popular Brasileira. knew those songs without knowing, because I've heard them since I was a child. But I'm not doing , this period show to rescue the songs, because these songs were not lost They are at the disposal of whoever wants to sing and record them," Ney explained in an interview with the newspaper 0 . Estado de S. Paulo. The show gave Ney the opportunity to develop new and colorful costumes. He is already known for his outrageous, provocative costumes in his other stage performances—not to mention his on-stage costume changes—which might be prohibited in some parts of the world. In that respect, this show is no exception. Seductively, he removes the first black and flowery costume and stands at the front of the stage in his thong, then sits down and slowly tips the large mirror, which allows the audience to check out the front of his thong. A scream of delight arises from the audience before he puts on the second costume of the show. And then continues the frenzied, sexy song and " dance performance with the sixty-year-old in constant motion. For the encore, in which he sings some of his biggest hits, he is himself in simple black T-shirt and pants with his short-cropped hair a little messy from the costume change. He is wild and gentle, spending the entire time making love to the audience, for which he obviously has great love and respect. And then there is that voice, high pitched and easily to be confused with that of a woman—with every song rehearsed to perfection—that leaves his adoring public in tears of joy and euphoria. He says about his latest show, "I'm not a sambista. But this is a dance show, in spite of portraying another era. I wanted to show that many things that exist today, with relation to double meanings and malice in the lyrics, were already used back then, but much more delicately." BRAZZIL-MAY2002
•His choice of songs consists of very well known classics, such as Dorival Caymmi's "0 Que é Que a Baiana Tern?" (What is it that the Baiana has?), Assis Valente' s "Maria Boa," Synval Silva's beautiful "Adeus Batucada" (Goodbye, Dance Group), and "Tico-Tico no Fuba" b y Zequinha de Abreu and Eurico Barreiros— one of the songs made famous by Carmen Miranda. There are also some older songs, such as"Bambo de Bambu" from 1925 and"Urubu Malandro" from 1914. The CD is a cornucopia of choice classics from the past of Brazilian music—a past that Ney Matogrosso has brought to the present with such style. The idea for the CD and show was, originally, to be a collection of Carmen Miranda's signature songs. "But as the project grew, I perceived that I would be able to produce work from the entire era," says Ney. Even so, 6 of the 13 themes are from the repertoire of Carmen Miranda. After Olhos de Farol(Eyes ofthe Lighthouse), a production with a tendency toward pop music, Ney appears acoustically, respecting the musical concept of the era. His interpretation is sustained basically by a regional formation oftambourine, guitar, and percussion, and the harmonies remain clean. Ney, being the consummate showman, is firmly behind the production ofthe stage sets and lights, creating an ambience defined as "vaudeville theater." For the costumes he relied on the help ofstylist Ocimar Versolato, looking atproductions from Paris. "It is extravagant, though restrained, but erotic, because it is all in black, " he explained to Estadelo, the affectionate way 0 Estado de S. Paulo is called. "But there were no restrictions as to creation. We had the freedom to invent with respect," says Ney. Among the musicians surrounding him are the great Jorge Helder on bass, saxophonist Jose Nogueira, and drummer Bolao. The CD was issued in March of2001, and in June, the show opened in Rio at the huge ATL Hall. He spent the rest of the yeartouring Brazil, and in January 2002, he returned to the more intimate stage of Canecao in Botafogo, Rio de Janeiro to sold-out shows. Who is Ney Matogrosso? Ney de Souza Pereira was born on August 1, 1941, in the small city of Bela Vista, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, on the border with Paraguay. Since early on in his life, he demonstrated an artistic vocation. He sang, painted, and interpreted. Still very young, he chose a path of questioning the reticence ofthe adult world, remaining nonconforming with its prejudices and inconsistencies. His childhood and adolescence were WRAZZIL-MAY2002
marked by solitude—in part voluntary. e liked spending hours on end in the coun accompanied only by his dogs. Anoth r factor that contributed to his solitude w s the constant changes in his family, resu ting from his father's military career a d moves. Before the age of17, his family live in addition to Bela Vista, in Recife, Salvad r, Rio de Janeiro, and in Campo Grande. When he left his family to join the is Force, Ney did not yet know what he wou d do with his life. Heliked the theater and s g sporadically, but ended up working in e laboratory for pathological anatomy in t e Hospital at the base in Brasilia, at the in 1tation of a cousin. At this time, he was invited to parti pate in a university festival and forme a vocal quartet, under protests from the sic professor and in spite of the director if the choir, in which he sang a p rt complimenting his special voice. After t e festival, he did a little bit of this and th t, until he got a part in a TV program. Until is time, Ney still concentrated his attention in the theater, determined to be an actor. F 1lowing this dream, he settled in Rio in 19 6, where he made a living making and selF g leather handcrafts. Ney totally adopted the hippie life. In this period, he I ived between Rio, Sao Pau o, and Brasilia, until he met Joao Ricar o through his great friend, Luli, who la er would become a composer of some of is greatest successes. Joao sought a sin •er with a high-pitched voice for a must al group and invited Ney to join. The group, known as Secos e Molha I os (Dry and Wet Ones) consisted of Ger on Conrad (Sao Paulo, 1952-), singer and c poser; Joao Ricardo Carneiro Teixeira P to (Ponte do Lima, Portugal, 1949-) and N y. Ney had already performed in Brasilia an amateur and tried out for radio and tel sion, in addition to singing at nightclu s. The group appeared in Sao Paulo at e beginning of 1973, and in August of he same yearrecorded the LP SecoseMolha os by Continental Label with "Sangue Lat. o" (Latin Blood) by Joao Ricardo and Pa lo Mendonca, "0 Visa" by Joao Ricardo d LUli, and "Rosa de Hiroshima" (Ros of Hiroshima) by Gerson Conrad and Vini .ius de Moraes. The LP was a national success, ma g it possible for the group to appear in a se ies of shows, among which the show at Maracanazinho (Little Maracana, p of the sports complex that also include e famous soccer stadium Maracana), in'io de Janeiro—stand out, as well as thei es at the Ginasio Presidente Medici, in Bras ha. During the following year, the group appeared on Mexican television and recor sed their second LP, Secos e Molhados ith "Flores Astrais" (Astral Flowers) by J • au Ricardo and Joao A'polinario and "Te cer Mundo" by Joao Ricardo and Julio Co
It was during this time that Ney began to come into his own as Ney Matogrosso. He got his artistic name from his own family. His father had Matogrosso in his last name. In only a year and a half, the group had leaped from the shows at the hard-up Casa de Badalacao e Tedio, in Sao Paulo, to national fame at the shows in the great gymnasiums, surpassing the 1 million albums sold. Ney became the highlight ofthe group, which at the end ofayear had already lived through some serious internal problems. During the week that their second album came out, the problems came to a head, and the group ended its short life. The website www.revista.unicamp.br hasthefollowingviewofSecos e Molhados: "Like a cry from a star coming from infinity, emerged in 1973 one of the most intense and luminous sound experiences of MPB in the last years. Formed by Ney Matogrosso, Gerson Conrad, and Joao Ricardo, Secos e Molhados emerged with a completely new sound and an attitude, unbelievably bold for the years of heavy handed rule, which was still alive and well in Brazil. "The phenomenon began with the explosion on radio and TV with the good humored song"0 Vim", which mixed superstition, were,wolves,fado, and rock'n'roll. With their faces and bodies painted, costumes decorated with feathers, necklaces and earrings, and with sexually provocative choreography, Secos e Molhados had an immediate impact calling attention to their first album, which mixed elements of rock, flamenco, and fado, tempered by electric guitars, many acoustic guitars, flutes, harmonicas, and accordions. "It combined an uncommon musicality and sophisticated vocalizations with the special timbre ofNey Matogrosso's voice. The lyrics were pure poetry, sometimes lyrical and passionate, sometimes critical, and sometimes intentionally ambiguous. The first album sold 800,000 copies, a number that shocked the market ofthe time (the king, Roberto Carlos, would only just pass the one million mark of copies sold the year before). And, suddenly, Secos e Molhados were everywhere: On radio and TV, on Chacrinha's program, on the conservative TV Globo and in the hearts ofyoung people, children (hypnotized by the playfulness), and even housewives, enchanted by the libidinous Ney Matogrosso. "In the wake of this great success there were many shows and a historic presentation at a mobbed IVIaracanazinho in an event documented on television—never had a Brazilian artist performed for an audience that size. A. year later, the second album was released followed by the announcement that the band was breaking up. "Money? Vanity? Fame? In spite of 45
much speculation, nobody (except they themselves) knows for certain what led to the break-up at the peak of the success. After the separation, only Ney Matogrosso succeeded in establishing a victorious solo career, but with a repertoire quite distant from the boldness and creativity, which marked the meteoric and fleeting trajectory of Secos e Molhados. "The wings of the ship that flies" disappeared, leaving for history the two anthological LP's: Secos e Molhados (1973) and Secos e Molhados (1974). Stage Master
Perola"(The Pearl Fisher) in 1986, on which he sang "0 Mundo é Um Moinho" (The World is a Mill) by Cartola, "Dora" by Dorival Caymmi, "Da Cor do Pecado" (Of the Color of S in) by Boron"), and "Aquarela do Brasil" (Watercolor of Brazil) by Ary Barroso. He appeared accompanied by guitarist Raphael Rabello. The following year, in a pioneering initiative, he rented a tent at the Circus Tihany and produced the show, Destino de Aventureiro (Adventurer's Destiny), which ran for five months in Rio and then toured the country. He recorded on Barclay, the LP ofthe same name, which also received gold and platinum awards. He did not record for two years, but then returned with the album Bugre (individual ofthe Bugre Indian tribe from the south of Brazil)., In 1990, he recorded A Flor da Pele with Rafael Rabelo on Som Livre. The biography Ney Matogrosso—um cara meio estranho (Ney Matogrosso—a Somewhat Strange Fellow), by journalist Denise Pires Vaz, was issued in 1992-93. He produced the Premio Sharp of1993, in homage to veteran singers Angela Maria and Cauby Peixoto. In 1994, he issued As Aparencias Enganam (Appearances Deceive) with the group Aquarela Carioca—on Polygram. In 1995 he toured Brazil singing the repertoire ofAngela Maria recorded on the album Estava Escrito (It Was Written) on Polygram. In 1996, he recorded Um Brasileiro (A Brazilian) dedicated to the work ofChico Buarque. It was followed the next year by 0 Cair da Tarde (At Dusk), a tribute to Villa Lobos and Tom Jobim. He performed in shows, launching the CD with the pianist Leandro Braga and the group Uakti. The event of his sixtieth birthday prompted many articles and interviews around the country. Rio's daily 0 Dia carried one by Alexandre Ventura, which summarizes the essence of Ney Matogrosso in all his enigmatic splendor:
One of the jobs Matogrosso held during his first years in Rio de Janeiro was that oflightingmaster atthe Sala Cecilia Me ireles. This could easily have been his primary career, as he is considered a great show producer and much sought after by other artists to produce their shows. For example, he was responsible for the illumination of Chico Buarque's show Paratodos. During the 70's, he produced shows in Rio and sao Paulo and worked with the famous Argentine bandoneon-player, Astor Piazzol la, recording a double album with him and his group. Still with Continental, he issued the next two albums, Bandido (Bandit, 1976) and Pecado (Sin, 1977). On WEA, he issued the LP Feitico (Spell), in 1978. During the fol lowing yearhe attempted to change his androgynous and garish image, but it did not work. He recorded Seu Tipo (His Type). In 1980, he issued the LP Sujeito Estranho (Strange Fellow). The following year, the album Ney Matogrosso on Ariola included "America do Sul" by Paulo Machado and "Coubanakan" by Moises Simon, Sauvat, and Champfleury and the singer received a gold record for it. In 1982, the show Matogrosso, at Canecao, in Rio de Janeiro, became a big success. The highlights were the songs "Deixar Voce" (To Leave You) by Gilberto Gil and "Tanto Mar" (So Much Sea) by Chico Buarque. He recorded the show on "Since the black cat crossed the road Ariola. In 1983, he had already launched and since there is no more sin south of the eight individual LP's and received four Equator, Ney Matogrosso has become an awards, two platinum and two gold records. unequalled figure in MPB. Interpreter ofthe He then went on his first European tour, most varied composers, Ney Matogrosso starting at the Montreux Jazz Festival in combines, masterfully, vocal technique and Switzerland. During the same year, he com- attitude. A complete artist; those, who have memorated 10 years ofhis career with the LP already attended one of his shows, cerPois E (That's Right). tainly leave surprised. Impact is the best His stage performance had always been word to define who Ney Matogrosso is. known for its outrageous costumes and Impact of sound, by the softness of his gestures on behalf of the singer, sometimes voice, which reaches unbelievable heights. stirring up tempers and creating contro- Visual impact, by his slender figure, agiversy. In 1986, he appeared on stage, for the tated and seductive. first time, without fantasy and resolved to "Before I began singing, I was very shy incorporate a sober side to his "scandal- about my voice. I thought it was much too ous" persona. From then on he validated delicate." The shyness, however, did not his work exclusively as singer and adopted impede Ney from taking part in Secos e a classic repertoire of M PB. His first album Molhados, the group that made history in to follow this line was 0 Pescador de the decade ofthe 70's. It is from this era that 46
people remember the image of the singer: dubious, androgynous, and provocative. He had everything to go astray: the military government did not take kindly to his swaying, feathers, and sequins. But the public identified with that white painted face: "It was in 1973, at the height ofthe repression. We were an escape valve to the Brazilians. At that time, you could not express anything, and the people followed a subversive leader. The intention was to shock, to provoke the authorities." "Secos e Molhados broke up, and Ney pursued a solo career. Since then, Chico Buarque, Caetano Veloso, Tom Jobim, Vinicius de Moraes, Lamartine Babo, Rita Lee, Cazuza, Len ine, among other composers have been part of his repertoire. Songs like "Homem Corn H" (Man with M), "America do Sul","Balada do Louco" (Ballad ofthe Madman), "Por debaixo do Pano" (Under the Counter) became part of his popular song book. "It is very crazy to say this, but when I was a child I knew, at certain moments, that I would do well." Hewanted everything a military man did not want for his son. "I was opposed to everything my fatherthought I could be. I left home at a time when nobody did, it was not yet in fashion." "Man with M who is, with Latin blood glowing in his skin, Ney always used and abused his theatrical strength in his shows. Outrageous, full of gestures, he drives the women wild yes, the women go to his shows—with each piece of clothing removed from his costume. But finally, what do people see when they look at that 60year-old body? "It is the image which the public likes. I know that I no longerhave the same body, but I'm still okay, right?" They all approve. Since the era of Secos e Molhados. "My relationship with the public was sexual. I seduced the audience as if I were trying to conquer a person of flesh and blood. Today that seduction is tender and not sensual." "That's right: The figure lets loose on stage but is reclusive in private. Or not even that much; provocateur by nature, his declarations are these: "Just the idea ofmaking love makes me lazy. Before, I was always ready, thought of sex 24 hours a day. Today I think, re-think, and then desist. There is the flirting, the climate, go to the bedroom, have to take off my clothes.., that takes work. I don't want it. It's not that I don't feel the desire! But I no longer have the patience to go out and conquer someone..." "In 1986, without fantasy and paint, but with the same voice and body, he adopted a classic repertoire. There were the recordings with Raphael Rabello and the ones dedicated to Angela Maria and Chico Buarque. At the end of the decade of the 90's, he issued Olhos de Farol (Eyes of the Lighthouse), a sharp glance at the production ofthe new generation: Len ine, Paul inho Moska, and Pedro Luis. Ney returns to the BRAZZIL -MAY 2002
swaying of before, with a show. which became a live CD and two years later puts together the show with music from the 30's. In other words, there is a lot of Carmen Miranda in the repertoire. "Be it dry or wet (seco ou molhado), Ney de Souza Pereira, born on August 1, 1941 in the city of Bela Vista, in Mato Grosso do Sul, border with Paraguay, continues gracing us with his presence. Even at the other side of passion ("Passion is a drag. A horror. It exposes everything I consider worst in myself: insecurity, jealousy, lack ofequilibri um"), it makes us fall at its feet to revere it. He swears "that it is better not to be normal." And people just have to appreciate it; MPB would be quite tacky without the presence, the brill lance, and swaying of Ney." Ney, in the Flesh There is a great discrepancy between the stage persona and the interpreter of Brazilian Popular Music, Ney Matogrosso. Last year, in June, I was fortunate enough to be in Rio forCaetano Veloso's rehearsals for Noites do Norte ao Vivo coinciding with the debut of Ney Matogrosso's show Batuque at ATL Hall, unbe, knownst to me. I rushed out to get tickets and mentioned it to a friend I ran into at Canecao. She is involved with Brazilian music like myself, but she surprised me by saying: "Well, I haven't heard good things about that show, but of course, if you've never been to one of his shows, you should certainly go." I already knew every note of the show from the CD, which came out in March 2001. After seeing the show I realized that his stage presence can take away from the beautiful voice and the perfectly arranged renditions of the best songs of the greatest Brazilian composers. It's difficult to listen and watch him at the same time. His stage persona is so sensual and provocative that one could easily forget what a great singer he really is. Therefore, in order to get to know Ney Matogrosso, one must employ a sort of multiple personalityâ€”one that listens to his CD's and one that watches his show. A case in point is his CD 0 Cair da Tarde (Dusk). There was just the CD, no live stage show, and the CD is a far cry from the performer in his effeminate clothing, his disrobing, and seductive demeanor. www.fuzzlogic.com/lunakafe/moon14/ br14.htm carries a beautiful review, of the CD, that will prompt anyone to log on to his or her favorite CD site and buy it. "Cair da Tarde: "1 think I would defiBRAZZIL -MAY 2002
nitely stay ahead if! did not say anythi g about this release. However, that would ot be fair to you. Suffice it to say that whate er I write here will not do justice to ey Matogrosso's 0 Cair da Tarde. This CD brings together two of Braz l's greatest composers: He itor Villa-Lobos nd Antonio Carlos Jobim (a.k.a. Tom Jobi ). Ney Matogrosso's decision to comb ne their music in one release is rather obvio s, as Tom Jobim h imself said: "Villa-Lobo.is like my father, my everything. I feel I ke including one of Villa-Lobos' songs in y album. It's more than paying homage, it' to make the album more beautiful. To make e feel that there was someone who liked iusic more than I do." "With 0 Cair da Tarde, Ney M togrosso shows different depths of that in uence. The best way to experience this henomenon is to play the CD and listen intently to every note, every sigh. In addition to Ney's voice, the ins umental accompaniment is absolutely erfect. Leandro Braga plays the piano an did all the arrangements. His artistry will ow you away. YOu will hear that this is a uch his album as Ney's. To add more ti an already perfect combination, Ric rdo Silveira brings his guitar playing to t ese tracks. He is in better form than ever be ore. Another favorite of mine, Marcio ontarroyos, lavishes these recordings ith his flugelhorn. He is capable of produ ing a sound that enhances the musical a bience of these songs. To' top it all, akti creates the rain forest and special so nds evoked so often in Villa-Lobos corn ositions. It is hard to imagine this album ithout Uakti. â€”Cair da Tarde" and "Modinha" spen
this release. Two songs, two eras, one majestic piece with hardly any noticeable transition between tracks. The proposal to create an impeccable release is clearly stamped with these opening tracks. When Ze Nogueira's soprano saxophone plays the introduction for "Tema de Amor de Gabriela", (Love Theme for Gabriela), there's a certain languor that sets the tone forNey's tender phrasing. "Melodia Sentimental" (Sentimental Melody) has a light drumming crescendo after its slow and peaceful beginning. As the loved one is awakened by this love poem, the music reaches its highest point. "Cancao em Modo Menor" (Song in a Minor Mode) serves as an introduction to "Prelndio No. 3", (PreludeNo. 3). While the former talks about sad mornings without the loved one, the latter uses a bird as a messenger to the loved one. "Uakti's sound effects are ethereal. Though,"Caico" received its definitive performance in Milton Nascimento's voice, Ney's performance is not ordinary. With "Cirandas" (Children's Songs), Uakti reigns again. The interplay between voice and instruments is exactly like children's playing. These are songs all Brazilians grew up singing. The feeling in this arrangement is innocent and pure. From the playful mood of "Cirandas", we move into a more uptempo "Trenzinho do Caipira" (Countryman's Little Train). "The instrumentation, especially piano and percussion, is astounding. There's no sluggishness, but only a vibrant and bold machine. Without letting the tempo down, the last two songs close this magnificent CD. "Aguas de Marco" (Waters of March) is more samba-like, whereas "Pato Preto" (Black Duck) received forro rhythms after Leandro Braga's Linus-and Lucy-ish piano introduction. Ney Matogrosso outdid himself with his creative mind for this release. This is undeniably one of the best releases this year (1997), probably the best." "0/has de Faro!: After almost ten years without recording new songs, Ney released Olhos de Farol. Searching for good songs, Ney encountered in some good names, as yet unknown by the greapublic, the solution ofhow to fill his work with new perspectives and 'new paths. The song that gives title to the album, "Olhos de Farol", was written by the team Ronaldo Bastos and Henrique. "Ney succeeds in refreshing contemporary MPB with the talent ofPedro Luis (of Pedro Luis and Parede) and his stylized rap, "Miseria no Japao" (Misery in Japan) and the adventurous baido "Faze o Que?". He still found time to rummage through the trunk of old compositions by Paulinho Moska to reveal the urban chronicle of life in "Gotas de Tempo Puro" (Drops of Pure 47
involved with and active in the fight against Hansen 's disease, better known on these shores as leprosy. Despite the fact that this disease need not exist anywhere, it still flourishes around the world, strictly for lack of funds. A cure has long since been found, a cocktail of remedies exists, but people are still suffering with the debilitating and crippling disorder, for the simple reason that they do not have the money for the medicine. Ney appears at meetings and fundraisers, lending his support where he can. Morhan (Movimento de Reintegracdo da Pessoa Atingida pela Hanseniase—Movement for the Reintegration of the Person Affected by Hansen's Disease) is composed of relatives of those affected, people cured of the disease, and friends and sympathizers working to demystify the disease and reintegrate those affected into socifestival with a young woman named Lena— ety. One of the measures is to revert the who, as it happened, had moved Maria position of Brazil, which is in second place, Bethania, because she had the same type of only behind India, in number of infected, Some quotes and opinions by Ney: voice and was very 'possessed.' Another, with 70,000 sick and receiving treatment. Every year, 47,000 new cases are idenAbout Brasilia: "I fell in love with. by the name G lOria Maria, sang sambas very well, and afellow bythe name Tido had a big tified. In the state of Bahia, 1.77 cases exist Brasilia. The city struck me as very strange, voice sort of like Dorival Caymmi. And I, for every 10,000 inhabitants, a number that because it made people crazy, ifthey did not with that strange voice, was the first to the state's Secretary of Health, Jose Maria know how to live with the solitude. In that solitude, all my artistic tendencies flour- perform. When I began singing, some guy de Magalhaes Netto, intends to decrease. ished. Perhaps to defend myself against the shouted, "Bicha!" (faggot) and encour- Morhan makes available the cocktail that solitude, I did theater, started to sing, and aged others to stop the show. I walked over cures the disease, at no charge in Brazil. A toll free number is available to people for to the edge of the stage, looked at him, and took up drawing again." asked what he had shouted. He became clearing up misconceptions about the illAbout the artistic vocation: "Before silent. I asked for the music to start again, ness. For example, internment of those afsinging, I was pretty good at drawing. At 9 and sang. The festival was a success, so fected, is not necessary. The illness is transor 10, I was able to draw a portrait of any- much that the organizers resolved to main- mitted by the Hansen bacterium through the air or by direct contagion. The principal body. During that time, I felt that I should tain the musical group in Brasilia." ;symptoms are blotches on the skin and loss study painting, but my father totally vetoed Secos e Molhados: "We crisscrossed of feeling. From the moment the treatment that. He didn't want me to become an artist. Little did he know! Singing in the circus, Brazil on a singing tour. I don't even have starts, the possibility ofcontagion no longer doing theater at school, these were things any idea how many shows we did in one exists. For his tireless work with Morhan, I did surreptitiously. I spent the entire day year. Everywhere, we performed for large Ney Matogrosso has received several drawing. An aunt, who was a very rigid crowds. The repertoire was put together acknowledgements from various organizaperson, was the only person to stimulate me mostly by Joao Ricardo and already existed tions. It is difficult to tell in what role Ney artistically. She worked at the Palacio do before I arrived. I put in my two cents' worth Catete (the presidential official residence in at the rehearsals. We rehearsed basically Matogrosso will appear next. Will he be Rio, when the city was Brazil's capital) and with two guitars—Gerson's regular guitar credited with producing the show for ansent me stacks of paper. I was drawing all and Joao's 12-string. I adored the reper- other artist, will he release a new CD, will he thrill his audiences with yet another seducday while everybody else was playing.... toire. The concept was the word, the songs Since I was very young, I have been intro- were basically poems put to music. It was tive show, or will he be the social conscience for a terrible disease? One thing his our great distinction. In our repertoire, there spective." fans can be sure of, he will do it with grace, were poems by Joao's father, the famous About festivals: -The students at the Portuguese poet, Joao Apolinario. Our ap- intelligence, and style. University of Brasilia were going to orga- pearances were rock, but we were not makKirsten Weinoldt was born in ing rock' n'roll. Our posture was challengnize a show for the Mineiro (from Minas Denmark and came to the U.S. in 1969. ing transgression, but the repertoire was Gerais) students, who were comingto study She fell in love with Brazil there. One ofthe organizers, Paulo Machado, pop." after seeing Black Orpheus many who knew me from the choir, invited me to years ago and has lived immersed in Social Involvement sing popular music. I thought, why not? At Brazilian culture ever since. Her e-mail: that time, Nara Lek, and El is Reginawere at kwracing*erols.com For some years now, Ney has been the top. They invited me to sing at the Time) and endows us with an unpublished text by Cazuza, a letter put to music by Frejat, which resulted in the song "Poema." "Ney presents songs such as "Novamente" (Again) by Fred Martins and Alexandre Lemos: "Mais A lem" (More Beyond), composition by Lenine, Braulio Tavares, Lula Queiroga, Ivan Santos, and "V ira-Lata de Race (Pure-Blood Mongrel), in partnership with Rita Lee and her son Beto. Also present on the CD are "Chance de Aladim" (Alladin's Chance)by Luli;"Depois Melhora" (Later it will be Better) by Luiz Tati, of the Puidisia group Rumo; "0 Som do Mundo" (The Sound of the World) by Samuel Rosa and Chico Amaral: and "Bomba H" by Itamar Assumpcao and A lzira Espindola. The CD closes with "A Cara do Brasil"(The Face ofBrazi I ) by Celso V idfora and Vicente Barreto."
BRAZZIL -MAY 2002
Written by Miguel Falabella and Maria Carmen Barbosa and directed by Miguel Falabella and Josimar Carneiro (music) Jantar Entre Amigos - Peguenos Terremoto (Dinner Among Friends - Little Earth quakes)-A couple decides to make an in ventory of its 12-year-old relationship whe their best friends tell them they are spli ting. With X uxa Lopes, Otavio MUelle Renata Sorrah and Mario Shoemberge Written by Donald Margulies, directed b Felipe Hirsch. 0 Homem do Sobretudo Escuro (The Ma with the Dark Overcoat)-Based on Agath Christie's short stories. A young coupl who owns a boarding house in England visited unexpectedly by a police inspecto Directed by Silvio Tadeu and Ina Carvalh with the troupe Cia. Target de Teatro.
Jut-releued it m-rolused Auricu inks:
the sanitarist physician credited with the yellow fever eradication in Rio. The second story deals with a young Polish-Jewish lady who becomes a prostitute after giving. up on a Brazilian romance. Directed by Andre Sturm, with Carolina Kasting, Bruno Giordano, Lu Grimaldi, Flavio Galva°, lngra Liberato, and Celso Frateschi.
best sellers FICTIll 1. 0 ye° da rainha, Tomas Eloy Martinez,
Objetiva, R$27.90 2. Sexo na cabeca, Luis Fernando Verissimo, Objetiva, R$17.90 3. Diario do farol, Joao Ubaldo Ribeiro, Nova Fronteira, R$25 4. 0 veterano, Frederic Forsyth, Record, R$30 5. Pequenas criaturas, Rubem Fonseca, Companhia das Letras. R$28 6. As mentiras que os homens contam.
Luis Fernando Verissimo, Objetiva, R$16.90
Amor, Religilio e Sexo (Love, Religion and Sex)-Seven inmates share their experiences and interact with each other in jail, undressing themselves figuratively and literally. Written and directed by Wellington Amorim with Wellington Amorim, Anderson Clayton and Edino Aviso aos Navegantes (Notice to Mariners)-Ms Media (Midia) and Mr. Dollar Sign (Cifrdo) go to Internet in search of a Brazilian Cabral. Pedro Alvares Cabral was the Portuguese navigator credited with the discovery of Brazil. Written by Brazilian playwright Thomas Bakk, directed by Andre Paes Leme, with Claudio Mendes and Marcia do Valle. As Bodas do Rei (The King's Wedding)A crazy lady dreams with a lost kingdom. Written by Paulo Marcos de Carvalho, directed by Jose Sisneiro, with Toninho Ferreira and Adriana Medeiros. A Roda do Mundo (The World's Wheel)The struggle of the Brazilian black to survive and integrate into the Brazilian society seen through the eyes of dance and martial art capoeira. Written and directed by Marcio Meirelles, with the ensemble Cia. dos Comuns.
ill PAULI Um Pijama para Seis (A Pajama for S i x)A group of friends play a swinging game during a weekend in a country house. Jacqueline loves Robert, her husband's best friend, while Bernardo, the husband, is in love with Marilu. She pretends to be the fiancée of Roberto just to be close to her lover. Written by French playwright Marc Camoletti, directed by Rogerio Fabiano, with Luciana Coutinho, Jayme Periard and Elcio Romar. South American Way-Multi-awarded show on Carmen Miranda comes to Sdo Paulo after being seen by 150,000 spectators in Rio. Nineteen actors play Carmen and interpret, among other songs, "Adeus Batucada," -Tai," and "Tico-Tico no Fuba." BRAZZIL - MAY 2002
Ice Age (A Era do Gelo), Queen ofthe Damn (A Rainha Dos Condenaday), Anniversar y Par (Aniversario de Casamento), Gosford Pa k (Assassinato emGosford Park), The Deep E (Ate o Fim), Mulholland Drive (Cidade d s Sonhos), High Crimes (Crimes em Primei o Grau), Crossroads (Crossroads - Amigas Pa Sempre), E.T - The Extraterrestrial (E. T. Extraterrestre), Whipped (Eles So Pensa Naquilo), Spiderman (Homem-Aranha), Ir's (Iris), Jimmy Neutron: Boy Genius (Jimmy Ne tron, o MeninoGenio), Not Another Teen Mov e (Nao E Mais um Besteirol Americano), T e Count of Monte Cristo (0 Conde de Mon e Cristo), The One (0 Confronto), The Scorpi n King (0 Escorpiao Rea The Man Who Was t There (0 Homem Que Ndo Estava La), T e Panic Room (0 Quarto do Pcinico), Ocean's Eleven (Onzel ome ns e um Segredo), The Roy I Tenenbaums (Os Excentricos Tenenbaum Peter Pan- Return to Neverland (Peter Pan- i e Volta A Terra do Nunca), Some Like It H t (Quanto Mais Quente Melhor!), Showt (Showtime), John Q (Um Ato de Coragem), Beautiful Mind (Uma Mente Brilhante)
7. Harry Potter e a pedra filosofal, J.K.
Rowling, Rocco, R$27 8. Harry Potter e a camara secreta, J.K.
Rowling, Rocco, R$27
9. A rainha sol, Christian Jacq, Bertrand,
R$39 10. 0 diario da princesa, Meg Cabot,
I. Querida mamie, Bradley Greive,
Sextante, R$19.90 2. Um dia daqueles, Bradley Greive,
Sextante, $19.90 3. Quem mexeu no meu queijo, Spencer
Roberts, Record, R$25 4. 0 universo numa cascade noz, Stephen
Hawking, Mandarim, R$35 5. Um dia de cao, Jim Dratfield, Bertrand,
R$19.90 6. Uma mente brilhante, Sylvia Nasar,
Record, R$43 7. 0 livro de ouro do futebol. Celso Dario
Unzette, Ediouro, R$32
8. Jack Definitivo, Jack Welsh, Campus,
R$59 9. EstacAo Carandiru, Drauzio Varella,
Companhia das Letras, R$29.50 Abril Despedacado (Broken April, Behi d the Sun in the English Version)-BrazilSwitzerland-France/2001-Based on Alb nian author Ismail Kadare's book Brok n April. In the Brazilian Northeast, followi g a family tradition, a young man is compell d to avenge his brother's murder. The youn ster, however, decides to question this blo d code. Directed by Walter Salles, with Rodri o Santoro, Jose Dumont, and Rita Asseman . Latitude Zero (Latitude Zero)-Braz 1/ 1999-Lena, who is pregnant and lives i a tavern by the road, gets involved with a former policeman after being dumped y her boyfriend. Directed by Toni Ventu a, with Debora Duboc and Claudio Jaboran • 1, 0 Invasor (The Invader)-Brazi1/2001 A 15-year-old friendship and partnership go s sour and generate a war of words and phy cal violence when one partner wants o t. Directed by Beto Brant, with Marco Ric a, Paulo Miklos, Alexandre Borges, and M u Mader. Sonhos Tropicais (Tropical Dreams) Brazil/2002-Two parallel stories. Theft st centered in the so-called Vaccine Revo t, which involved Oswaldo Cruz (1872-191 ,
10. As melhores piadas do Planeta e Casseta, Casseta e Planeta, Objetiva, R$15.40
ENTIIICISII All ELF IELP I. Marketing pessoal, Sady Bordin, Record, R$20 2.1ndependencia financeira, Lechte
Kiyosaki, Campus, R$39 3. Pai rico, pai pobre, Lechte Kiyosaki,
Campus, R$39 4. Quando é preciso voltar, Zibia
Gasparetto, Espaco, vida e consciencia, R$22 5. Ninguem e de ninguem, Zibia Gasparetto, Espaco, vida e consciencia, R$22 6. A semente da vitoria, Nuno Cobra, Senac, R$25 7. Presente precioso, Dr. Spencer Johnson, Record, R$23 8. Voce: a alma do negOcio, Roberto Shinyashiki, Gente, R$29.90 9. Os 100 segredos das pessoas felizes, David Niven, Sextante, R$19.90 10. HistOrias para aquecer o coracio,
Hansen Canfield, Sextante, R$19.90 According to Jornal do Brasil, www.jb.com.br 49
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Let an Enejlish-speaking native carioca show you the Wonderful City
E-mail:email@example.com (serious Inquiries only) Riotur accredited tour guide
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For Ad, call (323) 255-8062 or E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org 50
BRAZZIL -MAY 2002
FEIRA LIVIE EN MARKET (415)203-6464. Falo Portugues, Espanol.  01 1 ere ' Voc6 quer dinheiro extra? Buscamos brasilei o para ajudar nossa familia corn nosso portugue.. Moramos em Orange County, CA. (949) 837-31 '0 Blair  Procuro motoristas de caminhao -Truck drive s wanted, class A-Hazard, 2 yrs + Experience 81 985-9979 
'ac ma mg Fire and Passion - Agenda de Casamento pa a Brasileiros e Estrangeiros, no ramo desde 198. Marriage Agency for Brazilians and Foreigners n business since 1989. www.firepassion.com Email:email@example.com -Tel: 310-450-45:6 
brazzil-ADS b7231 255-8062 ;DO S WorldTech announces two new pocket guides: (1) Rio deJaneiro, (2) Salvador Bahia. For information firstname.lastname@example.org 
; USIIIESS ppnr umy BRAZIL - Raise tropical fruits, nuts, flowers. Live on 125 acres near ocean. Partnershipfor $10,000. Phone Assoc. Country Estates 011-55-81-91185110 2-6 PM PDT 
asses PORTUGUESE CLASSES - Brazilian teacher. Fast, easy, efficient and pleasant way to learn Portuguese. (949)240-8178 
isce anenus 1 am looking for desktop publisher, copy & a advertising, mailing list broker, printing servic:s. Direct Mail Service-Marlene Soares (626)453-075 Los Angeles (CA)  'usic TICKET TO BRASIL * Bossa Nova and Brazil n Jazz group * www.tickettobrasil.com  Learn to play Brazilian percussion. Videos r sale. Visit us on www.bridgesto.com Demo and fr . lesson on the website.  Brazilian Music in its totality. Samba, bossa no a, chorinho, bark, axe, and more. Merchant Expre.s (954)785-2131
Aprenda ingles como nunca antes corn www.macetesdoingles.com. Livro/CD por $20 ensina os segredos da pronCincia. 
Jornais e revistas do Brasil. Recebemos jorn s dierios e todas as principais revistas, incluin go masculinas e femintnas. Tel. (954) 785-2131
Portuguese made easy - Brazilian teacher, 21 years experience, gives private Portuguese lessons. Reasonable fee. Rejane. 310-842-4949 Email: email@example.com  English Classes - San Diego, Los AngeleS, Las Vegas, Salt LakeCity-$3101 month -$6753 months -$9756 months, 1-20 provided, International Academy of English, 1-800-789-8068  Conversational Brazilian Portuguese Method "I tried several methods to learn BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE, butwhen I started lessons with NILSON, I knew immediately that I'd found the bestone. And in just a few months, I was able to communicate on a one-on-one basis? Individual, Total Immersion, Corporate Group and Semi-Private. Phone (310) 379-0738 
ersona " nman see s man
n or amen Experienced "Brasileiro" Guitarist; Brazilian native Jo5o Junqueira (MFA in Jazz Guitar at CA LARTS) is available to play, sing and record, solo or accompanied, his specialty, Authentic Brazilian Music, Originals and Jazz. Please call (818) 716-9053 orwritej_ firstname.lastname@example.org 
minces Income tax, bookkeeping services. Certified tax preparerexperienced and reasonable. Call Cintia Bove BRAZZIL - MAY 2002
Best Case Scenario - Attractive, warm, sophi ti cated, soft-spoken, slender 5'5" American ex-,at mark)finds cosmopolitan European/Brazili n/ (Denmark) American man, good soul, bright, secure, trim 56 .3 for love inside friendship. (323) 851-276 email@example.com  Educated DWF mid age +, attractive brunette, green eyes, petite, 128 lbs. Lover of Brazilian muSic, travel, country living, beach, people, good food, more, Seeking nice gentleman Brazilian or Am :. rican/Euro. Medium figure, no vices, Christian liever, good sense of humor, outdoor lover. lam an American citizen and financially stable. Write, s:nd picture full body to PO Box 87, Eagle Creek, is R 97022-0087 (Laura)  Brasileira, 35 anos, morena, atraente. F: lo Portuguese Ingle's. Procuro brasileirode ascende cia africana em Los Angeles, educado e culto. En iar foto. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org  Educated, pretty Brazilian lady iso nice se 'retired man. We'll teach English and enjoy beau iful nature in Macei6, Brazil, most of the year. Writ to 41 Sutter #1033 San Francisco 94104 
forma 'an ee s Homan Handsome US Citizen, 5'8" tall, athletic, seeks Brazilian or Latino girl, age 35+, for possible marriage. (925)609-9023. E-mail: email@example.com  American male, 37, college educator, seeks Brazilian lady for friendship/relationship, Los Angeles, CA area, Daniel 310-257-8940 firstname.lastname@example.org  Elderly Black American seeks Brazilian lady 40 plus. Write Don Clifford, PO Box 512491, Los Angeles, CA 90051-0491  Sagittarian or Gemini girl preferred by a holistic doctor and astrologer from India, 45 years old, who is US citizen and well settled in Beverly Hills. Would like to meet a pretty slim female.-Call Dr. David 323936-1449.  American Male, 33, engineer, seeks sincere attractive Brazilian lady 21-35 for friendship and possible relationship. In the Bay Area/San Francisco, California. My interests are soccer, motorcycle, outdoors, travel, and Brazilian cultural enrichment. Email: email@example.com Prances-Amencano, 45, delgado, atraente, olhos azuis, professor, falofrances, ingles, espanhol, um pouco de portugues, procuro brasileiradelgada, 1838 morandoem Los Angeles. William (310)305-2090  Brazilian man, I am looking for American person. I am single, I am 28 years old. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org 
'Erma 'an see s man Brazilian bottom, 33 ylo, 55", 1231bs, white skin, seeks black, young top man who wanna move to Brazil and share a whole life. Valdeck - Phone 011 5571 981 1990, email@example.com 
'ea sae Vendo Apartamento de quarto/sala. Uma quadra da praia em Iguaba, Rio de Janeiro. Apenas $13,500.00. Predio corn 7 apartamentos, 1 loja em Cabo Frio. Lucia Tel (818) 508-4950 
• FEIRA LIVRE RATES: 500 a word Phone is one word. •DISCOUNTS For 3 times deduct 5%, for 6 times deduct 10%, for 12 times deduct 15% • POLICY: All ads to be prepaid. Ads are accepted at ourdiscretion Yourcanceled check is your receipt. Please, include address and phone number, which will be kept confidential • DEADLINE: The 25th of the month Late material will be held for the following month if appropriate. •TO PLACE AD: Send ad with check, money order or your Credit Card number (plus your name and expiration date)to: BRAZZIL P.O. Box 50536 Los Angeles, CA 90050-0536.
Hands of Care Mas. Thar. (323) 937-3835
•Clubs & Associations
Brasil Brasil Cult. Ctr (310) 397 3667 Modern Lang. Center (310) 839-8427
ABFC - As. Bras. da Fier. (407) 354-5200 Cam. Corn. Brasil- EUA (305) 579-9030 ABABA -Amazon. As. (813)842-3161
•internet&Art Resign ArtMedia (310) 826-1443
•legal Services Noronha Advogados (310)788-0294 Edgardo Quintanilla, Esq. (818)986-1295
• Matchmaker Fogo e Paixao (310)450-4586
• Music Brazilian Heart Dance &Sing (818) 759-9089
•Physician Nilson A. Santos (213)483-3430
•Psychotber/Consel. Elizabeth Almeida, MA. (310)470-0214 Dr. Jefferson SA (213) 207-2770 Tania Haberkorn, M.A. (310) 840-5380
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• Mel AIM
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Brazil Brasileiro (972) 594-8894 Sergio & Doris Travel (281)679-9979
• Mal* Consulado do Brasil (617) 542-4000
• mount Sylvio P. Lessa (617) 924-1882
• food Predicts Brasil Brasil (617) 561-6094 Food Mestizos (781) 322-4002
•Distraction Approach Student Ctr (617) 787-5401 Braz. 8. Amer. Lg. Inst (617) 787 7716
• Publications The Brazilian Monthly (617) 566-3651 Bossa: Braz. Jazz Guide (617) 262-9997
•INSinlaiiS Café Brazil (617)789-5980 lpanema (508)460-6144 Tropicana (617) 567-4422 Pampas Churrascaria (617) 661-6613
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•translations Portuguese Lang. Ctr. (312)276-6683
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• food &Protasis Taste of Brazil Toll Free: (866) 835-5556
•Infraction Capoeira Golpe Bonito (713) 463-6584
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Los Angeles •AiriffilIS Varig (800) GOVARIG
• Arts Classes Julinya Vidigal De Vince (310)479-2070
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• Auto Repair Cosmo Auto Parts (323)259-9818 Pit Stop (310)643-6666
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• Bikinis Verao Brazil Bikinis (818) 887-1776
•Clothes Samba Collection :597,438-3669
•Clubs frAsunciations Brazil-Cal. Chbr of Corn. (323)658-7402 Brazilian Sociocult. C. (310) 370-0929 Centro Cultural Gaticho (323) 256-6548 MILA • Samba School (310)478-7866 Mov. Social Humanists (310) 281-6652 SambaLa -Esc. de Samba (562)438-3669 _
•Consulate Brazilian Consulate (323) 651-2664
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•Events Promotion Brazilian Nites Prod. (818) 566-1111
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• Restaurants H Calls Bossa Nova (310) 657-5070 By Brazil (310)787-7520 Café Brasil (310)837-8957 Grill from Ipanema (562)435-6238 Rana Bahia (310) 657-6306 Rods Viva Churrascaria (626)839-9950 Sabor Brazil (310)376-7445 Zabumba (310) 841-6525
Touchdown Freight (800)824-4399 Key International Shipping (800)248-3880
• frarei/Toors Brazil Air (800)441-8515 BrazilAdventures Expeditions (877)2-BRAZIL Brazil Tours (818)767-1200 Cheviot Hills Travel (310)202-6264 Festival Travel & Tours (800)776-0088 H.I.S. Internat. Tours (213)613-0943 South Winds Tr & Tours (800) 533-3423 Brazil TV & Production (562)439-4830
Miami - S.Florida •Airlines Transbrasil (800)872-3153 yang (800)468-2744 Vasp (800)732-8277 • Money Joel Stewart (954)772-7600
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•Consulate Consulado do Brasil (305) 285-6200
• Dentists Hedimo de Sa (305) 262-8212 Luciano Garcia (954)424-5868
• food I inerages All Braz. Imp. & Exp. (305) 523-8134 Brazil by Mail (954)472-7163 Vanya's Sweets (954) 785-0087 Via Brasil (305) 866-7718
• Psynothernists Katja Rego Johnson (954) 255-5715
• Physicians Dra Henriette Faillace (305) 935-2452 Dr. Roberto Shaffer (305)535-1694 Dr. Neri Franzon (954) 776-1412
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• Restaurants Boteco (954) 566-3190 Brazilian Tropicana (954)781-1113 Porcao (305)373-2777 Steak Masters (305) 567-1718
•Travel Agencies Brazilian Wave (305(561.3788 Discover Brazil Tours (800) 524-3666 Euroamerica (305) 358-3003 International Tours (800) 822-1318 Luma Travel (305) 374-8635 Monark Travel (305) 374-5855 New Port Tours (305) 372-5007 Br Online Travel (888) 527-2745 Via Brasil Travel (305) 866-7580
New York N. Jersey • Rids Luso-Brazilian Books (800) 727-LUSO
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•Casein BBJ (Br. Bus. Junction) (212) 768 1545
The Brasilians (2)2) 382-1630 Brazilian Voice (201) 955-1137 OCA Magazine (516)596-1853 Portugal-Brasil News (212) 228-2958
• fend Brazil Express (415)749-0524 Mercado Brasil (415) 285-3520
• Restaurants Brasilia (212) 869-9200 Brazil 2000 (212) 877-7730 Brazilian Pavillion (212)758-8129 Cabana Carioca (212) 581-8088 Indigo Blues (212) 221-0033 S.O.B. (212)243-4940 Tapajos River (201) 491-9196
•Marian Portuguese Lang. Serv. (415)587-4990
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a Diego Car Mania Auto Repair (619) 22 3-7 748 •CieS ASUClitiORS Clube Bras. San Diego (619) 295-0842 Sunday Night Cl. Brazil (619) 233-5979
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• Auto Nelson Auto Body (415) 255-6717 Malts Auto Body (415) 565-3560
•Clubs! Associations Bay Area Brasilian Club (415(334.0106 Capoeira Abada (415) 284-6196 Capoeira Institute (510) 655-8207
• Banal Care Roberto Sales, DDS (510)451-8315
Paulo's Travel (415)863-2556 Rio Roma (415)921-3353 Santini Tours (800)769-9669 Tropical Travel (510)655-9904 Tucanos Travel (415)454-9961
ashington DC • Airlitos
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• Beady Sean
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Port. Lang. Services (415)587-4990 Raimundo Franco (916)443-3162 Roberto Lima (415) 215-4990
Bibbo (415) 421-BIBO Carmen's International (415)433-9441 Dalven (415(786.6375 Neyde's (415)681-5355
Aquarela (510) 54 8-1 310 Birds of Paradise (415)863-3651 Ginga Brasil (510)428-0698 Samba do Corgi() (415)826-2588
Dr. Guilherme Salgado (415) 832-6219
Varig (209) 475-1269
•Perfusion Emiliano Benevides (415)648-2441
Café do Brasil (415)626-6432 Café Mardi Gras (415)864-6788 Canto do Brasil (415)626-8727 Clube Fusetti (415)459-6079 Joio's Restaurant (408)244-1299 Muzzarela Di Bufala (415)346-2284 Nino's (510)845-9303 Terra Brazilis (415)863-5177
Brazilian Consulate (415(961.81 70
Celia Malheiros (650)738-2434 Fogo na Roupa (510)464-5999 Voz do Brazil (415) 586-2276
Am az6nia (718)204.1521 Coisa Nossa (201) 578-2675 Merchant Express (201) 589-5884
(415)334-0106 Nativa Productions (408)287-9798 Kidoideira Productions (415) 566-0427
Transbrasil (202)775-9180 Varig (202)822-8277
• Ranks Banco do Brasil (202) 857-0320 Banco do Est. de S. Paulo (202)682-1151
•glubs & Associations Braz. Am. Cult. Inst. (202)362-8334 Inst. of Brazil. Business (202) 994-5205
• faits Promotion
Embaixada do Brasil (202) 238-2700
Eyes For Talent (650)595-2274 F. B. C. Events
Amaz6nia Grill (202)537-0421
BRAZZIL -MAY 2002
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Fire k Fun The French brought to Brazil the quadrilha, whmch is a theatrical dance that tel1F. the story of a marriage in a small town. Even today, the traditional quadri:ha lyrics of Festas Juninas use French words. LAURA DURO
Whoever has traveled to Brazil during the month ofJune, has already found out that Brazilians celebrate the month â€˘with parties that can be even bigger than Carnaval in some cities. Those parties are called Festas Juninas and they celebrate saints Anthony, John and Peter with lots of traditional foods, drinks and a theatrical dance inherited from the French called quadrilha (a type of square dance). However, the origin of this party is much older than Brazil itself. It began in Europe. The month of June being the beginning of the summer, bring crops that the population celebrated with parties and ceremonies. All over Europe, people used to make bonfires on hilltops and plains to dance around and jump over. Part of the ceremonies also was to offer the fire some of the crop and even live animals to bring luck for the next crop season. From this old practice, came the tradition ofbonfires in FestasJuninas as well as a,11 the beliefs related to the fire such as " kids cannot play with the fire", "you cannot push the firewood with your feet", and similar expressions. Even older were the June celebrations throughout the Roman Empire. There were celebrations to the god Juno. These festivities were brought to Europe by the Greek, and goddess Juno, who is known as Hera in the Greek mythology, was celebrated in June throughout Europe, at the same time that Europeans were thanking the crop. Juno was married to Jupiter (Zeus in Greece) and she was the symbol of fertility, love and fidelity. Juno was considered the Roman supreme goddess, married to the ruling god, Jupiter. She is believed to watch and protect all women and was called by the Romans -the one who makes the child see the light of day-. To this day, many people consider the month ofJune, which is named after the goddess who is the patroness of marriage, to be the most favorable time to marry. With the spreading of Christianity throughout Europe many ancient traditions were eradicated hut some were incorporated to the Roman Catholic Church and the marriage abilities ofJuno were passed on to Saint Anthony. To these days, Saint Anthony is believed to help with marriage. Nowadays, Brazilians do not thank for the crops because in South America this is not the crop season. As for the celebrations they extend throughout the
BRA7_ZIL - MAY 2002
French words in the quadrilha lyrics, terms like anavam, anarrie, granche, balance, travesse, devaie and tour. And the quadrilha became the official dance of a Festa Junina as you can see in the quadrilha script below.
month, commemorating Saint Anthony on June 13, Saint John on June 24, and Saint Peter on June 29. Saint John is the most celebrated in the northeast region of Brazil. Saint Peter is known to protect fishermen and homes besides being one of the founders of the Catholi Church. Some cities also include Saint Paul in the festivities. Every Festa Junina has a tall pole with a Saint John image hanging on it. Tradition says that Elizabeth, Saint 'John's mother, used a tall pole to announce the son's birth to Saint John's aunt, Mary who was expecting Jesus. In Brazil, this pole was transformed into a special attraction; it is the so-calledpaude-sebo (greased pole). The pole is covered with grease and money or any other kind of prize is placed on its top.
Another aspect of Festas Juninas that blended with local culture was the food. All over Brazil, the celebration for saints Anthony, John and Peter hap pen June, but the food that goes along i different in each region of the country Tasting the variety of Resta Junina'
The Portuguese brought the Festa Junina from Europe to Brazil. Like in Brazil, Portugal celebrates June every year, with the difference that in Portugal people give more attention to Saint Anthony than to Saint John. In the big melting pot that Brazil is, Festa Junina was also well accepted by the native habitants and many more beliefs, traditions and costumes joined the party. When the French missions came to Brazil they brought the quadrilha, which is a theatrical dance that tells the story of a marriage in a small town. Due to its origin, even today you still see some
food we can experience even far away from Brazil a little flavor and feeling for this most traditional Brazilian celebration. Starting with the Amazon, in Manaus (the capital of Amazonas State), Festa Junina is celebrated with cassava cake, sweet tapioca with coconut. The Amazonians also enjoy the podre cake, and peanut brittle, which has Brazil nuts in it. Amazonians had a strong influence from indigenous peoples who brought to the Festa Junina the tacaca (porridge of a wild cassavaâ€”tucupi--starch and shrimp served hot in a bowl), friedpocovti bananas, caruru, vatapa, cocada and alua (pineapple peel juice).
BRAZZIL - MAY 2002
Campina Grande, in Paraiba state, and Caruaru, in Pernambuco, are some of the most famous northeastern cities where Festas Juninas are a huge celebration, rivaling Carnaval. Instead of samba, they have forro', though. ForrĂł is a ball dance used to celebrate Festas Juninas and the music for the dance is also cal ledforro. One ofthe most popular bands offorro is 'Mastruz corn Leite'. One explanation not accepted by some experts for the name forro is that the word originated at the time the British were constructing railroads in the northeast region. During the weekends they used to promote outdoor balls to entertain the local workers. And to let everybody know they were welcome to the ball they used to post a sign saying 'For All'. Time went by and For All' becameforro and the ball became a Brazilian tradition. During Festas Juninas you can find tents selling many different dishes such as canjica, pamonha, corn on the cob, mugunza, cassava cake and peanut brittle. Going down to the southeast region
How to dance quadrilha. The theatrical dance performance inherited from the French missions follows a traditional script such as the one below: The original in Portuguese blended with French: By Mario Zan ATENcAO: Ai i i vem o Coronel da festa para marcar a quadri lha, juntamente corn o sanfoneiro. pra tocar na festa. ATENcAO, PESSOAL: Vamos dar inicio no comeco do principio da comecacao da principiacao do prosseguimento da prosseguicao da largada da quadrilha. Metade de urn lado, outra metade da banda do lado de la. Damas e cavalheiros procurem seus pares. Metade pra ca e metade pra la. — Por favor, Sr. Coronel, que lado eu vou jogar? — Pra principio de conversa, eu nao sou coronet e isso nao jogo, quadrilha. ATENcAO, sanfoneiro, eu you dar o sinal pra voc'e rasgar o sanfonao: ATENcAO, JA!! MARCAR PASSO! ANAVAM, quer dizer, pra frente. Todo mundo junto. Quando os pares se encontram no centro do salao, cumprimentamse. Assim. ANARRIE, quer dizer, todo mundo pra tras, de marcha-re. Isso. A fastando sempre. BALANCE' : Cavalhei ro na frente da dama, fazendo balance. TOUR. Dama e cavalheiro dao uns pares de voltas. juntos mas nao agarrados! Olhao fiscal do salao. Tasobrando mulher. ANAVAM DE DAMAS. S6 as mulheres no centro do salao. Esquerda corn esquerda. As damas dao as maos e esperam o sinal! Golpear as damas dando voltacom as maos juntas e os cavalheiros ficam balanceando. Se aproximem dos cavalheiros. Se aproximem das cavalheiras. Peguem as maos das damas do lado de cá, corn as maos direitas, do outro lado corn as maos esquerdas quem ve o Norte. Todo mundo de maos dadas, al naposicao. Ate a metade do salao. Pra frente. Isso. Carpindo no pd. Quem ve o Sul. Volta todo mundo pra tras de mao dada. Isso. Afastando. TRAVESSE. Já que as damas de maos dadas estao no centro, puxam os cavalheiros pro lado contrario. BALANCE. Se balano pessoal. TOUR. Podem &nor corn as damas —Eu tambern quero entrar! —Moleque nao forma na roda de gente grande! ANAVAM DE DAMAS. As damas no centro, esquerda corn esquerda.
Aproximem dos cavalheiros. Isso. E a vez dos cavalheiros se aproximarem e pegarem as maos das damas. —Senhor, por favor, que lado eu tenho que virar? —Siga a risca pintada de flecha. Dobra de quatro, prirneiro vira par corn par. depois viram as damas no centro em seus lugares. As damas puxam os cavalheiros e voltam pros seus lugares. Vamos girando. Igualzinho a estrela. Desse jeito. Assim mesmo. — Canelada nao vale. , Meia-volta. Mais meia-volta. Grande-roda. BALANCE. TOUR. ATENCAO pra fazer o time!. Vai ser isso, pessoal. Vai comecar. I >esse jeito. Segue. Isso é assim mesmo. l'assa—passa tres vez, a Illtima que ticar. ATENcA0 PESSOAL: Quando term i nar apassagem do nine], vai em grande roda. Assim. pessoal. Todo mundo de mao dada. Isso. Vao saindo. Fica macjo puxando a fila. 0 trem esta soltando fumaca. fá apitou na curva. Em seus lugares. Chora. sanfona. ANAVAM. ANARRIE. BALANCE. DEVAIE. TOUR. Sanfoneiro, estique o foie do sanfonao. Escore na vizinha pra arrematar. Todo mundo. Caminho da roca. Feche os guarda-chuvas. —Tern alguem mancando. —Nao, foi o sapato, o sapato meu que despregou. Nao descuidem das carteiras. Estourou a hoiada. Sempre seguindo. Carninho da roca. BALANCE. Todo mundo balanceando. TOUR. Cavalheiro danca corn cavalheira. Uma mulher para cada par. Duas nao vale. —E a minha mulher e minha filha, coiso! ANAVAM. Volta de quatro. Fazer roda de 4 pares. Assim. Rodar pra esquerda. rodar pra direita. —Achei uma carteira. —E minha! —Uma carteira de cigarro vazia. —Oh! Marcar passos. Atencao, pessoal. Beijo dos anjos. As damas se beijam. Vai estralando beijo. Agora, atencao! Beijo dos marmanjos! Oh! Oh! Os cavalheiros se abraom. — Barbaridade. que mulher bonita! Rodar praesquerda, rodar pradireita! Em seus lugares, todo mundo voltando pra seus lugares! — Caiu a ferradura de aignern! BALANCE. TOUR. — Me pisaram nos Os! — Na mao que nao podia ser! ANAVAM. ANARRIE. Grande Roda! Todo mundo de mao dada, formar •
grande roda. Isso! Rodar pra esquerda. Rodar pra direita! Dama no centro. Cavalheiro de roda! As mulheres vao pro centro de maos dadas e os cavalheiros tambem de maos dadas em forma de roda. —Nao taque tijolo no lampiao! Damas correm pra direita. Cavalheiros pra esquerda! Assim. Ao contrario. --Arma de fogo nao entra no said°. Atencao, que vamos coroar primeiro as damas. Quando os cavalheiros estao de maos dadas, ficar certo no par. Passe a mao por cima, coroando desse jeito. Assim. Segue pra direita, segue pra esquerda. Ta sobrando chapeu. Cava!heir° no centro, andando pelo centro. Damas de roda. Os cavalheiros formando uma roda no centro e as damas outra roda. Rodar pra esquerda. Rodar pra direita. Atencao, que vamos tirar os cavalheiros. As damas agora que coroam os cavalheiros. Rodar pra esquerda. Rodar pradireita. Grande roda. Desbotou a figura. BALANCE. TOUR. Atencao pro tranodinho. Segue. Passo tranodo. Dama segue corn a cara no cavalheiro. 0 Sr. ai, tire o chapeu ou sapato pradiminuir a altura. Atencao, quando chegar nos pares, vamos tirar o retrato. Isso. Sempre sorrindo, nem que seja a forp. Par corn par. Olhar pro fot6grafo. 0 suor esta caindo. BALANCE. TOUR. —Pare o bai le. Me roubaram a dentadura. Caminho da roo! Segue as damas por fora, de brao corn os cavalheiros, ' dando volta em roda. —Tire as maos do bolso dos vizinho. Ei, pessoal, la van chuva! Foi so pra enganar voces. A ponte esta quebrada. Agora o pessoal volta ao contrario. Faz que vai mas nab vai. Vai pra frente e vai pra tras, e vai pra frente duma vez. BALANCE. TOUR. Preparar pro Granche. As damas ficam em frente, de costas, corn as maos pro alto e os cavalheiros ficam ails, corn as maOs pro alto. Isso. Vao rodando nessa posicao. Os cavalheiros dao urn giro nas damas, passando-as pra tras, mas sem largaras maos. Isso. Segue. Agora os cavalheiros largam as damas que estao sendo seguradas pelas maos, por tras e pegam na mesma posicao. Falta luz no salao. —Tao me beliscando, coiso! ---Acabou o querozene do lampiao! GRANCHE. Segue Granche. Sempre seguindo. Quando chegar no par, balancear. —Me roubaram o guarda-chuva. TOUR. Grande roda. Formacao em estrela. Todos de bracos. Todos de bingos dados...
BRAZZIL - MAY 2002
Translated quadrilha script: Attention: Here comes the colonel to get the quadrilha started, together with the accordion player. Attention everybody: Let's get the quadrilha started in the beginning of the begin of the initiation of the quadrilha start. Half of one side, the other half over there. Ladies and gentlemen look for your partners. Half this side, half over there. —Please, colonel, which side should I play? —First ofall, I'm not acolonel and this , is not a game, it is quadrilha. Attention, accordion, I'm goi ng to give the sign to start tearing the accordion apart: Attention, go! Mark the pitch. Anavam, I mean, forward. Everybody together. Greet each other when couples meet at the center ofthe ballroom. This way. Anarrie, I mean, backwards, get back. This way. Getting farther always. Balance: Gentleman in front of lady, doing a balance. Tour. Lady and gentleman give couple laps, together but not grabbing each other. Look the ballroom's inspector. There are too many women. Anavam of ladies. Only the women in the center of ballroom. Left hand with left hand. The ladies hold hands and wait for the sign! Swing the ladies holding hands and gentlemen keep dancing. Get closer to the gentlemen. Get closer to the gentlewomen. Hold the ladies' hands, this side with the right hand, with the left hand who is facing north. Everybody holding hands, there in position. Forward to the half way. Go ahead. Dragging the foot. Who is facing south. Everybody gets back holding hands. This way. Farther. Travesse. Since the ladies holding hands are in the center, pull the gentlemen to the opposite side. Balance. Keep moving everybody. Tour. You may dance with the ladies. —I also want to join! —Kids are not supposed to get in a grown-up's dance! Anavam of ladies. The ladies in the center, left hand with left hand. Get closer to the gentlemen. This way. It is the gentlemen's turn to get closer and hold the ladies' hands. —Please sir, which side should I turn? —Follow the printed arrow. Two couples together, first turn couple with couple, then turn ladies in the center in their positions. The ladies pull the gentlemen and get back to their positions. Let's keep turning. Just like a star. This way. Yes, this way.
BRAZZIL - MAY 2002
—Stepping on somebody's foot is not fair. Half turn. More half turn. Big circle. Balance. Tour. Attention when making the tunnel. It's gonna be it everybody. Let's get started. This way. Follow me. Yes this way. Pass—pass three times the last who gets left. Attention everybody: When you finish passing the tunnel, make the big circle. This way everybody. Everybody holding hands. This way. Keep getting out. Stays Inacio pulling the row. The train is smoking. Already blew the whistle on the curve. Back to your positions. Cry, accordion. Anavam. Anarrie. Balance. Devie. Tour. Accordion, stretch it. Hold at the person in your side to finalize. Everybody. Way back home. Close the umbrellas. —Somebody is limping. —No, it is my shoes, they are damaged. Watch out for your wallets. The bulls got loose. Keep following. To the way back home. Balance. Everybody moving. Tour. Gentleman dance with gentlewoman. Just one woman for each man. Two is not fair. —She is my spouse and this is my daughter, man! Anavam. Come back in four. Make a circle with four couples. This way. Turn left, turn right. —I found a wallet. —It is mine! —One empty cigarette wallet. —Oh! Mark the pitch. Attention everybody. Angel's kisses. The ladies kiss each other. Go smacking the kiss. Now attention! Kiss of the big boys! Oh! Oh! The gentlemen hug each other. —For crying out loud, what a beautiful woman! Turn to the left, turn to the right! Back to your positions, everybody gets back to their places! —Somebody let the horseshoe fall! Balance. Tour. —Somebody stepped in my feet! —On your hand that wouldn't be! Anavam. Anarrie. Big circle! Everybody holding hand, make the big circle. This way! Turn to the left. Turn to the right! Lady in the center. Gentleman out in the circle! The women go to the center holding hands and the gentlemen, also holding hands, make the circle. —Don't throw brick at the lamp! Ladies run to the right. Gentlemen run to the WV This way. The other way.
—Gun is not allowed in the ballroom. Attention that we will crown the ladies first. When the gentlemen are holding hands, keep the right position with the couple. Pass your hands overhead, crowning this way. This way. Follows to the right, follows to the left. There is a hat left. Gentlemen in the center walking by the center. Ladies in the circle. Gentlemen making a circle in the center and ladies another circle. Turn to the left. Turn to the right. Attention that we will take the gentlemen. The ladies crown the gentlemen now. Turn to the left. Turn to the right. Big circle. What a shame. Balance. Tour. Attention to the little crossed step. Follow. Crossed step. Lady follows with face on gentleman. You, sir, take either the hat or the shoes off to lower your height. Attention, when you get to your partner we will take a photo. That is it. Always smiling, even if it is forced. Partner with partner. Look at the photographer. The sweat is dripping. Balance. Tour. —Stop the ball. I got my denture stolen. Time to work now! Follow the ladies outside, holding the gentleman's harm, swinging in laps. —Take your hands offyour neighbor's pocket. Hey everybody, here comes the rain! That was just to fool you all. The bridge is broken. Now everybody turns the way back. Pretend you go but don't go. Go back and forth, and go forward all at once. Balance. Tour. Prepare to the granche. The ladies stay in front with the back turned to gentleman, with hands up and gentleman stay behind, with the hands up. That's it. Keep turning in this position. The gentlemen turn the ladies, passing them to their backs without releasing the hands. That's it. Go ahead. Now the gentlemen release the ladies who are holding hands, from the back and hold in the same position. The light goes off in the ballroom. —You are pinching me, man! —The lamp ran out of kerosene! Granche. Keep going granche. Al- ' ways ahead. When you reach the partner, swing. —I got my umbrella stolen. Tour. Big circle. Make a star. Holding arms. Everybody holding arms...
you'll also find traditional Festas Juninas in the states of So Paulo and Minas Gerais. There you will find canjica seasoned with roasted peanuts and coconut, soups made with beef, cassava or smoked beans, popcorn, peanut brittle and lots of sweets such as milk fudge, crystallized fruits and cajuzinho (a candy made with ground peanuts). In the south of Brazil, Festas Juninas have roasted pine nuts. popcorn, roasted peanuts, and a variety of cakes. But the most traditional is the corn cake. Brazil celebrates its Festas Juninas with different foods, but to drink everybody has quenteio. This is a hot drink made with cooked ginger in water, sugar, cinnamon, cloves and cachaca (sugar cane liquor). The name quentilo literally means the big hot one and reminds us that the infusion warms you up in the chilly nights of June. To drink, Festas Juninas also have quenteio made with red wine and the traditional caipirinha (margarita-like potion). By the way, another way to warm yourself up is to jump the bonfire that stands in the middle of the party. You also can climb send love letters and dance quadrilha. Even if you don't get the chance to join Festas Juninas you still can have some of the food. We selected three of the most traditional dishes found in a FestaJunina: quenteio, canjica and sweet corn pudding.
QUENTAO 4 cups water 1 cup granulated sugar 2 oz chopped ginger 1 tbs. cloves 2 cups cachaca (can replace with vodka) 2 cinnamon sticks
In a large pot, melt the sugar with ginger, cloves and cinnamon in medium heat to become caramel colored. Pour water and cachaca and boil the mixture for about 20 minutes. Pour quenteio through a strainer and serve hot. Makes 6 servings, CANJICA 1 package white hominy (11b) 1 qt gal milk 1/2 cup grated coconut 1/2 cup roasted peanuts (unsalted / chopped in a food processor) 1 cup granulated sugar I pinch salt Wash and drain hominy. Then place grains in a plastic bowl and soak overnight. Pour soaked grains with the remaining water in a pressure cooker. Cook for about 20 minutes after the regulator starts to blow steam or until tender. If you don't have a pressure cooker, cook the grains in a regular pot for about 60 minutes. In a large saucepan, bring the milk to boil. Drain the hot grains in a colander and add immediately to boiling milk. Combine the spices: grated coconut, roasted peanuts, sugar and pinch of salt. Hint: For a perfect canjica, always combine hot hominy with hot milk (both should be boiling when put together).
Serve hot in a cereal bowl. Makes 6 servings. MINGAU DE MILHO VERDE 6 fresh sweet corn ears 1 can (12 fl oz) evaporated milk 1 can (14 oz) sweetened condensed milk 1 V2 cup water 1 pinch salt Ground cinnamon to decorate. , Cut the corn from the cob. Place corn in a blender container with the water and beat for about 30 seconds. Press the mixture against a strainer to extract the corn juice. Pour the corn juice into a medium saucepan. Add evaporated milk, sweetened condensed milk, and a pinch of salt. Simmer the mixture in a medium heat until the mixture become creamyâ€” about 10 minutes. Use a wood spoon to stir the mixture for the whole 10 minutes to the mixture gets creamy. Pour mixture into custard cups (6 oz). Sprinkle ground cinnamon. Hint: Riper corns make a thicker pudding. Too young corns don't have enough starch; therefore they make a thinner pudding. Serve refrigerated. Makes 6 custard cups. Laura Duro is an undergrad student at SUNY (State University of New York). She owns the website CookBrazil.com of traditional Brazilian recipes. She lives in Jamestown, NY and adapts to local ingredients the dishes she misses from her hometown Belo Horizonte, in Minas Gerais State. You can reach her at admin*cookbrazil.com or visit her Website at www cookbrazil com
BRAZZIL - MAY 2002
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