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Year 13 - No.191 - February 2002












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ilermeto Pascoal, the sorcerer and his apprentices

"We become not a melting pot but a beautiful mosaic. Different people, different beliefs, different yearnings, different hopes, different dreams" --- Jimmy Carter

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Brazil is made of quite superlative numbers: fifth largest population in the world with 175 million people, the world's eighth largest economy, seventh place in number of computers, eleventh biggest manufacturer of vehicles, eighth largest fleet of vehicles and fifth place in purchasing power, losing on ly to the US, China, Japan and Germany. Behind these shiny numbers, however, there is a universe of inequality making Brazil a world champion of unequal income distribution. Studies show that the richest 10 percent of the population earns 30 times more than the poorest 40 percent. By the government's own admission, 28 million Brazilians or 16 percent of Brazil's population live below the poverty line. Such numbers seem too conservative though and 40 million probably would be a figure closer to reality. These are people who live in extreme poverty having to survive on less than $1 a day. Can Brazil win its chronic fight against poverty? Democratic and autocratic governments weren't able to do it. Maybe they just didn't use the right approach. Prosperity for all is a reachable goal, according to some theorists. We present one such plan as conceived by former governor of the Federal District of Brasilia, Cristovam Buarque. Buarque proposes a ten-year plan to eradicate poverty in Brazil. -This calls for a massive effort of the type used in the Abolition of Slavery," he says. He goes much further, however, presenting the steps of a multi-tiered solution and the price tag for every proposal. A dreamer? Check for yourself It makes for an entrancing and full-of-hope-and-promise reading. RAI

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Cover A detailed plant the end of poverty in ten years Cover L.azzuiy mei

Cubits 01 01

Behavior Luma, the beauty and beast of Carnaval

08 11 11 20 22

Carnaval Tunes that never die

World Forum Imagining other worlds

Politics Time to start presidential campaign Religion Catholics reach out to Indians Crime A terror campaign against the PT Opinion How dare the Left condemn kidnappings?

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Politics A 'Little Boy' who wants to be president Music Carmen Miranda and other divas Short Story "Epitafio" by Margal Aquino Language English for Brazucas V Experiment Music

Recife plans a digital future

Hermeto Pascoal: the genius comes visiting Family Reunion

An Armenian Odyssey

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18 letters 49 Cultural Pulse 51 Classifieds 52 That's Brazilian


Carnaval Bait and Suit What would be Carnaval in Brazil withoat a few scandals and controversies? This year, the controversy parade started a couple of weeks before the big -escolas"( samba clubs) went to the avenue with their topless and/or bottomless female attractions. Luma de Oliveira, aging-but-still-fit former model caused more than frisson and drooling oglings, while rehearsing with the Unidos da Viradouro escola de samba, for which she is the "godmother". Wrapped in a red microdress that left very little to the imagination she ended up leaving nothing at all to fantasy when the following morning papers showed her most hidden intimacy in the front page. In the picture she seems to be wearing nothing under her dress. It happens that Luma, 36, as she explained later, went to the rehearsal wearing comfortable skin-color cotton panties under the skimpy dress and the sweat brought about by the highly energetic samba made her underwear completely transparent. Did Luma do the trick on purpose? Far from it, according to the belle. She complained that the photographer who snapped the candid picture acted in had faith and as proof of her determination she slapped the photojoumaist with a 200,000-real (S80,000) suit for defamation and injury to her reputation. Rio's photojournalists' association, the Associacao Profissional dos RepOrteres Fotograficos e Cinematograficos do Rio de Janeiro, came in defense of news agency Agencia Estado's photographer Wilton Junior asking its members for a boycott of Luma during her Carnaval show. They reminded the former model that she owed her fame to the exposure she had had over the years in the press. Luma de Oliveira loves exposure andprovoation. In 1987 she broke in the Carnaval parade showing up topless. In 1998. for the consternation of the feminists, she paraded on the front line of the escola de samba wearing a dog collar sporting the name of her husband, industrialist Eike Batista. Last year, Luma posed for the Brazilian Paybov and she was served naked in 22 pages. The day the magazine was released with a bash and plenty of fanfare, the model got more print mileage showing up at the happening in panties that revealed her husband's initials. Also last year, during the Viradouro parade she brought about ahs and ohs from the crowd when she kneeled on the asphalt together with the percussion section of the escola. Soon after, the flu that took over Rio was named after her. Why Luma flu? Because it made everybody kneel down. Commenting on the model's antics, renowned columnist Tufty Vasquez wrote: "Iden't know! When she giftwraps herself in these tiny dresses- • the red one with a high slit this year was a hit—we wonder why we fight for ideas, rights, citizenship, social justice, freedom, health, transportation, security, those little dumb things. When Luma de Oliveira starts to samba, the world gets tilled with joy and lazine!,s, in a postmodern version of what Caetano Veloso called one day -the sun in the newsstands." "This personal drooling state doesn't differ a lot from the intellectual affliction of half a dozen of intelligent men whom I talked to in the last few hours. They all were completely dumbfounded. It would be tragic if it weren't seasonal. It lasts until Carnaval, then Luma disappears, the sky gets overcast in the newsstands and we once again can be solidary with the fight of our brave women companions for the species's emancipation. This struggle we won't abandon." In 1994, another picture involving Carnaval and a pantyless woman went to the front pages and the cover of ['eta and Isto E, the two most important Brazilian weekly magazines. Then model Lilian Ramos, who didn't have anything between her intimacy and her T shirt (she wasn't wearing anythino else), made photographers very happy after having been invited byt'bachelor President Itamar Franco to see the parade on the stand by his side. Every time she raised her arms--a necessary gesture when you are 'jumping' Carnaval--her southern anatomy was all exposed. Ramos fame didn't last until the next Carnaval even though she became later a celebrity of sorts on an Italian racy TV program. Franco became governor otAl Inas Gerais and still carries on his coat of arms the distinction of very macho man.





The second coming of the World Social Forum in Porto Alegre, in Southern Brasil, has drawn 60,000 delegates from all over the world, a six-fold increase from its inauguration last year. Under the banner of "Another World is Possible" the forum opened on January 31 with a march attended by more than 60,000 people. The WSF includes participants from a wide spectrum of political views within the left: from the reform agenda (all the world needs is more regulation and another global governance body), to abolitionists (nothing less than a process of "deglobalization" will do), and everything in between. Renowned professor of linguistics, philosopher and social commentator, Noam Chomsky received star billing on the first day of seminars, urging the audience to challenge the commentators who dismiss the movements around the world as "antiglobalization". Instead he said there was a need to define the movements as in favor of just, equitable and ecologically sustainable form of globalization. Bernard Cassen, who with Susan George was a founder ofATTAC (Association pour la Taxation des Transactions Financieres pour l'Aide aux Citoyens Association for the Taxation of financial Transactions for the Aid of Citizens). an international network of organizations campaigning for the introduction of the Tobin Tax, (of 1 percent on all international financial transactions), called for "the globalization of peace." On the same panel as Cassen. Martin Khor, director of the Third World Network. claimed that neoliberal policies and the institutions that enforce them are in fact responsible for the "deindustrialization" ofthe poor countries, and was a direct form of colonization. "The World Trade Organization and the World Bank are the two greatest mechanisms generating poverty in the world," declared Khor. Despite the WSF claim that "Another World Is Possible," the majority of the presentations revolved around the identification ofthe problems and relatively little time was devoted to the discussion of alternatives and concrete strategies. Some participants had come specifically to showcase alternative communities and ways of living. Indigenous participants, principally from the Americas, emphasized that their traditional lifestyles and relationships allowed them to live self sufficiently and sustainably. Jose Pereira, a tribal leader from central Colombia, said he had come to Porto Alegre to teach people "the way." Author of"When Corporations Rule the World," David Korten, stated simply that we need to "walk away from the suicide economy and to support many of these local initiatives and weave into being webs of relationships that emerge to become a new kind of economy.' North American academic, Genevieve Vaughan, suggests one such alternative'. She advocates a paradigmatic shift to a "gift economy" in whichtransactions between people will develop into circles ofgiving which focus on providing directly for human needs. Famous Indian scientist. ecofem inist and academic, Vandana Shiva, denouricedthe form of globalization that is based on "the principle of organized greed." Instead. these "unstable pyramids of power need to be transformed into concentric circles of compassion," and that "the world we build in the future needs to be built on women's ways." Illustrating the distance that needs to be walked to realize this vision, Shiva was one ofthe few women who made it into the ranks of graying men on the plenary panels and seminar sections of the WSF. A statement issued by a coalition of Brazilian unions claimed that the WSF was merely concerned with "putting a human face on globalization" and not tackling the root causes of environmental destruction, inequity and cultural colonization around the world. Many claim that this is a fair critique of the forum. Its sheer enormity and the bureaucratization of its organizational structure have limited the forum to traditional modes of organization and presentation. ' 4Two of the principal supporters of the WSF are the local and state level governments of Rio Grande do Sul. In the lead up to the Brazilian national elections in November this year, conference venues, materials and merchandise provided constant reminders of their support. The Brazilian independent media web site claims that this has resulted in the cooption and watering down of the forum's agenda. On the flipside however, such a forum would not be possible without the massive levels of financial and infrastructural support which have been provided by the local and state governments. For this reason, no other countries are prepared enough to embark on this task for next year and the forum looks set to remain in Porto Alegre for 2003. irc Article supplied by SEJUP (Servico Brasileiro de Justica e Paz—Brazilian Service of Justice and Peace). http://

Other Worlds



aval withinhas. Fads o g , ta like axe in the early 90s and neo-funk more recently had a brief life. But marchinhas resist Some other jewels of and every year they are repeatedly sung by heart by when they Were released• several generations of Camaval merrymakers. The oldest ofthem ("O abre alas") is from the 19* century. Most ofthe Saca-Rol tunes m.osed in the '30s and the most recent da Zikla - Zilda ("kr Waldyr Machado )1appeared 22 years ago. What's the secret for such longevity? Producer Ricardo Cravo Alvim thinks he knows the answer. In an interview A s *as vao ml sob o vet Gan'afa eheia etude quer with webzine no. (it reads no ponto = ripe, ready), Aivirn said. -The old Camaval songs resist because they were Eu passo a trio no saca saca saca marchu,s and sambas created with the popular artist's best rota,. inspiration and during a time in which commerektlism aebo ate me afogar wasn't so rampant. They have an unbeatable spOntanePeixa as aguas rolar E ity." a a policia pm' isso me prender Starting in the '70s, the marchinha practically disapMas na ltinia hora me sol peared and the samba-enredo (the theme songs created by Eu pegs um saca sacs sac the escolas de samba as a kind of sound track for their saca-rolha 3t1itér 2. elaborate parade) took its place. Commenting on this Ninguánmeagarra,ninguthnme Nobody eate demise, Leon Barg, the owner of the recording label agarra catches me Rev i vendo (Reliving)—his company has already rekased 23 CDs of the collection "Carnaval, Sua Histdria, Sua Mamie Eu Quero Mommy, I (Jararaca -Vicente Paiva) G lOria" (Camaval, Its History, Its Glory) is forthright "This substitution of the marchinha with samba-enredo was a, rnatnae cu q1Tèr , o Camay al ' s undoing." Ma** en quero mamar Mommy I want to suckle JotaJUnior, 78, co-author of"Sacaricantle(1952). Di a cimpeta, It a chupeta Give the sucker, give the sue ofthe perennials of Carnaval, believes marchinhOsare like Da a ehupeta pro bebe. nao Give thg sue er so the ba an heirloom: "Those marchinhas profoundly marked the chorar older generation. During Camaval these people continued singing them passing them to their children and so forth. rrriebenzinho do men $leep little This way the youngsters keep on singing these songs Pegaamamadeira e en ta Take yourb a without ever noticing how old they are. Even now I keep pro Gorda° gang Eu toga) uma irma que se I have a sister who receiving royalties for "Sacaricando" and also for "Lata chama Ana name is Ma , d'Agua- from almost every state in the country." De to pis ' car o olhojá Ikon She winks so much that she lost These tunes can be a treasure of the Brazilian pmtil semapa,Jiereyebrqw. music, but many of them wouldn't be released in o politically correct times without t threat of a day in co Blacks, Indians, gays, bald and old people, are allmult Cabeleira do of or treated in what would be considered today theutpost Røberto Faissitti and Jose disrespect. Listen for example to this song from 1932 called 011raacabeleira. "0 Teu Cabelo Nao Nega". Lamartine Babo, its alghor, Sera qu would probably be sued for his insensibility: Sera qu , (bic 0 Teu Cabelo Nao Nega Your hair doesn't deny me Babo - IrmAos Valenca)

Everlasting Tun

eu cabelo nao nega mulata Porque es mulata na car mo a cor nao pega, mulata eu uero o te o

Your hair doesn't deny, mulata Because mulatto is your color But since color doesn't catch, mutate, Mulata, I want your love ,

ens a alma cor de anil lath, mulatinha, meu tailor Fui nomeado ten tenente interventor

You have taste that's frairigrazil You have a blue coloredsoul Mulata, dear mulata, my 10ve I was appointed your intOenter lieutenant

nem te inventon, men pancadao Teve umaconsagracao A Ina te invejando fez careta orque, mulata, tu nao cis deste planeta

Who did invent you, my Was a big hit The moon envying you, m Because, mulata, you're not from planet

Quando, men barn, vieste a terra Portugal declarou guenn concorrencia entao foi colossal Vasco daGama contra a batalhao naval


But this If he is •

o cabelo dele çortao cabelo dele Vortao cabelo dele

m(aplayontheword ve and alSo queer or

Whea, darling you cametoli Portugal declared war The competition was huge then Vasco da Gama against tite batallion


mr• ornit, .... pm ma um ese ar'e the marc in/ins that (totitMili a list published by no, (http:/lwv

Cachaea • 1VfirabeauPinheiro, L. deCastro and H. Lobato Vocpensa que cachaçaé agua Do you think booze is wat Cachacanao eaguanao Booze is no water Cachacavem do alambique Booze comes from the still E agua vem do ribeirao And water comes Inuit the strea ode me faltar tudo na vida I can do without anything in life Arroz, feijao e pao Rice, beans and bread Pode me faltar manteiga I can do without butter Etudo mais no faz falta nao And all the rest means nothing Pode me faltar o mar I can do without love Isso eu ate ache graca Even think this is funnySO no quero que me falte The only thing I can't do witho A danada da cachaca N the blasted booze Me Da um Dinheiro Al (Ivan Ferreira- Homero Ferreira- Glauco Ferreira) Ei, voce a Me (Id um dinheiro ai Me dá um dinheiro ai • •

Nao vai dar. No vai dar nao Voce vai ver e andeconfusao

u you beber Beber ate cair Me da, me da, me da, oi Me dá urn dinheiro ai

932/."0 teu c o naouege ( Valenca) aLamartin 1933 — -Linda 1934 —"Linda. lour nha" (Braguin ilhosa- (An 1935 —,``Cidade 1.96 — "Pierre apaixonado" (Hei R084) 1SSI--"Mairlde eu quero" (JararacaN 1938 — "As pastorinhas" (Braguinha/Noel ,"Yes, nos temos bananas" (BraguinhaIAlbertcsibeit 1939 —"Ajardineirp- (Betted ito L acerda/Humberto P 1941 —sAtiara"(Ivlario Lago/Roberto Roberti) Ala-la/6" (Harold° Lobo/Nassara) 1942 — "NOS, os claims" (Arlindo MUq Jr./Robe Roberti) eiCaetano/ClaudionooRm ribei Cruz) 1944 —"Eu briocoBa(can (Braguin ha/A1 brt 1949,-4ffehiquita —1951 —"Tamara que,Fholta" (Paquito/Ronei,eu Gentil„) 1952 —"Sacarican o (LuiZ Antonio/JotaJunior/Oldentar irabeau/L. de Castro/Lobatn) salao'(Annando Cavalcan

You won't give You won't give, no You gonna see , The big melee Pin gonna drink Drink until I fall Gimme. gimme, gimme, he Gimme some money now

Camisinha (Chacrinha) BotacamisinhO, Put on the rubber Rota meu amor, Put it on, my love, Que hoje ta chovendo, Today is raining Nao vai fuer calor It's not getting hot ta'ácamisinha no pescoco Beta geral Nao quero ver ninguem Sem camisinha Pránào se machucar 4oGarnaval...

899 —"O abre930 — "Ta-hi

Put on the rubber on the neck Put it on all over I don't want to see anybody Without a rubber Sonodnewillgethurt This Carnaval.,

a Zilda/Waldir Mac dalosa" (Armando


sabe, sabe- (Carvalhinho/Joel de Almeida) nil' (Mirabeau/Milton de Olive/tit/UV 05744Vai corn jeito- (Braguinha) , da urn dinheiro al' (Ivan omóroidaó 1960 -/ ,Ferreira) 1961—Indio quer apito oldo Lobo/Milton deoliveira "A lua 6 dos namorados (Annan4 valcandiKlecius , Caldas) la Preta on Barbosa/ 1962 —"Marcha doC Vicente Paiva) _ oanaevirar)" (Antonio '1964--MarchadO Almeida/O. Magalhaes) cabeleira do Zeze- (Joao Robe' ars 1965 — "Ivlulata ie-ie-ie- (Joao Robert XJ ,0967 — "Mascara negra" (Ze Keti) 1970 — "0 prime iro clarinr (Klecius '"Bandeira branca (Lae= Alves/Max 1980 — "Maria S patao" (Joao /DonCarlos/La1ecb

dio Quer Apito (Haroldo Lobo Milton de Oliveira)

e'e en, en mho quer apito Indian wants whistlC Se nao der If you don't give Pau vai comer I'll beat you with a sticlç Lane Banana! Mulher de branco Otl para indio colar esquisito ndio viu presente mais bonito Ep no quer colar Indio quer apito

There in Bananal White man's woman Brought Indian weird necklace Indian saw a prettier gift Me don't want necklace Indian wants whistle

These lyrics were based on a widespread joke in the early '60s. The whistle to which the song refers is the sound of breaking wind.




President Fernando Henrique Cardoso held a two-hour long ministerial meeting in front of the press on February 6 during which he outlined some priorities of his government in the last 11 months of its lifetime. These includedputting bills before Congress on improving public security, granting the Central Bank independence from political pressure,making labor laws More flexible and reforming the social security system. He emphasized that his administration would govern until the last day of his mandate and said the presidential electoral campaign would not deflect him from ensuring that the central plank of his economic policy—maintaining a tight grip on inflation—was adhered to. The president resisted the temptation to spend a lot (Mime hailing the successes of his seven years in office. Although -. he gave himself some pats on the back he acknowledged failures particularly in the energy field. This failure led to electricity rationing, which is still continuing almost ayear after it was introduced. He hoped the next government would be beUer4ban his but warned his successor against destroying the changes, which he said the "people" had made. Overall it was a workmanlike performance, but with a certain element of wishful thinking rather than common sense as he knows it is unlikely , that Congress will pass most of the bills. The reason has to do with the election campaign, which will shortly get into top gear. Under Brazil's electoral law, candidates for the presidency, state governorships, Senate and Flouse of Representatives have to leave any government posts six months before the election. The deadline this year is April 6. This means that 12 of Cardoso's 22-strong team will shortly be quitting. These include three possible presidentialogndidates—health Iminister Jose Serra (PSDB), agricultural ,, development minister Raul Jungmann (PMDB) anod' agriculture ministeriPratini de Moraes (PPB). Other departing ministers hold the justice, labor, education, environment, social security, communications, national integration and sport --r--portfolios plus the secretary-general of the presideney,t Serra, of course, is the favorite tobe the govertutientvendiclate ifthe an s unite behind one person. However, Serra is languishing in the opinion polls with 11 percent compared with the PM' s oseana Sarney who has around 24 percent. These figures are from a national telephone poll made by the Institut() Vox opuli and show that Serra has gained some ground and for the first time has reached double ftgureS. f Serra has anticipated his departure from the government and will step down at the end of February to reassume his position as a Senator. Losing several of these ministers will be a headache( for Cardoso who will have to reshuffle his cabinet to the likingofthe four-party governing (Maw. Tins will make it c14ult to maintain the kind ofpolitical pressure needed to get his laws through Congress. As the new ministers face short terms in office we can expect little of the$t. Technocrats and lightweights rather than political heavyweights will be the likely replacementi t Within the next few weeks the battle lines should bedrawn d paigning will begin in earnest. Leading politicians will be concentrating on the electoral trailand,Congxessucould p c - d down ' to a virtual halt. There is, however, one bright spot for Cardoso. His trusty right-bane man the finance minister, Pedro Malan, will not be leaving an4wililmost certainly rve until the last day of the Cardoso mandate. The planning afld. budget ministe Matins Tavares, will also stay. The Central Bank chief, Am iti*laga, although not : ister, is another key member of the economic team and he is remaining for the t, .ment. By maintaining this impressive economic team C*desoltppearsto be sh * "Igthat he will continue with his economic policies until* therefore, i esting „ , e M41. ttWas, to see that the PFL leadership had a meeting with Fraga doting whichthey ar epotted to have said that i f Roseana Sarneywins, her govenittultatutillcontinue with rdoso's economic policies. By doing this so early in the campaign the PFL is hoping to exploit any differences which may appear during the campaign between Serra and the government. Although he is seen as a safe pair of financial hands Serra has often complained that there should be more emphasis on social programs.

looking Ahead



John Fitzpatrick is a Scottish journalist who first visited Brazil in 1981and has lived in Sao Paulo since 1995. He writes on politics and finance and runs his own company, Celtic Comunicacoes, which specializes in editorial and translation services for Brazilian and foreign clients. You can reachbimatJohnfttz( 10


The 2002 Fraternity Campaign (CF) was officially launched February 13th by the secretary-general of the National Conference of Bishops Brazil (CNBB), Dom Raymund° 7:Damaseeno. The topic of the 39th Fraternity Campaign is "Fraternity and indigenous peoples" and its motto is "For a land without evil." Sitting next to the executive ,-Isecretary ofthe Cimi (Conselho Ind ianista Missionario—Indianist Missionary Council), Egon Heck, Dom Damascene explained that the overall objective of the campaign is to pay off the social debt of the Church in relation to indigenous people and invited all those attending the ceremony to show solidarity toward them and to fight prejudice and the marginalization ofindigenous peoples. defending their rights. This year, the message of pope John Paul II, who traditionally sends greetings from the Vatican to be read in the opening ceremonies of all fraternity campaigns, underlined a sentence from the 2nd Letter of Saint Paul to the Corinthians: "Now is the accepted time; behold, now is the day of salvation," to warn Christians that Lent is a time to renew our alliance with God. — lhe Church will always i'be there to assist all those who suffer the consequences of poverty and marginal ization, and will continue to lend its maternal hand all indigenous peoples and work with them in building a society where every individual, created in the image and likeness ofGod, will have his or her rights respected and appropriate living conditions as children of God and brethren in Jesus Christ," the pope stressed. "Hie CT 2002 has six specific objectives: support the demarcation of indigenous lands and the approval of the Statute of Indigenous Peoples; demand concrete actions in favor of indigenous peoples from the federal administration; tight the prejudice that marginalizes indigenous citizens and humiliate them: create a space for reflection and discussions about ourdiversity and wealth: promote a dialogue with other churches that work with indigenous peoples and, finally, enhance the involvement of international groups that are responsive to the indigenous cause, Based on these principles, the campaign intends to encourage Christians to learn with the cultural wealth and wisdom of indigenous people, for whom community values and solidarity are away' of life and who respect the earth as a source of resources for the survival of human beings. Health threat Egon Heck mentioned how it is taking a longtime for the government to demarcate indigenOUS- lands. Although the constitutional deadline has expired, ofthe 756 indigenous lands existing in Brazil. only 236 have been fully demarcated. The demarcation ofindigenous ilands is a fundamental requirement for the indigenous population to multiply,' and keep their customs and traditions alive. C'imi's executive secretary also reported that the health system available to indigenous peoples has been deeply affected by changes :in the governmental policy in relation to the Special Indigenous Sanitary Districts (DSEls). Cuts in the budget for joint activities with , indigenous organizations and NGOs may lead to the adoption of standardized salaries and to the dismissal ofmiddle-level technicians (nursing assistants,: microseopists, health agents) who will not be able to be hired again in the future4iit,!1,t, '


Joining Hands



British Gas, in Brazil at least, had ianother frustrating month in January 2002. After finally last year getting effective action from the ANP (Agencia Nacional do Pen:6 leo---Brazil's oil and gas independent regulatory agency) against special Petrobras privileges in use of the Gasbol pipeline (through its control of that line's operating subsidiary, TBG), Petrobras took its monopoly power to Bolivia and shut-off much of the BG gas HG 's distributor affiliate, Ccimgas (Companhia de Gas de So Paulo), needed to supply the sao Paulo market. Petrobras was. olcourse, there with its own imported Bolivian gas to pick-up the HG 'shortage' Petrobras had so cleverly engineered. In other words, despite repeated clear policy statements and legal rulings by ANP that mandate free access to all Brazilian natural gas pipelines, now for well over one year, Petrobras uses its vertically and horizontally structured economic monopoly to frustrate national public policy. Petrobras had 'over-nominated' its proportion of the natural gas imported through the: Ciasbol (Gasodueto Bolivia-Brasil or the Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline), first in Brazil and then in Bolivia. In Bolivia it denominated a quantity sufficient that the Petrobras quota alone exceeded pipeline capacity. necessitating eliminatin:g BG-owned gas. ANP is now planning a closer audit of Gasbol imports to determine that Petrobras, in each case, really has customers forthe natural gas quantities it 'nominates' for transport through the Gasbol. Despite such setbacks "1-3G is in Brazil for the long-run," Francois Moreau, a director of BG's South American group operations told Power in LatinAmerica man exclusive February interview. N:loreau believes that"market-oriented foundational bel iefs and desires of ANP reflect the desires of both the federal administration and most public opinion makers concerned with long-term energy solutions in Brazil." Mr. Moreau cites not just the regulatory: victories WI, and before them Enron, has had in its ANP arbitrated disputes with Petrobras, but the actions of the GCE (the federal emergency executive committee empowered to deal with Brazil's supply crisis in electric power) in addressing long-term structural conditions that will work to bring investor interest and eventually a market-model into the electric sector. "Price blending works well if you are talking about state control" Francis Moreau argues. "Given the present market control iPetrobras has in gas there is really no available present alternative to the now three-tiered, government-controlled pricing of natural gas. But in electric, the new GCE plan has done something very encouraging for a market model. It is taking the so-called 'old' energy : out of the competitive sector, taken it out of the competition to create 'new' electric generation for Brazil's growing demands and is leaving that to market forces. The planned subsidy for transportation of imported gas and special price for gas thermo generated electricity is, at heart, a scheme to maintain 'water insurance' or a margin of protection against further droughts, while at the same titne, affording gas generation a level playing field against 'new' hydro-based generation: something in the projected range of US$33 MWH." Moreau believes that "one way' or another Brazil vu ill be dominated by free market pricing in the entire energy sector within 10 : years". Still parts of the old model are still to be 'perfected' in the gas market. Petrobras is being strongly encouraged by ANP to giveup its majority control of the Gasbol. Petrobras indeed reports it is negotiating sale of 2 percent of its 51 percent of TI3G shares. While at the same time. Petrobras seeks to increase its vertical participation in the Rio de Janeiro gas distributors CEG (Companhia Distribuidora de Gas do Rio de Janeiro) and CEG-Rio. Petrobras is negotiating with the bankruptcy court in New York to buy Enron shares in those companies, respectively 25 percent and 33 percent of outstanding shares, giving Petrobras effective control of the Rio de Janeiro natural gas distribution market. Conrad Johnson, the author, is an American attorney, permanently residing in Brazil. He writes for various :

New Hope

publications on development and legul. issues in Latin America. You can reach him at



The world today faces two realities: on the economic side, a downsizing

Prescription for Brazil Brazil—at its current level of almost a trillion rea is a year, five thousand rea is per capita, with its financial and intellectual infrastructure— already has the necessary resources to eradicate poverty. CRISTOVAM BUARQUE


of the state, the privatization of economic activities, market-oriented reasoning, commercial opening, and respect for fiscal limitations with a commitment to monetary stability; on the social side, a serious landscape ofpoverty, worsened by the increase in social inequality, which is leading to a separation or a partition system as each part of society develops separately—one, rich and included in modernity; the other, poor and excluded. There is no indication that the economical reality will be replaced by some new structure in the next few years, or that th e social reality will improve on its own through the simple evolution of the economy. The challenge of the years to come will be to discover forms of public intervention that can overcome social partition, eradicating the landscape of poverty from Brazilian society without waiting for changes in the economic reality. The road to take is not a repetition of the failed proposal of enriching the wealthy in the hope of a later distribution of the product; neither is it the idea of a liberating social revolution. Welfare programs of the type used in rich countries are even less applicable to Brazil. The alternative proposed here is the creation of a system of social productivism: employing the poor population through social incentives so that Brazil will produce the essential goods and services for the whole of its population. The eradication ofpoverty in Brazil calls fora massive effort of the type used in the Abolition of Slavery, as much an ethical commitment as an act of political BRAZZIL - FEBRUARY 2002

will. Even so, there is one difference: in place of a legal solution, poverty demands a comprehensive program—a Golden Program. Instead of waiting for the revolution or for economic growth, this program uses the eradication of poverty as a way of inducing economic growth from the base and lets the next generations, free from poverty, invent anew utopia and struggle to build it. 1. THE PERSISTENCE OF POVERTY . Few social themes are more disturbing and difficult to explain than the persistence of poverty in Brazil. What could explain why, after more than one century of continued growth and after the construction of a powerful economic structure, the Brazilian population continues to display a dramatic panorama of poverty? Why, after becoming the world's eighth economic power, does Brazil continue to be one of the countries with the worst social indicators, worse than those of many poorer countries? Up until the sixties, theorists assigned the blame to the lack of economic infrastructure, the lack of incentives for foreign investments, the lack of a national capacity for investment, the concentration of land ownership, the national culture of preferring leisure to work. Little by little these causes ceased to exist. Few countries have an economic infrastructure to match the stature of Brazil's. When they are employed, Brazilians work more than the workers of other nationalities; foreign investments came by the dozen; land distribution will no longer solve the problem ofthe 80 percent ofthe population that is urban; thanks to fiscal incentives, Brazil has one of the highest investment potentials of all the countries in the world. Then new causes were suggested: protectionism maintaining an inefficient industry; excessive regulations standing in the way of investments; closed financial markets keeping out more foreign capital. The reforms started in the nineties solved all these problems. But poverty persists. And its persistence calls for anew explanation. a) Economic growth does not reduce poverty In the seventies, I had the opportunity to work within the SUDENE (Superintendency for the Development of the Northeast) system, which sought to eradicate poverty in the Brazilian Northeast by means of the so-called fiscal incentives, and at the Inter-American Development Bank, which sought to eradicate poverty in all of the Latin American continent by following the same philosophy: injecting endless capital into the region or country as an effort to induce economic growth in the hopes of a natural distribution ofthe income to the entire population. Thirty years later, a visitor to the Brazilian Northeast or to any country 6RAZZIL-FEBRUARY2002

in Latin America wi I notice that the poor areas of the continent have grown at a rap d pace since then; they have become rich in economic and urb n infrastructure, in their production capacity, and in economic iversity. But poverty persists. The mistake in the fifty-year fig t against poverty in Brazil and other Latin American countrie was to believe—or falsely promise—that economic growth ould reduce and eradicate poverty. The theory held then w s that wealth spreads as it grows, trickling down to the poor. ccording to this idea, poverty would be eradicated by prod ction to meet the demands of the rich, thus creating jobs for th• poor and paying them wages to lift them out of poverty. Based upon th s principle, the entities fighting poverty justified the fiscal i centives by which the government paid for the installation of *ndustries that would produce for the rich, claiming that this ould create jobs for the poor. Automobile factories, hotels, m nsions, airports, economic infrastructure— all these generate', according to the reasoning of that era, benefits for the p or, who worked as waiters, bricklayers, porters, factory w srkers and flanelinhast and were seen as beneficiaries of th wealthy sector's progress. A temporary in rease in poverty was even justified to make that system work in the hope that future wealth that would come


to everybody. The inflation that impoverished the poor, while the rich had their own, monetarily adjusted currency, was justified as the government's way of investing to support the industries, thus building the infrastructure; the fiscal sacrifice, which took money from schools, hospitals, water and sewer systems to finance industrialists, was justified as a means for creating employment. The concentration of income was even justified with the argument that it benefited the poor since, without the rich to buy the products manufactured by the industries, there would be no jobs to lift the poor from poverty. But poverty persisted for two reasons: since there was not enough employment for everybody, the wages remained low; and, above all, since poverty is not a phenomenon of the economy. The true cause ofthe persistence of poverty in Brazil is the belief that poverty is the opposite of wealth, and that, in order to eradicate the poverty of the poor, it would be first necessary to further enrich the wealthy and wait for the income to trickle down to the whole population. This can be valid for very poor countries that have not yet acquired a minimum of infrastructure, income or potential. In Brazil, poverty persists because of the obsession with the search for wealth. b)The growth of inequality Beginning in the late eighties, it became evident that growth would not eradicate poverty, and that it could even threaten the ecosystem. Instead of reorienting the social model, however, Brazilian governments preferred to stick with thealternative of explicitly concentrating the development for the few. In these last ten years, the rich have obviously enriched themselves more quickly than the poor have left poverty, thereby increasing the social gap to the extent that today's Brazil demonstrates more than inequality: it is an example of social separation. After fifty years of hearing the false promise that increasing national wealth reduces social poverty, Brazilians are now being promised that globalization will enrich the country's poor up to the global levels of the wealthy in the rich countries. But in the process a separated society is being built, setting the rich in Brazil apart from the poor. Meanwhile, Brazilian politicians continue to be split between those who promise wealth for everybody thanks to the foreign investments that will come after state controls have been lessened, and those who promise to raise everyone from poverty thanks to guarantee of quality state services for all. A stand-off between the left wing's promises of the paradise of public services and the right wing's promises ofthe paradise of global economy with neither side offering any concrete proposals for the immediate eradication of poverty. It is as if the abolitionists, one hundred years ago, had promised to end slavery after they established socialism, while the rest of the country had said the same result would be achieved after Brazil became rich and developed. c) Definition of poverty For fifty years, the Brazilian poor believed in the logic that the needs ofthe poor could be met by catering to the demands of the rich. But growth does not generate employment for everybody. nor does it pay enough wages to meet the needs of the poor. The workers built the hotels and the houses for the rich, they produced the cars and other products for the rich, but when they went home, there was no running 14

water, sewerage, or garbage collection. Their children had no schools, or attended low-quality ones; their families went without a satisfactory healthcare system. Brazil became wealthy in proportions unimagined by even the most optimistic, but poverty persisted because the wealth has not been distributed, and because the ticket out of poverty is not an increase of income but, rather, a change in the availability of essential goods and services. The line that separates the rich from the poor is not horizontal, separating those above or below a certain income level; itis vertical, separating those on one side from those on the other, the ones who have access from those who are excluded from five goods and services: food; basic, quality education; efficient healthcare: comfortable, efficient public transportation; housing with drinkable water, garbage collection and sewerage. The strategy for the eradication of poverty, therefore, does not depend upon the increase of social income or economic growth, but, rather, upon public policies that assure everybody direct access to these essential goods and services. The economy is a necessary condition, but it is not the way; it is merely the basis ofthe strategy. And Brazil—at its current level of almost a trillion reais' a year, five thousand reais per capita, ith an expected public-sector revenue of above four hundred billion, with its industrial and agricultural potential, with its financial and intellectual infrastructure—already has the necessary resources to eradicate poverty, once this goal is pursued and investments are made for that purpose. d)Social productivism The strategy of increasing the national wealth by creating employment should continue, but without the mistaken claim that this will eradicate poverty. Another lie was the attempt to import the Keynesianism that gave. people jobs with the sole purpose of creating income, as in the case of the make-work projects. This strategy lies when it states that a poor mother can flee poverty when she receives a minimum-wage salary for painting curbs in the rich neighborhoods, while at the same time leaving her underage children locked up at home, thus repeating the vicious cycle of poverty in the uneducated next generation. The way to eradicate poverty is to employ the population directly in the production of essential goods and services, to create a social productivism that turns the unemployed poor into producers of what Brazil needs to eradicate poverty from its society. Of the five essential goods and services, three will not be available in the marketplace to the employedworkers with a low or medium income: education, healthcare, water and sewerage are not services that can be bought in the marketplace by those who live on low or medium wages. Either the state offers these services publicly, or the poor will not have access to them. Employing the poor in the production of essential goods and services creates an income, while at the same time producing that which is necessary to eradicate poverty. The unemployed are treated as potential energy to be used in the production of the essential goods and services. Two problems, unemployment and poverty, are thus combined and both are solved. Two separate entities when they meet, they can mutually cancel each other. But someone has to pay for that. e) The social incentives BRAZZIL - FEBRUARY 2002

For almost fifty years the fiscal incentives served to dynamize regional economies and to enrich society, especially those who had access to them, but no concrete effect was generated in the struggle for the eradication of poverty. Instead of financing companies that produce to cater to the demands of the rich, social incentives directly pay those who produce to meet the needs of the poor population. Through social incentives the poor receive the necessary income to guarantee the purchase of nourishment and public transportation; and, at the same time, they produce essential goods and services, such as education, healthcare and housing with drinkable water, garbage collection and sewerage. Social incentives can be direct, when the poor are paid to produce social goods and services, or indirect, when those who are not poor are paid to produce essential goods and services. 2. DIRECT SOCIAL INCENTIVES Expanded leave Education begins in preschool. According to the traditional vision, some promise quality state childcare centers for all children, while others promise that all parents will be rich enough to pay for good childcare centers for their own children. These are two lies. The economywill not guarantee jobs that pay enough to cover the costs of childcare centers for everybody. The government will not have the financial resources or managerial capacity to administerthe 30,000 to 50,000 centers necessary to serve a population of3 million poor families with 0-5 yearold children. Meanwhile, children insist upon growing up without waiting for either a social revolution or the development that would make Brazil as rich as the European countries. A simple, immediate solution consists of remunerating poor mothers so that they themselves or some adult in the family can take care oftheir children, or so that they can finance small local childcare centers. This extends to all families the right already acquired by the mothers with a job: leave to take care of their children. With this universal, expanded maternity leave and withoutthe need to wait for state childcare centers, poor families will have the conditions necessary to care for their children. In place of make-work projects for mothers forced to lock their children at home, or domestic work, caring for the children ofrich and middle class mothers, they can take care of their own children, making sure that they attend school in good condition for continuing their studies. The cost of paying one minimumwage salary a month per family, and furnishing a basket of educational toys to all the poor children will be R$ 3.5 billion a year (US$ 1.43 billion). Bolsa Escola (School Scholarship) The lack of education is one characteristic of poverty, and it is a vector that perpetuates a vicious cycle of poverty. To break this cycle, it is necessary to make sure that the poor children study in spite of poverty. The Bolsa Escola takes advantage of the financial needs of the poor in order to induce their children to study in exchange for remuneration. This program, contested when it was proposed at the University of Brasilia in 1987 and defended in the campaign for the government of the Federal District (Brasilia) in 1994, is being introduced throughout Brazil and in several other countries. By paying half a minimum wage salary to each family, the Bolsa Escola for ten million children would cost R$ 4.3 billion (US $1.76). Granted for BRAZZIL - FEBRUARY 2002

15 years, the time necessary for the children now being born to complete their middle-school education, the Bolsa Escola would be a decisive element in the definitive eradication of poverty in Brazil. Poupanca Escola (School Savings) The Bolsa Escola induces regular school attendance by depositing halfa minimum wage salary in a savings account for each Bolsa Escola student who passes his or her final exams. The Poupanca Escola induces the students to pass to the next grade and finish their basic ed cation. This money can be withdrawn only when the student concludes the secondary course. The Poupanca Escola's aximum cost for ten million children is R$ 900 million (US$ 3 0 million) a year for eleven years, if all the students finish midd e school. This is much less than the billions now wasted as resu t of the immense number of students who repeat grades. Whe the time came for that amount to be paid, the Poupanca Esc la would have already proven its own success, that of the s cial incentive, and that of Brazil's Golden Program. Escola em Cas (School at Home) Five hundred t ousand middle-school youths from poor families will be hire at a cost ofhalfthe minimumwage a month each to serve as tut rs and private teachers for classmates and younger children. or as long as Brazilian students attend schools with only h 1f-day sessions, this program will create an additional income for poor families, engage the youths in educational instea of street activities, and keep the children busy with their horn •work and other educational activities. The total cost of this pro ram is R$ 540 million (US$ 222 million) a year. Civic service For six month each, two million youths a year will be incorporated into c vii services, into the armed forces, and into civil organizations for civic, physical, technical and professional education, d as a form of community support at an individual cost of R 200 (US$ 82)a month, ofwhich R$ 100 (US$ 41) goes to the yout and R$ 100, to the institution, at a total cost of R$ 2.4 billion (U $ 986 million)a year. Construction f schools The constructi n of 30,000 new schools in four years, at a cost of R$ 1.5 billio (US$ 616 million) ayear, would employ the low-income popul tion and would constitute a great leap forward in the educati n of children from poor families. Construction f water and sewerage systems Although cont acted by companies, the installation of water and sewera •e systems is another example of a social incentive because ost of the resources go to pay for the lowincome constructi n work and the product stays in the homes of those who do n • t now have indoor plumbing. The five-year imp lem entat ion of eated water, sewers, and garbage collection for all houses in Br zilian cities would have a total cost of R$ 2.5 billion (US$ 1.03 b Ilion) a year. Rural resettle ent and agricultural industries Resettlement o two million landless families would have an annual cost, over fi e years, of R$ 5 billion (US$ 2.05 billion), and the establishment 100,000 family agricultural industries, over five years, would c st R$ 200 million (US$ 82 million) a year. Formation of orkforce and microcredit 15

A program for workforce formation and the creation of a microinvestnients fund would cost R$ 3 billion (US$ 1.23 billion) a year, which includes funding ofR$ 6 billion (US$ 2.46 billion) for the Banco do Povo [People's Bank] over a four-year period. Bolsa Alfa (Literacy Scholarship) This program would pay each of the 20 million illiterate adults a remuneration of R$ 100 (US$ 41) to learn to read, this amount to be paid on the day when he/she writes his or her first letter in the classroom. When the government buys that first classroom letter written by the formerly illiterate person after at least three months of perfect attendance, it is transferring income to the poor population, but, above all, it is eradicating illiteracy in a short amount oftime. For the four-year period, the Bolsa Alpha's would cost R$ 500 million (US$ 205) a year. 3. Indirect Social Incentives University inclusion Upto R$ 800 million (US$ 329 million) ayear would cover the costs of a program by which, for one semester, all university students would be obliged to be literacy workers for four hours of classes a week. Allied with the Bolsa Alpha, this program would not only eradicate illiteracy in four years, it would also create a new mentality in the "social partition" consciousness of our youths and higher-education level professionals. This is a fundamental way to fight for the eradication of poverty. Hiring teachers and increasing teachers' wages Over four years, 500,000 new teachers would be hired in Brazil for basic primary and secondary education, and the medium wage for all teachers would be raised to R$ 1,000.00 (US$ 411.00)—an almost 100 percent increase over the current average. In 2006, this would mean a cost of R$ 14.4 billion (US$ 5.92 billion) a year. This is an indirect incentive because these teachers are not from poor families, but, by breaking the cycle of poverty, it would result in an improvement in education. Hiring of civil servants It takes more than teachers to make a school. Universal education up to the conclusion of secondary school will necessitate the hiring of sixty thousand civil servants at a cost of R$ 860 million (US$353 million)peryear. Healthcare at Home The establishment of a system of "healthcare in the home" or "family healthcare", for one hundred million people at an annual cost ofaround R$ 3 billion (US$ 1.23 billion) is an indirect social incentive because most of the costs go to healthcare professionals; beneficiaries, however, will be the poor covered by the system. University Scholarship Grants will go to up to 400,000 students in private universities who are taking courses in the areas of specialization needed to carry out the Golden Program, such as teachers, health professionals, sanitary engineers, at an annual cost ofR$ 1 billion (US$411 million). 4. It is possible a) The investment in the program The gross cost of a program for the eradication ofpoverty in Brazil at its maximum level would be R$ 44.4 billion (US$ 18.25 billion) a year. On the other hand, the cost is in fact much less than that because taxes take back about 30 percent of it, reducing the net cost to R$ 31 billion (US$ 12.8). This amount is still not the real 16

cost because, when in effect, the program reduces expenses in several areas, such as welfare assistance, which would be partly unnecessary; healthcare, by preventing simple diseases caused by malnutrition; education, by ending the repetition of grades; and safety, with the decrease of violence. It is possible to estimate that the real disbursement for the entire program would not exceed R$ 25 billion (US$ 10.27) in the years of maximum expenses. That equals about 6 percent of the projected revenue for the Brazilian public sector, about 2 percent of the national income. Implementation could begin with about R$ 10 billion (US$ 4.11 billion) in the first year, of which R$ 4 billion (US$ 1.64 billion)was already used in 2001 by the Fund to Combat Poverty. The Golden Program is an investment. Should its subprograms be maintained for 10 to 15 years, it would become unnecessary, having accomplished its goals. The children of the program's beneficiary families will no longer need that type of support. Brazil will have overcome its landscape of poverty. b) Ethics and mathematics Political speeches are usually divided between those suffering from unrealistic utopianism and those imprisoned by financial limitations. The former propose the solution of all social problems without taking into account the limitations of resources; the latter prefer to ignore social problems in favor of considering that there are no resources. In the name of ethics, the first ones ignore the mathematical limitations; the others ignore ethics in favor ofthese limitations. In fact, both groups ignore politics: the first for not understanding that politics does not create resources; it merely reorients those available in society, which is itself always under the dictatorship of finances; the others for not considering the fact that within the financial reality, even under the dictatorship of finances, politics can change the allocation of resources as long as there is political will in accord with the rules defined in society. A political speech always needs to keep one foot in mathematics, but it is only justified if it has the other fully planted in ethics. Without ethical sensibility, there is no reason for concentrating resources in the struggle for the eradication of poverty; without consciousness of the mathematical limitations determined by finances, however, speeches about ethics fall into demagogy. When coldly limited to the reality ofthe current distribution ofresources, the political speech loses sensitivity and ethics and begins to accept poverty as an inevitability, just as slavery was once thought to be inevitable. The solution is to accept the mathematical limitations of resources but also to reject the ethical reality ofhow society's resources are now distributed. Most of the political speeches of those who desire a world without poverty, state that it can be done by means of simple governmentdeterm nation, through decrees, as was the case when slavery was abolished by the Lei Aurea ("The Golden Law"). And most of the conservative speeches do not take into account the need for the eradication of poverty, affirming that Brazil has no way to do this. Every time that a proposal is made, the "lack of resources" BRAZZIL - FEBRUARY 2002

objection is raised. This way ofthinking is similarto that ofmany slave owners who claimed to favor the end of slavery but could see no possibility of this occurring since the governments at the time did not have enough resources to buy all the slaves before freeing them. The utopian desire collided with the limits of resources until the government purely and simply came up with the abolitionist law by decree. The greatest part of society, including many abolitionists, was unable to consider the possibility of the immense unpaid debt to the slave owners caused by the abolition law. It took society centuries to want to abolish slavery, decades without finding the necessary financial resources to buy all the slaves to free them, decades without the technical imagination to come up with the idea of freeing the slaves by passing the debt on to the oppressors. The political will was then capable of accepting this technical solution, which compensated for the lack of public resources by laying the burden for the end of slavery on the shoulders of the slave owners, who had invested immense fortunes in their purchases. Resources are limited, but, by distributing them within these limitations, the dreams can become reality. In the case of slavery, the distribution was made by decree when the abolitionists had gained enough power, along with the Crown and the Government, for the Golden Law to be signed by decree. In response to the political reality ofthe moment, on behalf of the Emperor, a juridical technique granted freedom, turning the power of someone to own a slave into the right of everyone to be free. It was a simple, powerful transfer of the slave owners' resources to the slaves, done by an elite embarrassed by slavery, pressured by the abolitionist movements, and subjected to conflicts of the liberationist slaves' movements. And, also, the elite was starting to pay a high price for maintaining slavery. In the case of slavery, political will linked the dream of abolition with the limitations of resources by employing the legislative solution ofthe Golden Law. In the case of eradicating poverty, there is not one isolated law that can accomplish this social miracle. To link the ethical dream with mathematical limitations, it is necessary to findthe correct technical solutions, defining the group of programs, measures and instruments appropriate for the "Poverty Golden Law," which will be financed through the exercise of political will. c) Politics and technique Unlike in the times of slavery, when many considered that the system was permanent and that its abolition would risk social and economic disarray, today everybody says they would like to eradicate poverty. At thattime there were religious impediments for the abolition of slavery because a considerable part of theology considered slavery to be a system created by God, while today all theology acknowledges the need to eradicate poverty. There were also ideological impediments because it was then believed that slavery sustained part of the social and economic system, while nowadays it is a widely accepted truth

that poverty stands n the way of development and threatens the social structure. Finally, in the t mes of slavery there were strong legal impediments to its a olition, especially those that defended the slave owners' rights to maintain the property for which they had paid; today, on the contrary, the laws and the Constitution defend the end of poverty. Unlike in the times of slavery, today there is no legal, ideological or moral impediment to our movin g towards the elimination of poverty. The impediments are, therefore, political since the eradication of poverty demands a transfer of social resources from one use to another, and, above all, they are technical due to ignorance of the means to achieve eradication. The two impediments, political and technical, are tied together because the first depends on the costs defined by the second. The Golden Program offers a group of measures that together would serve to eradicate poverty under two premises: monetary stability, keeping the total public-se or expenses within the limits of available resources, without iscal deficit; democracy, al ays defining expenses and budgetary changes through t e Congress, with no "packages" allowed. 5. It is not eno gh At this time in e history of Brazilian society, the eradication of poverty is i s greatest ethical goal. But, obviously, by itself this objective is not enough. Besides eradicating poverty, Brazil needs to bu Id its wealth, and for that reason it should continue its effort for economic growth. The Social Inc ntives Program for eradicating poverty has an ethical goal, b t it also has an immediate influence on economic growth. While distributing the income that covers social incentives, he Program will necessarily create an economic dynamic b means of a Keynesianism that is socially productive and fi i ancially balanced. Instead of waiting for growth to eradicat poverty, the eradication of poverty induces the economic gro th. A growth from the base. '"Little flann 1 boys": people who "keep an eye" on your car, or "help" you to find a parking space at a public place in exchange for a tip they're usually young and carry a piece of cloth, like the oran e flannel used for polishing; hence the name. 2 Brazilian curr ncy, the real. Rate: US$ 1.00 equals approximately R$ 2.50, a the time of this writing.

Translated by arcelo Carvalho. Cristovam B argue is the President of the NGO Missao Crianca and the author of the book A Segund Abolicdo [Abolishing Poverty: A Proposal for Brazil]. He is t e former governor of the Federal District of Brasili and ex rector of the University of Brasilia.


articles on them?

NEXT STOP: BRAZIL went on me ast nip tan oun t e. artic e about Joao Herbert (hilp:// p I Ofeb00.htm) in your magazine. I am an American of Portuguese-African extraction, my mother's family African American and my father's family Cape-V.erdean, African American and German American. My husband. and I were shocked and appalled at the actions of the US Government. How insensitive! If my parents adopted me and years later the government sent me back to Cape Verde. I would be so lost and depressed I wouldn't know what to do. I will pray for sound minds to prevail in the next deportation case. Apparently the U.S government has not respect for the family circle or the sanctity of a parents love, Isn't it strange that we can lay down our military_ arms and allow tyrannical world leaders like T'idel Castro visit upon our shores, but we close loving arms and make hard our faces in such a delicate matter as this. My husband and! are interested in building ahomeand living in Brazil ?swell astoadopt two (boy and girl) Brazilian children. We on t care if they are brown skinned, we love children and they are God's gift. We want to learn as much as we can. Please send us your magazine and we will be happ to subscribe.

Jene Martins Ruano-Serret Shelby Township, Michigan THOSE WERE THE DAYS You are invited to participate in thisdialogue Write to Letters to the Publisher P 0 Box 50536

Los Angeles,CA90050.0536 or send E-mail to

brazzil@brazzitcorn ALWAYS THE DARK SIDE ry or ing in tourism we promote t e razi ian culture, the better side of Brazil, Ayliereas I am yetto see positive aspects of Brazil in your magazine. I guess you write what your 70 percent of your readers want to read: a poor and corrupt Brazil.

Marcia O'Reilly bra-usa-turismo(o3.worldnetattnet A CRUSH ON BRAZIL ongratu anon s on putting toget er a magazine on such a great topic. Brazil- is a fantaslic country! :-) andsince I in obsessed with Brazil and especially theirmusic, your magazine should be very interesting.

Krista Kateneva Montezuma, New Mexico BeautifUl and inspiring piece° textyou ve written on Suba ( musmar00.htm). I am seriously amazed by the personality of Suba, even jealous (hahaha)! I printed the article and will be reading it at home again, listening to his album! I an involved in electronic music as well and felt little inspired lately. Amazing how an article seems to change that. "I will get busy again in what I seem to love so much (hut what seems to be little accepted in Europe (Holland): Brazilian beats and harmonies. Still it's pretty difficult but ope can't stop trying! Thanx again and keep bringing us fantastic tunes!

Eelco Blees Holland TRY OUR OWN JOHN MILLER is a Pt e sit ransom ans. ope you don't mind me getting in touch with you. I'm researchingfor a television series that looks at style and lifestyle around the world. I've been trying to find some people to chat to ab9ut the city because we're trying to find six locations to film that best represent-the style of the place. This would include a hotel, restaurant, fashion designer and three or four really beautiful homes. I'm finding research really difficult at the moment, primarily because a) I'm based in London and b) my Portuguese is nonexistent. So, I know it s a long shot but if you have any sugg_estions for people I could speak to in the city, I'd be hugely grateful! Many thanks

Danielle Bertfield London, England

P ear arre

estmore an , so tnuc I enjoyed \ our story about your first Carnaval experience in Brazil. Just loved it and the wording was just perfect. Lots of fun reading it and brought back lots of memories—vven)efore your time like back in the mid-fifties. My main Carnm al experience was in Rio then and it was very, very unusual—we lived in Leblon. My niece now teaches economics at the Escola Americana in Rio and plays volleyball with a Brazilian team on the lbeach of either Ipanem.aorLeblon,don'tIcnow which. I love my memories ofthose years in Brazil and! hope you continue to visit there and will possibly continue to write more about this year's experience with Carnaval.

Nancy Hall THE AMBROSIO CONNECTION Pear : ruce, asa crnam. ucano ivmnO ere in the US, t was thorough I \. impressed \ our article Mestre Ambrosio-in Brozzilmaa2ine. In addition to being an. Ambrosio. fan. IThip.e a personal connection with them, since my wile, Ham, attended the Conservatorio F.'ernamb.ucano. de Musica, where she was friends with Sergio Cassino. She also got to meet Helder Vasconcelos in Engineering school, I would very much liketo knowyour take on their second and third albums. Are you planning to write more „

Ulisses Via Internet HELP OFFERED am al vo unteer stu • entgoing to razi to volunteer through a non-profit non-government manization, the Institute for International Cooperation and .Development .From March 16 fo June 8 I will be volunteering in Brazil.! will be in paranA, Salvador Recife, and a couplepf other cities in northeastern Brasil. I am very interested in spending some of my time volunteenng in hospitals in Salvador, Bahia, and Recife. Do you have any suggestions on hospitals I can contaptto set a perio-d-when I can volunteer in thehospitals? I recently received my Bachelor of Science degree (biology major) and Jam very interested in pursuing a medical career. Any contacts or suggestions on whom I should contact, to ovolunleerwork in hospitals while lam in Brazil, will be greatly appreciated.

Doreen Fuller DISAPPEARING ACT 1S at s apperungto e menin • o. ere are more males than re-males at age 12 and not at age 20 then natural pauses is not-indicated. Are they gloving or dying from unnatural causes? And if so What?

LG Via Internet HOW TO GET BRAZZIL e I do ow ow tosuescriseto ra77) in my con titt- so that I can receive the news in English as! deal with the language. I got you by reading the Washington Post site everyday.

Manoel Miguel Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil AMAZON.COM o owi you can give me in ormation on where I pan buy the movie "Dona Flor e Seus Dors Mari.dos" (in the original Portuguese version) in the States.

Grace Milstein VVVVVV.MNMMR.ORG.BR am writing to you leeause apt very interested on the MNMMR (Movimento Nacional de Meninos e Meninas de Rpa— Nacional Movement of StreetBoys and Girls). However,! am finding it very d ifficult to find any data that would tell me where the movement is at the moment and how much it has been able to ach ieve so far! Could you be so kind in letting me know? Or could you tell me who would belaest to contact?

Maite Onochie Quintanilla maiteonochie@hotmaiLcom


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recent report released by Amnesty International. (See accompanying table.) The London-based organization sent a copy of their report to Brazilian Minister ofJustice Aloysio Nunes on January 11. And in the wake of Celso Daniel's murder, it has also released copies of the report to its offices worldwide, as well as to the international press. The report contains a long list of violent acts perpetrated against petistas (Workers' Party affiliates), totaling 70 death threats and 16 deaths since 1997. Amnesty International has urged the Brazilian governmentto fully investigate and punish those responsible for Daniel's murder and for other recent shootings. The Santo Andre killing was the fifth crime against petistas in four months—all in the state of SAo Paulo. On September 10, 2001, gunmen shot and killed another popular PT leader, Campinas mayor Antonio da Costa Santos, better known as Ton inho do PT. On November 12, three shots were fired at the mother in law's house of the mayor Felix Sahao of Catanduva. Sahao had moved from that house at the end of 2000. On November 11, the mayor of Ribeirao Corrente, Airton Luiz Montanher, was a victim of a botched kidnapping. On November 28, a homemade bomb went off at the home of Embu mayor Geraldo Cruz and another one at the home of his aide, Paulo Gianinni. Both escaped with light injuries. To date, the murder of Toninho do PT remains unsolved.

Who's Afraid of the PT?

On January 21st, over 20,000 Behind the Violence people took to the streets of Santo Who is killing the PT Andre, a blue-collar town on the outskirts of Sdo Paulo, to mourn and bury In the squabble to identify the perpetrators of leaders? Two main opposing its popular Workers' Party (PT) mayor, the crimes, two main opposing views have surviews have surfaced. One is faced. One is that these crimes have been commit50-year old Celso Daniel. Walking behind the fire truck that carried the that these crimes have been ted by a disgruntled faction within the ranks ofthe mayor's casket, the grieving crowd Workers' Party who is unhappy about the modcommitted by a disgruntled erate instance adopted by some of its leaders. cried for "justice" and "peace". Daniel's murder followed his kidnapThe murdered mayor of Santo Andre was one faction within the ranks of ping, which took place on January 18, such moderate. Daniel, who was serving his third the Workers' Party. Another term as mayor, had implemented controversial after he and a friend had left a restaurant in the city of Sao Paulo. His bullettheory is that the measures during his administration. Not only did riddled body was found 32 hours later, he privatize the city-owned transportation sysafter police received a tip from an masterminds are right-wing tem, but he also entered into what he considered anonymous caller. to be necessary partnerships with private-owned paramilitary groups and/or companies. His firing of public servants and The outcry over Daniel's murder prompted President Fernando Henreduction of salaries and work hours for those organized crime. rique Cardoso to hold a news conferwho remained in the job were also incompatible ence and pledge to "wage a war against with the ideology of a leftist party. MARTA ALVIM organized crime, against banditry in Still, the social projects he implemented Brazil, and against impunity." Simultathroughout his administration were extremely neously, Sao Paulo governor Geraldo successful. So much so that in 2000 he was reAlckmin announced a $21,000 (50,000 elected with over 70 percent of the popular vote. reais)reward—the maximum allowed In addition, Daniel was invited to join the team in by Brazilian law—to anyone with incharge of putting together the administration formation leading to the arrest of the kidnappers. The governor program of presidential hopeful Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva. PT's founding father and honorary president, Lula, has had speculated that the crime might have been politically motivated, since no ransom had been demanded. But police officials his share of criticism as well. In the often-heated debate over involved in the investigation believed that common criminals how the PT should define itself ideologically, the party's more were behind the crime instead. orthodox faction believes that they should still follow the Unlike other Latin American countries that have a history politics of former socialist countries as a model. On the other of political crimes, Brazil has had only a handful of such cases hand, PT's moderate bloc believes that socialism, as it was once since its return to democracy after two decades of ruthless known, is dead. In a interview with Bernardo Kucinski and Sue Branford, military dictatorship. However, a pattern of violence against PT leaders and politicians seems to be emerging, according to a who wrote Brazil Carnival of the Oppressed: Lula and the 20


• •• •

PT Under Siege

States where Workers' Party leaders have been murdered, threat• • ened with death or subjected to violence since 1997: Acre • 3 death threats • • Alagoas • 1 death Jose Ribamar Alves Godim, 32, president of the PT regional • chapter, was fatally shot in the town of Coruripe (October/1998). ▪ • Amapa • 1 death threat • Bahia • 13 assaults and death threats; 2 deaths • Councilman Pedro Carlos dos Santos was executed in the town of • • Candeias. (May/1998) Councilman Ariomar Oliveira Rocha was murdered in the town of • •• Jaguaribe. (July/1998) Ceara • I assault • Distrito Federal • 5 death threats and assaults • Espirito Santo • • 2 death threats Maranhao • •• 4 death threats Mato Grosso • 1 shooting; I death threat • Mato Grosso do Sul • 3 death threats; 1 death • Mundo Novo mayor Dorcelina Folador was murdered. (October/ • • 1999) Minas Gerais • 20 death threats and attempted murders; 1 death • Ivan Chaves Teixeira, a councilman in the town of Abre Campo and •• • president of the PT regional chapter, was murdered. (March/1997) Para • 2 death threats; 1 death • Ademir Fredericci, a political leader in the state of Path, was • • murdered in the town of Altamira. (August/2001) Paraiba • • 2 death threats •• - Pernambuco 1 death threat; 2 deaths • Fulgencio Manoel da Silva, president of the local PT chapter, was • • murdered in the town of Santa Maria da Boa Vista. (October/1997) Cicero Lucas de La Pena, da Silva's successor, was murdered. • • (June/1998) Piaui • 4 death threats • Rio de Janeiro • •• 4 deaths Obilio Alapenha Filho, chief of the Public Works Bureau in the • • town of Angra dos Reis, was murdered. (February/1997) Aldanir Carlos dos Santos, president of the Employees of the • • Electrical Energy Industry Union, and a PT affiliate, was murdered. • (November/2001) Union members Marcos Otavio and his wife, Edma Valadao, were • • executed. (September/1999) Rio Grande do Sul •• 2 death threats • Rondonia • 1 death threat • Santa Catarina • 1 attempted murder; 1 death • PT member Edson Solbert was murdered in the town of Santa • • Terezinha. (September/2001) • Sao Paulo 13 death threats; 3 deaths •• Antonio da Costa Santos, mayor of Campinas, was fatally shot in • • the back. (September/2001) Manoel de Souza Neto, coordinator of the PT electoral campaign • • in Suzano, was fatally shot and decapitated. (October/2000) Celso Daniel, mayor of Santo Andre, was kidnapped and killed. • • (January/2002) •


Source: Amnesty International

Brazilian Workers' Party (Latin American Bureau, 1995), Lula made the following statement: "You don't even need to call it a socialist project; call it a Christian project, or an ethical project... For me the label is unimportant; what matters is the content." More ecently, a group calling itself the Brazilian Revolutio ary Action Front (Farb) has claimed responsibili for some of the threats and killings of PT affiliates, ncluding the murder ofthe Campinas mayor. In a note n its website—which the government has since shu down—the group declared that it had decided t attack those members of the Workers' Party wh "have betrayed the people and allied themselv s with right-wing forces". The same group sent e-ma 1 death threats against several PT deputies, senators, and against Lula himself. One of their messages warned, "Lula is not going to assume the presidency, for two reasons. We don't like the Workers' Party, and Lula isn't bulletproof." Brazi ian Federal Police have been investigating the group since December, but so far have come up empty-handed. Another theory is that the masterminds behind the attacks against the petistas are members of right-wing organizations; the drug trafficking; the paramilitary groups, and the organized crime—whether acting isolated or in association with one another. For example, in October 1999, PT mayor Dorcelina Folador ofMundo Novo (in Mato Grosso do Sul state) was gunned down after receiving numerous threats since she started to denounce the illegal activities of the region's drug lords. Eventually, police arrested the three gunmen who had shot Folador to death, and found that they had been hired by Rola° Teixeira, a political enemy of the mayor, and by Jusmar da Silva, then chief of the Municipal Finance Bureau. Asid from the violence, the PT has been under heavy fir from rival parties all over Brazil in view of the upco ing presidential election in October. For months ula has been leading the polls with nearly 30 percent f the votes. Moreover, opinion polls conducted i the past have indicated that the vast majority ofBra ilians view the PT politicians as the country's most ho est. In a nation plagued by corruption, this is no sm 11 feat for a political party. Sinc its creation in 1980, the PT has steadily increase its political representation at all levels of municip I, state and federal governments and has grown t become the largest leftist party in Latin America So, i comes as no surprise that the opposition has been e ploying some objectionable, anti-PT campaign ta tics in an attempt to frighten the voters. In a recent T' ad, for instance, right-wing PFL, the Liberal Front Pa ty, predicted that a prospective PT administration i evitably would lead Brazil to the same chaos and soci I turmoil faced by its neighbor, Argentina. Another PFL ad, televised in So Paulo last year, mocked hepetistas by referring to them as "petelhos" (a play o ii the word "pentelhos", which in Portuguese can me pubic hairs, a brat, or a nuisance). The ad also scoffed at So Paulo mayor Marta Supl icy, another PT luminary, by claimingthat dating was th mayor's only concern—an allusion to Supl icy s new beau, who is believed to have been 21

behind her separation from longtime husband, PT senator Eduardo Suplicy. Afterwards, PFL presidential hopeful Roseana Sarney called the mayor to apologize for that tasteless ad. The War on Crime In the meantime, Brazilians remain fearful, outraged and perplexed amid the increasing violence that has swept Brazil over the past years. Despite assurances from President Cardoso, the populace is skeptical ofany promise of immediate relief from the rampant violence. In Sao Paulo alone the number of kidnappings between 2000 and 2001 increased by nearly 400 percent, jumping from 63 to 307. Fewer than 50 percent of these have been solved. However, Sao Paulo is no exception. Violence in Brazil has spread beyond the big metropolis to the middle-sized cities—such as Santo Andre, Campinas and others—without sparing anyone. Public safety and the war on crime were among Cardoso's top priorities during his two successful presidential bids. However, during his second term, investments in this sector were significantly less than what had been projected initially. In 1999, the Ministry of Justice invested only 30.95 percent of the $50.2 million that had been proposed in the draft budget for public safety. And in 2000 and 2001 the government spent only 42 percent and 59.18 percent, respectively, of the sector's budget. The 2002 budget already approved by Congress is $2.6 million less than last year's—down from $237.7 million to $235.1 million. Since this is an election year, the government's lethargy (or reluctance to take bold action) could prove disastrous for its candidate, but as more and more Brazilians realize, their safety should be a constitutional right, not a proposition for political aspirations and self-serving interests. 22

Harvest Time It's funny to listen to President Fernando Henrique condemning kidnappings. This is the same man who humiliated the nation vouching for the release of kidnappers condemned to almost 30 years in prison. JAN ER CR ISTALDO "This has gone too far now," said President Fernando Henrique Cardoso commenting the murder of Santo Andre mayor Celso Daniel. Elastic notion of limits that ofthe President. There were 307 kidnappings in Sao Paulo last year alone. Does it mean that almost a kidnapping a day does not constitute a limit? The brutal murder of a lady, released by her captors and soon after shot on her back in front of her own house, would still be far from the limit? The narcotraffic, which controls thelavelas (shantytowns) and decides which days are holidays or mourning days, and when schools or businesses should be closed, would not be a limit? Every indication tells us it is not. Because, in his magnanimity, the prince of sociologists has a generous notion oflimit. The kidnappings and murders committed by terrorists who wanted to transform Brazil in a huge Cuba not only were granted amnesty but also saw their authors been regally rewarded with public appointments and fat retirement packages. We don't need to go far. Let's start with Justice Minister, Aloysio Nunes Ferreira. A member ofthe PCB (Partido Comunista Brasileiro—Brazilian Communist Party) he opted for the armed struggle joining the ALN (A I ianca Libertadora Nacional—National Liberating Alliance), Carlos Marighella's (1911-1969) terrorist group for whom he worked as a driver. Marighel la, if nobody can remember, is the author of Manual do Gerrilheiro Urbano (Urban Guerrilla's Manual) translated into several languages in Europe and the Italian Red Brigades and German Baader-Meinhoff's pillow book. (In Stockholm, in full Nordic democracy, I found a translation of the manual into Swedish.) He was killed in 1969, in a police ambush and today he is revered as a saint by the Left. In August 1968, Aloysio Nunes—whose codename was Mateus—took part in , the Santos-Jundiai postal train robbery. In October he helped rob the MasseyFerguson armored truck. That same year he traveled with a false passport to Paris where he was in charge of coordinating the connections of Cuba with Brazilian communists. There he joined the French Communist Party and conducted negotiations with Algeria's President Boumedienne so that Brazilian communists could get military training in that country. After the 1979 Amnesty Law, he returned to Brazil where he was elected assemblyman, vice-governor and member of the House of Representatives by the Left. Dear friend of Fidel Castro, after a visit to Cuba last year, the dictator went to say goodbye at the airport and accompanied him to the airplane for the farewell as homage to his revolutionary past. The international agitprop, robber and guerilla, Marighella's partisan and confidant of dictators, with the peculiar cynicism of the leftists when they get to power, recently declared to journalist Ana Paula Padrao: "In other occasions—I remember—during the military regime, the repression services were able to dismantle the PCB, the PC do B (Partido Comunista do Brasil— Communist Party ofBrazil), the ALN, the VPR (Vanguarda Popular Revolucionaria— Popular Revolutionary Vanguard), the MR-8 (Movimento Revolucionario 8 de Outubro—Revolutionary Movement October 8). Wouldn't they be able to handle these criminals who today carry out sequestros relcimpagos (lightning kidnappings) and this kind of action?" In fact they can do this, Mateus. The problem is that when these groups are broken apart, the criminals become ministers. Not less interesting is to listen to Fernando Henrique condemning kidnappings. This is the same Fernando Henrique who humiliated the nation in the face ofa sordid campaign in the international press financed by a rich family from Canada and vouched for the release of their little kidnapper children, condemned to almost 30 years in prison by the Brazilian Justice. BRAZZIL - FEBRUARY 2002

Lula, the presidential tetracandidate (four-time candidate) from the PT (Partido dos Trabalhadores—Workers' Party), rushed to pledge his solidarity to the victim's entourage and took part in a march for peace. Jose Genoino, PT's president, talks about Rota (special operation groups similarto the SWAT teams in the US) in the streets and about life sentences. The mob of PT affiliates, who went to the funeral of the mayor, asks for the death penalty, something that doesn't exist in Brazil. A security program ofthe PT proposes a New York and neo liberal project, the zero tolerance. Who was the flag bearer for these causes a mere two years ago? Former Sao Paulo governor Paulo Maluf, who was called a fascist for defending them. It happens that the elections are getting close and you need to get in tune with what the voter wishes. When Abilio Diniz was kidnapped, the tetracandidate had another kind of talk. He rushed to mediate the negotiations between kidnappers and police in order to guarantee the physical integrity not of the industrialist, but... of the kidnappers. Fernando Henrique Cardoso, plus his Justice Minister at that time, Jose Gregori, plus the Church, plus the PT and institutions linked to the infamous Human Rights try their best to free the Canadians. When the country's government, the opposition leader plus the Church fight for the release of kidnappers, what kind of message does the public get? Only one: kidnapping can be profitable and can remain unpunished. The contemporary reader perhaps won't remember, but the Left was the one that introduced this species in Brazil. In the name of murderous utopias, they started to hijack planes and kidnap diplomats. Their dialogue was not with people, but with states. Bow all the nations down before Brazil: plane hijacking has Brazilian patent, it's our genuine finding. In the short period they stayed in prison the kidnappers exercised a pedagogical function teaching their techniques to the common criminal. And now they complain about their students' progress. The tolerance of the Left towards kidnapping was always obvious, at least up to last week. Has anybody heard the PT condemning the Colombian FA RC (Fuerzas Armadas

Revolucionarias de Colombia—Colombia Revolutionary Arthed Forces), which use kidnapping as their privileged strategy for obtaining funds? I've never heard. What I saw was the gaucho (from Rio Grande do Sul) PT government roll out the red carpet to receive a FARCi 's thug. He not only was received with honors close to those bestowed on chief of states but also went around talking in conferences throughout Brazil schools, in communities administered by the PT. The kidnappings from the past don't constitute crimes for theses gentlemen. In this astonishing country, where the defeated write the jresent history, they are considered heroic and patriotic acts. ven horrendous crimes had noble connotations. The vestals that today feel shocked by the brutal execution of Celso Daniel, didn't show any horror in the face of another also brutal execution, that of the unfortunate soldier that Lamarca executed, prisoner and defenseless. No one from th Left would ask life in prison or the death penalty for the murc erer of a companion in arms. Au contraire, Lamarca today is installed in the gallery of the Fatherland's Heroes, enjoying the same status as a Tiradentes (martyr for the independence of Brazil from Portugal, who was hanged in 1799). No one in the Left went to offer solidarity to the dead soldier. But there are projects to impose to the school curricula the life and work of this holy man, captain Carlos Lamarca. The thinkingofthe Left has created a cultural broth in which criminals are not criminals anymore, but victims; in which the land invader is hero and the landowner who defends his property is an outlaw; in which Luis Carlos Prestes (legendary head ofthe Brazilian communist movementwho died in 1990 at age 92) is holy and Che Guevara becomes a saint. Harvest time has come. Janer dristaldo—he holds a PhD from University of Paris, Slorbonne—is an author, translator, lawyer, philosopher and journalist and 1 suffers Sao Paulo. His e-mail address is I cristal(&


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Violent Start It is too early to rule out a purely political motive in the death of mayor Celso Daniel, but straightforward crime seems to be a better bet. JOHN FITZPATRICK Health Minister Jose Serra has finally stepped forward as the government standard-bearer in this year's presidential elections. But the early going in election year 2002 has also produced the execution-style killing of a mayor and member of the left-wing PT. Celso Daniel is the second PT mayor killed in recent months... The kidnapping and brutal murder ofa m ayor from the left-wing Workers' Party (PT) has led to the nauseating sight of the PT calling on the government to get tough on crime. Dozens ofpeople are murdered in Brazil every day, many in PT-controlled cities like Sao Paulo, but only when one of the PT's own is killed does the party start demanding action. 13 idelas para devoiver Suddenly victim has become more important than the criminal, and the PT appreciates a paz e a seguranca a S the fears ofthemany Brazilians who are scared to go out at night One PT state governor even said he would not oppose the army playing a part in the fight against crime. This turns the PT's views on crime on their head. Soon it will be claiming that while all men are equal some are more equal than others... The human tragedy aside, the PT is trying to milk the killing of mayor Celso Daniel to present itself as a helpless victim of unknown powerful forces--"gente grossa" (big shots) as the PT leader and probable presidential candidate, Luiz Wei° Lula da Silva, called them. The PT can point to the unsolved murder of another PT mayor in Campinas last September, and a pipe bomb attack a month later on a PT mayor in Embu—both cities in the state of sao Paulo—as proof of a campaign against it A shadowy group calling itself the Brazilian Revolutionary Action Front claimed responsibility for the Campinas killing, but it is a moot point whether this group even exists. The PT would like voters to think there is a death squad or similar organization lurking out there, targeting its representatives, but without diminishingthe real dangertbat Brazilian politicians face, it is difficult to believe this. Conspiracy theories always make good headlines but getting to the truth is more difficult. At the moment, the investigation into the killing ofCelso Daniel is focusing on the person who was accompanying the mayor when he was kidnapped. This is a businessman whose testimony has been contradictory, and who has made a lot of money in a short time providing services for the administration of Santo Andre, the industrial suburb of Sao Paulo where Daniel was mayor. It is too early to rule out a purely political motive but straightforward crime, perhaps involving drugs, bribes or even an attempt to exchange the mayor for prisoners, seems to be a better bet. Lula used the occasion to put on a suit and tie and meet President Fernando Henrique Cardoso. They were pictured together like elder statesmen uniting in a common cause. Cardoso even said society should declare`war" against crime. The authorities are drawing up a plan to combat crime, although most people are skeptical that anything will come of it. Sao Paulo state Governor Geraldo Alckmin, shooting from the lip, called for pre-paid cellular phones to be banned because of their widespread use by criminals. As they are also used by the 99.9 percent of the population that is not criminal, this idea was ridiculed and shelved. If this is the kind ofproposal elected officials have to offer, then we can expect little change. It will be interesting to see if the PT can really show itself to be serious in the fight against crime, because it could gain many votes. The U.K. Labor Party managed to shed its image as being soft on crime when Tony Blair said it would be "tough on crime, tough on the causes of crime". Crime is not a major issue in Brazil even though the levels of violence and general criminality are horrifying by European or even U.S. standards. Almost everyone knows someone who has been robbed, kidnapped or even murdered and people feel helpless to resist or escape crime. Few political candidates make an issue of fighting crime, probably because most do not want any possible investigation of their own background in case they are found to be linked to crime and criminals. The main exception, former Sao Paulo, mayor Paulo Maluf, is once again in the headlines over money he has allegedly squirreled away illegally abroad. It is unlikely that the main contenders for the government presidential 24


candidacy—Health Minister Jose Serra for the PSDB (Partido da Social Democracia Brasileira—Brazilian Social Democracy Party) and Maranhao state Governor Roseana Sarney for the PFL (Partido da Frente Liberal— Liberal Front Party)—will raise crime as an issue during the campaign. The Sarney family has run the northeastern state of Maranhao for over 40 years and has done nothing to reduce crime there, either wh itecollar corruption or violence. One particularly revolting case involving what appears to be ritual murder of around 20 youths, who were horribly mutilated, has been unresolved for 10 years. Serra is building his hopes on his handling of the Health Ministry, and his publicityseeking battles against international pharmaceutical manufacturers. However, Serra is languishing in the polls with around 7 percent support, while Lula has around 30 percent and Roseana Sarney around 20 percent. Despite his pathetic poll position, Serra is being seen as the natural government candidate. The PMDB (Partido do Movimento Democratic° Brasileiro—Brazilian Democratic Movement Party) president, Sao Paulo Congressman Michel Temer, even said that Serra had promised the party the vice-presidency, although the PMDB has no one with the same high profile as Roseana Sarney. The exception would be Minas Gerais state Governor and former President hamar Franco, who is a bitter opponent of the PMDB's pro-government wing. Roseana Sarney is being treated as a passing phase and is almost being discounted despite her high poll ranking. She and Serra were due to meet to discuss future developments. No doubt, Serra imagines he will be setting the agenda. But things may not turn out quite the way he wishes. BRAZZIL-FEBRUARY2002

Clever little Boy Brazil's main political parties got a shock recently when Rio de Janeiro state governor Anthony Garotinho jumped to third place in a presidential opinion poll, well ahead of the possible government candidate Jose Serra. JOHN FITZPATRICK A surprise potential presidential candidate has suddenly appeared on the Brazilian political scene in the shape of Anthony Garotinh , the governor of Rio de Janeiro state. He joins another state governor, Roseana Sarney, as serious contender in the October election. In a poll published in the magazine Veja Garotinh • had 15 percent while Roseana Sarney had 18 percent. The long-time front runner, Lula ofthe left-wing PT (Partido dos Trabalhadores— Workers' Party), had 28 percent while the possi le government candidate, Health Minister Jose Serra, had a mere 7 percent. An interesting aspect of the poll was that if e final round were between Garotinho and Lula, the Rio governor would have 39 percent oft e vote compared with 43 percent for the PT leader. (There was even better news for Roseana Sarney who would beat Lula by 46 percent to 39 percent.) This is pretty impressive for som one who was on the sidelines until recently along with another potential candidate Ciro Gome of the PPS who has lost a lot of force. Garotinho's rise is being attributed to he vy television campaigning, his communication sk Ils and his ambition. As he is in charge of one of Braz s largest states he has national as well as local coy-rage. He travels constantly and is a self publicist. e is also an evangelist. Although Brazil is overwhe ingly Roman Catholic there are an estimated 20 illion evangelists. The evangelical churches are ell organized and, in some cases, rich and politic Ily influential with their own political party, the L (Partido Liberal—Liberal Party), which has a num r of members in the House of Representatives. Garotinho could, therefore, expect much sup rt from this sector of the electorate although all he other main parties will try and win evangelical s port, even the PT. Garotinho, like Roseana Same , is young and refreshingly different from Lula and Se a, both middle aged and physically unattractive. H is 41 years old and his name actually means "little b •" He has nine children, some of whom are adopte Unlike Roseana Sarney, who is a member of he PFL (Partido da Frente Liberal—Liberal Front Party), which forms part of the governing coalition, Garotinho comes from the opposition nd this gives him more freedom to criticize the government of President Fernando Henrique ardoso. He is a member of the PSB, a party which has been described as authoritarian cons rvative and supported by businessmen and landowners. Garotinho has been accused of b ing a populist and an opportunist but his administration enjoys high popularity among th inhabitants of Rio de Janeiro state. He identifies himselfwith social programs th ugh a cheap lunch project for poorer people and a tougher approach to crime. Despite Garot ho's breakthrough in the polls there is still little chance of him donning the presidential sa h this time round. The odds are too heavily against him. Not only does his party not have e ough support but many opposition leaders, like the PDT's Leonel Brizola, are hostile to hi and would not back him. Voters with longer memories will also be keptical of a young outsider with populist leanings. They will remember how they were ho dwinked by Fernando Collor who rose from small beginning to become the youngest presid nt in Brazil's history in 1990 only to resign two years later under the threat of impeachmen The chances are that the this year's electi n will still be a two-horse race between a government candidate, supported by the PSDB, P Land PMDB, and a PT candidate. However, four years from now the "little boy" may be in stronger position. John Fitzpatrick is a Scottish journalist wh Sao Paulo since 1995. He writes on politics a Comunicacoes, which specializes in editori foreign clients.

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Goddesses It would be quite impossible to list all the great divas or up-and-coming divas of Brazil. We will list some of those who have provided such joy and musical influence in their careers or are just starting out on a promising path. KIRSTEN WEINOLDT

Divas! Diva. Di-van. pl. divas [It, lit., goddess, fr. L, fern. o divus divine, god—more at DEITY] (1883): Prima Donna. Thus, the dictionary describes what we know as the great female singer who dominates our culture. Brazil has had her share of hese goddesses, and Brazzil is taking this opportunity to take a do r look at these ladies. A new generation of these great ladies of son is growing up, but we would be doing an immense disservice to th listeners of today, if we left out those that came before and created he tradition of the Brazilian DIVA. CARMEN MIRAND (1909-1955) The Lady with the T i Frutti Hat. Carmen was born Ma ia do Carmo Miranda da Cunha on February 9, 1909 in Marco de Can vezes, Provincia de Beira-Alta in Portugal. Thus, she was not born B azilian as many think. She was still a toddler when her family moved t Rio de Janeiro, where she was raised in the carioca Bohemian envir nment. She loved to sing, something that cost her a job as a necktie aleslady. The manager of the establishment fired her for distracting h r co-workers, who stopped working to listen to her sing. Her debut on the car oca stages was a success. Josue de Barros, well known composer of hat era, perceived her potential when he first saw her. He resolved to nvest in her career, paying for singing and diction lessons and even ccompanying her to radio shows and record companies. This effort as not in vain. Soon she recorded her first record. Carmen Miranda wa a petite woman, somewhere around 153 cm (just over 5 feet). Conse uently, she liked to wear very high-heeled platform shoes. For thi reason, radio personality Cesar Ladeira baptized her "The notab e little one." At the end of the 30 s, she was already contracted as exclusive artist of the Cassino d Urca. She sang compositions of the best composers of the era, such as Assis Valente and Ary Barroso. Accompanied by the ba d Bando da Lua, she sang "0 que Ê que a baiana tern," (What is it hat the Baiana has), when she was seen by Lee Schubert, American impresario with a great deal f influence on Broadway. That contact gave Carmen the ticket to the artistic universe of North A erica. Her success was absolute. It didn't take long efore she was called on to make a film in Hollywood. That was another success. Six months after having arrived at the Mecca of world cinema, she was invited to leave her hand and footprin son the renowned Hollywood Walk of Fame. It was an acclaim never before experienced by a Brazi ian artist outside Brazil. Carmen had reached the peak ofher career. She was recognized in and outs de of Brazil. And abroad she was on the same level as the biggest international stars. But all that success had a price, and Carmen was ired and drained as a consequence of all her commitments. She returned to Brazil, where she had een under a great deal of criticism for having become "Americanized." She stayed in reclusion at t e Copacabana Palace Hotel for four months. But her obligations with American producers prom ted her to return to the United States. During a performance, she felt faint. Few notice . She returned to her house in Beverly Hills, where she received some friends. The last person le the house about 3:30 in the morning. That was the last time anyone saw Carmen Miranda alive. She was found dead shortly thereafter. It was the fifth of August, 1955. Carmen died at the age o 46 years. That small woman, with bananas balanced on her head, and platform shoes, ended u with an international renown and became a BRAZZIL - FEBRUARY 2002


myth in Brazil and around the world. Carmen Miranda for the Record For those too youngto remember or who are new to Brazilian music, the following are some of the ways to acquaint themselves with the great diva. provides us with some reviews. "Carmen Miranda: The Brazilian recordings"(Harlequin Records, 1993) Outstanding. A revelation for those who know Miranda only from her campy fruit-bowl-on-the-head Hollywood cameos. This disc highlights Miranda's early years in Brazil, where in the 1930's, she was a major samba star. The music is vibrant and infectious, especially featuring many of Ary Barroso's songs, which went on to become standards. "Carmen Miranda: 1930-1945"(Harlequin Records, 1997) Harlequin's second great volume of this early samba star. Features more ofher early Brazilian recordings, as well as some Hollywood stuff. Highly recommended! "Carmen Miranda"(Revivendo, 1993) More early recordings, from 1930-1935. There's a little overlap between this and the two Harlequin CD's listed above, but not that much. More than half these tracks don't appear on either of those discs, so if you're really, really into Carmen, you could get all three. The pacing of this CD seems a little off, but it's still awesome old material. "A Pequena Notavel"(Revivendo) As with the disc above, this has some overlap with the Harlequin discs, and some uniqUe material. The pacing seems better than the first Revivendo collection, but with Carmen, it's really hard to go wrong. If you feel forced to choose between labels, it's really a coin toss. The Harlequin discs are nice for English speakers because of the liner notes; this series is useful to archivists because of its meticulous notes on recording sessions. Either way, this is some of the best music Brazil has to offer. Carmen Miranda Filmography: In Brazil: A Voz do Carnaval(1933), Estudantes (1935),AM, AM, Brasil (1935), Alo, AIO, Carnaval (1936), Banana da Terra (1939) In Hollywood: Down Argentine Way (1940), That Night in Rio (1941), Weekend in Havana (1941), Springtime in the Rockies (1942), The Gang's All Here (1943), Four fills inaJeep (1944), Greenwich Village (1944), Something for the Boys (1944), The All-Star Bond Rally(1945), Doll Face(1945),Ifl 'm Lucky (1946), Copacabana (1947), A Date with Judy (1948), Nancy Goes to Rio (1950), Scared Stiff(1 953) Finally, a number of books and documentaries have been made about her and her life. Enter her name on or any other search engine, and you will encounter thousands of entries and an abundance of information. DALVA DE OLIVEIRA (1917-1972) Vicentina Paula de Oliveira was born on May 5, 1917 in the paulista city of Rio Claro, daughter of Portuguese Alice do Espirito Santo de Oliveira and party-going mulatto Mario de Oliveira, Mario Carioca—cabinet maker and saxophone player in his spare time. Little Dalva was a natural when it came to singing. She often performed with her father at a variety of events. Upon his death when she was only eight, she went to an orphanage and spent some time there until reunited with her mother. She worked as 28

a hotel maid and cook. She got a job as cleaner in a dance school, and there she would sing and improvise on the piano after classes. A professor heard her and persuaded her to become part of a musical group, with which she traveled to several cities in the interior. The group went under, and without a penny in her pocket, she tested for Radio Mineira in Belo Horizonte. She was hired and adopted her stage name, which established her. Soon, she moved to Rio, where she landed a job at Radio Ipanema. In the 30's shd founded the Trio de Ouro with Nib o Chagas and HeriveltoMartins, whomshe ended up marry ing.The group sang classics like "Praca Onze," (a square in Rio), and "Ave Maria no Morro," (Ave Maria on the Hill). The group worked on the principal radio stations in the then capital ofthe country, and sang in the famous Cassino da Urca. At the end of '49, she separated from Herivelto, and in 1950, she launched three great successes: "Errei Sim" (Yes, I made a Mistake), "Que Sera" (What Will Be), and "Tudo Acabado" (Everything is Over). She had more success with "Segredo" (Secret), "Olhos Verdes" (Green Eyes), "Ave Maria," "A Bahia Te Espera" (Bah ia Awaits You), and others. In 1951, she was elected Queen of Radio and traveled to Argentina and Europe. She lived in BuenosAires fora short while and then returned to Brazil, where she continued her successful career with songs like "Rancho da Praca Onze" (Band of Praca Onze), "Mascara Negra" (Black Mask), and Bandeira Branca" (White Flag) from the Carnaval of 1970, her last and immortal success. Until the end ofher life, she perfOrmed in nightclubs and television programs. In 1997, EMI taut-felled a boxed set of her principal recordings, entitled A Rainha da Voz (The Queen of Voice). DOLORES DURAN (1930-1959) Adiloa da Silv Rocha, known as Dolores Duran was born in Rio on June 7, 1 0. She was, with certainty, one of the major representatives of razilian samba-canga°. She began singing very early—she w n her first prize at the age of six. When she was 15, her father died—and the girl Adilea had to sustain her family, singing, which was what she knew best how to do. Self taught, she mastered English, French, Italian, and Spanish I istening totnusic, to the point where El la Fitzgerald told her that it was in het voice that she heard the best interpretation of "My Funny Valentine," a North American classic. In 1957, then 27 years old and recently separated from a disastrous marriage, Tom Jobim, then just coming onto the scene, showed her a composition made in partnership with Vinicius de Moraes Upon hearing the melody, Dolores grabbed a pencil and wrote "for Causa de Voce" (Because of You)—and sent a note to Vini4is asking him to agree with the new lyricBRAZZIL - FEBRUARY 2002

and Vinicius preferred that of Dolores. From then on, she composed, in the last two years of her life, some ofthe most beautiful, sad, and tender songs ofMPB (Masica Popular Brasileira), such as "Castigo" (Punishment), "A Noite do meu Bern" (The Night of My Love, "Olha o Tempo Passando" (See the Time Passing), and "Estrada do Sol"(Path ofthe Sun), among others. On October 23, 1959—at 29—she arrived at home at 7 in the morning and said to her maid: "Don 't wake me. I'm tired. I'll sleep until I die." And so she did. Her death was a heart attack, attributed to an overdose of barbiturates. After her premature passing, her fame increased, and artists like Nana Caymmi and Ludo Alves dedicated full albums to her music. ELISREGINA(1945-1982) A Pimentinha—The Little Pepper Elis Regina Carvalho Costa was born in Porto Alegre in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul. Her family was relatively poor, her mother being a housewife and her father in and out of work. Later, she had a little brother, Rogerio. Her mother was the daughterof Portuguese immigrants, her father was Brazilian. As a child, she was always impeccably dressed by her mother. In the south, where she lived, Argentine radio stations came in easily, and Elis learned to sing in both Portuguese and Spanish. She was a bright kid who, when she entered school, could already read. A local radio station in Porto Alegre featured a children's show called Clube do Gun, with children often performing on the air. Her first attempt at performing in public was a fiasco. At the age of 7, in front of the microphone, she froze and couldn't utter a sound. She started taking piBRAZZIL -FEBRUARY 2002

ano lessons, but aft r a few years had to quit for lack of money. She then took up si ging again, and a few years later, at the age of 12, she not only was able to sing in public, but she won the prize. For two year., she sang almost every Sunday and became a local celebrity. S e still suffered from stage fright, however, something that wo Id haunt her for the rest of her life. She was always afraid of n t being perfect. At the age of 13, she signed her first contract with Radio Gaucha. Her moth r was not very happy about this, as she had in her mind that Ii le Elis become a teacher and not a singer. Reluctantly, and ith some compromises, she agreed. Before the age of 14, she as earning more money than her father, a fact that became a bo e of contention between them, worsening over time. At 15, she wen to Rio where she recorded her first LP. She recorded three mo e records there, returning to Porto Alegre in between, but even ually realized that her life in Rio Grande do Sul was over. Elis ent to live in Rio with her father, who was hoping to find wo k there. Her mother stayed behind, raising Rogerio and a you ger cousin. She would later say that she lost her daughter at 19 The year she moved to Rio (1964) was also the year in which the military junta took over the Brazilian government. In Rio, it didn' take long before she landed a contract with a TV station, whe she performed on a variety of shows. There was nothing timid bout Elis. On the contrary, she was confident and aggressive in i er pursuit of her singing career—something that led to her oth r nickname "Furacao," (Hurricane). Bossa Nova was king at t at time, but it was not a style that suited Elis' artistic temperam nt, which was hot like the pepper. But wherever she went, h r voice commanded attention and people noticed her. She became ii egnant by a boyfriend, Solano, but had an abortion without elling him. He was not ready to be "singer's husband" and the elationship came to an end. Her mother and brother joined the in Rio, and she was by and large the provider for the family, as er father still had not managed to find work. To the end of her ife, there was always a conflict between her and her family. The music m et in Rio was very competitive, and Elis made her share of frien s and enemies in the pursuit of a career. In 1965, she sang" rrastao" at Brazil's first big music festival, Excelsior TV's! estival de Musica Popular Brasileira and won first prize. It wa a controversial song that almost had been censored by the ilitary government. She finished the song with her arms out tretched like Christ the Redeemer with tears in her eyes. Her areer exploded after that, and she appeared everywhere on St ge as well as magazines and soon became the highest paid sing r in Brazil. She continue to support her family, although this did not improve their rel ionship. Often, long periods of si lence existed between the fam y members. In 1967, she created quite a stir when she announ ed her upcoming marriage to Ronaldo Bosco' i, composer, known as the Don Juan of Rio. She was 22, he 38. Their volatile m iage, which produced a son (musician Joao Marcelo Boscoli , lasted for six years, during which time they were often fighti g in public. Elis was alw ys known for her explosive temper, which alienated a lot o people and put great strains on her relationships, especially he one with Boscoli. In addition to being her husband, he w also a father figure, who taught her how to dress and social skills, which she lacked. She suggested her short haircut, w ich became her trademark. When she was traveling on tou s, he often stayed at home, drinking. They finally broke up. 29

It was rumored that he had married her for her money, but he said "he had gone into the marriage with three suitcases and come out with two." She had burned one ofthem containing old love letters and personal documents, and in a fit of anger, she once tossed his entire Frank Sinatra collection into the sea. She carried a grudge against him for the rest of her life and made it difficult for him to see his child. She soon moved on with the pianist from her latest recording, Cesar Camargo Mariano, a talented musician and arranger. He was married, but soon found himselfin love with her. One day she invited him to her house to watch Berginan's "Wild Strawberries." Between reels, she passed him a note and told him to read it in the bathroom. He did. It said: 'I love you.' Unsure of what to do, he escaped through the windowind went home. She eventually forgave him for that and went on to marry him—a marriage that lasted 8 years and produced two children (Pedro Camargo Mariano, a recording artist, and Maria Rita). In 1969, while touring in Europe, she said in a press conference that Brazil was run by "gorillas," something that did not sit well with the military government. However, because of her stature in Brazil, she was not persecuted like so many of her contemporaries, such as Caetano Veloso and Gilberto Gil. A couple of years later, when she sang the national anthem at a ceremony put on by the government, she was heavily criticized by other artists and the left for that act: She also appeared in a political cartoon, in which she metamorphosed into Maurice Chevalier singing to a crowd of saluting Nazis. After an emotional and angry chance meeting in a restaurant, Elis and the cartoonist, Henfil, became friends. At a time when the military government was on its last leg, Elis recorded a song by Joao Bosco and Aldir Blanc called "0 Bebado e a Equilibrista" (The drunk and the Tight Rope Walker). The song was an allegory about the absurdity of the military government and the fragility of freedom. It featured the line "bring back Henfil's brother," a reference to the brother of the cartoonist who was living in exile. It became the anthem for amnesty, and eventually the exiled dissidents were allowed to return. She sang it at a concert around that time, and Henfil was in the audience with his brother. A few days after her death, at a memorial concert for her, all the performers and the audience sang "0 Baado e a Equilibrista" together. The highlights of her career were the partnerships with Jair Rodrigues, which lasted some three years and the legendary one with Tom Jobim, which produced what many call one ofthe ten best LP's of all times Elis & Tom. She also had a'series of very successful stage shows. Toward the beginning of the 80's she was using cocaine, which increased after her breakup with Cesar Camargo. She did it secretly ii the privacy other bedroom, and her family and closest friends knew nothing of it. Perhaps it helped her deal with the pressures of her career, raising three children, supporting her parents, and dealing with the divorce. She met and fell in love with Samuel MacDowell, a lawyer, and decided to get married again. At the beginning of 1982, she had many plans for the future, a new marriage, a new house, a new recording contract, a new show, etc. It was in this state of mind that she accidentally ingested a lethal combination of Cinzano and cocaine. It was January 19, 1982. She was 36. Brazil was left shattered at her loss. By many, she is considered the greatest talent Brazil ever had to offer. She was immensely talented and insecure, generous and warm as well as temperamental and angry, a paradox in many ways. Shortly after she died, a newspaper published a caricature of her at the microphone casting a shadow behind her, but the shadow was of Brazil, not of her. Much of the above information comes from Robert St-Louis, 30

who can be reached at at which is an excellent place for buying Brazilian music. Her discography includes the following: Viva a Brotoldndia (1961), Poema (1962), 0 Bern do Amor (1963), Samba EuCantoAssim(1965),Dois naBossa(1965)with Jair Rodrigues, 0 Fino do Fino(1965), Elis (1966), Elis Especial (1968), Elis Regina & Toots Thielemans (1969), Elis Regina in London (1969), Em Pleno,Vertio (1970), Elis (1970, 71,72, 73), Elis &Tom (1974), Falso Brilhante (1976), Elis—Tranversal do Tempo (1978), Elis, Essa Mulher (1979), Saudade do Brasil (1980), El is Regina—Montreux Jazz Festival (released 1982), Elis—Luz das Estrelas (released 1982). ELIZETHCARDOS0(1920-1990) A Divina Elizeth—The Divine Elizeth Born on July 16, 1920 in a suburb of Rio de Janeiro, she started singing as a child, charging admittance from other children who wanted to hear her sing. Elizeth was discovered at the age of 16 by Jacob do Bandolim, who introduced her on Radio Guanabara in 1937. In the 30's and 40's, she worked as a crooner in various radio stations and nightclubs and had her first hit "Cancao de Amor" (Song of Love) by Chocolate and Elano de Paula. In 1958 she recorded the first bossa nova record, a milestone in the genre, Carly& de Amor Demais (Song of too much Love) with songs by the brilliant team of Tom Jobim and Vinicius de Moraes. In the following year she kept working with bossa nova composers and recorded songs for Marcel Camus' film Orfeu Negro (Black Orpheus). In the 1960's, she hosted her own radio show. One of her most important albums was Elizeth Sobe o Morro (El izeth climbs the hill). Another great album was A Enluarada Elizeth (The Moonlit Elizeth) featuring Pixinguinha, Cartola, and Clementina de Jesus as guest stars. In 1964, she performed at the Teatro Municipal in Rio in a work by Heitor Villa-Lobos showing off her versatility. In 1968, she participated in a show that established the height of her career, with Jacob do Bandolim, Epoca de Ouro and Zimbo Trio. The concert was turned into a double LP. In the 1970's, she performed in Japan, where today one can find CD's with tracks unavailable elsewhere. She was one of the major divas of Brazil and toured much of the world. Her discography includes the following: Todo o Sentimento (1991) with Raphael Rabello, Ary Amoroso; Elizeth cantaAry Barroso (1991); Luz e Esplendor (1986); Leva Meu Samba (1984) with Ataulfo Junior; Uma Rosa para Pixinguinha (1983) with Radames Gnattali and Camerata Carioca; Outra Vez Elizeth (1982); ElizethCardoso Recital (1982); Elizethissima (1982); 0 Inverno do Meu Tempo (1979); A Cantadeira doAmor (1978); Live in Japan (1978); Fragmentos Ineditos do Historico (1977) with Jacob de Bandolim, Zimbo Trio, and Epoca de Ouro; Elisete Cardoso (1976); Feito em Casa (1974); Mulata Maior (1974); Preciso Aprender a Ser SO (1972); Elisete Cardoso'e Silvio Caldas (1971); E de Manhci (1970) with Zimbo Trio; Falou e Disse (1970); Elizeth e Zimbo Trio Balancam na Sucata (1969); A Bossa Eterna de Elizeth e BRAZZIL-FEBRUARY2002

Precenca (Your Pr sence), her first album issued by Philips and also the first to re eive raves by the critics for technical and artistic quality. In J ly, directed by Fauzi Arap and accompanied MARIA BETHANIA (1946 -) by Terra Trio, Bet ania debuted in the show Rosa dos Ventos. Maria Bethania Vianna Telles Velloso was born on the I 8th This was a differe t kind of show that gave her the opportunity ofJune, 1946 in Santo Amaro da Purificacao in the state of Bahia. to show her versat lity as an actress and singer. The following She was named for a famous song from that time—the idea of year she was in a ovie directed by Caca Diegues and starring her brother, Caetano. There was much discussion of the name Chico Buarque a d Nara Leao, Quando o Carnaval Chegar by the family. The patriarch of the family finally decided that (When Carnaval rrives). The soundtrack was issued in August of 19 2. The Album Drama arrived in the stores names would be written on pieces later that y ar and led to a tour of Europe. The success of paper, then drawn out of a hat. with Chic Buarque led to a stage show at Canecao, The name drawn was Maria where an bum was recorded. Bethania. The story has it that all In 197 ,she received her first gold record for the LP the pieces had the same name writPcissaro P oibido (Forbidden Bird) with Chico's beauten on them. tiful song lhos nos Olhos. She was now firmly estabFrom the time she was a little lished in t e minds and hearts of Brazilians. girl, her dream was to become an After en years of individual careers, Bethania, actress with no plans whatsoever Caetano, I il, and Gal Costa united in a group they called of singing, though brother Caetano Os Doces Barbaros. The national debut took place in liked to play around with music in Sao Paulo n June 24, 1976 and resulted in an album. It the house. In 1960, the two siblings was folio ed by a stage show and LP, on which she went to Salvador to study. It was performe with her brother in Bahia and Rio. One of her laid on Caetano's shoulders, then most fam us LP's Alibi was issued in 1978. It arrived in 18, to protect his sister, who at the the stores all ready for gold status. It is a beautiful, time was just 14. Caetano was inlyrical al m, which even now, so many years later, is vited by his friend, Alvaro well wort listening to. Guimaraes to put music to a play by The 1 80's started out with the LP Talismcl, another Nelson Rodrigues, Boca de Ouro (Mouth of Gold), staged in 1963. This was the beginning for success, which h s remained established in the mind of the Bethania who, for the first time, sang in public—a samba by public. She also ad success on the stage, ten years after Rosa dos Ventos with new show, Estranha Forma da Vida, also Ataulfo Alves. directed by Fauzi rapi. Furthermore, a new album,Alteza, came That same year was the time when Bethania and her brother met Gilberto Gil, Gal Costa, Tom Ze and many other musicians, out. In 1983, stres ed by the immense exposure she had reached who would become important in their lives. From then on there with her great su cesses and high volume sales of her albums, was no turning back. In June of 1964, the friends were invited to put on a show of as well as the su sequent pressure from the record companies, popular music during the week ofthe inauguration of Teatro Vila she issued the !bum Cic/o. On it are acoustic songs and Velha in Salvador. The show was Nos por Exemplo. The second sophisticated ly ics, breaking the rules that had appeared show produced by the group was called Nova Bossa Velha, permanent in he discography. Acclaimed by the critics and Velha Bossa Nova. Still in 1964, a new show was staged: Mora received with s me estrangement by the public at large, it Na Filosofia. This time, however, Bethania was alone on stage, liberated her fro artistic obligations and gave her back the launched officially as a singer by Caetano. In this show, liberty, which h .4 always characterized her work. In 1985, she celebrated her 20th anniversary as a singer at Bethania is seen applauded by the then muse of bossa nova, Rio's famous Ca ecao with a collection of former great hits. In Nara Leao. At the beginning of '65, at the invitation of Nara, Caetano 1986, Bethania igned a contract with RCA to record 3 albums and Bethania moved to Rio so that Bethania might replace Nara with unpublisheu songs by Tom Jobim, Chico Buarque, and in the play Opinicio. The play was directed by Augusto Boal Caetano Veloso and one made especially for her by Milton with musical direction by Dori Caymmi. She started out singing Nascimento, cal ed "Cancties e Momentos" written as homage softly, but her voice exploded in Carcard by Joao do Vale. This to her moving i terpretation of the song "A Primeira Mania" song marked her recording debut and at the same time gave her (The First Morn ng) made for her. In 1988, she ssued the album Maria with special participathe image of a protest singer, something she was not ready for. tion by Jeanne oreau and Gal Costa. The jacket had a photo She had other plans for her career. She packed her bags and returned to Salvador. In order to further her career, she did return of a black wo n instead of Bethania, symbolizing "all the to Rio in 1966 and was soon signed to a contract with TV Record Maria's in the orld." She also debuted the show by the same for six months and directed by Augusto Boal at his Teatro name at the Seal. in Rio. Her 25th anniversary was celebrated with the album and s ow called 25 A nos (1990). There were particiArena, where she participated with her friends from Bahia. She performed in partnership with the greatest on the pations by Nina Simone, Hermeto Pascoal, Egberto Gismonti, Brazilian music scene, Vinicius de Moraes, Gilberto Gil, and Edu and Joao Gilbe o, among others. Always a cr ative artist, she has never rested on her laurels. Lobo to name a few and had successful stage shows and A beautiful sho and album with music by Roberto and Erasmo recordings. Her incredible stage presence, already then, contributed to her early success. In 1968, she participated in an LP— Carlos, As Canc-es que Voce Fez Pra Mim, (The Songs that You Veloso, Gil e Bethcinia—issued by RCA. On side A, each had Made for Me) ecame enormous successes. At an age w i en many artists might begin to take it easy, she their turn, and on Side B Bethania sang songs by Noel Rosa. Several happenings in 1971 marked the beginning of a new has recorded a umber of truly great CD's as well as performed phase of her career. In January she recorded the LP A Tua prolifically ate rn ncerts around the world. In 2001, she turned 55

Cyro (1969) with Cyro Monteiro; and Momento de Amor (1968).



and celebrated with a huge show at Canecdo with a smorgasbord of the greatest artists Brazil has to offer. Three CD's stand out in the last couple of years. Ambar with songs by newer composers such as Chico Cesar, Arnaldo Antunes, and Adriana Calcanhotto (a diva in her own right), and others. This was followed by A Forca Que Nunca Seca (The Force that never Dries up). The CD launched simultaneously with her anniversary concert was the newest, Maricotinha. It is hard to believe that someone with that status can actually top herself, but in Maria Bethania's case, that just seems to keep happening.

Her discography includes the following: Maria Bethcinia (1965); Edu & Bethcinia (1967) with Edu Lobo; Recital na Boite Barr oco (1968); Maria Bethcinia (1969); Ao Vivo (1970); Maria Bethdnia Vianna Tel/es Velloso: A Tua Presenca (1971); Vinicius de Moraes/Maria Bethdnia/Toquinho 'La Fusa '(1 971); Rosa dos Ventos 0 Show Encantado (1971); Drama- Anjo Exterminado (1972); Quando o Carnaval Chegar (1972) with Chico Buarque and Nara Ledo; Drama—Terceiro Ato (1973);A Cena Muda (1973); Chico Buarque & Maria Bethcinia Ao Vivo (1975); Os Doces Barbaros (1976) with Caetano Veloso, Gilberto Gil and Gal Costa; Pcissaro Proibido (1976); Passaro de Amanha (1977);Alibi(1978); Mel(1979);Talism41980);Alteza(1981); Nossos Momentos (1982); Cic/o (1983); A Beira e o Mar (1984); Dezembros (1988); Maria (1988); Ao Vivo (1989) with Caetano Veloso; Memoria da Pele (1990); Cancdes e Momentos (1991); Canto do Paje (1992); As Cancaes Que Voce Fez Pra Mim (1994); Las Canciones Que Hiciste Para Mi (1994—same as above; but in Span ish); Anos Dourados (1994); Maria Bethcinia ao Vivo (1995); Sonho Impossivel(1996);Ambar(1996);Acervo Especial(1997); Imitacdo daVida(1996); DiamanteVerdadeiro (1999); A Forca Que Nunca Seca (1999); and Maricotinha (2000). In addition there have been a number ofcollections over the years.

GAL COSTA (1949 -) Maria da Graca Costa Pen na Burgos, the muse of Tropicalismo, was born on September 26, 1949, in Salvador, in the state of Bahia. Music was a part of her life from the very beginning, listening to the radio and working in a record store as a teenager and hanging out with her friends. Early on, she made the acquaintance ofCaetano Veloso and Gilberto Gil, with whom she would forge lifelong friendships and partn er s h ips. They were already on their way to change the Brazilian music scene. After leaving Salvador, the first show in Sao Paulo was not a great success. Gracinha, as she called herself, was shy, but when she sang bossa nova classics, people listened. With the onset of Tropicalismo also came a new name, Gal, from a nickname Gau given her by a younger cousin. Inspired by the "Manifesto of Cannibalism" by Oswald de Andrade, Caetano,

Gil, Tom Ze, and Torquato Neto, founded the new musical movement partly as a rebellion against the military dictatorship, partly as a creative expression. While Caetano and Gil went into exile, Gal performed in politically radical concerts, singing the songs ofJorge Ben (Jor), Adoniram Barbosa, Luis Melodia, and Roberto and Erasmo Carlos. Not a composer herself, she turned into one of the great interpreters of Brazilian music. Over the years, she has gone through a variety of phases with different styles of dress and jewelry, but one thing has remained constant, her efforts at improving her singing and professionalism to the point where she lights up a stage with her presence and her stunningly beautiful voice, which has been heard all over the world by enthusiastic audiences. Joao Gilberto predicted that her voice would be Brazil's best export, and certainly, this prediction has come true. Recently, she embarked on a tour of the United States, where she thrilled the audiences with her rendition of America the Beautiful.

Her discography includes the following: Eu Vim da Bahia/ Sim Foi Voce (1965) under the name Maria da Graca; Domingo (1967) with Caetano Veloso; Tropicana: Ou P anis et Circensis (1968) with a variety of participants; Gal Costa (1969); Legal (1970); Gal aTodo Vapor (1971); India (1973); Temporada de Vercio ao Vivo na Bahia (1974) with Caetano and Gil; Cantar. (1974); P alco, Corpo e Alma (1976); Gal CantaCaymmi (1976); Os Doces Barbaros (1976) with Bethania Caetano, and Gil; Caras e Bocas (1977); AguaViva(1978);GalTropical(1979); Aquarela do Brasil (1980); Fantasia (1981); Minha Voz (1982); Baby Gal (1983);iGabriela (1983) with Tom Jobim; Profana (1984); Bern Born (1985); Lua de Mel Como o Diabo Costa (1987); RioRevisited(1987) with Tom Jobim; Plural (1990); Gal: Saudacclo aos Povos Africanos (1992); Concert for Planet Earth (1992) with Tom Jobim and Placid° Domingo; 0 Sorriso do Gato de Alice (1993); Mina DA' gua do Meu Canto (1995); Novela Hits (1996); Ti eta do Agreste- (1996) with Caetano and 'Others; Aciistico (1997); Aquele Frevo Axe (1999); Gal Costa Canta Tom Jobim (1999); and De Tantos Amores (2001). RITA LEE (1942-) Rita Lee Jones was born in Sdo Paulo on New Year's Eve 1942. Shewasthe daughter ofan Italian mother and a father from Alabama. Passionate about music since she was a young girl, at 16 she formed her first band, just with girls, called the Teenage Singers. Three years later, in 1966,0s Mutantes was formed and became part of the Tropicalismo movement. Although the band ceased to exist in 1972, it became a reference point for many contemporarymusicians such as Beck, Beastie Boys, Stereolab, and Kurt Cobain. Rita Lee was the only one o the group to go on to a successful solo career. In the 80's, her career exploded, and she got the nickname of First Lady of Brazilian Rock. She met and married musician Roberto de Carvalho and had three children. Outside the stage, Rita Lee has shown hertalent in many other areas. She has been a hostess of radio and television programs, has written three children's books, and acted in soap operas and films. She won a prize for best "actor" for portraying the late Raul Seixas in a short film. In her most recent shows presenting her album 3001,


Rita Lee mixes rock and electronic music, singing her newest songs and some less known. During her encores, she sings more than half an hour of requests from the audience. Her discography includes the following: Build Up (1970); Hoje E o Primeiro Dia do Resto de Sua Vida (1972); Atras do Porto Tern uma Cidade (1974); Fruto Proibido (1975)with Tutti Frutti; Entradas e Bandeiras (1976) w ith Tutti Frutti; Refestanca (1977) with Gilberto Gil; Babilonia(1978)with Tutti Frutti; Rita Lee (1979); Rita Lee (1980); Sairde (1981); Carvalho (1983); Bombom (1983) with Roberto de Carvalho; Rita e Roberto (1985); Rita Lee/ Roberto de Carvalho (1987); Flerte Fatal (1987) with Roberto; Zona Zen (1988); Rita Lee e Roberto de Carvalho (1990); Rita Lee ern Bossa'n Roll ao Vivo (1991); Rita Lee (1993); A Marca da Zorra (1995); Santa Rita de Sampa (1997); Acristico Rita Lee (1998); 3001 (2000); and Aqui, Ali, em Qualquer Lugar (2001). MARISA MONTE (1967-) Marisa de Azevedo Monte was born on July 1, 1967, in the city of Rio de Janeiro. She studied the piano when she was a child. On her ninth birthday she got a drum set and also learned to play the guitar. During adolescence, she studied singing and participated in a production of The Rocky Horror Show, produced by theater alumni of the Colegio Andrews, with direction by Miguel Falabella. In 1985, she stayed in Italy to study singing but gave up lyrical singing and sang Brazilian music at night, accompanied by friends. At this time, in Venice, she was heard by Nelson Motta, who would become the director ofher show Tudo Veludo, her debut show at JazzMania in Rio, in 1987. The success was immediate, by the public and the critics. Even before she recorded her first album, she was considered one of the most promising voices of MPB, MOsica Popular Brasileira. In 1988, she launched her first CD, Marisa Monte ao Vivo.

The second CD marked her debut as a composer and was well received in the U.S., Europe, Japan, and Latin America, setting off her international career. Over the years she has successfully performed and recorded with such distinguished artists as Gilberto Gil, Paulinho da Viola, Carlinhos Brown, Nando Reis of Tifas, Laurie Anderson, and Nana Vasconcelos. Her discography includes the following: Marisa Monte ao Vivo (1988),Mais (1991), Barulhinho Born (1996), and the latest also published around the world is known under the name Memories, Chronicles, and Declarations of Love (2000). DANIELA MERCURY (1965-) It was on the 28th of July, 1965 that soteropolitano (from Salvador) couple Liliana Mercuri de Almeida and Antonio Fernando Abreu Ferreira de Almeida gave light to their new daughter, Daniela. It was Rua Nossa Senhora de Brotas in the neighborhood of Brotas in Salvador that saw her first artistic expressions as a dancer. Her boundless energy as a dancer earned her the nickname Pinga-fogo (a wasp or very active person). She participated in numerous dance recitals and festivals as a dancer, but it was at the age of 16 that it was discovered BRAZZIL-FEBRUARY2002

that she had a beau iful and strong voice. She began sin LAing in bars and small clubs, thou..? dancing was still her main foc s. At 17, she "retired" from sin ing, convinced that there would n ver be enough work for her, and oncentrated all her energy on daneng. Soon after, she entered UFB (Universidade Federal da Bahia) n dancing. She started singing a ain and began getting an enthusi stic following. At 19, she married Zalther Porte la Laborda POvoas and soon had two children, Gabriel and Giovanna. She k pt singing throughout her pregnancies and made a name for erself as a singer and performed as backing vocal for Gilberto il and Geronimo. Her debut album exploded onto the Brazilian arket, and soon she was offtouring the entire country. After tha followed Europe. Today she is the reigning queen of axe mus c, celebrated wherever she goes. Her discogra hy includes the following: Companhia Clic (1990) with the si piece reggae/samba/pop band in which she was the lead sing r; Daniela Mercury (1991) a.k.a. Swing da Cor; 0 Canto da I idade (1993); Miisica da Rua (1994); Pep() corn Arroz (1997) Eletrica—Ao Vivo (1999);Sol da Liberdade (2000); and Sou Qualquer Lugar (2001).

IVETE SAN I ALO (1972 - ) Ivete Maria I *as de Sangalo started her career at 15 influenced by Elis Reg na. It was not until 1993 that s e got up on a trio eletrico to sing professionally. At that time, her preference was strictly MP. Later, she was heard by Jon a, director of Bloco Eva and percussionist for Companhia ic. He was in the process of f rming Banda Eva, which wen on to great fame with Ivete s lead singer. Her entire family s musical, and some of them ar members of bands of their o n, one of them Fera Gorda (Fat Beast). Her brother weighs i the vicinity of 310 lbs. In recent years Ivete, who lives a healt y life of exercise and good nutrition, has gone on to a successf 1 solo career. Her discogra i hy includes the following: Banda Eva (1993); Pra Abalar (19 ' 4); Beleza Rara (1991); Banda Eva ao Vivo (1996); Eva, Voc" e Eu (1998); Banda Eva---Hora H(1995); and Ivete Sangalo (1 99). CASSIA EL ER(1 962-2001) Irreverent a d Rebellious 2001 did not let go without yet another tragedy. On December 29, Cassia Iler went to a clinic in Rio complaining of respiratory distr ss. She went into cardiac arrest several times and died later th t day. She had just turned 39 on December 10. She was on the verge of super stardom with her last CD selling hundreds of tho sands of copies. The news ofher death quickly spread all over the world. Lesbian by her own account, she shared her life ith Eugenia and her son, Chicao, 8 years old. In a recent ir terview she admitted to having a problem with 33

drugs but that the concern of her son and companion had brought her to a healthier place in her life, where she had left drugs behind except "cigarettes and beer." Her sister told the press that Cassia had suffered from rheumatic fever as a child, which had led to a weakened heart. Her funeral was attended by, among. others, Djavan and Adriana Calcanhotto as well a scores of fans, who had gathered outside and to L were allowed in at the last minute. Her style was that of a rebel of rock, her voice hinted at Janis Joplin, her lifestyle one that said: "This is my life, I'll live it as I see fit". Her discography includes the following: Cassia Eller— Actistico MTV (2001); Cornvoce...meu mundoficaria completo (1999); Veneno Livre (1998); Masica Urbana(ColetAnea)(1997); Minha Hist-aria (Coletanea) (1997); Veneno AntiMonotomia (1997); Ao Vivo (1996); Cassia Eller (1994); 0 Marginal (1992); Cassia Eller (1990) It would be quite impossible to list all the great divas or upand-coming divas of Brazil. It seems only fair, however, to list some of those who have provided such joy and musical influence in their careers or are just starting out on a promising path. Leny Andrade: Born 1943, in Rio. Her husky, sexy voice and jazzy singing style continuously thrill crowds in Brazil and abroad. She divides her life between New York and Rio de Janeiro. Her discography includes the following: Bossallova(1998), Leny Andrade e Romero Lubambo; Luz Neon; Luz Negra (1995) with Nelson Cavaquinho; Cartola; Embraceable You; Nos; E Quero que a Cancdo... Seja Voce (2001). Ad riana Calcanhotto: Born 1965 in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. Beautiful, intelligent and humorous solo performer, she thrills the audiences with her beautiful voice and sense of humor. Her discography includes the following: Enguico (1990); Senhas (1992); A Fcibrica do Poetna(1994); Mar itiino (1998); and Public° (2000). Alcione: Born 1947 in sao Luis, Maranhao. She moved to Rio early on and started her career in the marvelous city. Her discography includes the following: A Voz do Samba (1975); Morte de um Poeta (1976); Pra Que Chorar (1977); Alerta Gera! (1978); Gostoso Veneno (1979); Alcione (1981); Tempo de Guaranice (1996); Valeu (1998); and Celebrac 'do (1998). Clara Nunes: 1943-1983. In the 1970's, ClaraNuneswas the most successful samba singer in Brazil. This was because of a mixture of her beauty, passionate and sensual voice and strong choice ofmaterial:With A Deusa dos Orbccis (The Goddess of the Orixas—Candomble deities), 34

she explored her own African heritage. Her discography includes the following: A Voz Adorcivel de Clara Nunes (1966); voa Passa e Eu Acho Gram (1968); A Beleza que Canta (1969); Clara Nunes (1971); Clara Clarice Clara (1972); Clara Nunes (1973); Alvorecer (1974); Brasileiro Profiss 'do Esperanca (1974); Claridade; Canto das Tres Racas (1976); Nacdo (1982). Nara Lao: 1942-1989—The Muse of Bossa Nova. As a teenager in the late fifties in Zona Sul of Rio, she opened her parents' house to the gang of bossa nova, Tom Jobim, Joao Gilberto, Carlos Lyra, Roberto Menescal, Vinicius de Moraes, and others. It was inevitable that she, too, become a singer. Her discography includes the following: Nara (1965); Nara Pede Passagem (1966); Manhd de Liberdade (1966); Vento de Maio (1967); Coisas do Mundo (1969); Meu Primeiro Amor (1975); Os Meus Amigos Selo um Barato (1977); Debaixo dos Caracois (1978); Romance Popular (1981); A bracos e Beijinhos eCarinhos Sem Ter Fim (1984; and Meus Sonhos Dourados (1988). Clementina de Jesus: 1901-1987.A Rainha Ginga (The Swaying Queen). Her discography includes the following: Rosa de Ouro (1965), Gente da Antiga (1968) with Pixinguinha, Fala Mangueira (1968), Clementina cade Voce? (1970), Clementina de Jesus e Carlos Cachaca (1976), Clementina (1979), Canto dos Escravos (1982). Beth Carvalho: Born in Rio May 5, 1946. At 8 heard Silvio Caldas, a friend of her father's. Thus was born the singer, Beth. Recorded her first record in 1965 with the song "Por Quem Morreu de Amor" (For Those Who Died for Love). 30 years of career has seen her performing in most parts ofthe world. In 1997 she became in interplanetary star when her song "Coisinha do Pai" was programmed by Jacqueline Lyra, a Brazilian engineer at NASA to activate a robot on Mars. Her discography includes the following: Andanca (1969); Canto por urn Novo Dia (1973); Pra Seu Govern° (1974); Pandeiro e Violdo (1975); Mundo Melhor (1976); Nos Botequins da Vida (1977); De Pe no Chdo (1978); Sentimento Brasileiro (1980); Na Fonte (1981); Traco de Una, (1982); Suor no Rosto (1983); Corac'do Feliz (1984); Alma do Brasil (1988); Saudades da Guanabara (1989); Toque de Ma/Ida; Interprete (1990); Perolas-25 A nos de Samba (1992); Acervo Especial; Brasileira da Gema (1996); Perolas do Pagode (1998).. For those inclined to shop for Brazilian music, there are several choices.,, www.a m azo m,,,, Enjoy.

Kirsten Weinoldt was born in Denmarkand cameto the U.S. in 1969. She fell in love with Brazil after seeing Black Orpheus many years ago and has lived immersed in Brazilian culture ever since. Here-mail: BRAZZIL -FEBRUARY 2002

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0 homem disse: "Ndo sei se eu you conseguir viver sem isso". Estavam no mato, sentados nas raizes de uma arvore de flores averrnelhadas, nabeira do rio. A alguns metros deles, a ilha. Era a eta que o homem se referia. "Bobagem. E so uma ilha", a mulher disse. "Tern urn monte igual a eta por al." "Pode ser. Mas este é o lugar mais bonito que já vi na vida." "Voce nuncasaiu daqui, nunca viajou. E isso", ela riu. "Ate acredito que existam lugares bonitos por al. Mas isso é meio pessoal: é a ilha mais bonita que eu vi ate hoje. Sabe por que? Porque ver esta ilha me fez perder completamente, e para sempre, a vontade de ver qualquer outra ilha do mundo. E por isso que eu digo: no sei se you conseguir viver sem isso", etc

Epitaph She took a notebook and with the flame of a lighter she lighted up a short poem, which he read with a hoarse voice. In several occasions, years later, I asked women to read me poems. Even one professional—of sex, not poetry. It never worked. Most of them seem to be reciting an eviction order inside an empty building. MAKAL AQUINO


repetiu. Ela disse: "Nossa. Entao é mais seri° do que eu pensa-va". E riu outra vez. Ela estava para brincadeiras naquele di. Todos temos dias assim. E, as vezes, nesses dias, ndo damos importancia a coisas que deveriamos levar a seri°. Caso daquela mulher. • Ela soube disso na horaem que recebeu a noticia. Ela lembra bem da cena porque ate perguntou ao marido, que via o jornal na TV, quando mesmo que tinham inaugurado a represa. Ela primeiro achou que era coincidencia. Ela, depois, ficou em chavida. 0 homem que amava uma ilha, que fora coberta pelas Aguas da represa, tinha se matado num quarto de pensdo, a muitos quilometros dali. 0 marido continuou vendo TV. A mulher passou pela cozinha, olhou para a pia—de onde o almoco daquele dia ainda espreitava, na forma de umapilha de loucas, pandas e talheres— e saiu para o quintal. Era uma daquelas noites esbranquicadas, tipicas daquele lugar. Ali, no quintal, eta calculou, ndo seria ouvida pelo marido.

DIA DOS NAMORADOS 0 rapaz e a moca entraram na pousada e, de um jeito timid°, ele perguntou o preco da diana. 0 velho Lilico informou e o rapaz e a moca trocaram um olhar em que faiscaram joias de diversos tamanhos. A maior de las era a cumplicidade. Enquanto o rapaz preenchia a ficha de entrada, a moca se afastou urn pouco para examinar melhor o quadro na parede— e pude ve-la por inteiro. Era muito bon ita. Tinha os cabelos e a pele claros. Alta, magra, ossos sal ientes nos ombros. Estava no mundo ha pouco mais de uma decada e meia e, corn certeza, alguern que recusara ja havia escrito poemas desesperados pensando nela. Ou cortado os pulsos o que é quase a mesma coisa. BRAZZIL - FEBRUARY 2002

Embora nao merecesse, o quadro recebeu toda sua atencao por alguns instantes. Era uma pintura ordinaria. Eu já tivera a oportunidade de analisa-la durante as longas tardes em que a chuva me impedia de sairpara caminharpela cidade. Umacidade habitada, fora da temporada turistica, por velhos, aposentados e hippies extemporaneos. Gente que tentava, de um jeito ou de outro, ser esquecida. 0 quadro: penso que o artista havia experimentado urn momento de genuina felicidade ao contemplar, em algum canto do pals, aquelas montanhas, aquele prado, aqueles cavalos. E, generoso, decidira compartilhar aquele moment° corn o resto da humanidade. Mas a verdade é que fracassara. A arte no é feita de boas intencOes. 0 olhar corn que a moca se despediu—para sempre— daquela obra continha urn pouco de piedade. E, corn isso, ela me conquistou em definitivo. 0 velho Lilico entregou a chave ao rapaz, que se voltou e sorriu para a moca. Seu ar era de alguem vitorioso. Mas sou capaz de apostar que a mao que ele juntou a dela, antes de subirem a escada de madeira, tinha a palma molhada de suor. Havia urn principio de rubor no rosto dela. Eram muito jovens e estavam vivendo urn grande rnomento, mas nab sabiam disso ainda. Essas coisas a gente so compreende depois. Lilico deixou o balcao da recepcao e foi ate a copa, onde falou algumacoisa para Jair, um de seus empregados. Em seguida veio ate a mesa que eu ocupava. "Gosto de gente que chega para hospedar-se sem nenhuma bagagem", ele comentou. "E a felicidade que eles carregam, nab conta?", eu perguntei. Ele examinou o tabuleiro, como se estivesse tentando rememorar a j ogada que pretendia fazer antes de ser interrompido pela chegada do casal. "Mandel o Jair levar uma garrafa de champanhe para eles. Cortesia da casa." "Fez bem", eu disse. "Gozado, sabe quem essa moca me lembrou?" Eu disse: "Sei". "Acho que foram os olhos dela", ele falou. "Muito parecidos." Retomamos o jogo e nao falamos mais do casal. Eu, porem, continuei pensando neles. Num dia como aquele, anos antes, uma mulher, que entrava comigo num hotel bem diferente daquela pousada, me dissera: "Hoje eu you te dar um presente muito especial". Urn pouco depois da meia-noite interrompemos o jogo e o ,velho Lilico recolheu as peps e guardou o tabuleiro. E eu já estava no meio da escada, a caminho do meu quarto, quando ele perguntou: "Voce ainda pensa nela?" "De vez em quando eu penso." "E por que voce nao vai atras dela? Voces dois ainda tern alguns anos pela frente." "A magica nao acontece duas vezes", eu disse. 0 velho Lilico balancou a cabeca. "Voce sabe que so em fume fiances antigo o heroi termina seus dias em hoteis vagabundos, escrevendo livros que nunca ird publican" Eu me limitei a sorrir. Entao ele me desejou "boa noite" e voltou para a recepcao. Eu subi a escada e, ao chegar ao corredor, parei diante da porta do quarto que o casal ocupava e tentei ouvir alguma coisa. Mas tudo estava silencioso. Entrei no meu quarto e, enquanto me despia, pensei no velho Lilico. Ele tinha razao: ainda me restavam alguns anos pela frente. E essa era a pior parte da histOria. BRAZZIL -FEBRUARY 2002

RANCOR (Polaroid n°49) Estavam naquela fase em que urn faz tudo para conquistar o &Ho do outro, n esperanca de que algo intenso volte a pulsar entre os dois. Tinham se am do muito, eu sabia. A major paixao que vi. Ela me conto que as vezes se imaginava bem velha, fel iz, ou pelo menos es lerosadamente satisfeita da vida, mas nao o via ao seu lado. E ue era incapaz de prever como ele ficaria na velhice, porque ti ha certeza de que nab estaria por pert° para ver. Uma iron ia. egundo ela, a major declaracao de amor dele: "Quero envelhec r junto de voce". Fotografa. N inicio, ele achava divertido esse lado dela: artista. Corn o talento chancelado por meia clazia de premios e exposicties. Depolis passou a considerar suspeitas as fotos que, aos conjuntos, es avam espalhadas pelos comodos da casa— ate no banheiro. empre paisagens. Nenhuma pessoa. Jamais urn rosto ou corp provocara urn disparo da velha Canon que ela costumava us r. Ele me disse: "Sabe aquele tipo de cena fajuta, que voce ca corn a impressao de que a natureza posou para o fotografo ainda recebeu por isso?" Ele fizera urn lme aos 22 anos. Amado pelacritica, ignorado pelo priblico. A pa irdai, mergulhou na publicidade e colecionou premios. Falou-s muito sobre urn rote iro, que ele nuncadeu por concluido. Virou enda no meio. "SO vinte e poucas paginas de anotacties", ela m disse, explicando por que deixara de respeitalo. Nao levava a erio pessoas que abandonam o sonho para ganhar dinheiro. U, como disse seu analista, ela nao conseguia amar homens que deixara de admirar. Al teve o caso ele corn a modelo. Exageraram: apareceram ate numa coluna se cial. (Eu estava fora do Brasil nessa epoca.) "Uma prostitutaz nha anorexica", de acordo corn ela. Retaliou: saiu corn urn amig do casal, depois de umafesta. Nao deu sorte: o cara nao funci nou, culpou o uisque. Ela: "Eu procurando alguem que me de ejasse e encontro um homem que me respeitava demais". "SO em films mediocres e nas novelas da televisao as pessoas que seam;m terminam juntas. Na vida real é o contrario: quem fica junto s o as pessoas que nao se amam", ele me disse. "Amar e passar a temer o futuro", ela me disse. Mas se amara Peco a ela u a lista corn dez coisas boas dele. Elaenumera: 1—seu cheir 2—sua gentil za 3—seu senso de justica 4—sua gener • sidade 5—seu bom- osto musical 6—seu lado p istico 7—sua inteli encia 8—sua origin I idade ao presentear 9—sua paixa por filmes antigos 10—seu pau "Quer mais?" ela pergunta. Amava os d sertos. Uma vez fotografou um, na Libia. Nenhum beduino ou camelo. Parecia a mesma foto repetindo diversas vezes a reia em ondas douradas. Ele: "Os desertos dela sao interiore . La, as tempestades de areia costumam durar meses". Perguntei a e sobre as coisas que a lembravam. Antes de resp nder, ele olhou para o vaso sobre a mesa de centro entre n6s: ores sinistras. "Dez? Basta olhar para ela e 37

voce vai encontrar bem mais de dez coisas." Eta esta apoiada na janela, olhando a noite. Sem roupa. Observo seu corpo: mesmo na penumbra, bem mais de dez coisas para urn sujeito lembrar-se por um born tempo. Ao virar-se para me sorrir, seu perfil se enquadra contra o ceu escuro. Sardas no rosto. Constelacaes.

MONK Quando o carro quebrou, arranjamos carona no assento traseiro de um jipe sem capota. tramos novos, estavarnos muito felizes. Talvez por isso ate o vento parecia satisfeito ao agitar os cabelos dela. Nunca mais vi o vento tocar coisa alguma corn tanta del icadeza. Tinhamos dormido num mosteiro desativado, em companhia de duas garrafas de vinho. Uma noite sem grilos ou piados de passaros. Sem lua. Uma noite tao silenciosa que era possivel escutar todos os ritmos da respiracao dela ao meu lado. Monk tinha morrido dois dias antes. Vimos a notfcia na TV cheia de chuviscos de um bar. Erguemos um brinde a ele no mosteiro. Ela comentou: sem ele, o mundo fica um pouco pior. Uma noite tao boa e quieta que se Deus resolvesse visitar o mundo naquela hora, certamente andaria na ponta dos pes. Eta pegou um caderno e iluminou corn a chama do isqueiro urn poema curto, que leu corn sua voz rouca. Em diversas ocasities, anos mais tarde, pedi a mulheres que lessem poemas para mim. Ate a uma profissional—do sexo, nao da poesia. Nunca funcionou. A maioria parecia estar recitando uma ordem de despejo no interior de um edificio vazio. 0 velho que nos dava carona estava voltando de uma visita ao filho, que cumpria pena numa colonia agricola da regiao. No assento ao seu lado estava urn menino de pele e olhos escuros, que segurava no cob o umaespecie de escultura feita de maws de cigarro vazios. Meu neto, o velho anunciou, assim que entramos no jipe, quase urn ano que ele nao via o pai. 0 menino olhou para eta corn atencao, pareceu reconhece-la. Talvez se lembrasse de te-la visto na televisao. Ganhou um afago nos cabelos grossos e despenteados. E baixou os olhos para a escultura. Escondeu urn sorriso timid°. Quando o velho nos deixou na entrada de umacidadezinhaplanae empoeirada, o menino teve direito a mais urn afago. Notei que ele segurava a escultura corn umaespecie de humildade, como setransportasse algo capaz de curar um grande mat da humanidade. A chuva caiu antes que conseguissemos chegar a cidade e tivemos de nos abrigar num posto de gasolina. Os motoristas dos caminhaes nos olhavam corn um misto de curiosidade e reprovacao. N6s apenas riamos. Tempos depo is, numacasade campo muito limpaearrumada, ideal para comecar algo e nao para terminar, eu lembrei desse episedio. Falei do mosteiro, do jipe, do velho e do menino. Eta mexeu as sobrancelhas, como se quisesse sublinhar o sorriso irOnico: Isso nunca aconteceu comigo. Deve ter sido corn outra. Born, nao importa, eu disse na hora. Mas importava. Eu queria que eta se lembrasse de como 36

estavamos felizes 4aquele dia, embora soubessemos que nao ia durar. Nunca dura.' E, no fundo, nao sabemos lidar corn isso. As vezes eu a vejo na televisao. Como acabou de acontecer agora, num quarto de hotel cheirando a pinho, mas que e sujo, como sao sujos todos os hotels que se propOem a cheirar a pinho. Na televisao, elariao me pareceu muito alegre. Mas pode ser que fosse esse o script de seu personagem. Ou nao—e talvez ela estivesse tnesmo meio triste. Como a maioria das pessoas. Como o resto da vida sem Monk.

CARTA Abril, IX, manha Prezado F., Ainda os escritores: tenho, em relacao a alguns, a sensacao de que se esgotaram. Talvez já tenham dito tudo. E agora se contentam corn a autoparedia. No caso de J., isso é evidente. Ele retoma personagens que brilharam em textos fulgurantes e se dedica a torna-los opacos. Outro dia estive em urn bar, onde J. leu um de seus contos, dos bons tempos. Apesar de esquisito (o texto), estao la seus principios esteticos e literarios, enfim sua viagem. No momento, seus escritos andam desbotados, sem vico. Sem tesao. Isso independe da vontade do escritor, a meu ver. Acaba, velho, acaba. Ha° estimulo que move a gente (de onde vem?). Por isso sempre desconfiei daquele tipo de enquete: "Por que voce escreve?" Nao sabemos, ao certo. Escrevemos—e isso se mistura corn o "vivemos". Gostamos disso, queremos isso, brigamos por isso. E, de repente, cessa. "Como urn vento que parou de ventar", feito diria o velho Ariosto. Nao ha nada a fazer (e, o que é pior, a dizer). Mas alguns nao se calam. E, desprezando o respeito arduamente tionquistado, passam a etapa de dilapidacao. Aconteceu ate com os grandes. (Com os menores, pouca gente nota; eles não rendem noticia.) Richard Ford diz: "Nao ha uma perda irreparavel para a humanidade quando um escritor desiste de escrever. Afinal de contas, quando um a arvore tombana floresta quem mais lamenta alem dos macacos?" Porem nao pense que isso é tranqiiilo, que nos libertamos. As vezes, paramos, fazemos ate apologia do nosso silencio. Transformamos em marketing nossa impotencia e nosso inconformismo diante de algo que era muito borne que ja nao e. Feito relacao amorosa que termina sem urn motive aparente. Apenas aquele vestido vermelho, visto agora no varal, parece sem cor, sem misterio. E o corpo que o vestia, deitado ao nosso lado de manha, já nao desperta em nes mais do que amizade—um dos disfarces mais temiveis da compaixao. (Casais deveriam despedir-se urn minuto apes os funerals da cumplicidade.) Mas paramos, velho. Pararnos. Inconformados. Felizes os que deixam isso pra la e vac, cuidar da vida. Mas que vida? A nossa andou tao misturada corn essa coisa da I iteratura que e impossivel concebe-la de outra forma. E mesmo os que abandonam o barco continuam sonhando corn o mar. Du vido que urn desses escritores, se urn, nao acorde no meio da BRAZZIL-FEBRUARY2002

noite e nao pense num projeto—que, é claro, ele nao vai levar adiante. Mas repare: voce encontra urn escritor que nao ve ha tempos e ele fala de urn projeto em andamento (do qual, certamente, voce nunca tera outras noticias). 0 projeto serve para mante-lo vivo. Falam de crise. Mas que crise? Na verdade convivemos o tempo todo corn ela. Ate que o estalo nos redime: urn born paragrafo nos faz sorrir, quando lembramos dele. Mas ndo compreendemos a magia, de onde veio. Vimos o brilho por urn instante. SO. Urn flash. Desconhecemos a fonte. E al esta a maravilha. E a miseria. Por que nao chega um momento em que ha o dominio total da coisa? Porque nao é assim que funciona. Queremos dizer algo (pran6s mesmos?) e por vezes conseguimos. Mas nao é sempre. Quando escrever for uma coisa saudavel, os analistas perderdo o sentido. Nao é saudavel. E atormentado. Mas nao é uma doenca, longe disso. As vezes nao passa de frescura. Mas o certo é que amamos os livros e a mensagem que eles trazem. Cifrada, muitas vezes, impropria. Mas magica, sempre (estou falando, é Obvio, de livros que ficamos alegres de salvar em um sebo). A serio: quantas pessoas voce conhece—que no escrevem, nem mesmo escondidas—que gostam realmente de ler? Que sabem ler? Que tern uma vaga ideia do que e essa coisa da literatura? Da pra contar nos dedos de ulna luva de boxe. Já tive mulheres que passaram a amar a literatura por minha causa— porque eu falava disso o tempo inteiro e elas devem ter pensado: "Born, deve ser mesmo importante, vamos ver que merdad essa". Conheci outras que nao "se ligavam" em literatura (nem eu nelas)—tente estabelecer urn vinculo corn uma delas sem pensar naquele jogo de facas que esta na cozinha. E tambem me encontrei corn mulheres que tinham lido, sabiam o que tinham lido, gostavam do que tinham lido e do que havia por ler. Raras. Mas, resumindo, enquanto ndo vem o vazio, vamos escrevendo. E ate publicando. Mas sem saber direito o que estamos fazendo. Duvido que algum dia alguem tenha iluminado, pra valer, qualquer aspecto daquilo que voce faz ao comentar seus textos. Duvido. Ha uns charmes, uns afagos. Arrumamos ate mulher por causa disso. Dinheiro, eventualmente. Ganhamos respeito e ironias. Um buque em que isso vem misturado. E bebemos. E fumamos. E vamos levando. Fama de louco, nesse caso, é bem-vinda. A familia fala do louco visto na TV, no programa muito noturno—o videocassete salvou muita gente do desconforto de ficar acordado ate tarde para ver o louco na televisao. Ao lado do apresentador querido e damenina sem idespida, frente ao auditorio formado por gente que olhaparao louco corn curiosidade e desconfianca. E ate corn urn pouco de tedio. Uma certa piedade. Al, o motorista da emissora, que vai levar o louco para casa, puxa conversa. Sobre o que voce veio falar?, pergunta, candidamente. Literatura, responde o louco, olimpico. E o motorista: Ah, sei. E cita uma bosta de um I ivro que ele quase leu. E o louco chega em casa, ainda nao sarou do pico de adrenalinae orgulho. E rele, em pe (porque afinal tern urn monte de coisas que ainda precisa ser feito em pe, por respeito), uns versos de urn poeta que ele ama. Urn que fala de uma orquidea se formando, sozinha, antieuclidiana. Ou vai aos proprios textos e confere urn ou outro paragrafo, urn efeito que descobriu por acidente, urn ponto final que colocou fora de lugar por ignorancia—e que encantou a critica. Pior: alguem visitao louco. E se espanta corn suabiblioteca. E pergunta: Nossa, voce leu tudo isso? Como se fosse um compendio de doencas da infancia e a pergunta fosse: Voce ja teve tudo isso? E sobreviveu? BRAZZIL - FEBRUARY 2002

Mas o louco é fbda. Ele olha os companheiros de manada se sabendo diferente (por que?, nem ele sabe direito). Mas ele é diferente. Mais tarcle ele vai reclamardisso, mas no momento em que olha a manadit, enfiada bovinamente nesse desconforto que e o ele se felicita por ser diferente, por ter esperancas diferer0s, por flat) querer ter urn carro do ano, uma casacom gramado churrasqueira. Falta-lhe o estilo competitivo e ele na'o se interessa por coisas corriqueiras. Seu compromisso é corn algo major, bem major. Ele acha que no futuro, se houver futuro, alguem lhe farajustica. Mas isso tido vai acontecer. E se acontecer, ele já nao tera figado, pancreas ou mesmo prOstata para festejar. E tudo o que desejard e apenas uma veia boa onde aplicar a Ultima. E quando o louco cisma de ter um cachorro entdo? Sao os piores. 0 louco vai la e escolhe urn nome para o cachorro, um nome-homenagem, corn ressonancias literarias—e isso quando nao faz esse tipo de coisa corn os filhos. Grande merda. Uns poucos rirdo. A maioria nao darn a minima, catalogard isso no manual de esquisittces do louco e continuaratemendo as presas do cachorro. Cdes om nome de pacifistas costumam morder a mao da filha do si dico, que so tentou afagar,a fera. (E o louco: Nao é possivel, iss nunca aconteceu antes.) E que o Gandhi (ou o Martin Luther ou seja la quern for o pacifista de plantao) estard tambem corn o sac cheio. E talvez o louco aindaqueira escrever sobre o episOdio. ntando extrair umaexplicacao. Porque para ele tudo pode ser xplicado pela via I iteraria. Suanovanam adarird—e é isso que importa: o louco ainda a faz rir. E educado Sabe segurartalheres. Entende a hora em que para ficar quieto Leu uns poetas, ouviu alguns discos. E ate atencioso, quando sta a fim. E o pau dele ainda funciona. E meio torto, mas funcion . Porem a impaciencia, esse virus que nenhum laboratorio conse ue detectar, já esta no sangue armando sua revolta. Veio de b inde no DNA do louco. E o louco escr ye. Escreve. Escreve sempre. Corn chuva e, corn sol. Enfim, um suj ito sem urn pingo de juizo. 0 que sobrara . Urn ceu baixo, uma terra devastada e urn bando de gente qu ainda planta, mas, no intimo, torce pra que nada nasca. Era isso. Mant nha a calma. E nao se mova. Urn abraco P.

EPiGRAF Memorias con ugais Acendi o cigairo. E so entdo rep rei como o vestido dela era inflamavel. Marcal Aquin was born in Amparo, in the interior of Sao Paulo state, in l98. He published the short story books As

fomes de setembro, iss Danabio, 0 amor e outros objetos pontiagudos, for hich he was awarded the Jabuti Prize— Brazil's most trad tional literary prize—and Faroestes. He was also the author of the scripts for these movies: Os Matadores, Ay& entre Amigos, 0 Invasor and Nina. This short story was originally published under the name "Epitifio" in Geracao 90, Manuscritos de Computador, an anthology of 17 authors and the best short stories published in Brazil in thei '90s. The book was organized by Nelson de Oliveira. You can contact Boitempo Editorial, the publisher, at or calling 11-3875-7285.



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In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the Portuguese were great navigators and explorers. They not only "discovered" Brazil. They also found the passage to the East, to India, Sri Lanka, Indochina, China and Japan. Wherever they went they left their "mouthprints". A few of those Portuguese words are still in current usage. On the other hand, they brought in their bags a number of Asian words. One of such words is cha (tea) which comes to us from the Chinese and Japanese. In slightly different version it exists also in Russian (chai). So, Portuguese is the only European language that does not call tea te, the, thea, etc. but chci. Big deal! When the turn came for Spaniards to do some exploring, they "discovered" Mexico. From there they brought quite a few words that meandered through the Continent and were eventually incorporated into English. For instance tomato. With the Aztecs, the Spanish explorers also learned to appreciate a refreshing Mexican drink called xocoldd—bitter water in Nahuatl, the language spoken by several nations of the area now called Mexico. The endings all, et!, ill, oil, utl are a sound signatures of the old Mexicans. Compare with Popocatepetl • and the very name of the country. Thus, chocolate was a drink. It was made with the fruit— sometimes called a nut and/or a bean—of the cacahuad (again the same at! suffix!). From it we got cacao. Which today is a universal term, sometimes spelled kakao. Then a great confusion took place. Europeans already knew the coco—a Portuguese word meaning a "head with a smile or a twisted face" the fruit of an East Indian palm tree. And they enjoyed it. When cacao made its debut in Britain, the vagaries of English spelling and pronunciation led the poor 16th century Brits to scramble words to make a difference. According to the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), that was when the term cocoa bowed in as the drink made with the bittersweet fruit of the cacahuatl tree. Aiming at "simplifying," and to mark the difference, the English added nut to coco, made it into coconut. The French followed suit. To this day they call it noix de coco. Actually, the Spaniards, in spite of having been the "discoverers" of cacao and chocolate, mixed up things hopelessly. Yes, they picked the Nahuatl word cacahudd and adopted it to their language as cacahuete. But instead of distinguishing its original fruit, nowadays cacahuete means peanut (amendoim in Portuguese). Don't you think that peanut is rather silly too? The British — who used to grow peanuts in Africa — called it groundnuts.

English for Brazucas Tea, Cocoa, and Chocolate

Aiming at "simplifying," and to mark the difference, the English added nut to coco, made it into coconut. The French followed suit. To this day they call it noix de coco.


Hockey Pokey

A reader sent me e-mail asking about the origin of the name Zamboni, a machine to shave the ice in hockey arenas. It's a proper name, after the Italian inventor and/or its manufacturer: maquina de raspar gelo de quadras de hoquei. I know that there are zambon is made by Bombardier and other companies—the same phenomWILSON VELLOSO enon as with gilete which in Brazil is an ordinary safety razor blade not necessarily made by the Gillette Co. The zamboni looks like a heavy-duty riding grass mower (tosador de grama de auto-propulscio). To any person with BRAZZIL -FEBRUARY 2002

some experience with a mower, and owner of gloves, a heavy coat and a cap, driving this machine is as easy as pie. Another Italian name seems to be the case ofJacuzzi, a kind of round or oval bathtub with several outlets of hot and cold water under great pressure. It is known in Brazil as jacuzi or jacuze and is considered the top of pampering luxury. It comes in several sizes, all equally delectable. If you are thinking of getting one, perhaps you should begin with a Jacuzzi made for two. Of course, these words are not English creations but adaptations of Italian terms. In every day life Americans also use a large number of Native Indian words. A few are more common in the West. Others are quite widespread in the East and sometimes all over the U.S. Enthusiasts of Winter Sports love toboggan (pronunciation: tobOgan) races. It is a kind of narrow sled (tren6) made of wood planks, usually curved at the ends. The Innuit (natives of the Arctic area ofNorth America and Greenland, formerly called Eskimos) who invented this contraption and gave it a Micmac Indian word, use it to transport game, and all sorts of loads. Sport, "real" toboggans, much more sophisticated and built for2, 4,6 and more people, take part in races and championships, zipping down a steep long man-carved sloping snow groove. Tobogganing is very fast and a quite dangerous sports. Brazilians, who never saw a sled, a sleigh, or a true toboggan except in the movies or TV, unceremoniously took the word and apply it to any kind of playground slides on which children love to glide down sitting on their behinds, lying down on their tummies, or standing up, specially when water come cascading down the slide. Great fun for all concerned, kids and their parents. To them a toboga is simply the slide, not any vehicle

on it. Going back to ice hockey. It's played usually indoors — for the comfort of the audience. Instead of a ball they use a puck (disco) forcefully impelled by the J-shaped stick (taco) and thrown in the direction of the goal (go!) where the goalkeeper or goalie (goleiro) tries to stop it. The puck ricochets on the blades of the players' skates. Each team has about 20 players, including two goalies. Sometimes it seems that all the 40 guys are on the ice, but theoretically only six are in action for each team, at a given time: 3 forwards the goal-makers the goalie and two defenders. Interruptions may come at anytime, for any reason. A champion offensive player who makes three consecutive goals in a game performed a hat trick. Other sports also have their hat tricks, such as in the British lawn game of cricket, very popular in the British Isles and the entire British Commonwealth, including the former African, Asian, and Caribbean nations.





If you have doubts, criticism, or suggestions, put them on a postal card and mail it to Brazzil Magazine P.O.Box 50536, Los Angeles CA 90050-0536. If you prefer, e-mail vewilson(&

Wilson Velloso considers himself very fortunate. He began to learn English at home when he was 5 years old. The teacher was of a British housekeeper, Ursula Doss, who "happened" one day in thesmall town where the Vellosos lived, on the so-called Noroeste do Brasil Railroad, Sao Paulo State.

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The past and present have long co-existed in the old port area of the capital of Pernambuco state. Waterfront warehouses hearken back to Recife's glory days as a world leader in sugar production during the seventeenth century. Ornate colonial buildings, now serving as apartments, shops and even nightclubs, stand as testament to the wealth brought in by the sugar production. Yet the peeling facades and rusted balconies, along with the poor who beg visitors for spare coins or food, are present reminders of the slump that Recife later suffered. Now, a $13 million plan is aiming to pump new life into the old heart of Recife—via technology. The plan is called Porto Digital (in English, digital port) and is a joint undertaking of the state government, private companies and the Inter-American Development Bank. Over the next few years, technology companies including heavyweights Microsoft, Nokia and Siemens will move into some of the abandoned buildings, while the incubators serving those companies will fill space in the port warehouses where sugar was once stored. The project's founders stress that it is not merely another Silicon Valley that is being planned. Rather, the aim is to capitalize on the city's resources and culture. "The goal is to create something with a human form, and to create conditions of usability," said Silvio Meira, one of the creators of the project. For these reasons, the project is starting If successful, Porto Digital might with the computer science program at well serve as a model for revitalizing the Federal University in Recife, which will be moving into the old city center. the rest of Pernambuco state, which One of the best programs of its kind in is among the most impoverished in Brazil, it loses about half of its graduates each year to larger cities with more Brazil. job opportunities, such as Sao Paulo, or to companies like Microsoft, which comes to Recife every summer to reAMI ALBERNAZ cruit promising grads. "We need to create challenges here in Recife so that people will wantto stay," said Meira, who is also a professor at the federal university. "Either we create a world class place, or graduates will keep leaving." The way in which the project is creating challenges is through a university-based organization called CESAR, or Recife's Center for Advanced Studies and Systems. Meira, who also serves as CESAR' s president, refers to the organization as an "enterprise factory." CESAR generates small companies whose purpose is to solve problems frequently encountered by businesses. One CESAR-generated company, called Radix (http://, is the search engine for iG, Brazil's best-known free Internet service provider. For Porto Digital, the idea is that companies started by CESAR will open in the port area and attract investment that will enable more businesses to open. The first CESAR company in the port area, called Vanguard, opened in June.

Wired Town



Porto Digital is aiming not only to keep workers in Recife, but The installati n of fiber optic cables and wires beneath to attract workers from outside of the city. A "human capital Recife's streets fo4 Porto Digital is already yielding benefits, but fund" that is one component of the project would provide of an unexpected sort. Since the wiring began in mid-May, competitive salaries to those considering Recife. Meanwhile, thousands of relics of the city's past have surfaced. For a team the project's founders are hoping that the city's climate, with of archaeologists and the residents of Recife, the serendipitous warm weather year-round and little rain, could also work in its findings are filIin in gaps in the story of the city's beginnings. favor. The 15,000 archaeological artifacts being studied by the The benefits of Porto Digital will extend to the poor in the archaeological team include tobacco pipes, porcelain dishes port area, according to State Secretary of Science and Technol- and perhaps most interestingly, pieces of a fortification wall ogy Claudio Marinho. A housing project consisting of300 poor built by the Dutch who controlled Recife between 1630 and 1654. families will be renovated next year and will be the site of an According to the head of the archaeological team, all of the informatics training school which will offer low-cost training to findings are providing archaeologists with clues about the residents. The residents might then work in some of the busi- patterns of settlement and the social classes of Recife's earliest nesses which will open in the port area. inhabitants. In the conceiving of Porto Digital, its creators have tried to "By studying the objects we can tell where they came from, combine their own elements with those of already-existing and by the quality, what was the social status of the people who technology clusters. "We're taking ideas from what's already had them," said Marcos Albuquerque of the University of been tested aid proven," Marinho said. "We're not looking to Pernambuco, who is leading the excavations. As an example, re-invent thewheel." In the beginning, for example, Porto Digital Albuquerque compared the white tobacco pipes that were used will receive plenty of government support. Every real invested by Dutch settlers ith the brown ones favored by the Portuby the private sector will be matched by a real from the guese. Additional y, the fragments of English porcelain dishes government. Yet the founders acknowledge that eventually, the that have been fo nd are signs of a relatively wealthy settleproject will need to be self-sustaining. "In order to be truly ment. successful, the project needs to be able to run on its own," Meira The pieces oft e Dutch wall which once surrounded Recife said. "You can help it begin, but then you should be able to leave have fueled the im gination of the archaeologists, who believe it alone and watch it grow." the wall might ha e served as a fortress and as an observatory point. The find ha also been intriguing in that it has given the An Example archaeologists a gl 'mpse into how Recife looked under a people other than the Po uguese, who reclaimed it from the Dutch in If successful, Porto Digital might well serve as a model for 1654. Starting wit the wall, the archaeologists intend to study revitalizing the rest of Pernambuco state, which is among the the successive lay rs of buried artifacts to learn the chronology most impoverished in Brazil. Jose Carlos Calvacante, president of settlement in th city. In the time of the Dutch, Recife was of the state foundation for technology and support (FACEPE), much smaller than t is today, having since filled in some ofwhat said that state officials are trying to enrich the state and improve was once water. With future findings, the archaeologists hope living conditions for its residents through science and technol- to create a new ap of how Recife was in the seventeenth ogy, in a way exemplified by Porto Digital. century. In Calvacante's vision for a more digital state, partnerships The excavatio s have taken place near Rua do Born Jesus, between universities and the private sector will be a driving one of Recife's m in touristic points. On that street stands the force, as in Porto Digital. Calvacante acknowledges that the first synagogue to be built in the Americas, called Kahal Zur greatest challenge will be preparing the population for a more Israel. Near the s nagogue, the archaeologists found a pertechnically-oriented society. "We will not succeed if we don't fectly preserved m kvah, or Jewish ceremonial bath. In addition, train our population," he said. "We need to create something the team has reac ed tunnels more than 60 feet long, which that comes from the state and from its people. Otherwise, it will carried water fort e city's population in the nineteenth century. fail." Some of the fin ings, including the mikvah and pieces ofthe Since all of Pernambuco's 184 municipalities are already Dutch wall, will b visible to the public through glass windows linked to an Internet backbone, the challenge now facing in the ground. 0th rs, including the dish fragments and pipes, Calvacante and leaders of social organizations throughout the will either be donated to an already-existing museum in Recife state is finding how to use it to best serve the population. Many or will be housed in a new museum which would be built of the state's residents are illiterate, which will make the work specifically to showcase the findings. more difficult. Calvacante calls for using the Internet creatively. Certainly the greatest irony of the discoveries is that the Instead of focusing on computer skills training, for example, he original purpose of the excavations was to install the cables and says a more efficient use of information technology might be to wires for the likes of Microsoft and Nokia, which are among the teach the state's artisans and farmers to use the Internet to sell 250 high-tech companies that will be moving into Recife. Now their goods, particularly in towns well known for their arts and it appears likely th t the old heart of Recife will soon be a place crafts, or fruits and vegetables. where the spectruin of its past, present and future will be on Just as in Porto Digital, Calvacante's vision for a more display for all to see. information-based Pernambuco state will be something with a distinctly home-grown feel. "We are trying to use our most Ami Albernaz has taught English in Manaus unique advantages," he said. "We have traditions of samba, and recently conducted research on the Internet in four frevo and arts and crafts. I get angry when I hear people say that Brazilian cities including Recife, which is Pernambuco is so poor. That's overlooking what we do have, how she learned of the Porto Digital project. She is and what is special to this region." pursuing a degree in journalism and Latin American studies from New Vorli University. She can be reached by email at

Future Meets Past BRAZZIL -FEBRUARY 2002 43

Snapshots of Sound Embracing his legion of California admirers, Hermeto Pascoal transforms emotion into sound. BRUCE GILMAN The ride from Los Angeles to San Francisco via Interstate 5, although usually quick and direct, is tedious in bad weather. There is nothing apparently attractive about the landscape. You overtake, you're overtaken, cars rush, passengers glare, and you try to surmount fatigue. I had been driving in rain for nine hours, with swarms of slowly cruising HarleyDavidsons, making what draping overpass banners referred to as the "Love Ride" as my only distraction, before I caught sight of the sign for Woodside. It was almost five o'clock, and a few small holes in the sky were letting the sun shine through as I turned in at the Palm Circle home of Steven and Thalia Lubin, two architects responsible for bringing the best Brazilian music to the Bay Area for close to a decade. After extracting myself from the car, I wound through a rustic front yard, weaving under an arbor and over stone pavers, to the threshold where I stood, still undiscovered. An oblong window next to the front door admitted the view of a man's hands, and above the hands, a swath of snowwhite hair bent over the piano. What I heard coming from behind the door-frame took me two psychic steps forward. The pianist, a man endearingly referred to as the Sorcerer, a living legend, was Hermeto Pascoal. Steven waved me in, handed me a cgfelinho, and let me sit silently, sippingthe dark steaming mixturegingerly as I listened to the composer, arranger, and multi-instrumentalist revered the world over for his capacity to extract music from any object—animal, vegetable, or mineral. There was something epic in the old man's presence, in the pale-complexioned face in which geniality and humor seem the salient characteristics. Laughing and merry eyes lie behind his glasses, betraying 44


much of the naïveté and wonder of a child; and yet, in an unassertive way, containing much of a calm self-reliance and strength of purpose founded upon self-realization and experience. There was also something in the dramatic subtlety of his improvisations that makes comment nearly impossible. I sat for a long time listening in a preconscious state, staring through a great window that frames an organic link between house and garden. Shadows crept slowly, through green and purple sculptured landscaping. The setting sun streaming in gold and crimson bars between the wisteria's trellis gave me a sense of stillness, ofperfect peace and security. To the maestro's right sat mandolin virtuoso Mike Marshall, listening with the same calm delight, drinking the milk of paradise, ideas chasing across his face like wind-flaws across the surface of a lake. How long I had been sitting I didn't know, but I had the foolish and yet delicious sense of knowing my seat was front row center. Trying to clear my mind of the fairy tale sensation of being in two places at once, I was revived by a knocking on the Lubins' front door and then voices. I could hear nothing of what the voices said, but the sound rose and fell quietly, and I sensed from the very cadence and motion, a continual stir of curiosity and awe in them. Before I could completely collect myself, musicians from Santa Barbara to Seattle (disciples having made the same pilgrimage) were arriving. Wine appeared, instruments materialized, and a jam session ensued that was a shifting prism of idioms, a kind of dream interchangeofjazz, atonality, and Brazilian folk forms executed with an abandon and virtuosity that expressed the spirit and passion of the company. This free-form musical collage continued until our hosts summoned us to an inviting table and a welllaid meal. We sat long, imbibing and telling lighthearted stories and occasionally succumbing to uproarious outbursts of laughter. What more could there be? The next morning there was more. We made a two-car caravan to Sonoma State University. There Hermeto demonstrated a framework—clear, powerful, and easily adaptable— for thinking about musical creation. He and Jovino Santos Neto, both showing monumental patience, provided practical ideas and encouragement, urging pupils to participate actively, to discuss impressions, to question. But students seemed caught in a Northern California stream of unconsciousness, and fearing Hermeto would ask one of them point-blank for a response, acted as though punctilious courtesy was the manner best calculated to restrain the man. After several ineffectual attempts to engage them, Hermeto broke through their defense bluntly by offering to photograph volunteers in sound. Three young men took turns "modeling" next to the piano while Hermeto created their musical images. Maybe these blossoming musicians were intimidated by an old man for whom composing is an act as natural as breathing, whose music singer/songwriter Joyce says "we'll be studying one hundred years from now," and who Gil Evans called the world's greatest arranger. Maybe these students dance to a different drummer. Well, let them dance. Next stop, the Exploratorium in San Francisco. For the commute back into the city, I rode with Hermeto, Jovino Santos Neto, and Luiz Bueno of the ensemble Duofel. • Hermeto told me as the van pulled away from the curb, "Musicians are really no different than farmers. If they don't plant, if they don't know how to plant well, they'll never harvest. The first thing is that music is a mission, not a fashion. It evolves spiritually. I don't want anybody to really understand, to comprehend my music. I want them to feel my music. It's very important that musicians, who today have to handle so many things that are accessory to their music, can use technology from a musical point of view and never let themselves be led by BFtAZZIL - FEBRUARY 2002

it or let it take prec dence over the importance ofthe music itself. Change does not ean evolution. To evolve is to create. A computer will ne er give you the gift of creation. It's just a machine. It's there It's It's ready for somebody to do something. But there are a lo of people who mistakenly believe that the computer is actu Ily creating something. There are a lot of people who havensidea what it is to compose a simple melody, and they're comp sing stuff on the computer. This is the same thing as trying to lone a human being. Instead of this helping creativity, it actua ly hinders it. And it's no one else's responsibility exceptthe usician's. Use the computer or anythingelse you want. Drink y ur beer, but don't become drunk by the beer or by the comput ." Once underwa ,the four of us reminisced about the superhighway Hermeto ad been traveling since age seven, when he picked up his fath r's eight-button accordion, and refusing to put it down, was s aying professionally for parties and dances by his eleventh bi hday. At fourteen, Hermeto was performing on radio program with his brother Ze Neto and Sivuca in the group 0 Mundo P gando Fogo (World on Fire). The station's manager, thinking hese three albinos were adorable, referred to them as the "thr e little doves," a notion that was quickly dispelled by the s sontaneous combustion that occurred when the "fledgl ings"ki ked offthefrevo "Vassourinha." By his early twenties, Hermet , already with a reputation as a gifted instrumentalist on acco dion, piano, flute, saxophone, and clarinet; was a regular on th night club circuit in both Rio de Janeiro and So Paulo, accom anying singers, playing choro, and working in distinguished r oms like the Copacabana Palace and the Stardust with pr stigious musicians like N icolino Copia (Copinha). Hermeto joine Quartet° N ovo (formerly Trio Novo) in 1966, a group created to ccompany Geraldo Vandre at TV Record's second Popular usic Festival. Vandre's entry, "Disparada" (Stampede), co-w itten by the group's bass player, Theo de Barros, tied for fir t place with Chico Buarque's "A Banda." At Edu Lobo's requ st, the group accompanied his "Ponteio" (Strumming) at th next festival, and, again demonstrating the importance ofthei contribution, took first place in a competition that included he vyweight challengers like Gilberto Gil's "Domingo no Par ue," Chico Buarque's "Roda-viva," Caetano Veloso's "Alegria legria," and Dori Caymmi's "0 Cantador." In 1970, Herm to gave a series of international performances and recorded with among others, Flora Purim, Airto Moreira, Miles Davis, and S 'rgio Mendes. On his Live Evi/album, Davis recorded two of ermeto's compositions: "Igrejinha" (Little Church) and two ersions of "Nem um Talvez" (Not Even a Maybe), one retitl d "Selim," or Miles spelled backwards. Until the matter of attri uting the proper composer came up with preparations for th r release ofthe Finding Forrester soundtrack, Davis had been cited as the composer of both tunes—not only on the Live Evil re ording but also in "authoritative" books like Milestones by Jac Chambers (who also erroneously states that in Brazil, A irto M reira played congas, bongos and maracas). Hermeto feels th Miles had nothing to do personally with taking credit for he tunes and that responsibility lies with Columbia's mana ment. "Miles was aloof, like a child, but there was always a m tual respect between us that transcended human vanity." C lumbia/Legacy reissued Live Evil in 1997, Still with personn I listings and titles confused. While Hermeti was in the United States, he was called to record a flute solo or the tune "Tema Jazz" on Antonio Carlos Jobim's album Tii e. In those days, whenever a solo was to be recorded, it was St ndard for producers to invite in four or five different soloists nd fail to mention to them that other musi45

cians would be taping solos for the same track, and that the solo appearing on the album would be decided afterward. When Hermeto's time came, Jobim stopped the recording, saying that there was a note out of tune, that the flute had a wrong note. Hermeto asked him which one it was then suggested that Jobim call the piano tuner. The tuner was called, corrected the piano, and the session contin= ued with Hermeto recording what is probably the longest solo on any Jobim album. After the session, Jobim privately apologized. On the CD reissue, "Tema Jazz" appears not only in the original LP sequence but also as three of the four bonus tracks, each with a different, mesmerizing solo by Hermeto, his over-driven tone a refreshing antidote to the soft, chorused tones of the melody. Following his return to Brazil, Hermeto received awards for Best Soloist (1972) and Best An-anger (1973) from the Sao Paulo Association of Art Critics. He also recorded A Mfisica Livre de Hermeto Pascoal for Phonogram, an album that included his own compositions as well as classics by Pixinguinha and Luiz Gonzaga. Although the album sold more than fifty thousand copies and was critically acclaimed, Hermeto was unhappy with the label's handling of the project and vowed never again to record in Brazil, a disposition that wasn'trelieved until his work with Som da Gente in 1982. Nevertheless, his career and prestige blossomed, and his shows drew ever larger and more enthusiastic crowds. In 1974, Hermeto was back in the United States where he took part in the sessions for Cannonball Adderley's Lovers LP at the Fantasy Studios in Berkeley. Afterthe recording, Hermeto was having dinner with friends in Los Angeles when he sensed Cannonball's presence so strongly that he abruptly stopped eating and left the restaurant, bound for the recording studio. Upon arriving, he was metby the newsthat Cannonball A dderley had just died. Airto Moreira, Flora Purim, and film maker Glauber Rocha, who were with Hermeto, joined him in pay ing homage to one of the jazz world's most thoughtful, intelligent, and supremely soulful players. The result is a seven minute flute solo, underscored with the sound of a heart beating and a background of cherub-like voices speaking English and Portuguese. Hermeto manipulated the speed ofthe taped voices from fifteen inches per second down to seven and a half, to raise pitch and create an aural image of the angels receiving Cannonball. Cannonball's wife wept when she heard the piece and offered her husband's alto sax to Hermeto, which he declined. A celebrated close-up cover photo of Hermeto, his hands on the keyboard reflecting in his glasses, and an inspired illustration/transcription (note-for-note) of his flute solo on "Canon" house an important and beautiful album that includes, among other inventive works, "Chorinho Pra Ele," a classic of the choro repertoire that Hermeto wrote as an homage to his brother, and the album's title track, "Missa dos Escravos," which features the sound of a piglet orchestrated into the arrangement's instrumental fabric. One show followedon the heels of another, from the Municipal Theater of So Paulo to the street fair of Caruaru, where unremitting applause brought Hermeto to tears. At TV Globo's 1975 Abertura music festival, Hermeto received the Best Ar46

ranger award, and the media was flooded with praise regarding his performances at Sao Paulo's Free Jazz Festival in both 1978 and 1979. Similar success came on July 20, 1979, when he played at Moptreux, a performance which yielded his second album recorded that year. Elis Regina, having just signed with Warner after fifteen years with Polygram, was there attempting to stimulate her career internationally and fulfill an important facet of her new contract—a live recording from the Montreux Jazz Festival. She performed the first part ofthe Brazilian Night program with great technique, but little emotion, her trademark. Hermeto came out for the second part and broke the house up, receiving a fifteen minute standing ovation and continuous demands for more. When he was called back on stage, he encountered another spectacular ovation then went to the piano. Reginacame back on stage for the encore smiling tensely. After Hermeto prefaced "Corcovado" and Regina joined in, his harmonies started taking unexpected turns that were so sophisticated the old bossa nova classic was transformed, each chorus a little more challenging. Regina, always competitive, responded with precision. So naturally, Hermeto made the route of the unrehearsed tune even more treacherous. It was something that could have only happened under those circumstances—free, loose, crazy. After the end of the third encore— a five-star performance by any standard—they performed "Asa Branca," and Regina, as though it were her last performance and she was saying good-bye to the world, substituted the lyrics, "Adeus, Hermeto. Keep my heart with you." In 1980, Cerebro Magnetic°, with Hermeto's abstract cover art, was released and demonstrated as never before his multiinstrumentalist virtuosity on flute, saxophone, piano, guitar, cavaquinho, drums, percussion, and vocals. In 1982, Som da Gente, a label specializing in instrumental music, offered Hermeto the artistic license that persuaded him to resume recording in Brazil and then released Hermeto Pascoal e Grupo, an LP revealing the cohesive interaction and fluid density of his most exhilarating, always intriguing ensemble. The group was a literal feeding ground for young, exceptionally talented multi-instrumental giants like Carlos Malta, Jovino Santos Neto, and Itibere Zwarg, musicians who played with force, fluency, and fresh ideas that glided across bar lines and compositional sections with risky, asymmetrical brilliance. Som da Gente released Lagoa da Canoa, Municipio de Arapiraca in 1984, Hermeto's homage to his birthplace. The album presented innovative forms of musical sound as well as unforgettable pieces like "Mestre Radames," an homage to the maestro Radames Gnattali, and "Tiruliruli," a harmonized tape loop of a soccer announcer's play-by-play. Additional homages were made to various journalists and broadcasters on the 1987 So Nilo Toca Quem Nilo Quer, which vaunts guest appearances by the sanfoneiro (accordion player) Dominguinhos and virtuoso guitar player Rafael Rabello. The Brazilian release also displays more of Hermeto's art work lacing the cover's edge. Brasil Universo brought fans the blazingforro "0 Tocador Quer Beber" (The Player Wants a Drink), a tune Hermeto wrote one day as he was BRAZZIL - FEBRUARY 2002

coming down from his upstairs rehearsal room and saw his dogs of Som da Aura ropped up. Jovino Santos Neto assisted by chasing a chicken. At that time he had thirty-five dogs, "twenty rewinding and re laying the cautionary words while Hermeto on one side of the house and fifteen on the other." Typical of picked out its mel dic and rhythmic structure then harmonized the composer's endeavors to abolish the frontiers between the "tune." sound and noise, he grabbed his accordion and captured the "Only a sensit ye musician like Hermeto Pascoal," explains bedlam with an impromptu soundtrack. The melody came from Santos Neto, "w Id be able to capture the intention that lies a tune musicians in the Northeastern region of Brazil used to hidden in speech nd translate it into the language of music. His play whenever they wanted to take a break, a musical signal to geniality shines a he extracts the musical tone inherent in each the owner ofthe house to come and ask, "Okay, what would you syllable, always 1eing as faithful as possible to each voice's like?" When Hermeto was a boy playing with his father's group, intonation, dictio and range. After establishing the melody he always got very thirsty. And even though people were that corresponds to each nuance, Hermeto harmonizes it, using dancing and the musicians really couldn't stop the party, he chords to coat the melody in the same way that a well-tailored would drive his father crazy by continually inserting this melody suit coats a body. 'This is, after all, the function of harmony in into the middle of their songs. a musical context, that is, to emphasize, involve, and embellish More touring (Germany, Sweden, Denmark, England, and every phrase. When we hear human speech dressedlike this, we Portugal) preceded and followed the 1992 release of Festa dos are able to notice that the speakers are literally singing their Deuges, the album that formally introduced one of Hermeto's words. As proof of the power of transformation created by this concepts that had appeared in various forms on other record- process, we can listen again to the same voices without any ings—Som da Aura (Sound of the Aura), which regards human accompaniment and still perceive them not only as words, but speech as music. Says Santos Neto, "Because of its spontane- as melodies, sometimes exotic and angular, other times soft and ity, the exact moment a thought becomes speech is an act of gentle." creation, a subtle and fleeting melody that not only reveals to Questioning was animated; there were no sluggards in this the external world what one feels and thinks but that also shows crowd. Instrurnenl cases shed, musicians converged in front of the physical, emotional, and spiritual state of a person. Each - the small stage, 4nd the interactive workshop that couldn't pause for breath, each inflection, and each syllable is the audible occur within the lallowed walls of academia unfolded. Says structure of everything that happens in our innermost being. project manager, J m ie Bell, "The way Hermeto made his thinkThe Sound of the Aura is a musical halo generated by speech, ing about sound 4nd music transparent was exactly what we and it becomes particularly evident when the words spoken are were hoping for. 1twas the kind of direct experience ofphenomcharged by an intense emotional state." ena and insight it:: process that the Exploratorium tries to bring Hermeto received the Sharp (Brazil's equivalent of the to its visitors." Grammy) in 1996 for his arrangement ofthe Kids (ye Brazil CD by In the car ag n, our headlight beams washing the road Duofel. Radio MEC released, Eu e Eles (Me and ahead into a sort of ghostly incandesThem) in 1999, a disc on which Hermeto plays cence, we went zigzagging up through the all parts: piano, cavaquinho, pandeiro, transOakland hills en route to Mike Marshall's. verse and bamboo flutes, bandolim, We turned up one of the side streets after bombardino (Bb tenor horn, comparable to the only half an hour's drive and squeezed euphonium), triangle, surdo, soprano sax, acinto a parking spot. Soft light from within cordion, .fliigelhorn, whistles, bottles, and the house fell upon a tiny lawn, bidding us water-tuned pots. Calendario do Som, a collecto come inside and spend a little time. The tion of 366 pieces Hermeto composed between large front room was receiving a procesJune 23, 1996, and his birthday, June 22, 1997 sion of guests with a glow of hospitality (one piece a day for an entire year, including and savory aromas. Every detail in this February 29), was published in 2000 by Editora humble story-and-a-half structure, from Senac. And now, after many years, Hermeto the family tree above the fireplace to the Hermeto and the author Pascoal was in Northern California again, sitinstruments hanging on the walls to •. ting next to me in a van that had just pulled into Mike's dark, spiraling hair above his pink its parking place at the Palace of Fine Arts. kitchen apron, em;nated warmth. The Exploratorium's Sound and Hearing team hosted Feasting on lus ious appetizers, Italian food, and Marshall's Hermeto's workshop. The team is charged with revisiting, homespun merlot as followed by music making. Then, it must reconceptualizing, and rebuilding the sound and hearing area have been a little er nine, a van pulled up, and amid a goodof the museum by means of interactive exhibits and public natured uproar, H meto and entourage piled out. Jamming on programs of phenomena related to the perception, physiology, bizarre hybrids o bluegrass and bailio took a feverish leap, physics, psychology, cognition, and aesthetics of sound and everyone playing instrument or a kitchen utensil. And when music. In the past, composers like Laurie Anderson and artist/ the jamming was a a peak and the young musicians were drunk builders like Marco Antonio Guimaraes from Uakti have contrib- with enthusiasm, lH ermeto looked about him, eyes shining with uted programs or exhibits to the team's efforts. an exultance, a ke nness, and it was magic what he did. With so many fans plus their instruments crowded into the Introducing m ivic ideas in an eloquent and subtle fashion, Exploratorium's McBean Theater, there was hardly enough Hermeto construc ed and clarified a hypnotic composition, room to smile. Hermeto opened with a tribute to both Miles involving conside able intricacies, yet with a spacious harDavis and Thelonious Monk by perform ing"Round Midnight," monic vocabulary. Like a kaleidoscope reassembling, the varinot on a trumpet, but a teapot. Improvisations—using his own ous sections evol ed, then coalesced into an imaginative body as an instrument, the voices of volunteers, and plastic samba. Hermeto h s created inconceivable sambas before with squeaky toys—followed. Later, Hermeto borrowed a tape re- luminescent color and in odd meters like 3/4 and 7/4, which corder from a young man in the audience, who cautioned him in have caused a re-c: amination of the long-held opinion that the Portuguese to "be careful with the microphone," and the subject samba has to be i 2/4, but this was entirely different. Only BRAZZIL -FEBRUARY 2002



Selectei liscelreply: Artist(s)




Zd Ramalho

Naceio Nordestina




Finding Forrester



(soundtrack) Duofel

Duofel 20



Hermeto Pascoal

Eu e Eles

Radio MEC


Sergio Mendes




Pau Brasil / Hermeto Pascoal

Brasil Musical

Serie Misica Viva

Tom Brasil



Kids of Brazil



Sergio Mendes





on Records


Gab o Preto


Elis Regina

Mestres da MPB



Hermeto Pascoal

Festa dos Deuses



Maria Bethania

Canto do Paje



Hermeto Pascoal

Mundo Verde EsperancaS

1989 om da Gente (never released)

HeraIdo do Monte

Cordas Vivas

Rio Records


Hermeto Pascoal

Por Diferentes Caminhos -

Som da Gente


S6 Ncio Toca Quem Nilo Ouer

Som da Gente


Hermeto Pascoal

Brasil Universo

Som da Gente


Hermeto Pascoal

Lagoa da Canoa. Municipio de Arapiraca

Som da Gente


Hermeto Pascoal

Som da Gente


Hermeto Pascoal

Hermeto Pascoal & Grupo Elis Regina

Montreux Jazz Festival

WEA/Elektra 1982 (Recorded 1979)

Hermeto Pascoal

Cerebro Magnitico



Hermeto Pascoal

Montreux ao Vivo



Hermeto Pascoal




Hermeto Pascoal

Missa dos Escravos (Slaves 'Mass)





A Mzisica Livre de Hermeto Pascoal



Seeds on the Ground

Buddha Records


Hermeto Pascoal




Antfinio Carlos Jobim




Sergio Mendes Presents Edu Lobo



Miles Davis

Live Evil



Quarteto Novo

Quarteto Novo



Cannonball 'Adderley Lovers Flermeto Pascoal Airto Moreira

Edu Lobo



afterward did we realize Hermeto was musically photographing the feeling, the mood, and tone of the gathering and everyone there joyously taking part. Interaction between the musicians was deep, touching on the profound. It is difficult to describe the subtle brotherhood that was established. Suffice it to say that even the stoutest atheist could believe that divine inspiration was in Mike's home that night. No one said it was so. No one mentioned it. But it dwelt in that house, and each one felt it warm him. We left some time before dawn, deliriously humming the samba's melody. The air was brisk, but the stars were warm and friendly; they seemed to hang lower over us, be closer to us. The sensuous drowsiness of the night upon us, we drove far down the sharply curving streets, trailing wisps of "Samba da Noite na Casa do Mike." The next morning, I was moving again, leaning back and roaring through vast panoramas. The road, greeting me like an old friend this time, was full of delicious surprises, a delight. Dazzling sunlight inflamed velvety grass and pierced rounded, circling hills. Highway 5 had majesty, breadth. I tend to remember best the thins I've felt most deeply, and the drive gave me the time at last, the leisure, to contemplate the past two days. Everything was coming together, becoming a single thing in my mind, when the outside world intruded again. I was back in Los Angeles, jolted from memories, so recent, yet already far-away, unreal; it was as if I had traveled not merely from one city to another, but from one state to the next. Bruce Gilman, music editor for Brazzil magazine, received his Master's degree in music from California Institute of the Arts. He is the recipient of three government grants that have allowed him to research traditional music in China, India, and Brazil. His articles on Brazilian music have been translated and published in Spanish, German, Serbian, and Portuguese. You

can reach him through his e-mail: cuica(&,


enfant terrible Gerald Thomas. With Fabiana Guglielmetti, Amadeo Lamounier, and Marcos Azevedo. A Descoberta do Mundo (The Discovery of the World)-Based on Clarice Lispector's (1920-1977) book of same 'name. After firing the maid a lonely woman, GH, decides to clean the house and reflect about her own life and the world. All the actresses play simultaneously the same character. Directe by Marco Antonio Rodrigues, with Cie Magalhaes, Fernanda Castello, Julia Ianina, Lilian Damasceno, Paula Weinfeld, Talit Ortiz and Thais de Medeiros. Novas Diretrizes em Tempos de Paz (Ne Directions in Times of Peace)During the Second War, a Polish refuge tries to get his Visa to stay legally in Brazil. Written by Bosco Brasil, directed by Ariel Goldmann, with Jairo Mattos and Dan Stulbach.


Se Correr o Bicho Pega, Se Ficar o Bicho Come(If You Run the Beast Will Get You, If You Stay the Beast Will Eat You)-A new mise-en-scene for Oduvaldo Vianna and Ferreira Gullar's play from 1966. Mocinha, a flirtatious daughter of a political boss fall in love with Roque, a scoundrel who unwillingly ends up becoming a hero. Directed by AntOnio Pedro, with Leandra Leal and Murilo Rosa. Fim do Jogo (Endgame)-Classical Samuel Beckett's text in which two men, a blind and a cripple take discuss the human condition in a tragic-comic manner. Directed by Francisco Medeiros. Actors Edson Celulari and Caca Carvalho take turns-every week it changes-interpreting the two characters. Um Porto para Elizabeth Bishop (A Haven for Elizabeth Bishop)-A monologue in which American poet Elizabeth Bishop, who lived in Brazil between 1952 and 1967, talks about the Brazilian people and her convoluted love affair with woman architect Lota Macedo Soares. Regina Braga is Bishop. C6cegas (Tickling)-Several women provoke laughs and compassion while talking about their stressed life. Ingrid Guimaraes and Heloisa Perisse wrote and interpret all the different characters.

PAOLO 0 Homem do Sobretudo Evcuro (The Man with the Dark Overcoat) Based on Agatha Christie's short stories. A young couple who owns a boarding house in England is visited unexpectedly by a police inspector. Directed by Silvio Tadeu and Ina Carvalho, with the troupe Cia. Target de Teatro. Deus Ex-Machina e os Super Ex-Herois na Terra do Impotente Viagra Falls (Deus Ex-Machina and the Super Ex-Heroes in the Land of the Impotent Viagra Fall)-Despite the title, this is a drama about an Indian who is expelled from his tribe after being seduced by deconstructionism and post-modernism. Written and directed by BRAZZIL - FEBRUARY 2002

Behind Enemy Lines (Atras das Linhas Inimigas), Cats and Dogs (Como Clies e Gatos), D-Tox (D-Tox), From Hell (Do Inferno); Efeito Colateral (Collateral Damage), Harry Potter and the Sorcerer 's Stone (Harry Potter e a Pedra Filosofal), Storytelling (Historias Proibidas), The Straight Story (Hist-aria Real), Hearts in Atlantis (Lembrancas de um Verdo), Monsters Inc. (Monstros S.A.), Shallow Hal (0 Amor E Cego), The Princess Diaries (0 Dicirio da Princesa), Felicia 's Journey (0 Fio da Inocencia), Cradle Will Rock (0 Poder Vai Danor), Lord of the Rings (0 Senhor dos Aneis), Scream (Alnico), Promises (Promessas de urn Novo Mundo), Rat Race (Ta Todo Mundo Louco!), Small Time Crooks (Trapaceiros), A Beautiful Mind (Uma Mente Brilhante), Vanilla Sky (Vanilla Sky), Avassaladoras (Dominatrix)-Brazil/ 2001-Comedy. The growing up of Laura who has to learn how to deal with her desires and impulses. Directed by Mara Mourao, with Giovanna Antonelli, Reynaldo Gianecchini, Caco Ciocler, and Rosi Campos. Duas Vezes corn Helena (Twice with Helena)-Brazi1/2001-Love triangle involving a woman, her husband and another man. The trio gets together in two different occasions, 30 years apart. Directed by 'Mauro Frias, with Fabio Assuneao, Christine Fernandes, Carlos Gregorio, Claudio Correa e Castro and Duda Mamberti. LavouraArcaica (Archaic Tillage) Released in English as To the Left of the FatherBrazi1/2001-The story of a Lebanese family in Brazil. One of the sons feeling oppressed by father, smothered by mother and sexually attracted by sister leaves home. Based on Raduan Nassar's novel Lavoura Arcaica. Directed by Luiz Fernando Carvalho, with Selton Mello, Raul Cortez, Simone Spolidore, and Juliana Carneiro. Bicho de Sete Cabecas (Seven-Head Beast or Enigma)-Brazil/2000-Power struggle between son and father ends with the young man being sent to a mental institution when the father finds out that he is smoking pot.

Based on Austregesilo Carrano Bueno's autobiographical book Canto dos Malditos (Corner of the Damned). Directed by Lais Bodansky, with Rodrigo Santoro, Othon Bastos, and Cassia Kiss.


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The Kelians in Brazil circa 1947

Full Circle Then, my heart skipped a beat. I swallowed hard and could feel my heart climbing up into my throat. There it was...a yellowish laser reproduction of a weathered black and white photograph. Familiar faces, Yessayi and Manouchag Kelian, and their five children: Zenop, Simon, Noubar, Mary and my mother Sirvart as a teenager! I had to sit down. GEORGE TERTERIAN

I share this story about a Brazilian-Armenian odyssey because I believe it might encourage someone to seek out and locate long lost relatives. What history did to break up our families can be undone.., sometimes with very little effort. THE PHONE CALL The interpreter said he would dial for me. It was a conference call I waited. The phone didn't really ring, but rather emitted a -droning buzz". It was the sound that cheap alarm clocks make...the sound that always signals a distant phone call.



"A16..." she said in a sweet, Brazilian accent. In my profession, I get paid to be glib. However, this was personal and I was tongue-tied. "Oi?", she inquired, perhaps somewhat annoyed. "Say something," urged the AT&T Language Line Portuguese interpreter. ..."Uh, urn, hi, my name is George. I'm calling from California in the United States and I think we are related." "0 que?" She was obviously caught off guard. "Impossible, we have no relatives in the United States", she stated confidently. "Now, it begins", I thought. I must try to explain to this Brazilian girl that we might be related. That my mother's uncle left the Armenian village of Kessab in 1908, never to return. That our families have had essentially no contact since then, but for an exchange ofphotographs in the late 1940s (well before I was born). It would be an interesting conversation. If ! could keep her from hanging up on me. "Is this the Kelian residence?", I inquired. -Yes", it was translated. "May I speak to Panos Kelian?". "You mean Panios?" (Evidently the word "panos" in Portuguese means "rags", or "wash cloths", though at the time, I thought it was a typographical error in the phone book.) Suddenly, a resonant, baritone Brazilian voice inquired, "Quem estei falando?" (Who is speaking?). I perked up to the challenge issued in his voice. "Hello, my name is George Terterian. I live in California, and ! think we are related. I got your name from the Sao Paulo telephone directory. Your last name is the same as my mother's maiden name and she told me we might have relatives still in Brazil". It was coherent, but perhaps too much information at once. "0 quer I had elicited the same reply twice, and feared hearing it again. But, I was nothing if not persistent. The matter was too important. He repeated that he had no relatives in the United States. I confessed that, I did not know for certain if I had relatives in Brazil either, which was the reason for my call. Now, I must explain a little. My mother previously mentioned having an uncle who had fled their village of Kessab, taking with him the family mule, never to be seen again. It was in the early


1900s, before the Armenian Genocide but during a time the Armenians fro Kessab referred to as "talan" or "th: lootings". In the early 1900s, Turks of ten attacked and pillaged Kessab, which was on the border. Kessab was due south of Musa Dagh, near the slopes of Mount Cassius, or "Gassios Ler", propped up against the Mediterranean Sea. Both o my parents are Kessabtsi, and l ain proud to speak its rich and unique dialect. Kessab's present claim to fame, other than having produced more clergy than any comparable Armenian village, is that it is the only Armenian village from the western Armenian provincial kingdom of Cilicia that is still an Armenian village in its original location, thankfully because it is in Syria, on the Turkish border, not vice versa. The other Armenian villages perished in the World War I genocide, with the heroic exception of Musa Dagh, which resisted and was rescued by the French Fleet and eventually relocated to en masse to a village named Anjar, in Lebanon. BRAZILIAN CONNECTION In 1996, I started my own law practice. By the summer of 1997 my fledgling law practice had enough capital to sponsor a local soccer team. The team was a mix of many nationalities, Armenian, Japanese, Mexican, Chilean, American, Guatemalan, and Brazilian. Anyhow, the Brazilians on my team, Hamilton from Sao Paulo, Cesar from Rio, Gustavo and Luciano from Porto Alegre, all delivery drivers for the Chinese restaurant I frequented next to my office, always spoke of Brazil. As we became closer friends, I attended traditional Brazilian barbecues or -churrasap- with them. I was exposed to the beautiful, warm and open Brazilian culture. It reminded me in some ways of my own culture, especially the warm and casual atmosphere. However, I found Brazilians to be more accepting and less clannish than most of my fellow Armenians. Yet, their "churrasco" and "cachaca" was like our "khorovadz" and "oghi". One day, I mentioned to my Brasileiro friends that my mother had some relatives somewhere in Brazil. They quickly asked "where"? I was embarrassed that I had no answer. I said, "I honestly don't know. I'll find out". This led me to my "Brazilian odyssey". I spoke to my mother and her cousin

in Boston. No one really knew exactly where, but it was somewhere in Brazil. Perhaps Rio, or Sao Paulo. I decided to look. My mother recounted what she could. She said, "I remember being 15 or 16 and having a family photo taken. An Armenian man from Brazil was visiting Lebanon and found my father (Yessayi Kelian). We don't know how. The man said he had news of his brother, our uncle Garabed. He gave a family photo to my father. The brothers had not seen each other for 40 years or so. My father cried. We never heard from them again." The photo was of Garabed Kelian, now a much older man, in his sixties or so. Garabed was surrounded by a pretty lady, not Armenian looking though, and several handsome children, some looked "more Armenian" than others. Yessayi Kelian had not seen his brother since they were in their twenties, back in 1908 or so. So my mother's family also took a family photo to give to this Armenian man, in hopes it would find its way back to Uncle Garabed. At the time, around the summer of 1947, my mother's family had left Kessab and were in Beirut and Ghazir, just north of Beirut. My uncle worked at the Chateau Musar winery in Ghazir. Somehow, word got to Brazil, probably by some fellow Armenian who emigrated to Brazil, that our farnily was in Beirut. The details are sketchy. My mother recalled the photo being taken at the winery. My maternal grandparents, Yessayi and Manoushag Kelian and their five children: Zenop, Simon, Noubar, Mary, and my mother Sirvart. She never saw the photo, and never knew if it made its way to her uncle. They had no contact after the family photos taken in the summer of 1947. â&#x20AC;˘ NEXT STOP, BRAZILIAN CONSULATE I took the day after Thanksgiving 1997 off from work. It was a good day to go to the Brazilian Consulate on Wilshire Boulevard, in the elliptical, dark glass Larry Flynt Building. Upon entry, I quickly expiaird that I was looking for relatives in brazil. "Do you have their address or telephone number?" the stunning receptionist inquired. My first thought was, "if I did, I'd call them or write", I resisted the urge to say that, and said "no, only a last name, ifmy mother's uncle had sons, they will have the same last name, Kelian".


I was ushered into a library room, full of Brazilian "Yellow Page" telephone directories. I sized up the room and decided to get very comfortable. First, I looked in the Rio de Janeiro directories, partly because I liked the idea of visiting cousins at Copacabana or Ipanema Beach. No such luck. Then, I figured, where does an Armenian immigrant go? A big city, I concluded. More work, right? Sao Paulo, from what I read and had been told, a chaotic and somewhat apocalyptic city of some 14 million, was next. In five minutes I came across it, -Kelian, Panios". He was the only Kelian in the books thus far. I have a cousin Panos Kelian in Canada. Sizing up the rest of the room, I decided Panios would lead me to the other relatives, if they existed. I was also too excited at the thought to keep looking further. I jotted down his name, address, and telephone number, then left. I wrote to Panos Kelian (I was stubbornly convinced that "Panios" was a typo) and awaited an answer for five weeks. My Brazilian friends even admitted that was -a bit slow" for Brazil's postal service. "Why not call them, said a friend". . That is what led to -the phone call-, as I still refer to it. THE PHONE CALL Back to my telephone conversation.

-Senhor Kelian- was obviously irritated at what he must perceived as a this prank caller. The nerve after all to pick at an open wound on this man's skin. "Family" and questions about them was always off limits for the seven children of Garabed and Avelina de Jesus Kelian. I would learn why later. "Again, I say, we have no relatives in the United States", he insisted. "Yes, yes, yes, but that is none that you know of. correct?" Ah, I got to cross examine the witness, always my favorite part. The wheels began churning. "Now let me get this straight, your last name is Kelian, correct?" "Yes" "And your father is Armenian correct-Yes, he was. He passed away" "I am sorry. Did your father have family in the Middle East? Where does he come from?" -Lebanon or Syria. No, Syria." -Good. My parents are from Syria, and I was born in Lebanon. You know, I

have a cousin with your name and last name." "Really?" "Yes. You see, my mother's maiden name was Kelian. My grandfather's name was Yessayi Kelian. He was from an Armenian village called Kessab." The voice froze. Dead silence. It was probably only ten seconds or so, but it seemed like minutes. -Hello?" I inquired, thinking I lost the connection. "Kessab?" I could almost hear him churning this in his mind. He coughed to clear his throat. "Uhh, how are they, ummmm, your family, are they well?", his voice cracked. I took a deep breath, I could even hear the interpreter catch his breath. Doubtless this would be a good story to tell over his dinner table as well. For the first time, Panios Kelian sounded more Armenian than Brazilian. I asked him if he spoke the language, Armenian. "No, only Portuguese". "No matter", I said. "You know, my mother had an uncle who went to Brazil a long time ago. I wonder if that was your father or grandfather or uncle? You know, since it is the same last name" "What was his name?" Geez, I thought, Mom told me once, was it Hagop or Khatchig, no Khatchig was in Australia. honestly do not recall, but I will ask her", I promised. -Bern, muito born, (good, very well) I will talk to my elder brother and sisters". We exchanged fax numbers, emails, and the like. Before we hung up, he said, as per the translator, who by now was my buddy, "God bless our people". I thought, does he mean ?...before I filled in the blank, the interpreter said, "he means the Armenian people". I left convinced we had found a link. But, I was not certain as to how close, or not. I decided to wait before I told my mother or sisters.

a depo George", she said. It wasn't. I had told Mary about my conversation. She was anticipating some news as well. It was a big express package from Sdo Paulo, Brazil. Brazil! I ripped it open like a nine year old boy on Christmas morning. Out fell papers and more papers, all in a heap on my desk. A letter, a business card, a family tree carefully prepared on a computer like a flow chart, laser color photos of strangers with happy faces, some old, some young, all very Brazilian looking, with exotic Brazilian names written underneath. Names like "Iracema", "Izildinha", "Marcio" and -Rogerio". Were they my cousins? Then, my heart skipped a beat. I swallowed hard and could feel my heart climbing up into mythroat. "Oh, man" is all I could say aloud. There it was...a yellowish laser reproduction of a weathered black and white photograph. Familiar faces, Yessayi and Manouchag Kelian, and their five children: Zenop, Simon, Noubar, Mary and my mother Sirvart as a teenager!"! had to sit down. As I looked at the photo, I noticed handwriting showing through from behind. In Armenian handwriting it read simply: "Ge nevirem ee hishadag yeghpors Garabedin, endaniok ngars...Beirut. 27 Hool is, 1947, Yessayi present this in memory of my brother Garabed, my family portrait... Beirut, 27 July, 1947, Yessayi Kelian". Wow. Mary was beaming, -you found them!" she said. "Yes, I suppose we found each other". I quickly walked to the Chinese restaurant next door to tell my Brazilian friends. Cesar and Camila were there. I think they got as much kick out of it as I did. Now, I was "part Brasileiro- they said. I telephoned my mother later and she was very excited. "EERAV, EERAV ?" She repeated. "BRESS DGHAS!" ("Really? Really? Well done my son!"). Yeah, I was happy too. I told her I'd come over after work and show her the photos.

THE PACKAGE INTRODUCTION TO BRAZIL I did not wait long. Apparently I lit a fire under Mr. Kelian. Within a week, while at the office, the receptionist buzzed my name "package for George up front, it's a big one". I thought another boring deposition transcript to review. "Mary, can you get it please?" My assistant Mary headed out and came back with the package. "I don't think it's

What followed was an odyssey for all of us. I began learning Portuguese with those "listen and learn" type cassettes for busy people. Thankfully, the L.A. commute makes it easy to learn languages in your car. My Brazilian friends on the soccer team were intent on teaching me to cuss.


Since I sue slumlords on behalf of tenants in and around Los Angeles, I have a large Latino client base, and have a working knowledge of Spanish. Thus, it was easier to pick up some of the basics of Portuguese. I thought Spanish was a pretty language, and it is. But Portuguese, especially the Brazilian dialect is one of my favorite languages. It is much more melodic. Brazilian Portuguese flows with ebbs and tides. I paid more attention to everything Brazilian. I began to identify. Panios and I began to piece it all together. He prepared an exhaustive family photo album for me and I did likewise for him. We wrote emails often, informing each other of births, deaths, engagements, weddings, etc.. .1 sent him a videotape of a family wedding in California. I began receiving letters and emails from many people who identified themselves as cousins from Brazil. It was fascinating for all involved. 0 SENHOR GABRIEL KELIAN I also began filling in the blanks to understand the "broken circle" of my mother's family. Panios, and his eldest siblings, interestingly enough named Simon and Mary (like my mother's two siblings) helped a great deal, as did the on again, off again recollections of 97 year old Serop Besduigian. He was the only Armenian to marry one of Garabed' s children. The "Kessabtsi Pesa" (or groom from Kessab) was Garabed's favorite, for they could speak Armenian and the old village dialect together. Serop was old, but still strong as an ox. Garabed Kelian was the eldest son of Simon and Mary Kelian of Kessab. My maternal grandfather Yessayi was only a year or so younger than Garabed. Garabed Kelian left his parents, brother and four sisters in 1908. He heard of the Armenian Genocide, but could only grieve at the probable loss of his family. He was in the dark. He was a bitter, temperamental man with little patience. He arrived in the port of Santos, Brazil with no money, no knowledge of Portuguese, and no family. They called him Gabriel, as if Garabed is difficult. I suppose that is the Brazilian equivalent of Ellis Island renaming Americans. With persistence and a strong back, he worked and worked, never accumulating material possession, but always providing a home for his large family. He met and married Avelina de Jesus in


the Sao Paulo state. They were blessed the Portuguese language. But he was not with seven children, six of whom are still the only one. living. In this era and for years to come, But, why did my mother's uncle Brazil received thousand and thousands leave? Panios told me one day on the of immigrants from Italy, Greece, Portutelephone. gal, Syria and Japan. If one was not "My father was a teamster, you could choosy, the work was plentiful. The govsay. He carried cargo from Kessab to ernment also made many unkept promAntioch with mules. The two brothers ises to encourage agriculture in the inte(Garabed and Yessayi) worked at the rior of the Brazilian states. Garabed same trade. Back in those days, Turks worked in Santos on the coast of the Sao attacked the village where he lived of- Paulo state, then Piraju in the interior. ten. Once, en route from Antioch, with a He kept moving the family back and mule loaded with goods, he was attacked forth. His resilience was buttressed by by two Turkish soldiers or bandits. They the equally resilient and brave Avelina beat him, stole his belongings and his de Jesus Kelian. A Brazilian of mixed mule, and left him for dead. Well, he Portuguese and indigenous blood, Dona eventually bought another mule and re- Avelina was the family matriarch in these sumed his work. This time, he and an- difficult times. other Armenian man transporting with a The family survived many hard times, mule met up the same two Turks. The but persevered and thrived. Finally, when Turks tried to rob them, but they fought the children grew older, the Kelians enback. They killed the two soldiers. Well, joyed some measure of success. Today, my father and this man came back to the they are alive and well in Sao Paulo. village and told some villagers. The vilAn odd thing though, Garabed never lagers told them to flee, because if it spoke of the family. Panios recounted to really was two soldiers, there would be me that whenever they would ask, retribution. The army would search for Garabed grew suddenly emotional, sithem and take them back to be hung. My lent and would walk away. After a while, father had little time. He went home. the children stopped asking, figuring it Only his mother Mary was there. No one must have been difficult for him to leave else. She begged him to stay, but he said his family at a young age, never to see if he stayed they would all be in trouble. them again. He had to go. There was no time. He took In fact, Panios and his brothers and the mule and left." sisters (Simon, Mary, Aracy, I racema, When I told my mother this, she and Anna) were mostly named after recounted stories told to her ofher grand- Garabed's parents, sisters, or great uncle. mother crying out years later as she died None of the Kelian children in Brazil of malnutrition, exposure and disease in even knew that they had paternal aunts. the death camps of Meskhene during the They only knew of an uncle, "the one in Armenian Genocide, "Jigerem Garabed, the photo from Lebanon". Garabed had eench okood yete yerginke desnem kez" four sisters: Hanna, Marta, Lucia, and (Dear Garabed, what use is it if I see you Ovsanna. These grown adults in their in the sky?) It must have broken a sixties and seventies had 4 aunts they mother's heart. had never known of. I worked to fill in Garabed sold the mule in Antioch, the blanks with a family tree of my own. which was doubtless a perilous journey Cousins in Australia., Canada, Lebanon, since he was going in the direction ofthe Denmark and Armenia. I made phone Turks. He bought a boat ticket with the calls, and sent emails and began learning money and went to Egypt. After a few more and more. months, he then sailed to Marseille, France. He lived there for about ten THE VISIT TO BRAZIL months, then Brazil beckoned. It was not his first choice. He failed his physical to I arrived at Sao Paulo's Guarulhos go to the United States, some sort of eye International Airport after 17 hours or so disorder or so. Brazil had abolished sla- in the air. I immediately got my second very in 1888, thus it needed strong backed wind, though, when after clowning men who would help working in sugar around for an hour or so with two corrupt ustoms officials who shook me down and coffee plantations. Garabed was nothing, if not strong. He sailed to the for an -excess gift value fine", I passed port city of Santos, Brazil in 1909. He through the gates and saw face to face arrived penniless and without a clue as to meu primo (my cousin) Panios Kelian.


Tertenan meets his Brazilian relatives in 1998

He was there with a small motorcade, along with Uncle or "Tio" Nader, their cousin Neuza's husband and my English interpreter. Nader is a wonderful man who spent his formative years between 11 and 13 living With cousins in Ohio. It changed his life. Knowing English opened many doors for Nader, a Syrian by origin. He lived better than most and worked for American companies in Sao Paulo. My two weeks in Brazil flew by. The highlights? Not what 1 thought it would be. Rio de Janeiro was beautiful. My twentysomething cousins and drinking partners Andre Luiz and Rogerio were great. The Christ Statue on the Corcovado overlooking Rio is breathtaking. But, the highlights were my meeting the old man, Serop, and the family gathering. SEROP Serop Besduigian is now 97 years old. Thus, he was 94 in January 1998. The family thought he had essentially forgotten Armenian. It wasn't the case. He just had no one to speak it with in years. I walked up to him slowly. I always walk slowly in front of people in their nineties. -Parev- (hello), I said. He looked confused. His wife said he has forgotten much of the language. I did not say another word before he looked at me and smiled. "Ov ess" (who are you) ? With that, Serop and I spent he next several hours chatting in Armenian. Sadly, he had forgotten the dialect of Kessab, but his Armenian was fine after he shook offsome rust. The family stared with their jaws dropping. Then, they smiled and spoke happily in Portuguese: "Ele fala armenio- (he speaks Armenian)! After awhile, he began singing songs


in Armenian that 1 had never heard; songs about the 1947 "nerkakht" (mass exodus or return) to Armenia. He sang..."Hayasdanen naver gookan tebi Lipanan...akh jan Yerevan, kez hamar garod em" (The ships from Armenia come toward Lebanon.. .oh dear Yerevan, I yearn for you). Serop quenched his thirst asking me the whereabouts of Armenians from Kessab whose names I had heard of. All were long since dead. Then he said, "who can I speak to in Armenian?". "Polor eemin ungerner-eh meran"...(all of my friends are dead). I suppose that is the hard part of being so old, he almost sounded guilty for living so long. Serop also thought that all Armenians had fled or been forced out of Kessab. When I told him Kessab was still majority Armenian, he was incredulous, "Voter (No), "Polor Arap en hon hima" (no, they are all Arabs there now). I persuaded him eventually by offering to take him. Serop had not been around Armenians since he lived in Osasco, the old Armenian neighborhood of sao Paulo. It is an industrial area dominated by auto manufacturers and boasts an old Armenian quarter with a church, a hall and many bakeries specializing in "esfiha", the other way of saying what I was raised to call "lahmajun". Esfiha is ubiquitous in Sao Paulo, like tacos in Los Angeles. FAMILY REUNION My best moment came one year to the day after that first telephone conversation with Panios Kelian. Panios said, "Sunday we will take you to meet family". We drove an hour and a half from his house to a club on the outskirts of the city.

It was ahot humid January, the middle of summer there. When we arrived. I saw a large hall decorated with tables laden with tropical fruit that I had never seen (and to this day crave) and filled with one hundred or more people. I thought, maybe we have a table reserved here and I'll meet some cousins. I was wrong. They were all there for a Kelian Family Reunion. Over one hundred descendants of my mother's uncle Garabed Kelian were waiting for me, and some were arriving on "Brazilian time", which 1 learned is equivalent to "Armenian time". I survived the first three human waves of embraces, kisses, crying and people I have never met calling out "Oi primo!" (Hi Cousin). By the fourth sortie, I saw a group of very young children, maybe six or seven, wrap their arms around my legs and I broke down. I excused myself and stepped outside to catch my breath. There, I ran into another throng. It was Tia (Aunt) Iracema,,the most emotional by far of all the cousins caught me and, although I understood every third word, I know she was saying, "it's ok, we feel the same". We stayed at the hall, eating, drinking, dancing to Armenian and Brazilian music. That day I stayed up all night and morning, drinking, talking, laughing and crying with my primos. As we took photos, and as I felt more and more like a spoiled foreign dignitary posing for pictures, we finally gathered in a circle and raised a toast of Ararat Brandy. I told the cousins of our journey to find each other and vowed that, since the world was becoming a smaller place, we would never lose each other again. For the Kelian family had closed the broken circle. We had cousins everywhere: Australia, United States, Canada, Lebanon, Armenia. In short, like most nationalities torn apart by historical circumstances, the sun never sets on an Armenian family. UPDATE: IMMIGRATION MUSEUM Recently, Panios Kelian was interviewed by the Immigration Museum in Brazil. He told the story of his father's passage to Brazil and of our families. The family's story was included in the museum. Since I wrote this draft, my sister Karen has visited Brazil, and I am planning my second trip. Many thanks to my dear friend Debora Wolf for translating this text.


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Profile for Brazzil Magazine

Brazzil - Year 13 - Number 191 - February 2002  

Brazzil - Year 13 - Number 191 - February 2002