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DON Caymmi

bares his soul


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In more than one way, Brazil was affected by the terrorist attack against New York and the Pentagon. Five Brazilians were confirmed dead in the World Trade Center and many more continue in the list of the disappeared. Many of them were illegal in the country. There are more than 1 million Brazilians in the United States, one third of them living in the greater New York area. The terrorists' act made some Brazilians already living in the US to go back home or to consider leaving the States. Others with plans to come here ended up changing their minds. Talking to the nation, President Fernando Henrique Cardoso expressed the ambivalent feelings of a country shocked and saddened by the tragedy, but also afraid and cautious about American reaction to the incident: "I want to make it clear that, if on one hand, Brazil places itself firmly against terrorism, Brazil will also be firmly on the side of reason." In a letter to the UN, Cardoso suggested that the world should get together not only to fight terrorism, but also to end world's hunger and inequality. From reading letters to the editor and opinion pages in the last few weeks on the Brazilian media one gets the impression that most of those writing didn't have much room for compassion. The expressions of condolences and grief were generally followed by admonitions that in one way or the other meant 'you reap what you sow'. Trying to understand the Brazilian soul we offer a collection of these opinions and musings. RM

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Cover The role of theater in Brazilian culture Cover by Salvino Campos

Cuitemts 11

Terrorism How the NY tragedy affected Brazil


Terrorism Brazilians don't give a damn


Terrorism How America should respond


Terrorism Americans are no poor victims


Terrorism You reap what your sow


Terrorism How the Brazilian media bungled the NY coverage


Scandal Sex and computer files


Environment The high cost of hydroelectric power


Tourism One or two things Embratur should know


Language The trouble with English

31 Short Story "0 peixe entre as pemas" by Joyce Cavalccante 34 31 Brazil-USA


Brasilia. What a sick joke!

US Black Chamber of Commerce goes south


Music Doh Caymmi's candid talk


Travelogue Ouro Preto up close


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49 Cultural Pulse 51 Classifieds 52 That's Brazilian



Terror The Manhattan Effect What about the American dream? For many Brazilians it was buried under the World Towers rubble that fatal September II . Some who were getting ready to leave for America have given up the idea and others already living there decided to go back home. For the first time, many Brazilians discovered—to their surprise—that the U.S. is not always a happy ending Hollywood movie and is not necessarily the land where everything works and everybody feels secure. One of the places worst hit by confusion and grief was the city of Governador Valadares, in the state of Minas Gerais. Forty thousand Valadarenses have left their town in recent years to start a new life in the U.S. with the majority going to the American Northeast. Rio's dailyfornal do Brasiltoid the story ofConceicao Alves de Souza, 45, who received an invitation to be a babysitter in New York and was preparing for her trip in December. It was not an easy decision, but she seemed relieved to give up that opportunity: "I will stay in my litt!e land where nobody will want to throw a bomb on our heads," she said. Maria Lucia Silva de Souza, from the state of Alagoas, was also getting ready to leave for New York, following in the steps of her sister who emigrated 30 years ago. She had already sold her bar and was getting more money for the trip. But the images of the planes hitting New York's tallest towers made her change her life's plans: "For now, all I want is to stay in my Alagoas." SBT, Brazil's largest agency specializing in international student exchange, saw a fall of 40 percent in the number of youngsters interested in going to the United States. Among the comments from those who gave up the idea: "I'm terrified" and "I can't even think about getting into a plane bound for the U.S." Mostly Illegal

(T4 From more than 1 million Brazilians living in the U.S., 300,000 chose New York. The numbers are imprecise since most of the immigrants-70 percent of them, according to some 2xperts—are undocumented and entered the country illegally. They come attracted by wages they would never make back home. For Unicamp's (Universidade de Camp inas) sociologist Teresa Sales, an expert in Brazil-United States migration, Brazilians have many unrealistic fantasies about life in the USA. "Brazilians use to overestimate the qualities of the American way of life," she told reporters. "But now they are having a chance to examine this golden fantasy." Jornal do Brasil also told the story of Solange Goncalves, 27, who was working as a travel agent in Manhattan and making $2700 a month. She locked herself in her apartment in a state of shoc k in the days following the terror attack. Solange is seriously thinking about leaving the United States: "I read that Canada has an excellent quality of life and I'm planning to move there." Aparecida da Silva, 3 I , from Minas Gerais, works as a cleaning lady in a hospital in Boston—it's believed that some 250,000 Brazilians live in the area. She had planned to spend at least five years in Massachisetts in order to save enough to buy two apartments in Brazil and move back there. The destruction of the Woed Trade Center, however, has made her reconsider those plans and now she only wants to save enough to pay her ticket back: "I'm terrified. Besides fearing new attacks, I feel that all immigrants now are going to be discriminated against. That's why I wil_ be happy if :'m able to raise money for the ticket and to maimain mysel f for sometime in Brazil." Edilson Paiva, from Governador Valadares, the publisher of Brazilian Times, a Portuguese-language newspaper in the Boston area, iays that several Brazilians are selling their cars and furniture in preparation to go back to Brazil: "My paper is filled with ads from Brazilians selling what they can. Besides fear, there is this sensation that there will be a wave of xenophobia against immigrants. It is going to be very nard to get a job from now on."



Terrorism° declara guerra aos EUA

Back Home •-`

Christian Rodrigues, 32, a pharmacist, kissed the tarmac of the Guart_lhos airport when she stepped out the plane from New York. She had plenty of motives for that, as she explained: "The only reason I'm alive is because there is a God. I thought I'd never leave New York again. Attie time ofthe attack to the World Trade Center, I should have been there having breakfast, but that meeting was cancelled." PaNcs pcdern unlit°


Mother Brazilian was next to the tragedy. Amadeu Salles, a worker at the World Trade Center's branch ofUnion Bank of California, started running the 14 flights of stairs to the street when the first ofthe twin towers as hit. He saw pieces of concrete falling down: "I thought at first that it was a gas explosion. I went down running and noticed that the tower was catching fire. I went to a nearby public phone to call home and that's when I heard a second explosion and this time even .41Wt'" bigger. I turned and saw a scene I will never forget: the building where I worked was on fire." He was shocked by the possibility of having lost several friends. Another Brazilian, Raul Paulo Costa, 33, had an even closer brush with death. Be was on the 25th floor of the first tower to be hit. Costa was also able to leave the building running down the stairway. Costa is the vice-president of exchange for Garban Intercapital. "When the building started to be cleared we already knew it was a terrorist attack. There was generalized panic. I ran to a stairway that was not open and the floor was already filled with water and smoke. I was able to find the correct stairway and went down as a crazy man. The building was shaking a lot and everybody was screaming that it was going to collapse." Looking from Afar As expected, the terrorist attacks in the U.S. dominated the news in Brazil. Folha de Sao Paulo, the daily with the largest circulation in the country, wrote in an economic and military editorial: "In a world dominated by one pole of power, dissatisfaction fermented by misery, exclusion and religious fanaticism, tends to fragment into warring factions of politically irresponsible groups who are not committed to anything except bringing about their own apocalypse.... "The political behavior of the United States is not very sensitive to the international inequalities aggravated by the free market. Nor is it sensitive to the complaints of the poorest countries.... It is obvious that the attack puts its authors outside the orbit of all civilized behavior and that they should pay for the carnage that their actions produced. But one cannot ignore that the United States has not contributed to the reduction of the level of world tension." Writing in the same Folha, columnist Clovis Rossi commented: "From a strategic point of vi ew, the drama only increases when one thinks of the virtual uselessness of the North American arsenal, even as it is increasing its defense with the so-called "Star Wars" missiles.... In the new war, only a handful ofpeople ready to kill and die at the same time are enough to cause more damage than the Red Army ever could." As a somber reminder that intolerance is always peeking through the promises of freedom and democracy, a group of 15 white and black American youngsters in Bridgeport, Connecticut, insulted and spanked Brazilian student Hermes Barbosa de Lima, 23, known as Netinho, just because he looked like an Arab. They broke his nose and fractured his arm in two places. It was around 8:30 PM, the night after the attack, and Lima was going to nearby public phone in one of many attempts to call his mother in Espirito Santo to tell her that everything was OK, when he was attacked. "Arab, son of a bitch," he heard before being thrown on the floor by a fist blow, according to his own account. It didn't help when he started screaming: "I'm not Arab, 'm Brazilian. I came from Brazil. Please stop." The attack went on for around five minutes until Netinho fell down and seemed unconscious. Despite his fear, Netinho decided to call the police, which according to him had to be called twice and only appeared 20 minutes later. The officers took notes, but didn't seem impressed and after a 15 minute sweep of the neighborhood came back to announce that no suspects had been found. Possible witnesses from a delicatessen and a gas station close to where the attack occurred refused to get involved. "I'm desperate," he said later. "I feel like I'm nobody, as if people had no consideration for human life." Only on Friday, two days after being attacked and after going to the Brazilian consulate in New York, did he go to a hospital. The doctor who saw him said that his arm would need special treatment and that she could not put his nose in place because his face was too swollen. ,E Netinho is back in Brazil now. "It's the end of a dream," he confided. "I had plans to stay four years in the US to study and save enough money to help my mother. All I want now is to be home. I need to be close to people who really love me. I have no money, but I don't feel defeated but for the violence from which I was a victim." A survey by Datafolha throughout the country, one week after the attack against the World Trade Center, showed that 79 percent of Brazilians are against an American military retaliation against the country or countries where the terrorists live, although 74 percent of the population agrees that the terrorists should be detained and brought to justice. That opinion institute heard 2830 Brazilians. The survey also found that 78 percent are against a Brazilian military participation in any conflict while 17 percent were in favor of sending Brazilian troops to war. The majority of Brazilians (51 percent) believe that the attacks will negatively affect Brazil's economy and another 29 percent think there will be minor fallout from the terrorist act.



The lack of a political response is disappointing because it shows the U.S. that it

Bo Brazilians Care?

cannot rely on Brazil as an ally. JOHN FITZPATRICK The reaction in many countries to Tuesday's terrorist attacks in the U.S. has been of genuine sadness and sorrow for the victims and the American people. Across most countries in Western Europe, normal life stopped for three minutes on Friday as people paid tribute to the dead. These were genuine acts from the heart by ordinary individuals, not staged events organized by governments. One gathering in Germany brought together 200,000 people. The British Parliament held a special session. Even Russia observed a minute of silence. What did we see in Brazil? Virtually nothing. Most of our political leaders kept quiet and the people appeared not to care. President Fernando Henrique Cardoso did condemn the act a few hours after it happened, and offered support. However, he was quick to point out that it could worsen Brazil's economic problems. None of the emotion the world associates with Brazil has been on display. As Brazilians continued to watch events unfold on television, political life went on in its usual way. No terrorism here, just he usual soap opera of corruption, violence and power mongering—beleaguered Senate President Jader Barbalho finally stood down, more evidence piled up against former sao Paulo Mayor Paulo Maluf—also facing corruption allegations, and the Mayor of Campinas, a major city in sao Paulo state, was shot dead. Another development this week was the defeat of the anti-government wing of the PMDB party, at a convention that elected Sao Paulo Congressman Michel Temer as the party's new president. This was a blow to Minas Gerais Governor hamar Franco, who may now seek membership with another party to launch his presidential ambitions next year. So there were plenty of things happening here, but why have the terrorist attacks in New York rrmumm°i'cr*.a.",'-rw'r7r7mr,'"'mIrrlk"ml and Washington, D.C. evoked none ofthe emotions among Brazilians which they have among others elsewhere in the world? Obviously one cannot force people to feel genuine sorrow, but the muted response has been puzzling and, to a non-American foreigner like me who lives here, disappointing and distressing. It is distressing because it puts Brazil out of line with the world's democracies, and shows a lack of solidarity with a country where tens of thousands of Brazilians live---300,000 in the New York City area alone. Around 30 of these Brazilians are feared dead in the New York attack. It shows a lack of sympathy for a nation which has suffered a devastating surprise attack. It shows the ignorance of the less educated population, and the smugness of the better educated. Of eight letters published in the daily 0 Estado de S. Paulo at the time of writing this article, six are broadly anti-American, accusing the U.S. of reaping seeds it has sown. One wonders if any P., of the correspondents wrote a letter of condolence to the American ambassador. Another part of the same newspaper expressed reliefthat the U.S. Consulate in Sdo Paulo would be leaving the posh Jardins area soon for a new location, and the well-heeled residents in the area would not have to endure the disgraceful sight of people queuing up to get visas. The lack of a political response is disappointing because it shows the US. that it cannot rely Crise fax ddlar bates on Brazil as an ally. By Saturday, President Fernando Henrique Cardoso had yet to speak on the no'o recordm RS 2,762 phone to President Bush, an incredible indictment of Brazil's failure to understand the importance of these attacks. nado The left-wing Worker's Party (PT) wasted no time in linking the attacks to U.S. policies, making Faroeste cabocto sure that its condemnation of the terrorist acts was part and parcel of its condemnation of the U.S. One is as bad as the other in the PT's view. We should expect this from the PT, but the parties in the governing coalition have been shamefully silent. However, the U.S. is not relying on any muscular support from Brazil because it knows it will not be forthcoming. During the Second World War Brazil let the Americans use its territory, and even sent troops to fight with the Allies in Italy. This is not the case now. It is obvious there is no support for an active role by Brazil in any future U.S.-led anti-terrorism operations, and the terrorists are already winning with their intimidation tactics. Two examples prove this. For sometime, Brazil and the U.S. have been discussing allowing the Americans to use a Brazilian Air Force base at Alcantara, in Maranhao state, to launch rockets into space. To be fair, there was a lot of political opposition to this before the terrorist attacks hit the U.S., but the opponents are now adding fears that the base could become a terrorist target to their reasons. The chairman of the Foreign Affairs and National Defense Committee of the Lower House says now is not the time to discuss the matter, and "maybe it would be better to wait a little", meaning put it on the backburner. To his credit, Defense Minister Geraldo Quintal) said the attacks should not interfere with the discussions, but if this is the case why does the government not do something to show its resolve? Would it not be heartening if, instead of equivocating and being intimidated, Brazil announced, as an act of solidarity, that the U.S. could use the base? Another example came from Foreign Minister Celso Lafer, who said immediately after the attack that Brazil's relations with countries like Iran, Libya and Iraq might change. By Friday he was eating his words, as the Foreign Ministry called in the ambassadors of these states, all of which have links with terrorist groups, and toned down the minister's comments. It is interesting to compare Brazil's timid attitude with that of Argentina, where the Peronist opposition movement is calling for Argentina to help the U.S. militarily. Unlike Brazil, Argentina has suffered terrorist bombings against Jewish targets and even sent troops to join the Gulf War coalition against Iraq. Cynics might say Argentina is only offering military help in return for U.S. financial aid to overcome its current crisis. They may be right, but at least Argentina is showing some mettle, unlike Brazil, which is coming across as more of a gentle giant.,

0 GL0130

Bush ameaca atacar corn ludas as armas de guerra'

John Fitzpatrick, the author, is a Scottish journalist who has been based in Sao Paulo since 1995. His 26-year career in journalism includes stints as a reporter in Scotland and England, deputy editor of an English-language daily newspaper in Cyprus, news editor of a radio station in Switzerland, financial correspondent in Zurich and Sao Paulo, and editor of a magazine published by one of Switzerland's largest banks. He currently runs Celtic Comunicacaes, a Sao Paulo company which specializes in editorial and translation services. You can reach him at 13144, Johnfitz(&, BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 2001

Fifty years ago the culprit would have been the Jews.

Opinion Tile Impossible Dream

In the case of rape, a black. We can foretell the finale. Holy war against holy war. Terrorism changes place—it leaves the planes and becomes bacteriological war in a vicious circle of vendettas. JOAO SAYAD


Goliath, the Philistine giant, was brought down bya well-aimed stone thrown by David, Israel's first king. The Bible also says, in another place, that Goliath was defeated by someone else, with another name that History didn't record. Probably, this other Hebrew is the real author of the feat, since he is mentioned and known only by this fact. In history, the trivial, human and concrete facts do not matter. For history the only people that matter are heroes and villains, who always play the same script. The history of the Western civilization, past and future, is already written in the Bible, in the Homerian and Greek tragedies. We don't have a lot of imagination. The actors are chosen right before the act and they play a pre-established drama. Samson, David, Napoleon, Lincoln and Dom Pedro I are chosen like King Momo, Pierrot, Harlequin and the character from the Northeast Bumba-Meu-Boi. The real history, from people who did or did not, is not history, is life. Last week, the whole world lived the panic of the passengers from the hijacked planes, was asphyxiated by the smoke, screamed from despair and moaned buried by the World Trade Center's debris. Thousands of anonymous people, friends or KR its V.1. acquaintances, lost their lives. We will never know who committed the heinous crime. The tragedy became history. We will repeat the drama from 3000 years ago, Jews against Philistines, or Christians against Moors or poor against the rich. David against Goliath. "We" are David. The "others", Goliath. As an unimaginative movie, last week's tragedy continues as history. The American President declares war against concretely unknown terrorists, but easy to identify when we follow the original script—they are the Cananaean, the Moor, the Saracen. Fifty years ago the culprit would have been the Jews. In the case of rape, a black. We can foretell the finale. Holy war against holy war. Terrorism changes place—it leaves the planes and becomes bacteriological war in a vicious circle of vendettas. The American government strengthens its spy network, reduces the civil 41 liberties of Americans. Americans become fundamentalists, xenophobes, McCarthyists. In the '50s, Charley Chaplin was persecuted and went back to Europe. Now, they will perhaps persecute Madonna for being indecorous or Muslim Muhammad Ali for h. religion. Political refugees from around the world have no place to go anyrncre. The lights are turned off in the country of the movies, universities, libraries, museums. All unite against the common enemy, which still has to be chosen—a poor and inhospitable country in Asia, a band of terrorists hidden in a cave, the Palestine (Philistines?), the Pers. (Iran?) or the Babylonians (Iraq?). If we could make science fiction with imagination, history's sequence might be different. After a week of silent mourning, perplexed and respectful in the face of pain, the United States and NATO decide on a fund of 40 billion dollars for investments in Afghanistan, in Iran or another place. They start a new Marshall Plan before any war is begun and which is promoted by the attacked country. In a few years, the Eastern threat, wherever it might come from, would be controlled, The Eastern fundamentalists would be globalized. They would start to eat at McDonald's and would go to Geneva to protest against globalization. We would really be making history. We would stop being led by characters with pre-established roles. None of this will happen: the human and rational solution is science fiction. The B science fiction has become reality. JoAoSayad, the author, is SAo Paulo city's secretary ofFinances and Economic Development.You can get in touch with him at jsayad@attglobaLnet


No American Point of View s ever cried over millions of No-Win Came people who die every day ii Third World Countries, victims (directly or indirectly) of American foreign policies designed to keep America on top. They think they are poor victims whc have been attacked for no reason and that's why they have been asking so insistently for retaliatio DIONE ROCHA

I could not sit and watch the one-sided views on the attacks America has suffered last week. The non-American view of that fad leads us to the effects that the attacks themselves and possible retaliation may have on Brazil (and other countries, of course). That's why I decided to write the article below. IF e first thing one must ask now is what a Brazilian has to do with the attacks that have just happened in NYC and Washington D.C.? My answer is that the attacks do affect Brazil, all the other lations in the world and the further effects of them on humanity will depend on the American response to them. To show America's power through an armed conflict is a childish and not very intelligent reaction, and makes no sense for a number of reasons. One is that most of Afghanistan's population know nothing but hunger and misery caused by two decades of war. They do not have a clue as to what " The Taliban" or "New York" is, so remote are they from what we call "civilization". Those people are just as innocent as the people who were killed in the towers of the Second is that whoever is responsible for the attacks, is ready to respond to retaliation with even bigger and unexpected force. No one is going to tease a giant and not expect a reaction. Further yet, knowing that the giant will react, any being with a minimum of intelligence would have an even bigger (and worse) surprise for later. Responding violently to the attacks will just generate an endless chain of violence that will result in loss for humanity as a whDle. Also, we have to consider every face of the subject. No American has ever cried over the millions ofpeople who die every day in Third World Countries, victims (directly or indirectly) of American foreign policies designed to keep America on top. The average American is not able to see that. They are not supposed to see that link. That is why they think they are poor victims who have been attacked for no reason and that is why they have been asking so insistently for retaliation. The attack upon a member of the United Nations should be considered as an attack upon all. Who guarantees that if Brazil had been attacked, the States would give els their support? More than once before America turned its back on the interests of humanity in order to serve its own interests. They want us to stop polluting, but they keep on polluting in order to maintain the growth of the ir economy. They give us the hypocritical speech of tolerance, -)ut when they are asked to do the same, the president leaves an International Conference Against Racism. Before World War II, Europe was what America is now. The parents of my generation studied French at school. In a couple of decades, America may no longer be what it is. And the same way I had to learn how to speak English in orderto achieve better positions in an "Americanized" world, who knows what language my children will have to learn at school? And one day, tired of suffering under the feet ofa ruling country, America -nay be seen as terrorist, and they will want their reasons to be heard. bione Rocha is a Brazilian communications major concerned about social issues. You can contact the author at 10


In the 80's, Osama Bin Laden was the right arm of the CIA against It Serves US Right e Soviet occupation of Afghanistan. He is a product of the Americans. After the fall of the rlin Wall and since 1990, Bin Laden has pointed his terrorist arsenal against Uncle Sam.

Point of View

Immediately after the terrorist attack on the United States, President Bush declared a war between good and e evil. This division of the world into good and evil countries was one that the western world had begun to bury „,• with the end of the cold war. This division fomented the Christian Crusades against the "infidel Muslims" and later, the extermination of Jews by Hitler's troops. Does it make sense to identify the United States with the good and its critics and enemies with evil? The Bible and the Torah confront the question of good and evil with divine wisdom. Good and evil live together in each of our hearts. Freedom consists in knowing how to choose between selfishness and love. One cannot say that the United States, in its history, has worked harder for justice and prosperity for all people in the world than for the hegemony and financial gains of Uncle Sam. • Since the creation of the Monroe Doctrine in 1823, the United States brought Puerto Rico under its dominion (1898), invaded Cuba (1902), took over the Panama Canal, implanted dictators in the southern hemisphere, fomented terror in Nicaragua, trained military leaders in the ways oftorture, and now propose FTAA (Free Trade Area of the Americas) as a form of commercial control of Latin America. The White House which authorized the use ofN apalm in the Vietnam War and bombed the civilian population of Sudan during Clinton's presidency is today a victim of its ovvn power. The oppressed mirror the aggressors when they retaliate with the same methods. Just as the victims of the World Trade Center and the Pentagon did not deserve the tragedy that they suffered, so the people of Nagasaki and Hiroshima should not have been exterminated with two atomic bombs. , Saddam Hussein initially was the White House marionette who helped the U.S. fight against the Islamic ' < Revolution in Iran. He demonstrated once again the insidiousness of terrorist training policies of the U.S. The apprentice wizard turns against the sorcerer. In the 1980's, Osama Bin Laden was the right arm ofthe CIA against the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan. The CIA taught him to make bombs, to plan and activate terrorist attacks, .•` - to hide his millions of dollars in fantasy companies and finance paradises, to operate secret codes, and to infiltrate civilian and military groups. Bin Laden is a product of the Americans. After the fall of the Berlin Wall and since 1990, Bin Laden has pointed his terrorist arsenal against Uncle Sam. The indefinite postponement of peace in the Mid-East including the creation of a Palestinian state is another factor in the growth of dissatisfaction and xenophobia. Since the U.N. resolutions of that region were not taken , serously and attacks continue in the Gaza Strip and parts of Jordan, arms continue to be used to end a conflict i that can only be addressed with political negotiations. In commemorating his 80th birthday last week, Cardinal Arns asked that all Brazilians pressure Brazilian President Cardoso not to support any attitude or policy of vengeance on the part of R$0,75 the United States. In Arns' words, terrorists should be punished for the horrible crimes that they committed but innocent populations should not suffer. ISINUMMMENOMMINIS tn..% Lua,“ Many of us are pacifists until a robber enters our house and kills a loved one. Thus, 4= we take on the same sentiments of the robber, allowing our violent side that hides inside us to emerge. Peace is the fruit of justice. Thus, we should not do to others what we ICANA would not want done to us. It may be impossible not to have enemies but it is possible to avoid treating them with inhumanity and injustice which feeds the spiral of violence. War never brings good solutions, only pain, destruction and more suffering. Just as Pax Romana was not built on hatred of Christians, Pax Americana will not have a future if it foments hatred toward Islamic people. Without them, western culture would not be as it is today. As the Jewish people gave the world Marx, Freud, Einstein and many other geniuses in science and the arts, the Arab people have given us geniuses such as Al-Khwarizmi in the area of mathematics, Al-Kindi and Alhazem in physics, and Avrrois in the area of philosophy. It is time for the United States to demonstrate that they are the paladins of ,. laler, blibliVIMa. C.,,,fa W., Rt..e... democracy, not only in respecting differences but also by ending their support for the =IX trecte. denuftle Oa 6.4.4. ft •16 &Adria choadmneeo srlioafisdo dal.a,... consoladot autocratic, dictatorial governments of the Arab world where freedom of the people is Xrik9or P110 held ransom to the unjust price of barrels of petroleum. 10.0.0. COPA Friar Betto, the author is a religious, a writer and teacher. Among his many ? books is The Work of the Artist—A Holistic Vision of the World.





If someone offers his condolences and, right after, adds some Blame the Victims however, though or but he is in reality saying "my condolences" but negating it soon after with an "it serves you right." ALBERTO DINES - It's time for grammar, among other things, to lower our blood pressure. The political simplism that preceded the Black Tuesday doesn't seem to have been interrupted after the slaughter. It's intact and unharmed, fueling resentments, ready to ignite sacred wraths and holy indignations. The majority of the Arab and Islamic leadership were categorically sympathetic to the victims' families or to the American people. Without attenuation or justification. They were hurt by terrorism as much as those murdered. Fidel Castro, for so long assaulted by American arrogance, was also unequivocal in his solidarity. He said what he felt, period. But in the rhetoric of our cordial celebrated society, infected with commas and detours, it was inserted as an attenuating resource—a little particle usually destined to link parts of a phrase. Disguised as a pause between two ideas, it has a deleterious, disaggregating function. Without even being touched by the death of so many Brazilians. some of the brief and formal laments for the catastrophe were followed by a disturbing and insulting but. In the innocent conjunction it's revealed the volcano of rancor still had not been calmed. curtailed or purged by last week's blood bath. Here comes the grammar to remind us about things we don't pay attention to when using the language. Conjunctions are used to link sentences: when additive they work as reinforcement—this is the case of the stubborn and— when adversative they establish the contrast between the respective meanings. If someone offers his condolences and, right after, adds some however, though or but he is in reality saying "my condolences" but negating it soon after with an "it serves you right." The political "show" presented by the PT (Workers' Party) on TV this Thursday was perfect in every sense, including its mention of the terrorist attacks: neither but nor half but. The repudiation to the violence was brief, clear and the grief, sincere. But the PT is a Party that's getting ready to exercise the power, and it is able to extirpate emotions, choose words that express them and, by and large, avoid the pitfalls of phrasing. It able, more than anything else, to immunize itself against the poison of the discourse's ambiguities. This consternation was not shared by the majority of militants or associates who marched through the papers' pages of smoldering rage and wrath, clearly satisfied with the getting even shown in such a spectacular way on TV. Rapidly grieved, the six thousand missing—including the 17 Brazilians—were soon compared to the dead in Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Dresden, Hanoi, Chile, to which were added the hungry masses of Africa and Latin America's legions of poor wretches. Swinging between justification and vigilantism, with the decisive help of buts, the cruel vindictive arithmetic illustrates a moral relativism from which certain leftists—or pseudo leftists—were still not able to escape. Nor will they escape soon while they continue intoxicated by the dogma that the end justifies the means. From this spiritual daze don't escape people anointed in international contests: people awarded the Peace and literature Nobel prizes, tenured professors and illustrious individuals in all sciences and knowledge, rationalists and aestheticians, Marxists and aristocrats. Historians trained to look at humankind under the perspective of centuries—and the journalists used to immediately interpret its spasms—surrendered themselves to the amok unchained by terror. Even bankers so cautious in their emotions and investments took out of the closet their Crusaders' banner. Incapable of being horrified or feeling pain, and therefore incapable ofhumanizing themselves by suffering and solidarity, the fiery harbingers of the "we are even" are blowing up all bridges that lead to dialog and tolerance. The xenophobia that only now they notice had been pulsating fora longtime in their totalizing and totalitarian speeches, in the way they divide the world between those who deserve compassion and those who deserve condemnatory passion. George W. Bush is the least desirable person to lead the U.S. at this moment. There is no doubt about this: all of his appearances (starting with a speech in a Florida school in the morning of the assaults and ending ten days later with the speech to Congress in Washington) widely expose his unpreparedness, an intellectual void and a psyche that only knows how to express itself through clichés. The uncomfortable realization cannot lead us to an alignment with fanaticism, terrorism or with those cynical invocations destined to minimize, excuse or justify the barbarism committed Black Tuesday. In the current evaluations an elementary data is being forgotten: the assaults were not accompanied by public declarations, ultimatums, conditions or demands. The absence of public statements or authorship indicates an indiscriminate war against all, against humankind. The initiators of the crime are not from the left, not even progressive. They are neither agents of the savage capitalism nor revolutionary, reformist, ecologist, thirdworldist or antiglobalizationist. They don't want a strong or minimum state. They don't want states, laws, codes, norms for living or respecting. Besides killing indiscriminately they are intent on sowing hate, igniting fires, exacerbating suspicions, and prevent any possibility of understanding, approaching or tolerance. In displaying grief with half sincerity or full insincerity, the lucid commentators with their adversative conjunctions and the moral relativism are only vouching for violence as political language. In reality, they are condemning the victims as the only guilty ones for what has happened 4$a '',1tomandiii ,dipittka ill !qiie Mode 'irrqwthr

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Alberto Dines wrote this article for Jornal do Brasil where he signs a column. He became a journalism professor after directing major newspapers and magazines in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo and Lisbon (Portugal). He is the author of several books and the creator of Observatorio da Imp rensa, an Internet site and TV program that presents criticism of the Brazilian media. You can reach him at

VIM 12


Despite close to half a million people, Ribeirao Preto, in the interior of Sao Paulo state, is a city that retains much of the charm of country life. Agriculture and cattle breeding are common activities in the area, which was once known as The Coffee Capital and Brazilian California. Scandal and gossip are mostly things that happen to other people and in other cities. Happened, until some bawdy pictures presenting some of the town's illustrious couples in compromising positions appeared on the Internet. It was not clear at the beginning of the scandal if the images were authentic or photo montages. It didn't matter, however, since the damage had already been done when those portrayed in the images went to court to try to prove their innocence. For weeks, in July and August, the naughty pictures seemed to be the only subject Ribeirao-Pretanos had to talk about. It all started when some pictures were stolen from a computer. Soon after, people started to receive in their e-mails a collection of images: well behaved couples in a family barbecue, a group at a nudist beach watching some girls doing strip tease, and then a series of photos with familiar faces showing hardcore scenes, including lesbianism, fellatio and group sex. Most of the images, at least those in the barbecue and on the nude beach, were real, confirmed the people shown in them. But the more risque stuff, they asserted, was a forgery. Among those exposed in the pictures was an economist (his father is former congressional representative Joao Cunha) and his architect wife plus an entrepreneur (his father owns a school with 10,000 students) and his wife, who was a teacher in the family's school. The implicated, all in their 20s, are rich and well known in the region. Two traditional families were the main culprits: the Cunhas and the Spinellis. On September 5, the Ribeirao Preto police presented a report signed by three veteran experts stating that the pornographic pictures were digitally fabricated. The experts, Jose Lopes Zarzuela, from USP's (Universidade de Sao Paulo) Law School; Dirceu Carlos Uccelli, who works for the Federal Justice and Jose Barth, from the State Justice had a unanimous conclusion: "From all that was given as evidence the suspected pieces revealed, after examination, to be forgeries. The modifications were done without the due and accurate technical criteria dictated by the digital art, which, with the proper software that now exists in the market, under the command of an able person, would make such montages imperceptible." The experts' findings were included in the enquiry being made by the police, who are interviewing at least ten people who are now accused of mail violation, defamation and extortion. Twenty photos were analyzed, but rumors have it that as many as 800 of these pictures exist. According o Antonio Eugenio Minghini, the attorney for those shown in the pictures, "the families of the victims hired the experts in an effort to try to stop the spread of the rumor. They are distraught and if we had to wait for the Justice, it would take a long time." The case became known as the "suruba dos ricos" (the riches' gangbang) and pictures from other people who don't live in the city started cropping up. Even pictures taken from Brazilian Playboy were added to the sexual imbroglio. According to the police, the same people who stole the pictures and spread them throughout the Internet tried to extort half a million reais ($179,000) from the victims in exchange for not divulging the images. Protecting the identity of the accused, the Brazilian media presented the economist ARDC and entrepreneur NDSJ saying: The pictures in which we appear in compromising situations are obviously montages. The criminals used our faces taken from stolen pictures and placed them over other images." NDSJ talked about the pictures taken at the nudist beach: "I went there with my wife and we took pictures that I kept in my computer. This is something intimate we did and it is nobody's business. How could I imagine that someone would get into my computer and manipulate the pictures? After the photos appeared, people started saying we were involved with drugs, that we were homosexuals, that my wife received a standing ovation in a local restaurant and so on.- By the way, his wife, who teaches elementary school, decided to take a vacation while things cool off a little. ARDC says that a hacker stole the pictures from a cornputer he has at home, but in another version circulating in the streets of Ribeirao Preto, the laptop computer was taken to a repair shop and there one technician copied the pictures and decided to blackmail the economist. The compromising pictures were taken off an Internet site that was showing them, but at least one webmaster had already copied the whole enchilada, distributing it in a zip file on Apparently, other entrepreneurial minds created CD-ROMs containing the same material with some 80 spicy images being sold for 20 reais ($7) in the streets of Ribeirao.


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Stage Struck Brazilian theater started to flourish in the '30s with the production of texts by national authors. Until then, the stages of the major theaters produced Italian and German operas and exhibited established names, such as Isadora Duncan, Sara Bernhardt and the lyric tenor Enrico Caruso, among others. .


Culture may be in crisis, but theater is very much alive in Brazil these days. In Rio, Cocegas (Tickles), the hit of the season, after being seen by 10,000 people is playing in a much bigger room with a full house night after night and no end in sight. The comedy written and interpreted by Heloisa Perisse and Ingrid Guimaraes is made up of nine sketches. In one of them, an anorexic model tries to show she is more than a pretty face; in another one, a woman graduated in quantic physics insists on showing she's a pretty face too. Rio has been laughing shamelessly. In Sao Paulo, more than 150 plays were being presented at the beginning of September, including some for children. Among them: A Ilha Desconhecida (The Unknown Island), an adaptation ofNobel winner Jose Saramago's story, Abaporu (the man who eats in Tupi-Guarani language), a show presented in a butcher 14


shop: Cachorro (Dog), with four tramps talking under a bridge; Gota D'Agua (Water Drop), an old musical by famous composer Chico Buarque; the Portuguese version of the Broadway show Les Miserables; Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream; and Trainspotting, baseado on Irvine Welsh's novel. As recently as August 30, New York saw Nelson Rodrigues's (1912-1980) play Valsa N.° 6 (Valse No. 6) presented as After the Ball. The work was shown during the American Living Room Series, a theater festival intended to present the work of new artists. Rodrigues, Brazil's most important playwright, is best known in the US through the filmed version of plays like Toda Nudez Sera Castigada (All Nudity Shall Be Punished) and 0 Casamento (The Wedding). The Festival de Teatro de Curitiba (Curitiba's Theater Festival) just announced that registrations are open for those willing to take part in the 11th edition of that national extravaganza that happens in the capital of Parana state. The event, which will last from March 14 to 24, 2002, is divided into four categories: contemporary theater, children's theater, fringe and special events. Rules can be found at Last year, the Curitiba Festival had full houses, in some cases in theaters with 2,000 seats. Then, 133 plays were presented in 11 days to a public of 100,000 people. Brazzil has prepared a special series of articles to show the story and the vitality ofthe Brazilian theatrical scene. In the famous movie The Third Man with Orson Welles, his character looks down over Vienna from a Ferris wheel and says to his companion (and I paraphrase): "Germany has gone through wars, plagues, and pestilence, and they created Beethoven, Bach and other great art. Switzerland has had a thousand years of peace and harmony, and what have they created? The cuckoo clock!" Great art is often created through suffering and adversity. And it is thus with Brazil, which in her relatively short existence has experienced so much turmoil. All one has to do is look at the arts of Brazil, and one will be struck by the richness in her culture, much of it borne out of torture, slavery, and wars. Complacency and happiness are not conducive to creativity—adversity is. This article will look at theater in Brazil, an ever-growing and evolving, living creature and the social and political ills that were the basis for the great, creative minds that shaped it. In the Beginning It is rare that a country can claim to have been founded with the existence of theater, but in the case of Brazil, this is the case. Generally, in other cultures, theater has evolved with the development of the fabric of their society, but the Portuguese brought their theater with them and made it part of their New World, unlike a country like the United States, founded by puritans to whom theater was a diversion and thus a thing of sin. And then, after it was brought to Brazil as a "fmished package," it immediately started evolving with the influence of Indians and later Africans. It is a long and interesting story, well worth looking at. Theater literally arrived in Brazil with the first ships bringing colonists, and with the new arrivals came those attributes, which depicted the baroque spirit as well as the religious conflicts of the period. Little importance was given to the BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 2001

literary script. The udience was partial to the staging, theatrics, special sta e effects and the Faustian overtones. The first Jesuit m ssion arrived in Brazil in 1549 led by Manuel da NObrega, t the request of Dom Joao III. The first step the Jesuits took as to unite the natives in permanent settlements. Once th y had established villages, the priest could effect a sepa ation of the pagan elements from Christian beliefs. Th mission priests were adept at taking advantage of the In ians' natural attributes. They began by using music and li le by little exchanged the native beat and instruments for more "civilized" songs and instruments. The Jesuits, wi the intuit to catechize the Indians, brought not just the ew religion, Catholicism, but also a which was included literature and different culture, theater. Allied with the stive rituals and dances of the indigenous population, e first form of theater known by the Brazilians, was th t of the Portuguese, which had a pedagogic characte based on the Bible. In that era, the person primarily re ponsible for teaching about theater, as well as the authors ip of plays, was Father Anchieta. The truly natio al theater only came to establish itself halfway through th •XIX century, when the romanticism had its start. Martin Pena was one of those responsible for that, through his • I stume comedies. Other highlighted names from that t e were, the dramatist Artur Azevedo, the actor and thea ical impresario, JoAo aetano and, in literatur , the writer Machad de Assis. The Jesuit Th ater During the first ears of colonization, t e fathers of the Companhia de Jesus, the JeOuits, who came to Braz#, had as their main purp•.e the catechization oft p e Indians. the They found Padre Anchieta Brazilian tribes a tural inclination for usic, dance, and orato , or rather positive t ndencies toward the development of theater, which w nt on to be used as an instrument of "civilization" an • of religious education, in addition to diversion. The th ater, by the fascination of the representative image, was much more effective than a sermon, for example. The first play., thus, were written by the Jesuits, who made use of ele ents of the indigenous culture, from the character of "sac ed," which the Indians had already absorbed into their ulture, to the Indians talking about the things they lcne Mixed into those elements were the dogmas ofthe Ca olic Church, in order that the Jesuits not lose their objecti e—catechism. The plays we Ic written in Tupi-Guarani, Portuguese, or English, a pract e that went on until 1584, when Latin "arrived." In th se plays the characters were saints, de15

mons, emperors, and from time to time, just represented symbolism, such as love or fear ofGod. With the catechism, the theater ended up becoming obligatory material for students of the humanities in the Jesuit colleges. In the meantime, female characters were prohibited, except for saints, to avoid certain "excitement" in the young people. The actors of that era were domesticated Indians, the future padres (priests), the whites and those of mixed parentage. All were amateurs, who improvised in the plays presented in the churches, on the plazas, and in the schools. The name of the best known author of the time was Father Anchieta. He was the author of the Auto de Pregacdo Universal, Liturgical Rubric of Universal Prayer, written between 1567 and 1570 and represented in diverse locales of Brazil, for several years. Another rubric by Anchieta is of the Feast of Sao Lourenco, also known as the Mystery of Jesus. The sacramental writings, which contained dramatic characteristics, were preferred to the comedies and tragedies, because it was in those that the characteristics of the catechism were included. They always had a religious, moral, and didactic basis and were replete of allegoric personages. Being thus, comedies and tragedies were poorly represented. In addition to liturgical rubrics, another "theatrical style" introduced by the Jesuits, was the nativity scene, which went on to be incorporated in the folkloric and pastoral festivals. At this time all the plays presented had the character of catechism of the Jesuit Theater. According to J.Galante de Sousa, in his book 0 Teatro no Brasil, The Theater in Brazil (Rio de Janeiro, 1960, first volume) "The Jesuit Theater was, in reality, theater of oratory; it sought to move in order to persuade; tried to persuade in order to educate." These are some of those "educational plays:" Dialog°, 1573, Olinda and Bahia Egloga Pastoril, 1574 and 1576, Olinda Historia do Rico Avarento and Lazar° Pobre, 1575, Olinda Auto, Liturgical rubric, 1578, Pernambuco Auto do Crisma, confirmation, 1578, Rio de Janeiro Tragicomedia, 1181, Bahia Auto Pastoril, Pastoral Rubric, 1584, Aldeia do Espirito



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Santo Dicilogo, 1584, Pernambuco Auto das Onze Mil Virgens, Rubric ofEleven Thousand Virgins, 1583 and 1584, Bahia Dialog° da Ave-Maria, 1584, Capitania do Espirito Santo Auto de Silo Sebasticio, 1585, Rio de Janeiro Auto de Sao Lourenco, 1586, Niteroi (Village of sac) Lourenco). Also known as Na Festa de Sab Lourenco or Misterio de Jesus Auto da Vila da Vitoria, Rubric of the city of VitOria, 1586, Espirito Santo, also known as Auto de Selo Mauricio Dialog° de Guarapari, 1587, village of Capitania do Espirito Santo Historia de Assuero, 1589, Bahia XVIICentury In the XVII century, the representations of plays written by Jesuits—at least those with the clear finality of catechism—began to be increasingly scarce. This period, in which the missionary work was already practically consolidated, is also called the Decline of the Theater ofthe Jesuits. Meanwhile, other types of theatrical activities were also scarce, that is to say that this century was a time of crisis. The stage directions existed, even if they were hindered or inspired by the struggles of the era, such as the struggle against the Dutch. But they depended on occasions like religious or secular festivals in order to be realized. Of the plays directed during that period, the highlight should be on the comedies presented at the events of the acclamation of Dom Joao IV, in 1641, and the productions promoted by the Franciscans of the Convento de Santo Antonio, in Rio de Janeiro, with the objective of entertaining the community. Furthermore, theatrical representations were realized for the installation of the Provincia Franciscana da Imaculada Conceicao, Franciscan Province of the Immaculate Conception, in 1678, in Rio. Something one could point out in this century is the repercussion of the Spanish theater in Brazil as well as the existence of a name—connected to the theater—Manuel Botelho de Oliveira (Bahia 1636-1711). He was the first Brazilian poet to have his works published, having written two comedies in Spanish, Hay Amigo para Amigo e Amor (There is Friend for Friend and Love), and Engailosy Celos (Deceit and Jealousy). These are some of the plays presented in the XVII century: - Drama, 1620, Bahia - Dialog°, 1626, Maranhao, and 1688 in Bahia - Comedia, 1641 in Rio de Janeiro, in the same year in Recife, where it was presented in French, and later in 1677, in Maranhao (as part of the commemorative events of the acclamation of Dom Joao IV. - Liturgical Rubric by Selo FranciscoXavier, 1668, in Maranhao.




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It was only in the second half of the XVIII century • that the theatrical plays became presented with some frequency. Stages and platforms, mounted in public town squares were the locales for the presentations. It was like that with churches and, from time to time, the BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 2001

palace of some governor. In that era, the educational characteristic of the theater was strong. And an activity, so instructive, ended up deserving to be presented at locales made for the plays: the so-called Casas de Opera, Opera Houses, or Casas de Comedia, Comedy Houses, which started to spread around the country. In Minas Gerais, during the "gold cycle," Portuguese actors visited Vila Rica. The only preserved local play is 0 P arnaso Obsequioso, The Obsequious Parnassus by Claudio Manuel da Costa, written in the governor's honor. Following the establishment of the houses "of theater," the first theater companies emerged. The actors were contracted to do a determined number of presentations in the Opera Houses, during a whole year, or only for a few months. Being thus, with established locations and casts, the theatrical activity of the XVIII century began being more continuous than in past eras. In the XVIII century and beginning of the XIX, the actors were members of lower classes, the majority being mulattos. There was a prejudice against the activity, and the appearance of women in the casts ended up being prohibited. In that form, it was the men themselves, who played the feminine roles, and came to be known as "transvestites." Even when the presence of actresses was already "liberated," the bad reputation of the class of artists kept women of society away from the stages. As for the repertoire, some of the highlights were the great foreign influences in the Brazilian theater of that era. Among the names most quoted were Moliere, Voltaire, Maffei, Goldone, and Metastasio. In spite of the major foreign influence, some national names also deserve to be remembered. These are Luis Alves Pinto, who wrote the comedy in verse, Amor ma! Correspondido, Love barely Requited; Alexandre de Gusmao, who translated the French comedy 0 Marido Confundido, The Confused Husband; Claudio Manuel da Costa, who wrote 0 P arnaso Obsequioso and other poems presented in the whole country, and Inacio Jose de Alvarenga Peixoto, author of the drama Eneias no Lcicio. Another name worth mentioning is the dramatist Antonio Jose da Silva. However, since he lived in Portugal much of his life, he is not considered a truly Brazilian actor. In Rio de Janeiro, Father Ventura produced the "operas"—actually comedies intermixed with the songs of Portuguese Antonio Jose (the Jew) da Silva, Guerras do Alecrim, Wars of the Alecrim, and Mangerona. The Manuel Luis Theater imported Portuguese and Spanish spectacles. During festivals, amateur groups staged popular plays in the open air. After Father Ventura's theater was destroyed by fire in 1769 and Manuel Luis' Theater closed, Dom Joao VI in 1810 built the Teatro Real de Sao Joao, where the Portuguese actors continued acting. This theater still exists, in Rio, under the name Joao Caetano. 1808-1838--Time of Transition The arrival of the royal family in Brazil in 1808 brought with it a series of improvements to the country. One of those was directed at the theater. Dom Joao VI, in a decree of 28th of May, 1810, recognized the necessity of the construction of "decent theaters." In truth, the decree represented a stimulus toward the inauguration of several theaters. The theatrical companies through turns of singing and/or dance, came to look after the theaters—bringing with them an audience, steadily growing. The first ofthese, truly Brazilian,

made its debut in1833, in Nitethi, under the leadership of Joao Caetano, N4ith the drama 0 Principe Amante da Liberdade, The Prince Lover of Liberty orA Independencia da Escocia, The Independence of Scotland. A consequence ofthe statiility, which the dramatic companies were gaining, was the growth, at the same time, of amateur theater. The agitation, which preceded the Independence of Brazil, was reflected in the theater. The audiences were very aggressive, taking advantage of the productions to promote manifestations, for the right to utter cries in favor of the Republic. Meanwhile, this whole "mess" represented a preparation of the spirit of the people, and also of the theater, for the existence of a free nation. These were the origins of the foundation of the theater—and of a life— really national. Furthermore, in consequence ofthe nationalism exacerbated by the public, the foreign actors began to be replaced by nationals. Contrary to this picture, respect got the better of the public when Dom Pedro was present in the theater (a fact that happened in times and places which experienced "normal" conditions, i.e., where and when there was not this kind ofmanifestation.) On these occasions, it was more interesting to admire the spectators, principally the ladies—richly dressed—than the actors. In addition to luxury, one might note the prejudice against the Negroes, who did not attend the theaters. Already, the actors were almost all mulattos, but covered their faces in white and red make-up. Romantic Era-1838-1855 Since independence in 1822, an exacerbated nationalist sentiment took over the cultural manifestations. This nationalist spirit also touched the theater. In the meantime, the Brazilian dramatic literature was still lackluster and depended on isolated initiatives. Many plays, from 1838, were influenced by the Romanticism, a literary movement, en vogue at that time. The romantic writer Joaquim Manuel de Macedo stood out with some myths of the innate feeling of nationality of that time: the myth ofthe territorial grandeur of Brazil, of the opulence of the nature of the country, of the equality of all Brazilians, of the hospitality of the people, among others. These myths orientated, to a great degree, the romantic 17


artists of this period. The tragedy Antonio Jose or 0 Poeta e a Inquisicao, The Poet and the Inquisition, written by Goncalves de Magalhaes (1811-1882) and produced on stage by Joao Caetano (1808-1863) on March 13 1838, in the Teatro Constitucional Fluminense, was the first step toward the implantation of theater considered Brazilian. The same year, on the 4th of October, for the first time, 0 Juiz de Paz da Roca, The Country Justice ofthe Peace by Martins Pena (1815-1848) was produced. This also happened at the Teatro Constitucional Flutninense by the same company of Joao Caetano. The play was the initial kick toward the consolidation of comedy as the preferred genre by the public. The plays by Martins Pena were part of Romanticism and therefore were well received by the public, tired of the classical formality of the past. The author is considered the founder of the national theater, by the quantity—in almost ten years wrote 28 plays—and the quality of his production. He produced a series of farces and comedies, happy satires of the day's society, many of them presented by actor Joao Caetano, responsible for abolishing the Portuguese accent in the medium of theater. His work, by the popularity it attained, was very important to the consolidation of the theater of Brazil. Other names of importance of that time were writers Machado de Assis and Jose de Alencar.

Aninha: Nem vintern? Entdo o quefei do dinheiro? assim que me ama?!! Jose: Goodbye, my Aninha! (tries to embrace her) Aninha: Be quiet. I don't like those games. I want to marry you, but I don't want you to embrace me before we marry. Well tell me, did you conclude the sale ofthe banana business that your father left you? Jose: It's concluded. Aninha: Ah! Then if you now have money...., why don't you talk to my father? Jose: Money? Not even a penny! Aninha: Not even a penny? Then what did you do with the money? Is that how you love me?!! Realism—Second Half of XIX Century

The development of the theater happened when Brazilian slaves were liberated in Nigeria, in 1880, and founded the first Brazilian dramatic company, but it was only in 1900 that the theater was established. Although it had faced the strong political crises of the country, it succeeded in the struggle toward independence. The Realism in the National Drama may be subdivided into two periods: the first, from 1855—when the impresario Joaquim Heliodoro established his company—until 1884 with the presentation of 0 Mandarim, The Mandarin, by Artur Azevedo, who consolidated the genre of revues and The following is a passage of The Country Justice ofthe the serious drama. The second period goes from 1884 until Peace by Martins Pena: the XX century, when the operetta and the revue are the preferred genres among the public. Jose: Adeus, minha Aninha! (tenta abraca-la) This first phase does not end in a naturalist theater. Aninha: Fique quieto. Nâo gosto desses brinquedos. With the exception of one or another attempt, the dramatic Eu quero casar-me coin o Senhor, mas ndo quero que me literature did not accompany naturalism because of the abraces antes de casarmos. Ora diga-me, Concluiu a preference of the public toward "vaudeville," revue, and venda do bananal que seu pal lhe deixou? parody. Jose: Conch& The renovation of the Brazilian theater, with the conAninha: Ah! Entilo se o senhor agora tern dinheiro... solidation of comedy as the preferred genre, began when por que ndo me pede a meu pal? Joaquim Heliodoro Gomes dos Santos put together his Jose: Dinheiro? Nem vintem! theater, 0 G inas io Dramatic°, in 1855. That new space had as rehearsal leader and director the Frenchman Emilio Doux, who brought the most modern plays of the era from France. The realist theater imported from France introduced a social theme, or rather the social questions most relevant to the moment were discussed in those dramas. It was theater of social thesis and psychological analysis. A name of great importance to the theater of this phase is the playwright Artur Azevedo (1855-1908). According to J. Galante de Souza (0 Teatro no Brasil, vol.1), Artur Azevedo "was more applauded in his scenery, in his revues written without artistic worry, as when he wrote serious drama. His talent was one of improvisation, easy, natural but without breathing space for compositions, which would demand maturity, and for artistic undertakings with a great scope." XX Century Brazilian theater flourished in the 30's with the production of texts by national authors. Until then, the stages of the major theaters produced Italian and German operas and exhibited established names, such as Isadora Duncan, Sara Bernhardt and the lyric tenor Enrico Caruso, among others. The splendor of the great stages coincided with the cycle of rubber in Amazonia at the beginning of the XX 18


century. Theatrical companies from London and Paris had long seasons in the principal capitals of the regionâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Belem in Para, and Manaus in Amazonas, where splendid theaters were financed by the importation of products on a large scale. Brazilian theater went through difficult moments during the dictatorship. Between 1937 and 1945, were it not for populist ideology, which remained active by means of the genre of the revue, it would have been extinguished. Then emerged the first stable companies ofthe country, with names like ProcOpio Ferreira, Jaime Costa, Odilon de Azevedo, among others. Another important period was when Paschoal Carlos Magno founded the Teatro do Estudante do Brazil, The Student Theater of Brazil, in 1938. This was the start of an emergence of experimental theater companies, which extend for many years, marking the introduction of a foreign model for the theater of the country, establishing at that time the principle of modern theater production in Brazil. The modern Brazilian theater arrives at the stages in the 40's with the Companhia Teatro Brasileiro de Comedia, TBC, the major school of art in the country, responsible for the professionalism of acting in the 50's and by the formation of a generation of actors, directors, stage directors and playwrights. The play Vestido de Noiva, The Wedding Dress, of 1943, revolutionized the lingo of the national theater. The author, whose works are classified as psychological and tragic, was the playwright, novelist, and journalist, Nelson Rodrigues (1912-1980). The play is considered a formal and thematic break, the beginning of modern theater. Controversial, the work went on for decades dividing public and critics and confronting the official censors for rebelling against the hypocrisy of the family, of race relations, and of political subservience. In 1948, Italian Franco Zampari founded the Teatro Brasileiro de Comedia (TBC), Brazilian Theater ofComedy, a company, which produced bourgeois theater for the bourgeoisie, importing techniques and repertoire, with tendencies toward esthetic culture. In 1957, the Teatro de Arena de sao Paulo was founded, an entrance door for many amateurs into professional theater, who in the following years became true personalities in the artistic world. With the military coup in 1964, the difficulties were augmented for directors and actors of the theater. The actions of the censors made many artists abandon the stages and seek exile in other countries. It remained for future generations to keep the established roots alive and set a course toward a new style of theater, which was about to emerge. The military coup generated the theater of challenge, involving the engagement of expressive sections of the population, principally students. It is the so-called Arena and Workshop theaters that take the dramatic art to the people. The texts were directed under the yoke of censorship. Theatrical plays were un-shelved starting in 1985 with the slow re-democratization of the country. The XX century was a time for Brazilian theater to mature. In the face of cultural transformations that happened since the industrial revolution, the comedies and vaudevilles, which so marked the XIX century and the first decades of the twentieth gave way to theater that returned to the cultural context of Brazil and to social

denouncement and political challenge. The seed for this theater was planted by the Modernismoâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;artistic movement of the avant-garde, whi proposed the negation of the classic modelâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; initiated in Brazil during the Semana de Arte Moderna, Modern Art Week, of 192 ,and which had at its forefront writers Oswald and Mario de A drade. The politicall committed theater reached its peak in the 60's with the Centro opular de Cultura and in the 70's as a trench of resistance ag nst the military dictatorship. Outstanding in this period, am ng others, were Arena conta Zumbi by Gianfrancesco arnieri and Edu Lobo, the show Opini do, by Oduvaldo Via a Filho and Roda Viva by Chico Buarque de Hollanda. Those mont ges opened the path to similar plays such as Liberdade, Libe dade by Mill& Fernandes and Arena conta Tiradentes. Am eng other authors, who stood out in that era were also Dias G mes, Antonio Callado, and Ferreira Gullar, who worked under he yoke of strong government censorship, which prohibit -d the production of hundreds of plays and persecuted thei authors. At the end o the 60's, a new impulse was given to drama of a realistic chara ter, and somewhat tragic, starting with the work by Plinio Marc's, Navalha na came, Razor in the Flesh; Dois Perdidos numa Noite Suja, Two Lost in a Nasty Night. Much censored, also, etting on popular vocabulary and on the naked and raw portra t of those who are marginalized, the author brought to the ge a world where the virtues of the romantic hero don't exis , contributing thus to the definitive defeat of hypocrisy and isengagement with the problems of the country. To be cont ued on our next issue. Kirsten U.S. in 196 Orpheus many cultu

einoldt was born in Denmark and came to the . She fell in love with Brazil after seeing Black years ago and has lived immersed in Brazilian e ever since. Her e-mail: kivracing(


journalist of the review "Espresso" and mine is only curiosity.

Paolo Mossetti Rome, Italy

useless, since Brazil has a different dialect of Spanish. Charles Sanderson


I would like to comment on Mr. Valente letter "Portuguese Is Not Brazilian" in your August issue. First of all, I'm Carioca and I speak Portuguese the same way New Yorkers speak English, but we all know that lea of education in any country of the world can destroy any language. I have some Portuguese friends here in Canada that took me quite a while to understand the Portuguese they speak. By the way, Canada is a bilingual country, with the great majority speaking English. I have the habit of reading Brazzil, "quando estou cagando no banheiro e nao quando estou a cagaire na casa de banho." I would also like to congratulate Mark Eberhart for his letter. Only a blind person can not see what is the whole South America's corruption. Look at North America until the border with Mexico. Canada, one of the best countries to raise a family and the USA, a place that if they open their doors, will be flooded with us South Americans. I had to leave Brazil, more specifically, Rio de Janeiro, to give a future to my daughter, because of those ladroes do Planatto.

Roberto Sa Canada

I am a lawyer who is married with a Brazilian and I speak Brazilian Portugese (along with Spanish and English.) Please list me under Legal Services, calling me Law Offices of Ruben Salazar. My web site is in Portuguese and contains a lot of free legal into and tips for Brazilians. Ruben Salazar, Esq http://www.salawzarcom

We have four adopted children from Brazil and always enjoy an easily readable source for news and information about their country. Thank you for making your magazine so readily available.

Jim and Lark Hickey Whittier, California

111:1:111•111411111; Please do not sneer at Carmen Miranda because before she came to America she recorded the music of Bahia and many early samba compositions particularly those of black composers. Her Brazilian recordings are available on CD in the US of A.

Tim Sullivan Via Internet

Jt111111111.11-i1111L You are invited to participate in thisdialogue Write to. Letters to the Publisher P 0 Box 50536 Los An geles, CA 90050.0536 or send E-mail to brazzil@brazzitcom

mummuumiumnim Recent news from Brazil indicated that the airlines now allow [since Sept 111 passengers to carry firearms while on board. The gun issue is very controversial here in Canada and I am curious to know whether this experiment has succeeded in Brazil. Many anti-gun people here expect that Brazilians will shoot each other while flying. Can you advise?

Richard Fritz° Alberta, Canada I am an American currently performing research in Salvador, Bahia. As part of my research, I need to examine specific articles in Brazzil magazine from April, 1993 to February, 1997. Unfortunately, the articles or issues I need are not included in your website back issue section. I understand that back issues are not for sale. My goal is to read some of these issues wherever they are located. Therefore, could you kindly provide me with the following information: 1) names and location of libraries or archives that possess a complete set (or nearly complete set) of back issues. 2) names and locations of individuals or organizations that possess a complete set (or nearly complete set) of back issues I travel back and forth from Brazil to the U.S., and therefore would be interested to know of back issue resources that might exist in either country. (The most convenient location for me would be San Francisco). I know that the staff at Brazzil is probably overwhelmed with requests, but I would very much appreciate your help with my research. I thank you very much in advance for your reply. My e-mail is:

Lewis Levine San Francisco, California

Hi, Bruce Gilman, this may seem really random, but I just wanted to compliment you on the article you wrote for Brazzil on Mestre Ambr6sio. I've recently begun listening to mangue and Pernambucan music, and your article helped with a lot of definitions. I'm Brazilian, but I only began listening to Brazilian music two years ago, as I have spent the last 10 years of my life abroad. I went to one of their shows but didn't appreciate the music as much as I appreciated their CDs after reading your article. Have you been following the latest developments? In the past two months that I've spent in Sao Paulo, I seem to have only met Pernambucanos. What I think was special about your article is how you were able to translate something so Northern and Brazilian into US language/culture. I have to run, but I just wanted to tell you that sincerely, it was a very good article.

Beath Arantes Via Internet


I would like to find the book Terra Nostra in Hungarian because I was visiting my sister in Hungary and the soap opera was on TV. It was very nice and my sister would like to read the book and myself too. Hive in the US. I live in the U.S.A.

Via Internet 111.1111111.11RailialliMMIll I am a psychology graduate student at Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, Florida. I am interested in studying sexual practices in Brazil and read your piece in Brazzil. Can you please tell me where it is possible to find the English version of the Infoglobo study to which you referred? Any help will be greatly appreciated. Thanks for your time. Seth Noonan

Via Internet

I ' I wonder what the difficulties are in trying to find a job in Brazil, while still living in America. I live in Arizona, and would like to find a way to secure a job before I travel to Brazil. Can you tell me more on how to do this? Also, how hard is it to find a trustworthy employer? I understand that much may be done 'under the table'. But will people honor these agreements? Obviously, Spanish is a useful tool to have. But how necessary is it? Living so close to Mexico, I have picked up a very rudimentary knowledge of Spanish. But I've been told that that may be

1111111MIEM,Kaall111=11 I read your story about Brazilians being the best in bed. I think they are good but the Italians are the best.

Via Internet I am the instructor of Portuguese for Riverside Community College and I was wondering if it would be possible to get a few sample copies to pass along to my students of Portuguese? We have about 30 students learning.

Carlos Drumond Fontana, California


Can't you find Brazzil at your Brazilian consulate? Don't ask us why, ask the consulate.

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WHY NOT SEND A GIFT TO 10 100 EVERYONE YOU KNOW? I am looking to find out information about the death of my brother Roman Marik. He was killed in an auto accident in March of this year. He was a neurologist and medical examiner for the State in Brasilia. He had a wife and children who live in Sao Paulo and I have another brother who lives there and his name is Alesh Marik. Can you give me information and also help me to find my brother who still lives? Please any help you can give would be most appreciated

Ivan Marik ivanselicia@aoLcom Tallahassee, Florida 11111111111111Kallialaittall.. In your article " Penis Growing Pains", in Brazzil, February 2001, you say that Brazilians have an average penis length of 14.5cm. Isn't it too small? I'm an Italian





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The man with the biggest job in the electric sector in Brazil is Glenn Switkes. This American's job is not in generation or distribution; he runs the Latin American office for the International Rivers Network. The I.R.N., a Berkeley, California-based NGO, has only one office outside the US. From Sao Paulo Mr. Switkes supervises the spending of about 10 percent of the organization's yearly expenditures of $1,500,000, all meant to protect the world's largest hydrological resources and the citizens who live closest to them. The funding is modest, but the job is the world's largest. Ninety five percent of Brazil's usable energy on any given day is river reservoir generated. Brazilian engineers claim that more than 70 percent of the country hydroelectric potential is yet to be harvested. In short, if river conservation is your goal, it is in Brazil that the most resources need protecting. Our interview was initially delayed because Mr. Switkes needed to attend to a professional problem in the Brazilian North. An indigenous leader living near and opposing the controversial 11,000 MW Belo Monte dam site on the Xingu River (one of ten Amazon tributaries larger than the mighty Mississippi) was assassinated in his own home, most likely by political enemies. "Brazil's mania for megaprojects is supported by corrupt local officials eager to grab short-term profits from these boom and bust projects, and willing to have killed anyone who gets in their way," Mr. Switkes explained. Brazzil: What have been your organizations largest accomplishments in "Part of our job is Latin America? trying to educate Switkes: The issues in Latin America, especially Brazil, are so large they never go away. Our principal function seems ever to be the same: helping to build and people in Brazil about professionally inform local and regional groups that are resisting economic the enormous impact development that improper use of water resources affects the ecology of rivers and dams have caused in the people who live with and rely on those rivers. Largely we help local activists, on a continuing basis, get the technical information and legal arguments they need terms of expelling to accomplish their purposes. Brazzil : Are the fights mostly about the environmental and human impacts people from their of dams sited for electric generation purposes? homes and destroying Switkes: No, hydrovias or transportation projects for agricultural products have been an equal or larger concern. Some of the richest and most unique biodiversity." ecologies in the world like the Pantanal of Mato Grosso and the Bananal Island on the Araguaia in Tocantins face destruction by industrial (or river channelization) CONRAD JOHNSON projects on respectively the Paraguay, Araguaia, and Tocantins Rivers. We hope to be as successful there as our allies have been in opposing the U.S. Corps of Army Engineers on the Mississippi. Studies have shown these industrial transportation projects do not provide cheaper transportation for soybean exports than other means such as existing rail lines. Of course new Amazon basin electric projects like Belo Monte, especially since they are being heavily resisted by indigenous peoples and where transmission lines will need to cross over 1000 kilometers of the Amazon to reach connections to the North-South trunk are important too. Tucuri displaced 40,000 people; Balbina near Manaus flooded 2400 square kilometers of Amazon rainforest to produce a mere 250 megawatts of electricityâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;virtually no energy in the dry season. The 800 families that took refuge on islands in the Tocantins created by the Tucuri reservoir are now threatened because Eletronorte wants to raise the reservoir depth another 2 meters. As I said, the issues never go away and we have been drawn somewhat into the question of Environmental Impact Statements for thermo generation of late. .4:4Afâ&#x20AC;˘ Brazzil: How is that? Switkes: Brazil is new to the question of air pollution. Brazilian state, local and federal environmental authorities have been right to question some licenses for the 'Emergency Thermo Plan' because some natural gas generation is planned for urban areas that already have serious air quality problems. Some of our critics see us as anti-development but that isn't true. We know where to get the mostly volunteer independent experts to do the kinds of studies these problems always entail. Many of Brazil's reservoirs, especially in the Amazon region, could be highly affected if Kyoto is for example modified to include methane emissions and not just carbon. Hydroelectric generation is not as clean as most Brazilians assume. Brazzil: What about the new small hydroelectric dams? Switkes: There has been very little local objection to most of these projects. Where there

Not So Clean



are local groups who oppose them for environmental or human rights reasons we help them, but these are usually because of specific local situations such as threats to an ecological reserve. Unlike the upper Midwest in the States where conservationists celebrate every time a small dam is removed, small dams are one of the alternatives which can help Brazil out of its energy crisis. We at I.R.N. understand Brazil needs electric energy to develop economically, and frankly the rationing programs is welcome because it may make us all more conservation conscious in the long run. There is also much inefficiency in the transmission and distribution systems; more investment there could save needless loss, some of our experts say, equal to the value of a year's production at Itaipu. Brazzil: What about the future for Brazilian water and hydroelectric management? Switkes: From our point of view it is in the strengthening of civil society and particularly institutions and groups outside the structures of party politics. Even opposition political parties, like the PT [Workers' Party], tend to accept hydroelectricity as the cheapest and cleanest form of energy available. Part of our job is trying to educate them as well, about the enormous impact dams have caused in terms of expelling people from their homes and destroying biodiversity. Tucuri was built to serve the aluminum business, not to address the needs ofthe 20,000,000 Brazilians, mostly rural, without reliable electric service. Good water and energy management is not incompatible with market economies properly regulated, and with transparent and democratic energy planning. That is certain. Much progress needs to be made getting industry to pay their fair shares; one of the


reasons electric service is not universalized is that political authority has thought it more important (even found it personally more profitable) to subsidize industry in the name of economic growth. Energy intensive industries use about 40 percent of Brazil' s energy and are highly inefficient job producers. Of course, just such policies are why income is more poorly distributed in Brazil than in any other major country. Brazzil: Which are the present groups you believe are pointing the way? Switkes: On of the strongest challenges to Brazil's energy policy is Ooming from the National Movement of Dam-Affected People (MAB), which played an important role in the World Commission on Dams two-year studies. MAB has worked with technical experts to demonstrate that there are cheap and quick ways to provide energy in Brazil and that do not require destroying rivers. Another important group of actors i the Rios Vivos coalition, which brings together 300 en ironmental and alternative development organizations an indigenous populations from the La Plata Basin. Rio Vivosl has been instrumental in the fight against hydrovias, and now works with groups from the Mississippi River region to show the interrelationships between problems affecting inter resources in South and North America alike. Conrad Johnson, the author, is an American attorney, permanently residing in Brazil. He writes for various publications on development and legal issues in Latin America. You can reach him at


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We are OceanView Tours and Travel ofFortaleza, Ceara. We have been an incoming tour operator to Brazil for the past three years. We think there is an urgent need for the government to step up and participate in bringing U.S. tourists to Brazil, and we will present some statistics to go with our theory. Brazil is a tourist friendly country. Many areas have good infrastructure that can support much larger numbers of tourists than they usually accommodate. Particularly during the low seasons, the United States is a great place to look for incoming tourists. It would be a marvelous thing ifBrazilian cities would form tourist promotion organizations and independently pursue their opportunities, but it doesn't seem to work this way. Money flows from the federal to the state to the local government in ways that work as a disincentive for the local governments to form cooperatives to promote tourism. The mechanism by which this happens is not obvious, but the result is very plain to see. Instead of independent promotion or partnerships, the local government relies almost entirely on higher authority to do the broad work oftourism promotion. This can be extremely inefficient and cumbersome, but it is the system we have to work with. lam most familiar with our situation in Fortaleza, so I will use our beautiful town as an example of unfulfilled tourism promise. Fortaleza is a wonderful tourist destination, with enough reasons to keep her hotels full year round, yet, she The problem with Americans regarding suffers the same malaise as her Brazil is that for the most part, they are sister cities much of the year during her low seasons. It is a fact that totally ignorant of her in all ways possible. the low season in Fortaleza matches They fall into three main groups: the exactly the high travel season of the United States. largest one doesn't know Brazil exists, a The number one reason that has second group believes most people in been cited for her lack ofvisitors is the high cost of travel from the United the country live in jungle huts, and a States to Brazil. She is not, for example, on a major route. I say that this should third one at least knows where Brazil not even be considered in implementbut they think Brazilians speak ing a tourism strategy for Fortaleza, Natal, Recife, or elsewhere. If enough Spanish. Americans who fully tourists travel to her shores, the flights comprehend Brazil wouldn't will increase and the prices will inevitably come down. Also, even if air fare from fill a soccer stadium. the U.S. to Fortaleza were cut in half, Fortaleza would not spend one centavo more NORMAN MORRISON on her tourism promotion than she does now, or gain new visitors. Air costs are not the primary issue, at least in the beginning, of creating a strategy to draw the Americans to Brazil. There is a common and understandable misperception in Brazil, from those who are tasked to think of such things, that Americans know Brazil. This could not be further from the real truth. Americans fall into three main groups. The largest, by far, is the group who doesn't know Brazil exists. The second group knows of Brazil, but believes that most people live in jungle huts. I know this is laughed about in Brazil, but unfortunately, it is truer than most Brazilians would admit, or even

Educating Americans

An Open letter to [vibrator Rmpresa Brasileira de Turismoâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Brazilian Tourist Office)



know. The third, and smallest of the three groups of potential travelers do at least know where Brazil is. However, they think Brazilians speak Spanish. Americans who fully comprehend' Brazil wouldn't fill a soccer stadium. You have to understand a problem before you attempt to fix it, and the problem with Americans regarding Brazil is that for the most part, they are totally ignorant of her in all ways possible. Atthe same time, we know from our own experience thattwo things are true. First, Americans do not dislike Brazil. If offered a trip, most Americans would like to come. Americans have no builtin animosity toward Brazil. More Americans probably dislike England, (Because she once owned America) than dislike Brazil. Brazil, in American minds, is simply anon-entity. Brazilian pride alone, should dictate that something should be done about this. Practically speaking, there is but one remedy. It is a thing we face daily in our pursuit of the Yankee dollar. It is education. Americans must be educated that Brazil not only exists, but also is a great place to go spend their money. We spend over half of our time educating our clients before we ever make the sale. Brazilians should not think they can educate Americans by offering free schoolbooks. The children don' tread the ones they already have, and besides, we don't need to wait that long. Before I explain what must be done, I would like to tell you a little more about our company. We began the company three years ago. When we started, we had a great many ideas of the way things operate in the travel world. We were correct with some of our ideas and dead wrong with others. We are offering to share what we have learned about the U.S. market with Embratur, even at the risk of helping the competition, for what is good for OceanView is good for the whole market. Here is a short list of interesting items we have learned. There are less than five major Internet sellers of travel O packages to Brazil catering to the average American client. OceanView is in the top 3. U.S. travel agents know very little, if anything, about O Brazil. Airfare is not a major concern of our typical client. O The American travel class knows very little about O Brazil. Larger U.S. travel agencies rely on multi agenda USTOA 0 tour operators, who in turn rely on larger incoming tour operators, mostly in southern Brazil to supply travel for their clients. Cities like Fortaleza are often left out ofthe loop entirely in favor ofthe better-known southern destinations, and the tourist is often left at a disadvantage because of the long supply line. The result is that you often have companies with very little Brazil experience making the sale. U.S. travel agents rely on supply and demand. They O supply what is in demand. They do not create the demand. That is the job of the destination. Here is a chart of our 2000 Internet progress. It shows the frequency of hits to our index, or first page. We did not do any specials or other things that would skew the results. Comments to follow... . ....â&#x20AC;˘ .. .

February March JaIllOry


APhl May


December October August July September November

We started keeping this record system in March of 2000, so that month can be discounted. Overall, it shows that we had about the same level of "hits" per month year round, except in April and May. This year was about the same. What it shows is that BRAZZIL -OCTOBER2001

that vacation interest peaks in the U.S. from about March through May as people are th nking about vacations. This is a significant fact to remember. Below is a list of tatistics of page hits on a popular Internet search engine. A gr at many facts can be learned and inferred from a thoughtful a alysis... Internet citizens conducted all searches in March 2001... Comments to folio For comparison purposes: Number of Searches Search Tetro 215277 Cruise 77161 Argentina 117827 Jamaica 79576 Cancun Popular Travel Search Terms: Search Term with Variations Travel air travel adventure travel travel and touristh us travel discount travel travel agent travel agency world travel travel insurance Brazil veronica brazil banco do brazil mapa do brazil brazil map brazil sex historia do brazil map of brazil brazil girl brazil picture Brazil travel travel to brazil brazil and travel package travel and brazil not brazil travel brAil travel brazil travel info ation Fortaleza fortaleza brazil hoteis fortaleza cidade de fortale a hotel fortaleza la fortaleza fortaleza hotel prefeitura de fo leza fortaleza ceara brazil fortaleza Ro de Janeiro carnival rio de janeiro carnival de rio djaneiro rio de janeiro hotel fotos do rio de janeiro rio de janeiro carnival mapa do rio de j aneiro prefeitura do ri de janeiro rio de janeiro brzil hotel in rio dejaneiro hotel rio de jane ro Recife recife brazil acompanhantes recite cidade do recife recife hotel hoteis recife prefeitura do recife recife posadas hoteles turismo recife ' voli per recife prefeitura recife Natal

Number of Searches 2137373 220833 115872 92901 69610 68789 52062 48498 44539 37074 91258 15239 8409 5330 4045 3259 2709 2677 2569 2114 1826 150 66 46 38 33 28 4776 555 207 200 188 167 161 132 117 113 14,704 1765 975 711 685 598 591 575 564 514 446 3026 301 171 168 133 128 126 102 90 82 73 2940 25

natal chart free natal chart natal brazil post natal depression carta natal post natal pre natal university of natal Pantanal pantanal matogrossense pantanal brazil anime do pantanal fotos do pantanal pantanal mato grossense novela pantanal pantanal do mato grosso pantanal tour nautika pantanal peixes do pantanal Amazon amazon book amazon rain fore5 amazon river amazon uk amazon woman amazon book stoi amazon music amazon parrot amazon auction amazon coupon Bahia nj de bahia bahia principe tulum bahia principe casas bahia bahia honda state park salvador bahia salvador de bahia bahiahonda bahia blanca corrida bahia blanca

1973 1902 1007 916 871 812 620 486 3048 141 94 70. f. 52 ' 51 49 47 43 38 35 183297 22277 11510 5589 3939 3835 2681 2524 2412 2235 2234 3368 1723 1440 1183 706 640 633 548 473 468 386

Interpretation of the data... The first thing that we must do to understand the numbers is to toss out the obviously Brazilian search terms and the silly searches. Also, it is important to not be too quick to compare this data with overall travel from the U.S. A great portion of overall Brazil travel figures is from Brazilians living in the United States that travel to Brazil anyway. Travel agents in the U.S. can go for years without having an American ask about Brazil travel, even in areas such as Miami, where you might expect more curiosity. The Brazilians operating travel agencies in those areas depend on Brazilians to keep their doors open... not Native Americans. The search engine data presented is a great source of information on interest ofAmericans in Brazil. For many Americans, the Internet is the primary means for Brazil travel information. A travel agent who knows absolutely nothing about Brazil, and this is the rule, and not the exception, can usually prepare a trip to Brazil for a customer. Usually, though, it's to the town that is served by the Brazilian agency that serves the very large USTOA agency, which serves the U.S. travel agency. In all like-

lihood, the customer will never hear about the travel opportunities to the rest of the country. (Exceptions include the Amazon, and Iguaeu Falls.) Fortaleza, for example, is typically not on the tour list. So, the Internet is very important for a large number of American travelers. Interesting facts from the data: O Argentina is not far behind Brazil in web searches. The reason for the similarity will be explained later. O The search term travel is the most popular on the net. Travel gets 2137373 hits. Brazil gets 91,258 searches. That is 91,000 out of 2.14 million. This is actually a pretty respectable showing... until you compare against Jamaica with 118,000. Not shown, Puerto Rico with 96,269... Bahamas 61,693... Mexico 172,277... O The search term cruise gets 215,000 hits. That is more than double the hits for the whole country of Brazil. Cruises are the number one sales item of U.S. travel agents. Everybody has heard of cruise. Doesn't matter where, as long as it is a cruise. It is also helpful that the agents know cruise packages. O The name of a country is not a good word to rely on when considering travel data. Brazil could be searched for many reasons other than purely travel. The number one search phrase to watch is Brazil travel. It collects 1826 hits in a month. This is a very bad score. O If we add the word travel to Jamaica (not shown), the number of hits goes down to 1716. Keep in mind that Jamaica is a very tiny place compared to Brazil, so this is a very important statistic. O Rio gets nearly 4 times the hits as Fortaleza, but the hits are single minded. Most people want to know about Carnaval. Fortaleza scores above most of the other towns in her category, but not by much. O The Amazon probably didn't do quite as well as it would appear due to the American online bookstore, In practice, using our personal measuring tools on our websites, we have never gotten as much traffic from the keyword Amazon as we would have once expected. O Overall, for net searches performed, Brazil does not do well for serious English language search terms. Some years ago, Brazil decided to turn inward for tourism, which evidently worked. Brazilians make great Brazil tourists, swapping money from their home region to their destination. Residents of Rio deposit tourist money in Manaus. Manausians enrich Rio. It looks great on paper but provides a false tourism economy. Overall Brazilian prosperity occurs only when outside money is put into the system. Brazilians realize that tourism is an excellent means ofwealth production. It is, therefore, a huge mystery that they haven't gone global in pursuit ofthat wealth. Brazil does very little advertising outside ofBrazil, and advertising is the key to bringing in foreign tourists, especially from the United States. In other words, thousands for advertising wisely spent brings in millions in fresh revenue.




# Establishments

# Employees




Annual Payroll ($1000) 4,463,903

Shpmts/Sales Recpts ($1000) 9,977,110

Popul. Estimate 267,743,595


The United States is the primary exporter oftravelto the world. Recapping the facts: O The United States is the largest exporter of travel to the world. O Brazil has abundant and underused travel infrastructure. O Brazil tourism strategy has concentrated inward instead of outward. O Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Bahamas, and Cancun are nearly as popular, or more popular for world travel than the vast country ofBrazil. As shown earlier, Argentina is nearly as popular for Internet searches as Brazil. The reason is simple. Americans know even less about Argentina than they do about Brazil. The reason they know nothing of Argentina is that Argentina does not advertise itself. In this respect, Argentina and Brazil are equals in the eyes of Yankee travelers. The travel market in the U.S. is ever expanding. The recent monetary fluctuations have barely affected travel. Americans love to travel and more and more they look south. The top U.S. destinations like Hawaii and Alaska do very little advertising. Southern destinations like Cancun and the Bahamas do relatively very little advertising. Why? They are established now, because of earlier advertising campaigns. They have all the business they can handle. They feel no need to expend ad revenue to increase business. They don't need to. What does this mean for future advertisers? It means that the door is wide open for unchallenged advertising. The competition is so bloated with business that they feel no need to do much more than simply maintain their market. it's a grand time to enter the U.S. advertising market now. Jamaica is a prime example. The reason they enjoy dominance over Brazil in Internet searches is because they had a ?lea advertising campaign in the U.S. a couple ofyears ago. They opened the floodgates of American tourism to their country and are still reaping the rewards even though they are advertising far less now. A good, well-planned advertising campaign has a tremendous amount ofstaying power. Everyone in the United States, ofa certain age, for example, knows the koala bear is the symbol for Australia and Qantas Airlines and their advertising days are long gone. Inthe U.S. we have an old saying. Which came first, the chicken or the egg? For travel, we know which came first. The advertising. Advertising creates interest, which creates tourists, which eventually lowers the air prices, which creates even more demand. The best example of this is Cancun. Whoever heard of Cancun? From the Encyclopedia Britannica: Originally settled by Maya Indians, the area was first described andnamed Cana= (Mayan: "Vessel at the End ofthe Rainbow") in 1843 by the American explorer John Lloyd Stephens and the British explorer Frederick Catherwood in their classic work Incidents ofTravelin Yucatan (1843). Cancun remained a small fishing-and-gathering settlement ofabout 100 Maya until 1970, when, after a three-year study of conditions by the Mexican government in association with private interests, the area was selected as a suitable site for an international holiday center. Within a decade a steady flow oftourists from all parts ofthe world had established Cancun as a successful experiment in planning an entirely new city and resort area. In 1970 the government of Mexico and private interests decided Cancun would be a resort area and took the steps to make it happen. The airlines didn't do it. Fate didn't do it. Men of good will and vision did it. The road was a long and winding one, with much uncertainty along the way, but in the end, vision conquered all doubts and this little flyspeck of a town now hosts vastly more U.S. tourists than Brazil each year. The nay Sayers, (people who love to say no) will counter that the circumstances are different in Brazil. I could not agree more! The state of Ceara alone is worth 30 Cancuns. Advertising in the United States is the key to success... Things that haven't worked: O Direct mail to travel agents, including beautiful full color 24 page books on Brazil. They get bombarded with junk mail. Unasked for, they go promptly into the trash can. O Travel and trade shows. A complete and utter waste of BFtAZZIL - OCTOBER 2001

time and resources, often handled incorrectly in Brazil, and not taken seriously by the Very Large operators in the United States, unless they were thinking about doing business anyway. O Magazine tds. Full-page ads awash in a sea of other fullpage ads in indus magazines the public doesn't usually see anyway. Web advertising. Useful only in conjunction with other •0 advertising. Web sites work best when they are part of an overall promotional campai!ei. Things that do NJvork: O Television and radio advertising. O Beautiful full color 24 page books on Brazil that are asked for by travel agents who are interested in Brazil. O Travel and trade shows after a successful advertising campaign. Web sites after an advertising campaign. O The bottom lin ,... The typical U.S. travel agent will never suggest a new travel product to a client viithout being directly asked by the client. They will stick with what [they know. In our case, Cancun, and the Bahamas. If, on the other hand, the client requests information on Brazil, the travel agent will do everything possible to service their client, leaving no stone unturned, and no door unopened. The bottom line is that the request for Brazil information must come from the client. The travel agent will never offer it. It is hopeless to try to sell the travel agent on Brazil. The client asking for information sells theagent on Brazil. The client is made aware ofBrazil vacation opportunities through advertising. Have you noticed that many travel brochures produced in Brazil are either bilingual, or totally in English? Why is this.. .to attract English-speaking Clients? Some companies have recognized for years that the U.S. iagreat source ofrevenue. The problem is getting their information into the hands of U.S. citizens. Most often theirbeautithl and expensive brochures remain boxed up or given to Brazilians who don't understand English. Sometimes they are given away at travel shows only to be tossed into the nearest wastebasket. The company who makes the investment in English text brochures has part of the solution, but they are handicapped to the point of being unable to get their literature to the intended target. This is where a unified approach by government and the travel industry in Brazil can make a huge difference. Advertising properly in the U.S. will open paths for those brochures to reach the intended audience. Advertising in the United States brings tourist business to Brazil... The way to travel prosperity for Brazil is through advertising in the United States. The results are that the client approaches the travel agent about coming to Brazil. The travel agent, who will not offer Brazilwithout being asked becomes aware that Brazil actually exists. I fthe travel agents perceive a trend in Brazil travel, a cascade effect occurs, and before long, the agent begins to volunteer Brazil travel. When this happens, Brazil can modify or even suspend advertising, because once the travel doors are open, they are slow to close. The goal is to convince travel agents to offer Brazil travel, and the only thing that can accomplish this mission is the walk in client. The only way to convince the average U.S. traveler to inquire about Brazil is through advertising. An inquisitive client can do far more good in convincing travel agents to jump on the Brazil train than $1000 in direct advertising to that agent. The back door approach ofa company or a country trying to impress U.S. agencies has failed each time it has been tried. The front door approach of using tourist clients to impress travel agents has worked every time it is tried. Recommended forms of advertising... O Television® Cable channels ®Weather Channel, A&E, History Channel, CNN. O Radio®Popular radio talk shows with an upscale audience. O Booklets, brochures and pamphlets. Be ready to send this material to travel agents as soon as demand for Brazil information increases. Advertising in the U.S. The typical way advertising works in the U.S. is to employ an 27

advertising agency. Keeping in mind that an ad agency's main goal is to place advertising, which is not necessarily a good thing, particularly ifthey don't understand Brazil. The best way to handle this is to have a well-defined set of goals and plans before acquiring an agency, and to closely monitor their progress. U.S. advertising agencies... O Do not charge the advertiser. The company they place the ad with pays them. O Do market research. O Place your advertisements with the best television or radio program. O Directly make commercials or sub contract out to other companies. The goal for beginning the Brazil adverting campaign should be March 2002... The best advertising is with solidly performing cable channels and radio shows. The Weather Channel is a top favorite and can work out a variety ofpackages. A&E and the History Channel cater to older and more sophisticated audiences...with money. For radio, talk shows are very popular, and certain shows pull the types of audiences that are desirable. In advertising here as well as Brazil, there is smart advertising and there is dumb advertising. You can make a fortune or lose a fortune with advertising. A good ad agency will provide good documentation for their choices, and won't place your ads in bad locations. Brazil advertising, to be effective needs to be as targeted as possible. Good audienees for Brazil ads are upper and upper middleincome people, including the more highly educated. The shows mentioned, and ones like them stand a better chance of pulling the type of audience required... those with money and open minds. It is imperative that the ad agency understands as much as possible

about the challenges of Brazil advertising. It is not my goal, nor is it possible to go into all the details and ramifications ofadvertising strategy in the U.S. Rather; it is my hope to make you more aware of the possibilities. In summation, in order for Brazil to be successful in bringing American citizens to her shores, she must decide that she wants them. Then, she must throw off the old ideas and notions ofthe past that have pointedly not worked. She must go directly to the American traveler with advertising, who in turn will go to the travel agent, who in turn will begin to offer Brazil travel without being asked. The tourist infrastructure of Brazil is in fantastic shape to work with increased business. New Brazil oriented tour companies are coming online every month and are vastly under worked, working with a marginal base of clients. Everyone is in a holding pattern awaiting Brazil to come out from under its shell. The process of opening the floodgates to American tourism to Brazil begins with one man of courage and motivation. Ocean View Tours and Travel offers our every assistance and help in this effort. Sincerely, Norman Morrison Norman Morrison is the owner of the U.S. portion of OceanView Tours and Travel of Fortaleza, Ceara, a tour operator to Brazil. He fell in love with Brazil a few years ago and is very passionate about seeing it take its rightful place as the number one holiday capital of the world. You can read their monthly Brazil travel newsletter by sending a note to SendMeTheNewsletter(& Their websites have over 1000 pictures, audio, and video dedicated to Brazil travel.

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Once upon a time, when I edited the Portuguese edition of of trees, flowers, bids, animals, fish, etc of Portugal, a Northern Americas for the Organization of American States, a young lady country. An old friend f mine, who taught Portuguese at a U.S. came for a translation test. I gave her a short text in English, paper agency, knew that oak was carvalho, although she had and a typewriter, all the dictionarnever met an uncapitalized carvalho. But she never ies she might need, and a full hour knew that maple, a Northern tree (the national tree of for her to do a translation. Canada). is called bordo. One day, when she treated After 30 minutes or so, she me to some pancakes at home, I asked her whether she returned her work. I just looked at had som xarope de bordo. She looked at me blank, it and said, "I'm afraid, miss, but not understanding. this is not acceptable." "Xar pe de bordo? Que diabo é isso?" And I: She exploded., cursed, kicked "Maple syrup." chairs. She accused me of being My friend Julie, who still speaks Portuguese like unfair, unjust, and biased because a carioc , with all the shs and djs, although she has she was a female. I felt bad about lived in merica longer than in Brazil, has trouble with it. And I still needed a good transmany expressions. She tends to do literal translations. lator, male or female. So I reread her For inst.' ce, she says "the mouth's sky" when she paper. She had written as the title: means "t e roof of the mouth." Of course, she is think"Instituto Mexicano de Artes ing of "c u da boca". Some times she says "the ceiling Finas." of the mo th." She thinks that a colloquial way of saying She had fallen into a common "that's e sy" is "That's rice soup". I laugh because trap. Becausefine in English means I realize t at she is saying "é canja"with English words. fino in Portuguese, she never asked Plac names are extremely difficult. Some possess herself: "what is an arte fina?" She ancient f rms that few Brazilians ever learned. Because forgot thatfine also meant — and journalis s are not too versed in geography, they cause still means — pure, refined, thin, even mo e confusion. sharp, precise, superior, elegant, The orthern Italian city of Milan is called MilAo beautiful, pretty, very good, excelin Portu uese, and Milano in Italian. (In German it is lent, etc. If she were sharper and Maitlan !) How do you call the Swiss city of Aachen, had more vivencia, she would that the French S iss call Aix-la-Chapelle? Who knows about have hit the right title: Aquisgran? "Instituto Mexicano de Belas-Artes" In Korea, there was a famous battleground called "Heartbreak For those of us who didn't speak English from childhood, Ridge" in English and "Colline didn't go to schools where everything was taught in Crevecoeur" in French. Brazilian English, English is a miserable language to learn properly. papers used both forms, never The key word is properly. thinking it odd that Korean Yes, English has a fairly simplified grammar and, in spite places had names in English and of being a Germanic language, includes thousands and French. In Brazil there was never thousands of words derived from Latin. And, more rea translator brave enough to cently (from 1066!), French. But it has many more sounds translate it—in good colloquial (phonemes) than Portuguese, Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese—"morro do arreRomanian, Catalan, Romansh, Gallician, and many dialects benta-peito". That's soldiers' spoken in what was once the Western Roman Empire. talk! It is also a very imperialist language. It does not hesitate Other times, English forms of in "stealing" terms from other languages and, after a while, names such as Peking, were incorporating it to its dictionaries. This creates much transliterated into Portuguese as confusion in the mind of foreigners. Specially such forPequim, which was acceptable. eigners who, like most Brazilians, never studied their own But after the Second World War, language too carefully and have an ordinary vocabulary. we learned that most "English" At the OAS there was a retired Brazilian army general renditions of Chinese names who had an administrative job. As he needed a bit more were awful errors, due to much money than he got, he was given a translation into Poraccumulated earwax and the tratuguese. It was a short story by A. A. Milne (the creator ditional arrogance of English exof Winnie-the-Pooh). The cavalry general did unexpectplorers, codified in the so-called edly well. He passed. For those of us who didn't Wade-Gillis system. Now we But he fell in the same trap many Brazucas fall in. He know that "our" Mr. Mao Tze found a semi-humorous sentence "There are only two types speak English from Tung was Dong and that his of women: Nice women and prostitutes" and translated: "So existem dois tipos de mulheres: as bonitas e as childhood, didn't go to capital was Beijing. This is the Chinese official spelling now. prostitutas." (There are only two types of women: pretty schools where everything But, in relation to postwar name women and hookers") spellings, the Brazilian press is What is wrong with that? A great deal. He made the was taught in English, still living before September 2, same error that the young would-be translator of paragraph 1945—when the Surrender was one had made. He translated nice as bonitas when he English is a miserable signed. should have given it a thought and figured that "bonitas or prostitutas" does not make sense. For the fact is that language to learn properly. Wilson Velloso is a veteran most ugly, unattractive, so-so women are NOT prostitutes: Jack of all trades who has they would starve. And that there are many pretty prosWILSON VELLOSO practiced several of them in titutes. Several became famous for that! Brazil—where he was born of His mistake was to think that nice had only one meanSpanish parentage—Argening. In Milne's sentence, nice meant "decent". If you pick tina, the UK, and Canada. He up a dictionary, you will see that nice means also fair, just, is an American citizen by choice since 1955, was chief of decent, gentle, delicate, kindly, tasty, good smelling, well done, press at the Organization of American States in Washington pleasant, simpdtico and a few dozen more terms. For Brazucas, citizens of Southern tropics, there are many DC and has beer' writing on and off for Brazzil since 1995. He can be reached, sometimes, at other problems. For instance, they simply do not know names

Eogli h for Brazu as



Para Alba Carvalho, de quem me apropriei do nome e da amizade.

The Man with a Fish Between the legs Moment of matchless power is that in which a man will do anything, really anything to tangle his body to the body of a woman, all the more if you are this woman. JOYCE CAVALCCANTE


—Ei. Ndo faca sombra. Ndo tape meu sol, por favor—disse. E era voz de mulher, damesma mulher que ainda hapouco consideravaapossibilidade de ser cega. — E ele disse que nao. Que nao carregava muie pro mar explicou, bem emburrada, imitando o falar do referido Zequinha. —E quem é voce? eta indagou aquele metido. —0 meu é Alba. Ate aposto que estdo fucando minha vida. Fui o assunto da semana nestavila de pescadores. Eles sao tdo engracados. Sdo tdo diferentes do pessoal que eu conheco, julgou a mop. Ele foi se sentando. A areia, afinal, era pnblica. Abancou-se bem pertinho, querendo se chegar, ja todo cheio das afinidades, já puxando conversa, j a intimo. Era doidinho para experimentar uma turista como aguela, uma dessas que aparecem de vez em quando pela vi la. Todas muito formosas, vindas das cidades grandes. Se urn dia conseguisse namorar corn uma, ia ser tdo born. Eta ouvia corn paciencia, sem prestar muita atencdo. Ali estava o primeiro nativo corn quem travava amizade, e travar amizades era seu desejo. Tinha vindo para aquela vila corn a esperanca de conhecer gente despoluida, simples, quern sabe ate urn homem novo, puro, diferente dos outros que conhecera ate omomento e que lhes davam enjoo. Alguem especial para Ihe dar sentido a vida; sonho secreto que nao larga as mulheres; a eterna perseguicdo da aventura do amor romantic°. Humberto passou a ser como se fosse sua sombra. Achava que eta era urn pedaco de mau cam inho. Ah, quern dera, planejava entre suspiros, seguindo-a por todos os lugares do vilarejo, deixando seus quefazeres de lado. Andava leguas para ndo deixar faltar alface e tomate na salada que eta tanto prezava. Quando um ski vinha enganchado em alguma rede era imediatamente separado para que ele pudesse presented-la. (0 pessoal da capital dá o major valor a came de ski). Cajus maduros encontrados pelas estradas em que passeavam durante o dia, eram transportados aos BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 2001

pedacinhos, pelos dedos dele para a boca vermelha que ela usava sempre. Nao dispensava em hora nenhuma o batom escuro e provocante. A noite, eles jam para o bar do Mamede. Ela ficava deitada na rede de corda armada no terraco, e ele escanchado numa cadeira, de frente pra ela, encantado; se gabando, se gabando, outocando viola°. Caboclo matreiro aquele. De madnigada, sem que ninguem visse, ele colhia ramalhetes de bogaris e os depositava na porta do chale onde ela dormia hospedada. 0 mar era muito escuro nessas horas. A claridade fazia com que ela acordasse as seis da manha. Havia em seu quarto uma janela que nao fechava direito, impedindo que a penumbra fizesse a noite durar um pouco mais. Aproveitavapara dar longos passeios, esticar-se, respirar o iodo vindo do sal. Ouvir o som do mar constante. Ao seu lado Humberto, constante tambem. —Olha lá uma jangada chegando. Ja sei reconhecer. E a do teu pai—comentou Alba, apontando o infinito. — Hoje eu te levo pra dar uma volta. Ouvi dizer que ele vai pra cidade. Assim que o velho der as costas a gente vai. — Por que o Zequinha nab gosta de mim, hem? —Ne isso no, minha filha. Ne isso nap. Ele gosta sim. — Entao por que ele nao me deixa passear na jangada dele? —Quer saber por que? Nem ele nem nenhum pescador leva mulher pro mar. — Mas por que? — Quer ver pergunte aos outros se eles te levam. Nao ë sO o pai Zequinhanao. Ninguem vai te levar. —Mas por que? Eu pago. Eu disse que pago. Pode dizer o preco. —Num 6 questa° de preco, nao. — E o que e? — Besteira de gente ignorante. Num liga nao. Faca o que eudigo: nao se preocupe que eute levo. Mas num fala nada pros outros. Um dia eu te levo--prometia. Ela j a drilla sofrido varias recusas. Esse jovem pescador era sua ultima expectativa. Passear numa jangada the parecia uma coisa to simples. Nao entendia por que punham tanta dificuldade. Nadavam furando as opdas, cedo, muito cedinho, mas corn calor suficiente para que suor e agua salgada se misturassem sobre a pele. Ele ia aos abismos do oceano buscar-lhe corals, estrelas-do-mar, conchas e madreperolas. Aceitava todos os desallos para de ixd-la alegre. Brincavam na dgua azul-turquesa como talvez tivessem brincado os primitivos. E era tanta coisa linda que nem dd pra tudo contar. Certavez inventaram de pescar lagostins nas locas deixadas a vista pela mare vazante. Arrancaram-nos de seus esconderijos com as maos nuas e por isso os dedos tao lindos dela ficaram sangrando. Ele, com olhos de desejos mdltiplos, lambeu-lhe o sangue corn luxdria, e foi agora, neste momento, que pela primeira vez mergulharam-se dentro dos olhos, no fundo das pupilas, dizendo o nada que diz tudo. —Vamos ate a pousada. Vou cozinhar os lagostins s6 no bafo da panela—disse Alba desfazendo o clima. Na pousadanao a deixarampreparar aqueles frutos deliciosos que o mar nos dd. Sua pesca estava proibida. Era epoca de desova. Se a fiscalizacao pegasse, Mem de fechar o estabelecimento, aplicaria uma multa. E a multa custava uma fortuna. —Nao é nada disso. E pura implicancia dessa negrinha nojenta, essa tal de Teca. Ela pensa que e importante so porque arrumou esse emprego de cozinheira nessa titica de pousada. Num ligue nao, minha bichinha—pedia o moco carinhosaBRAZZIL-OCTOBER2001

mente—vamos Ia pra casa. A gente cozinha Id. Mae Maria num hd de se incomodar, Ira°. —A Teca foi sua namorada?—perguntou Alba com Odio. —Foi. Gracas a Deus num é mais. A gente namorava antes de voce aportar por aqui. —Pwca-saco. Enxerida. —E isso mesmd. Ela fez isso pra puxar o saco do patrao. Ta bem dormindo corn ele—disse Humberto, demonstrando ainda uma lasca de dimes por Teca. —Que dormindo com ele que nada. Eu conheco opatrao dela, o Otavio, que e o dono da pousada. Ora se ele haveria de querer aquilo. Ela quer 6 implicar comigo por causa de voce—garantiu enciumada, tentando desvalorizar a cozinheira.—Sempre que pode ela me persegire. Vou dar queixa dela. —Ligue nao. V' se queixar nAo. Ela 6 uma pobre coitada e precisa desse emprego--pediu, mudando de ideia, resolvendo proteger sua antigar amorada.—Afinal de contas, tern tanta coisa muito mais bacana pra se fazer—argumentou o rapaz. Bebes de lagosrins cozidos no bafo da panela com casca e tudo. Depois, pra corner, é s6 tirar a came de dentro da casca e molhar namanterga 1erretida. Iguana para se saborear de joelhos. Trepou no coq eiro levando o facao entre os dentes. Era 95 ela querer agua de oco, ou qualquer outra coisa, para que ele foss buscar. uidado Beto. Nao vá cair dal, pelo amor de Deus—gritou Alba, olhando para cima, encdndeada pelo sol. —Ai vai. Agora o nome dele e Beto?— perguntou com ironia mae Maria. E gritando para o fil o:—Ei, Humberto. Teu nome agora e Beto? Num foi assim que o padre te batizou, nao. Noire dessas, depois da cachacinha pra dar quebranto, foram dar umas voltas por detras do cemiterio. Quase louco, ele a imobilizou com o proprio corpo amassando seu corpo femeo contra o muro. Perfume de jasmins. Cheirava seu cangote afogando-se la, enquanto ela sentia a rigidez mascula encostando-se nas suas coxas, esfregando-se. Corn impaciencia levantou-lhe a saia e j a estava quase conseguindo. Porem ela escapou no exato momento em que ele afrouxou o abraco para desabotoar-se. Aconselhada pelo diabo que morava em si, fugiu correndo para o chale e se trancod. Ele nao conseguiu alcancd-la, passando a noite inteira gemerido, implorando ao pe da porta. E ela nada: —Por favor mirTha querida. Por caridade. Abra a porta. Abra. Vamos. Abra essa porta, minha bichinha. Num tern ninguem aqui. Ninguem vai saber. Mas no dia seguintetodo mundo soube. Todo mundo olhava pra ele corn cara de riso, ate a Teca. Esse episOdio, em vez de irritd-lo, fez com que se tornasse ainda mais perseverante, mais atencioso e mais apaixonado. Nao ha quern explique essas coisas do amor. Dali em diante as vontades dela eram satisfeitas antes mesmo de serem manifestadas, aquela coisa de adivinhar pensamentos. S6 nao tinha conseguido ainda andar de jangada. —Por que voce nao me leva hoje? A jangada estaparada ali. Veja. —0 pal esta de olho na gente. Noutro dia ele tava dizendo pra mae que num iapra cidade, como estava querendo, pra evitar que eu fizesse uma desgraca. —Desgraca? Por que desgraca? Voce sabe ou nao sabe conduzir uma jangada? —Sei. Sei sim e muito bem. Pode perguntar a qualquerpessoa. Mas aqui, eles acreditamque levar muffler pro mar da em desgraca. Coisa de gente iletrada—explicou-lhe cheio de orgulho por ser 31

urn dos poucos corn estudos naquela vita de pescadores dos confins do mundo. —Mas eu quero ir. Num ligo pra essas crencas,—desafiou, enquanto Humberto a agarrava pelas costas. As maos dele colhendo-lhe um dos seios alojado dentro do sutia. Ela passava o dia inteiro ern traj es de banho. Algumas vezes apenas amarrava urn pano colorido na cinturinha fma, bem-feita. Talvez fosse por isso que o corpo do rapaz nao se comportasse direito dentro do calcao. Seu sexo pulava a toda hora para fora da roupa, assim como urn peixe vivo pula para fora da rede. Foi mae Maria, corn voz ameacadora, quem contou claramente para Alba, que todos os pescadores dali faziam um voto pra Janaina, a poderosa deusa do mar e dos coracOes, de nao carregarem outra mulher dentro de suas jangadas a nao ser elaprOpria, figuradapor uma imagem de madeira pregada no meio do mastro. —Eta se vinga de quem quebra o voto, levando o maldito pro fundo do mar. Dali em diante ela comecou a observar melhor o icone encravado nos mastros, e a entender dos misterios daquele mundo tao masculino. Apesar disso nao se conformou aumentando a pressao sobre o namorado, deixando bem claro que so aconteceria o que ele tanto desejava se ele a levasse ao mar numa jangada. Empurrariao pobrezinho a loucura, mas nao cederia. Jogo delicioso é entrar nesse limite. Momento de incompardvel poder é quando os homens fazem qualquer coisa, mas qualquer coisa mesmo, para entrancar seu corpo no corpo de uma mulher, e quando essa mulher é a gente. Criou a moda de colher ostras para comer. Eta as apreciava vivas apenas temperadas corn suco de lima° bravo. Ensinou a criancada da vila a despregd-las das rochas usando uma faca velha, pois embora aquela praia fosse lotada de ostras, eles nao costumavam come-las, nem vende-las, nem nada. Gastou tardes e tardes nessa lida deixando Humberto enciumado e impaciente. Sobrava para ele apenas o aproveitar-se de uma ou outra distracao dos curiosos para poder, por baixo d'agua, meter a mao por dentro da calcinha do biquini, excitando-a. Eta estremecia, mas nao deixava que ele notasse, seo para atormentd-lo. 0 coitado ficava todo inflamado. Estava quase alucinando, ate chegando uma vez a relinchar como um jumento, tat era seu estado de paixao. 0 sot era quente de arder sob as costas. 0 mar era de uma beleza superior. Tinha que acontecer, repetia-se Humberto. Tinha que acontecer. A vida exigia. Onde punha sua boca sentia o gosto dela, onde punha seu nariz sentia seu perfume. Sonhava corn eta em seus bracos, linda, vindo toda apaixonada. Depois, tinha certeza, eta nunca mais ia querer fazer outra coisa na vida. Rindo, enquanto ele a espremia num abraco, eta pedia provocante. —Me leva pra passear de jangada, amor. DainOs vamos fazer tudo que voce quer. Corn o sot por cima e o mar por baixo. —Levo dizia entre beijos na boca. —Quando?—perguntou, empurrando-o. —Amanha—decidiu, iniciando outro beijo, tentando provar o veneno da saliva daquela mulher que o obcecava. Acordaram ainda de madrugada para aproveitar a vazante da mare e sairam a pe atravessando a agua salobra das diversas barras dos rios que convergiam para o mar. Os galos cantavam. Dirigiam-se a um outro vilarejo onde morava urn tio de 32

Humberto, tambem pescador. Ia ver se conseguia pega-lo desprevenido. la ver se conseguia roubar a jangada dele. Faria qualquer negOcio para satisfazer o principal desejo dela, e, enfim, satisfazer seu principal desejo, pois os dois desejos interdependiam. Estava tAo feliz que cantava, corria e chapinhavana esptuna retidapela areia. Nao foi dificil rolar a embarcacao para as aguas que comecavam agora a subir. Era a hora da mare encher. Quando passaram a arrebentacao das ondas, o sol ja clareava o mundo. Finalmente alcancaram a solidez do alto-mar. Janaina, fixada no mastro, o olhava corn as sobrancelhas afiadas. Ele fez uma silenciosa oracao a deusa, fixou o leme corn uma corda para melhor se dedicar aos dengos do amor e jogou as roupas pra dentro do sambura. Vestindo apenas o sol por cima eo mar por baixo, conforme a proposta, exibia-se nu ante o espanto quase infantil daquela mulher tao cobicada. —E enorme. Parece um peixe. Urn enorme peixe. E liso, rijo, indomavel e vivinho como urn peixe. —0 peixe quer o mar—segredavarouco, bulindo corn o corpo tambem nu que eta the apresentava. E olhava fascinado para seu proprio sexo. Segurava orgulhoso as dimensOes que a natureza havia the dado, como urn rei empunha um cetro, o simbolo do poder sobre os outros mortais. Sorria. Satisfizeram corn requinte a todas as exigencias danatureza, repetindo esse ritual por um inteiro dia. —0 peixe quer voltar para o oceano, sena() morre—pedia, comecando tudo novamente. —Nao posso mais. Assim voce vai me machucar. Por favor, cuidado queixava-se eta, embora permitindo sempre o retorno. 0 soljá estava se pondo quando voltaram. A praia estava lotada de gente, porem ninguem disse nada. Ao verem os dois saltarem da embarcacao saos e salvos, se retiraram silenciosos, nao restando uma viva alma para ajuddlo a recolocar a embarcacao no seco, aquele ardua tarefa de rolar a jangada sobre dois troncos de coqueiro. Muito mais tarde da no ite ele voltou para casa. Mae Maria, mat o avistou ja foi chorando e se lamentando. Pai Zequinha, mat conseguindo se controlar disse entredentes: —Voce pramimjá estd morto. Eta vai te levar, eu sei—e sem mais poder se conter, chorou tambern. Dia seguinte, quando clareou, Humberto viu pai Zequinha se preparandopara irpescar.Nao queria acompanha-lo. Queria Alba. Mas, mesmo contra seu desejo, resolveu obedecer ao destino. Quem sabe assim o amansaria? Comecou a ajudar, foi fazendo as arrumacoes, mostrando atitude de quern vai. Zequinha, foi aos poucos relaxando a cara de aborrecimento, porem sO falando o indispensdvel. Dava as ordens pois era o mestre. Juntos pai e filho partiram: Rumo a um horizonte de encantamentos, e rumo ao descanso nos bracos da muffler que acreditavam ser Unica corn poder de acompanhar urn homem ao mar. Janaina, ague tinha lhes colocado urn peixe entre as pernas. In the original, this short story was called "0 Homem Que Tinha um Peixe Entre as Pernas." Joyce Cavalccante is the author of seven books, among them the famous novel 0 Cdo Chupando Manga (Dog Sucking Mango). You can read more about Cavalccante and contact her on her own Web page at—joycavai BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 2001



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Coming into land at Brasilia was meant to be the highlight of my latest swing through Brazil. I had arrived at So Paulo airport early and flirted outrageously with the frumpy check in girl to ensure that I got a window seat that wasn't over the wing. I was looking forward to seeing the city slowly take form through the early morning clouds and to be able to brag, for months to come, that indeed I had been to the governmental center of Brazil and that indeed it did look like an airplane from the sky. However, the vagaries ofseat allocation had left me marooned in the middle seat and as we came into land the only view I had as I craned my neck, and camera, towards the window, were the heaving breasts of the girl next to me who was, thankfully, deeply engrossed in the latest gossip magazine and oblivious to me leering. Brasilia has a population °foyer 1 million and is the de-facto capital of Brazil. It is located in the Central-West Region of Brazil. The city was planned and constructed in the late 50's and early 60's during the government of President Juscelino Kubitschek. The idea behind it was to fill the great void in the deserted Central-West Region and to attract settlers in an effort to integrate this region with the coastal areas. The city was carefully planned by some of Brazil's most famous architects after an aerial survey of the region. Many people might say that it's a pity that Mr. Niemeyer and friends hadn't conducted their survey on a commercial flight (as I had just attempted to do) or things might have turned out a little more aesthetically appealing. People don't seem to live in Conceived as a utopian capital city that would metamorphose Brazilian society into Brasilia in the true sense of the a new social order, Brasilia is the apotheosis word—they exist on a more of the modernist belief in architecture as an agent of change. It is a city with no past or profound and yettransient level, rational future, a melting pot of architectural moving from place to place like thinking and styles and a deeply strange place to visit. In my mind, it is as far from Brazil smoke blown from a guttering as Blackpool, England, is from Rio. candle. The history ofBrasilia is by now a familiar one. Commissioned, designed and largely built within the five-year presidential term of PHILIP BLAZDELL Juscelino Kubitschek (1956-61), the city fulfilled Brazil's long-standing objective to have an inland capital that would simultaneously signal its break from European dependence (embodied in the coastal cities of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo) and act as a spur to development of the country's vast interior. Laid out on a previously uninhabited site (selected with the aid ofU.S. surveyors) according to a plan by Lficio Costa, Brazil's elder statesman of modern architecture, and boasting buildings by Oscar Niemeyer, a disciple of Le Corbusier and a former student of Costa, Brasilia represented a modernizing leap for South America. Along the two main axes sketched by Costa—a straight, ceremonial north-south axis, site of the major government buildings, and a longer, curving east-west axis for the city's

Sorely you must he joking, Mr. Niemeyer

Adgustir A



residential quarters Niemeyer placed ministries and apartment blocks in a configuration that nearly fulfilled modern architecture's urban aspirations: a functional, rationally planned "radiant city" realized in the New World. At least, that was the general idea. The ride from the beautiful open planned airport downtown took me gently through rolling fields and tropical vistas which both calmed and tricked me into a false sense of security. The roads were well preserved and the early morning cloud had burnt off. It was going to be a lovely day and stalls were just beginning to set up along the side of the road selling sacks of oranges and pineapples. Everything appeared, as it should: calm, sun bleached and full of life. And then, out of the shimmering heat haze emerged something which just didn't belong on this dusty burnt plain—a city. But, it was not a city. It couldn't possibly be. There was something almost organic about it—like it was slowly growing up from the unforgiving land and evolving before my eyes. Each kilometer we moved closer to the city the view changed subtly. Sun glinted off chromed façades, the roads widened and the stalls, the people, the life dropped away. All the cliches I had heard about Brasilia, its sterility, its surrealness and its overpowering architecture were true and I couldn't help but gasp. My taxi driver told me that Brasilia could only exist in Brazil— and I believed him. I was dropped outside the Ministry of Mines and Energy. Across a multilane highway was the famous cathedral, which unlike the rest of the city seemed to be growing down rather then up. Apart from the fact there was not a cloud in the sky and I was melting in my dark suit, it could have been Liverpool's cathedral. Outside, there was some kind of protest taking place and the security guard told me that it would probably evolve into a candle lit vigil as the sun dipped below the horizon. He didn't know what it was about and as he ushered me into the building he shrugged his powerful shoulders as if to say who cares. Life here never follows a preordained or understandable pattern. The building, partly due to the energy crisis and partly due to poor internal design was badly lit and I stumbled from floor to floor looking for the room where I was meant to be. Niemeyer's talent obviously didn't extend to internal design as I keep running into blind corners, dusty stairwells and through rooms packed with empty cubicles where hoards of grey suited bureaucrats should have been beavering away. The mournful ring of the occasional telephone startled me and reminded me that I was not walking through a movie set or a computer simulation. This was a feeling that accompanied me wherever I went in Brasilia—a feeling of awe mixed with disbelief. Later, armed with a map I tried to walk to my next meeting. After a few minutes of walking through the syrupy heat I realized that I was alone on the street and that there was no one else in view. Twenty hot minutes later when I was no where near to my next meeting I flagged down a cab and dived into its airconditioned interior. The taxi driver looked at me questioningly for a few minutes then gave a polite cough: 'Why were you walking down the street?' 'Oh, it's a nice day and I have some time to kill between meetings.' 'But,' he smiled, `no one, absolutely no one walks in Brasilia. It's just not designed for people. For cars, perhaps, for buses maybe, but people.. .are you mad?' I spent the rest of the journey in deep contemplation of a world where everyone owned a car and lived in isolated air conditioned environmentally packaged units. I couldn't help but shudder. BRAZZIL -OCTOBER 2001

Brasilia may just be the place where the next great civilization may spring from. It may be the place where great legislative changes will pour forth and change the lot of the average Brazilian. It may also be the place where civil issues finally come to the front of a subdued national consciousness and rise phoenix like from today's chaos to bring long term stability and prosperity to the continent. It may be all these things, or none. But, despite its wide deserted streets, its science fiction inspired architecture and its strange compartmentalized layout! couldn't help but bond with Brasilia and found myself quite quickly coming to terms with it. Perhaps the r41 attraction of Brasilia is its population. Moving through the offices and ministries you continually meet the most nomadic of city dwellers. It's not the surreptitious shuffling of airline timetables or the ghost-town like feel of places on Friday afternoon or Monday morning but the way that everyone seems permanently on the move and in transit between Brasilia and somewhere—anywhere—else. People don't seem to live in Brasilia in the true sense of the word—they exist on a more profound and yet transient level, moving from place to place like smoke blown from a guttering candle. For me, it was like a strange coming home. Art critic Robert Hughes described Brasilia as 'a utopian horror. It should be a symbol of power, but instead it's a museum of architectural. It is a ceremonial slum infested with Volkswagens'. Nietneyer responded, 'I sought the curved and sensual line. The curve that! see in the Brazilian hills, in the body of a loved one, in th clouds in the sky and in the ocean waves.' Russian astronaut uri Gagarin said that, ...the impression I have is that I'm arr ving on a different planet' However, my favorite quote come from Julian Dibbel who described Brasilia as, intended, aft r all, to give the impression of having been built neither by nor fOr mere earthlings. A race ofhyperintelligent Volkswagens, perhaps, or aliens who speak a language made up entirely of Euclidean axioms, might be expected to feel at home in this sidewalk-poor zone of perfectly circulating asphalt arteries and relentlessly clean lines of design—but not any species as puny and unkempt as homo sapiens' But this is only one aspect of the truth, and compared to other planned cities I had visited, Brasilia definitely seemed to offer more potential. I guessed this was something to do with the difficulty of imposing meaninglessly rigid rules on the Brazilians rather then the failure of architectural idealism. Impressive architecture, it seems, does not equate to ideal living conditions—a fact which many people overlook and away from the glam and glittery life of embassy parties and governmental limos, the less fortunate eke out an existence in the favelas (shantytowns) which surround Brasilia. These people, who nightly watch the sun drain from the sky and color chrome fronted bu ldings shades of blood, are also deeply ingrained with nomadic desires. Come nightfall, and after the first beer has quenched parched throats, there is only one topic of conversation—home and how one day, after making their fortune in the gold-lined streets of the nation's capital, they will return to their homes—older, wiser and richer. A dream, perhaps, we all should share. Philip Blazdell is English by birth, a scientist by training and a traveler by nature. He has traveled extensively in Brazil and is a regular contributor to numerous magazines and Web pages. He can be contacted at 35

U.S. National Black Chamber of Commerce (NBCC) President & CEO Harry Alford was adamant following the first NBCC Trade-Mission to Brazil in late 1999. "Slavery in the United States indeed taught us to hate ourselves," he said. "A lingering effect of that self-hatred has been the denial of recognizing our own relatives in the Western Hemisphere." He might have added that this included instances where many blacks, particularly in Brazil, have failed to recognize the African heritage of others within their own communities, or even themselves. The May 2001 issue of Brazzil carried the following quote from music grupo Olodum Cultural Director Esmeraldo Arquimimo. "Just today I met with some friends after the soccer game, and one guy, who is lighter than I am said 'I have some friends who are black, but they are really good people'." The black awareness movement initiated in 1974 by the he Aiye Afro-Bloco in Salvador da Bahia was established, in part, to redress institutionalized self-deprecation based on African heritage. "Before long the 1 billion plus blacks living on this globe will be linked up again just like the days along the Nile, Zanzibar or Timbuktu" (NBCC website).

Black Bond Serious remaining economic and social challenges notwithstanding, Brazil appears to have 'arrived' although Brazilians of color have 'less arrived' than white Brazilians. PHILLIP WAGNER


"The fact is" said Mr. Alford "that South America and the Caribbean hold over 100 million black folks whose blood, legacy and heritage is exactly the same as ours. We come from the same villages, took the same despicable voyages and endured the same vile slavery..." "We are the same!" he said. "So let's start acting like it". Mr. Alford went on to assert that "The 15 percent of the black Diaspora that is located in the Americas must.. .become one. There is a need to build a viable infrastructure.. .through economical interaction". "International Trade" he added "from the United States and from a black perspective must begin with South America and the Caribbean". His conclusions appear to be consistent with the approach taken by the NBCC during the Brazil Trade-Mission. That approach focused African-American enterprise on joint venturing and contracting with their African-Brazilian counterparts. As a nonprofit, nonpartisan, nonsectarian organization, the NBCC is dedicated to the economic empowerment of African American communities and people throughout the world with African lineage. According to the NBCC "We will establish trading links, offices and communication instruments throughout the world". Brazil & Ghana were seen as logical first steps and an NBCC mission to Cuba, whose 14 million people are about 85 percent black, was conducted between 29 July and 2 August 2000. More than 75 African-American businesspersons accompanied the NBCC on its first Brazil mission, which was sponsored by General Motors, Texaco and the Magna Corporation. The NBCC and its entourage met with Brazilian representatives from 250 Brazilian businesses as well as with Brazilian public officials in what the NBCC claims had constituted "the largest US trade mission ever to Brazil". According to the NBCC "Millions of dollars in contracts were secured for the entrepreneurs that went with us, and this is only the beginning". The NBCC is pursuing a strategic plan to link the black Diaspora on both sides of the Atlantic. A "billion descendants of Africa not talking with each other is rather low tech" say NBCC officials, "so the NBCC will take leadership in this". NBCC acknowledges that "Brazil, a stable democracy with over 77 million blacks has been calling for our involvement''. And, clearly, African-Brazil needs it. If the NBCC is truly "on the leading edge of educating and training black communities on the need to participate vigorously in. ..capitalistic society" then it should find fertile ground in Brazil. According to the D1EESE (Departamento Intersindical de Estatistica e Estudos Socio-Econamicosâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Inter-Union Department of Statistics and Socio-Economic Studies), 50 percent of the unemployed in all regions of Brazil are blacks. DIESSE notes that BRAZZIL -OCTOBER 2001

while the unemployment rate in Salvador da Bahia is 45 percent greater for blacks than for non-blacks (25.7 percent versus 17.7 percent), blacks actually comprise 86.4 percent of the unemployed there. That's because the population of Salvador is overwhelmingly African-Brazilian. In Porto Alegre, where the population is almost all white, blacks represent more than 15 percent of the unemployed. About 68 percent of the unemployed in the Federal District and in Recife are black, and 650,000 blacks are unemployed in and around Sao Paulo. Figures are from 1998. To the dismay of some in the African-Brazilian cultural epicenter of Salvador, NBCC focus on Brazil has thus far been almost exclusively in Rio. One reason may be that the first NBCC mission to Brazil was a culmination of the relentless efforts of Benedita da Silva, Vice Governor of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Ms. Da Silva "had become frustrated in watching trade mission after trade mission come to Brazil void of black participation," Mr. Alford has said. "She approached the NBCC back in April 1999, and (the NBCC Trade Mission was)...the fruit born of that relationship". Mr. Alford has been quoted as saying that "The Vice-Governor is the most important black elected official in the world..." adding that he believes "the credit must go to herâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; the new jobs, investments will be ongoing and exponential to both sides of the table". Benedita's Role Benedita Souza da Silva Sampaio has been variously reported as having been born in 1942 or 1943. Whatever her year of birth, history acknowledges the fundamental aspect of Benedita da Silva. She's risen from favela (shantytown) to a station of political importance and, by doing so, has become a role model for people throughout the African Diaspora In 1981 Benedita graduated from the State University of Rio with a degree in Social Work. But she'd already, by that time, established her reputation as someone determined to create opportunity and hope for the desperately poor who live in the shadow of Brazilian opulence. She'd helped to organize a movement within her favela to secure basic necessities such as electricity, water and sewage. She was elected Brazil's first black Councilwoman in 1982, a member of the Federal Chamber of Deputies in 1986, the first black Brazilian woman Federal Senator in 1994 and more recently of course Vice Governor (Deputy Governor) of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Her biography, Benedita: An Afro-Brazilian Woman's Story of Politics and Love was published in 1997, and is available on video through an organization known as Global Exchange. According to Liana Rosman, following an interview with Benedita at Brown University some time ago "Da Silva targeted the lack of opportunities as the main obstacle in the advancement of Afro-Brazilians and women" in Brazil. So it isn't surprising that she would have been the driving force behind an effort to bring the NBCC to Brazil. Immediate Benefits In a recent phone interview Mr. Alford said he believes that "We are going to realize at least $80 million in sales during this year because of this (the Brazil Trade) mission". He acknowledged that "The Brazilian connection came (originated) from Rio, from the people who came up here to meet us". And he asserted that Rio "is a major city that's 60 percent black and kind of overlaps with a lot of the cities like Chicago and Philadelphia that we operate with here". But there are other reasons for the current more southeasterly NBCC focus; Sao Paulo has also received attention. NBCC's primary strategy is to promote opportunities for blacks in light manufacturing, trade and construction. Rio and Sao Paulo represent larger populations (markets) and are recognized breeding grounds for those kinds of activities. Current NBCC perceptions of regional differences in Brazil are also having an impact. In our phone interview Mr. Alford commented that "Salvador da Bahia is like going to the Mississippi Delta, which is imporBRAZZIL-OCTOBER2001

tant to us but if we're gonna go to South America we're going to a major center". Charles DeBow, NBCC Director of Special Projects and Marketing, reminded me that "Rio invited us (the NBCC) to come there", and Mr. Alford added "there's a black political base (in Rio) too and I don't think that there's a black political base up there in Salvador da Bahia". There is, after all, no Benedita da Silva in Bahian state government. But the absence of black political leaders in Bahia is not an indication that a black political base does not exist there. Blacks have, it must be conceded, been more effectively 'locked out' of high-profile political positions in Bahia. Gilberto Gil of course, who served on the Salvador city council for a time, is an example of periodic exception to that 'rule. Diversion of Bahian black political energies from trad tional political infrastructures to expression through the Afro-locos and similar entities is simply not yet well known or appreciated outside of Brazil. Bahia Next? A second NBCC Trade Mission to Brazil is expected to take place in the late 2002 timeframe following visits to Africa and the Caribbean. The NBCC has reported receiving a letter from an African-Brazilian entrepreneur in PetrOpolis, a short distance from the city of Rio, encouraging their return. But would Bahia be included on the itinerary if a second Mission comes to fruition? Mr. Alford made it clear he would seriously consider a side trip to Salvador at that time to meet with black community leaders but noted that "It depends on whether it would be worth our time. We'd have to see." Mr. Alford emphasized that the primary consideration would be confirming that "there would be (primarily) business aspects to it". "The premise to everything that we do" Mr. DeBow remarked "is business oriented". Black enterprise and wouldbe black entrepreneurs in Salvador da Bahia need a champion like Benedita da Silva and an organization capable of working with the NBCC to match African-American businesses with meaningful opportunities in Bahia. That latter role in Rio was played by FIRJAN, the Brazilian National Federation of Industries. Similar to a Bo rd of Trade, FIRJAN assisted the NBCC in arranging meeting between U.S. and Brazilian counterparts. It's worth noting that Tito Ryffe, Secretary for Economic Development and agner Victer, Secretary of Energy, Shipping and Oil for th State of Rio de Janeiro provided additional assistance. Mr. De ow later said that "We see our initiative in Brazil as being ve much in the embryonic stages, we're just getting started". W II, maybe, but Alford and NBCC members are excited about he future. "One of the great things about Brazil" he observ d "is climate. They have no tornadoes, hurricanes or earthquakes. There's a lot of stability down there compared to other parts of the world where weather is something you have to contend with". Just after returiing from Brazil, Trade Mission participant Gene McFadden, President of Freightmasters International Shipping said, "We already have twenty million dollars on the line coming out of this mission. The Chamber has hit a gold mine of opportunity for us". McFadden returned to Brazil a little later to buy an apartment and lease office space. When asked if the NBCC met with business leaders in Rio to encourage minority hiring he responded in two ways. Mr. Alford noted that "The NBCC isn't into hiring, we're into business development", and then added "If you're gonna meet with business leaders in Brazil today, they're more than likely not going to be African-Brazilian". "At this point" he noted, "the primary benefit" growing out of the NBCC Trade Mission to Brazil "for African-Brazilians is going to be in the realm ofjob opportunities being created by new business development in their communities". But Mr. Alford stresses that the NBCC wants to encourage the aspirations of black entrepreneurs in Brazil. Cultural Exchanges


The NBCC is currently developing a special website to facilitate the exchange of exposure and opportunity between culture related elements of the African Diaspora, such as between African-Brazilian artists and the African-American market. "We're working on basically facilitating the merchandising, the promotion, the exposure for all aspects of the arts to the (North) American market. Basically what we're saying is that...the limits placed on the independent (African-Brazilian) entrepreneur in entertainment, which would include cultural arts...they're limited just as they are in America by their exposure." The new NBCC website, expected to be on-line within the next 12 months, is intended to mitigate that constraint. But, according to Mr. Alford and Mr. DeBow, the NBCC is moving forward to address the issue now. "As the launch of our new Internet portal occurs within the next 90 days, or less, we will have a section in there for independent entrepreneurs and entertainment that will include cultural arts". What all this will mean for African-Brazilian fine artists, musicians, book authors, sculptors, playwrights, etc. is potential access to exposure within the larger (and more lucrative) African-American marketplace. The new site should provide an immediate, and welcome, outlet for established AfricanBrazilian artisans with the resources to capitalize on the opportunity. But how, or even whether, that potential can be realized by talented artisans living on the margins of society in communities like Rio's Rocinha favela or Salvador's Liberdade remain problematical for now. At least one political leader in Brazil is attempting to do something to address the issue of minority representation in television and film. According to 0 Globo media giant's "0 Globo On-line" the Comissao de Ciencia e Tecnologia da Camara (House's Science and Technology Committee) has approved a project proposed by PT Party Deputy Paulo Paim (RS) to establish a quota of 25 percent participation by black and indigenous artists in films and television programs. A government release said that the percent of participation of blacks and indigenous peoples could (ultimately) approach 40 percent, and suggested that quotas may be appropriate for integrating minorities into related technical fields. Palm's proposal will now go to the Comissao de Defesa do Consumidor, Meio Ambiente e Minorias (Consumer Defense, Environment and Minorities Commission). Brazil's Role As previously noted, it may very well be that the NBCC would still only be considering its first overtures to Brazil had it not been for the persistent efforts of Benedita da Silva. But it's probably no coincidence that the NBCC responded to those overtures when it did. Sixteen relatively stable years of representative government, increasingly aggressive privatization of industry and the explosive growth of Information Technology have made Brazil increasingly attractive to global investors. BrazilTech2001: the Outlook for Tech Industries in the Brazilian Market took place on June 18th at the Microsoft Conference Center and Kodiak Auditorium, Seattle. Microsoft's high profile association with Brazil as a current growth market for economic development runs counter to age-old perceptions that Brazil only represents future opportunity. According to the World Bank, Brazil's "8th largest economy in the world" generated $783 billion worth of goods and services in 1999. That's nearly $200 billion dollars more than 9th place Canada. But, surprisingly, trade between the U.S. and Brazil has thus far been light, accounting for less than 1 percent of 1999 U.S. imports and exports. Parties in both nations would like to see that number grow significantly. US-Brazil economic interface enabling entities have begun to proliferate in North American avenues of capital and power. There is a Brazilâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;US Business Council in Washington DC. There are Brazil related Chamber of Commerce offices in Los Angeles, Miami, Atlanta, and on Madison Avenue in New York City. There is a U.S. 38

Congress Mercosul Study Group, a U.S. Senate Brazil Caucus, a U.S. House of Representatives Brazil Caucus, and there are countless related U.S. Congressional committees. There is an Office of the U.S. Trade Representative Director for Brain, and the U.S. State Department Office of Brazil & Southern Cone Affairs has three staff members. So, serious remaining economic and social challenges notwithstanding, Brazil appears to have 'arrived'. But the NBCC is concerned that Brazilians of color have 'less arrived' than white Brazilians. Issues and Concerns "A concern that we have is with the International Monetary Fund, with the World Bank and other entities that sign in many, many projects" said Mr. Alford. "Those monies do not reach the black communities of Venezuela, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia and Peru". The argument seems to be that sponsoring organizations are not signing off on loans to underwrite development projects when those projects involve black communities. The challenge of securing loans targeting black populations was highlighted in testimony given by Suzanne Ward Parker, President & CEO of Ward Global Enterprises before a US Congressional Committee on Small Business hearing on 8 June of 2000. "One particularly frustrating experience," she testified, "occurred after attending a conference on business in Africa and listening to a bank representative express the bank's position and desire to accommodate those types of investments. I was (later) told the bank would not even consider loans to that part of the world. When I inquired why he held negative opinions, the gentleman gave me numerous erroneous excuses about West Africa, that indicated his level of knowledge of the region was outdated and out of touch". She noted that the fact that such individuals "are the decision makers, make it difficult to impossible to obtain financing". Mr. Alford offered that the NBCC has been trying to encourage greater awareness of the need for more political leverage with the U.S. Congressional Black Caucus, and indicated that there has been progress. The NBCC also seems to be making headway with the U.S. State Department regarding its interest in Brazil. "The State Department was kind of anti-Brazilian travel but after we went down there twice they started reaching out to us". The reference to two visits is accounted for by the fact that the first Trade-Mission was preceded by a fact finding trip about 6 months earlier. "And since Colin Powell has become Secretary of State I see a very big turnaround in their attitude towards people of color". Give and Take According to the NBCC, "African-American businesses in the United States posted sales of more than $80 billion annually throughout the 1990s". But it's African-American spending power, not selling power that offers the greatest short-term potential benefit for many large populations of blacks in Brazil. Perhaps "relief' would be a better word. "In general", declares an NBCC website, "African-Americans represent an annual spending base of over $500 billion". African-Brazilian communities are desperate for an opportunity to ignite economic development by tapping into that pool of disposable income, and tourism could provide the spark. African-Americans have long sought to explore links to their heritage, the heritage of all African peoples. But the modest volume of African-American tourists to Salvador, Bahia, suggests that few newly affluent black Americans have looked beyond the fact that Brazil, with 77 million people of African descent, is second only to Nigeria in the number of people with African lineage. Brazil is, in fact, a virtual oasis of collective memory within the African Diaspora. It's no secret to those who are familiar with Brazil that African culture in Bahia has been surprisingly well preserved. The practice of Candomble African religious ceremonies continues unabated and Salvador is home to the internationally renowned "Baiana" street vendors who serve traditional dishes fried in the red oil of dende palms that were brought by African slaves to the BRAZZIL -OCTOBER 2001

new world. The African-Brazilian martial-art known as capoeira was preserved from banishment by Portuguese masters by disguising it as a fight/dance. But it's less well known that some rural communities in Bahia are legitimate original Quilombos, camps that were founded and inhabited by escaped slaves. Some have survived largely unchanged for three centuries or more. So well preserved has African culture been in Bahia that it's been said Africans sometimes make pilgrimage there to rediscover their roots. The black Brazilian communities of northeastern Brazil, then, have a marketable product for which there is a natural constituency, an increasing number of African-Americans with disposable income. African-American travel company owners and operators could find in Bahia a "mother-lode" income generating tourist destination. Salvador's unique characteristics suggest that it could one day become the Cancun of African-American leisure travel. Timing and progress are converging to provide the fuel if only an effective marketing initiative could be developed and directed to the target audience. Dollar-to-Real exchange rates are now very attractive and infrastructure improvements that were undertaken in the mid-1990s have been consolidated. As long ago as May of 1997 Bill Marrs, in a special supplement to the Wall Street Journal, wrote about infrastructure improvements that had been underwritten by "$800,000,000 channeled through the Northeast Tourism Development Fund, Prodetur Nordeste". The Journal described Prodetur Nordeste as "becoming a model for tourism infrastructure in Brazil". Salvador da Bahia, the 'Bay of Saints', Brazil's first capital and arguably one of the most important historical sites in the long history of African peoples provides a natural anchor for that region. The little village of Redenc8o, or 'Redemption', situated much farther north between Fortaleza and the mountains of Baturite is another potential shrine within the African Diaspora. It was there that the first of the remaining African slaves in Brazil were released following Princess Isabel's signature on the 'Golden Law' declaration of emancipation. NBCC Profile The National Black Chamber of Commerce, which represents and advocates on behalf of more than 60,000 black owned businesses, was started in Indianapolis, Indiana, as a progression of the Hoosier Minority Chamber of Commerce, which had collaboration with 14 various black business organizations and local chambers. It was incorporated in Washington, DC, in March of 1993 and moved there in September of 1994. The NBCC has 190 affiliated chapters in the US and international affiliate chapters in the Bahamas, Brazil, Colombia, Ghana and Jamaica. The only Brazil office, to date, is in Rio. It was established following the first Trade-Mission there and is managed by Carlos Medeiros. The Brazil office and the NBCC communicate monthly.

U.S. Postal Service Statement of Ownership, Management and Circulation as required by 39 USC 3685 1. Publication Title: Brazzil 2. Publication No.: 1091-868X 3. F ling Date: October 9, 2001 4. Issue Frequency: Monthly 5. No. of Issues Published Annually: 11 6. Annual Subscription Price: $3.00 7. Complete Mailing Address of Known Office of Pub ication: Brazzil, 2039 N. Ave. 52, Los Angeles, CA 900421024 8. Complete Mailing Address of Headquarters or General Business Office of Publisher: Brazil], 2039 N. Ave. 52, Los Angeles, CA 90042-10249. Full Names and Complete Mailing Addresses of Publisher: Rodney Mello, 2039 N. Ave. 52, Los Angeles, CA 90042-1024; Editor: Rodney Mello, 2039 N. Ave. 52, Los Angeles, CA 90042-1024; Managing Editor: Rodney Mello, 2039 N. Ave. 52, Los Angeles, CA 90042-1024 10. Owner: Rodney Mello, 2039 N. Ave. 52, Los Angeles, CA 90042-1024 11. Known Bondholders, Mortgagees, and Other Security Holders Owning or Holding 1 Percent or More of Total Amount of Bonds, Mortgages, or Other Securities: None 12. N/ A 13. Publication Name: Brazzil 14. Issue Date for Circulation Dat Below: September 2001 15. Extent and Nature of Circulation: No.

A few words about NBCC co-founder, President & CEO Harry Alford (excerpted from NBCC website biography): During a 22-month stint working in the administration of Governor (now US Senator) Evan Bayh, Mr. Alford took minority business participation at the State level from 1 percent to 6 percent; a feat not accomplished before or since. Senator Bayh, incidentally, is now a member of the U.S. Congress Mercosul Study Group. Few people or organizations have more relative knowledge on the status and trends in minority business in the United States than Mr. Alford. The US Department of Commerce named him Minority Business Advocate of the Year for 1991 (Region 5), and in October 1996 the African-Americans for Corporate Responsibility of New York honored Mr. Alford for his successes in minority business development. Most recently, Fortune Small Business Magazine ranked Mr. Alford #5 on its "Power 30" list of the most influential small business advocates located in greater Washington, DC. Special Note: The author would like to thank Theo Bikoi, an economist with the Federal Bureau of Labor Statistics who provided the DIEESE reference and suggested consideration of the information from 0 Globo on line. Phillip Wagner, e-mail, is a frequent traveler to Brazil and contributor to Brazzil magazine. The author and Mr. Alford's former employer, then Indiana Governor and now US Senator, Evan Bayh were both named one of the ten "Outstanding Young Hoosier's" in the state of Indiana by the Indiana State Junior Chambers of Commerce on February 11, 1989. "Hoosier" is a nickname for Indiana residents just as "Carioca" is a nickname for residents of Rio de Janeiro and "Paulista" for residents of Sic) Paulo. Visit Phillip's Brazil website at â&#x20AC;&#x201D;pwaener.brazilhome.htm BRA77IL -OCTOBER 2001

Copies Average of Single No. Copies Issue Each Issue Published During Nearest Preceding to Filing 12 Months Date A. Total Number of Copies: 2291 B. Paid and/or Requested Circulation I. Paid/Requested Outside County 1294 2. Paid In-County Subscriptions 138 3. Sales Through Dealers and Carriers, Street Vendors and : Counter Sales: N/A 4. Other Classes Mailed Through the USPS N/A C. Total Paid and/or Requested Circulation: 1432 D. Free Distribution by Mail: 0 E. Free Distribution Outside the Mail: 604 F. Total Free Distribution: 604 G. Total Distribution: 2036 H. Copies Not Distributed: 255 I. Total: 2291 J. Percent Paid and/or Requested Circulation 70%

2500 1397 149 N/A N/A 1546 0 562 562 2108 392 2500 73%

16. This Statement of Ownership will be printed in the October 2001 issue of this publication. 17. I certify that all information furnished on this form is true and complete. I understand that anyone who furnishes false or misleading information cin this form or who omits material or information requested on the form may be subject to criminal sanctions (including fines and imprisonment) and/or civil sanctions (including multiple damages and civil penalties). (Signed) Rodney Mello, Publi her and Editor-in-Chief 39


GM in Caymmi's Court

In any kind of art, the combination of great talents seldom guarantees brilliant results. There are two artists, however, who are on a first-name basis with audiences the world over, who share an extraordinary repertoire and musical legacy, and whose collaborative efforts in Framing every performance with Los Angeles on Saturday, Ocunequaled expertise, Dori Caymmi tober 6, will be among the most felicitous in Brazilian popular guarantees a tour of creative virtuosity music. When Brazilian Nites Proand stimulating compatibility. ductions brings to the Greek Theater the crystalline voice and BRUCE GILMAN intense musicality of Gal Costa, cushioned in engaging arrangements by Dori Caymmi, concertgoers will bask in a collective show of immense cohesion and vitality, the kind that can only happen when the chemistry is exactly right. Of all the superb young singers to come along in the sixties in the wake of Elis Regina, mezzo-soprano Gal Costa is the most impressive. To hear that Gal Costa is one of the greatest interpreters ofBrazilian popular song, a diva of B razil ian popular music, is news to no one. She has a miraculous ear and the technique and instinct to follow wherever it leads. Strongly influenced by Joao Gilberto, Gal began her career as a bossa nova singer, but fully emerged as the "Muse of Tropicalismo." From her goddess-like combination of authority and aban40

don to her talent for making lyrics lucid and alive, Gal envelops listeners in her powerfully seductive wake, leaving them breathless. Although there have been times when energetic excess or the desire to ,surprise has led her into musical as well as political cul-de-sacs, over dramatic and seemingly oblivious to the overall context, she is the perfect foil to the man who directed her first album, Dori Caymmi.' Quite remarkably, any contradictions transform into synergies. Few Brazilian musicians have traversed the past four decades accumulating a list of fine credits as vast, and yet remaining as inconspicuous as arranger, composer, guitar player, and singer Dori Caymmi.2 Beginning his professional career when he was sixteen years old as the piano accompanist for his sister, singer Nana Caymmi, Dori moved effortlessly into composing soundtracks for television and producing albums (Edu Lobo, Eumir Deodato, andNaraLeao) for the Philips label. In the mid-sixties he was the musical director for the controversial theater pieces Opinido and Arena Canta Zumbi as well as the guitarist and arranger for Francis Hime at the famous Bottles Bar in Copacabana. In partnership with Nelson Motta, he composed a number of hits ("Save iros," "Cantiga," and"0 Cantador") that have been interpreted by, among others, Luiz Gonzaga, Hermeto Pascoal, El is Regina, Sergio Mendes, and Carmen McRae. Dori toured the United States and Canada with Paul Winter's group as both guitarist and arranger, but his almost exclusive concentration on writing and arranging scores for film and television


brought him to Los Angeles in the eighties, where his distinctive guitar style and creative harmonies have been captured for the Elektra/Musician, Qwest, and Atracao record labels and garnered a slew of Grammy nominations. Singers undergo subtle changes in accordance with their musical settings and face their greatest challenges and sometimes perform at their highest level, not in the company of large groups, but rather with small ones, where they cannot hide and where vocal shortcomings are immediately noticed. Creating a musical context by uniting a small North American band with a vocalist who normally lives in the opposite hemisphere and expecting a great blend of talent to emerge from their creative interplay can be a somewhat risky strategy. The odds, however, are considerably reduced when the vocalist in question is the superb Gal Costa and the "frame ofreference," is created by the wonderfully clear-sighted and self-controlled Grammy-nominated arranger and composer Dori Caynuni. I spoke with Dori Caymmi about politics, music history, and his new CD, Influencias. Brazzi/—Dori, what, aside from harmony, did Moacir Santos teach you? Dori—Oh, Moacir is one of my heroes. He taught me how to live. I was only fifteen and had been studying with one of his teachers, a very formal and difficult person named Paulo Silva, with whom I could never connect. Finally he told me, "You're too hard to teach. I'm sending you to an assistant." Thank God that was Moacir. Miraculously everything became so easy. Moacir was the professor who took me to the professional level. You know, Moacir is from a very small city in the Northeast of Brazil, one of those cities in the middle of nowhere where there is just one unpaved street with houses on both sides, and that's it. The Northeast is bare; the vegetation, unfriendly. It's a place that makes you ask, "My God! How can anybody live here?" People struggle, and they're happy if they have enough water. But at the same time, there is something very poetic that makes their music very special. Brazzil--When Elba Ramalho was in town, she stopped her show, stepped down off the stage, and thanked Moacir for coming. Is that reverence for Moacir common among Brazilian musicians? Dori—Yes, we Brazilians have a passion for him. And you know, I'm uncomfortable mentioning this, but to be black anywhere is a dilemma, and in Brazil, it's no different. It's so difficult, but Moacir is a saint. There is something in his smile, his gentleness, his wisdom. Mario Adnet and Ze Nogueira just recorded an outstanding double album of Moacir's originals called Ouro Negro (Black Gold). One of these days, I'm going to record an album that mixes our ideas, Moacir's and mine. I don't want to sound pretentious, but I want to do more than just play his originals. I want to add some pepper. I'll find a way. That's my thing. Brazzil—One of your earliest professional experiences was with Grupo dos Sete. Can you tell me a little about the group? Dori—That was a prestigious theater group of seven acors, some of whom are still alive and very, very influential, like BRAZZIL -OCTOBER 2001

Fernanda Montene o. Both she and her husband were in Grupo dos Sete. e performed live TV specials based on Brazilian literature because Brazilian television didn't have video tape at that ti e. We had to work fast, carrying microphones and instrum nts to each studio. Two percussionists, a flute player, and m elf on guitar rushed from studio to studio performing a kind of live Jorge Amado theater for television. It was very exciting work for us. Brazzil—W hat was the cultu ral significance of the theater pieces °pint& and Arena Conta Zumbi? Dori—Well, as you know, we had the military government at that time. It was jiist beginning, which, for the students, the journalists, and the artists, meant opposition. But there was something more than that. There was something artistically more, but hidden beeause we had to be careful. The military was arresting and torturing people, so the best songwriters were cleverly camouflaging their lyrics so they wouldn't sound the least bit unpleasant..You have no idea how many times Chico Buarque was taken from his house at one in the morning and interrogated. Everything loses perspective when you have an iron hand gripping the country, and friends are being tortured and dying all around you. Those son-of-guns killed a friend of mine, a fantastic man, a great piano player. The entire climate was like a revolution, but ironically, a very creative one because of this same oppression. It as the moment my generation started to grow. Opinido was a co lection ofmusic written and performed by the great sambista é Keti , a Northeastern composer named Joao do Vale, and a inger from Rio de Janeiro society named Nara Lao. I was the musical director, and I was learning a lot. There's a song fro Opiniao (sings), "Podem me prender / Podem me bater / Po em ate deixar-me sem corner! Que eundo mudo de opinido," itten by Ze Keti. This song asserts the main idea that Oduv 'do Viana Filho, the play's author, had in mind: "You can arrest me / You can beat me up / You can even starve me / But I won't change my opinion." Arena Conta ZuMbi has to be the most fascinating story about the African slaves who ran away from Brazil's towns and plantations, created tie fortress city of Palmares, and fought the Portuguese for mor than a hundred years. It was written by Guarnieri, Gianfran esco Guarnieri, an actor from Sao Paulo. And the music, the g rgeous music, was by Edu Lobo. He was so young at the time.l I couldn't believe a man so young could compose so many beautiful songs for one theater piece. The director's idea was to establish "between the lines" a very defiant statement toward the military. The censorship was so aggressive, we had to use subterfuge in a very refined way. Arena Conta Zumbi is the story of what the Portuguese did do the slaves, but is in reality, the story of what the military was doing to us, the students and the artists in Brazil. It's about politics, revolution, and the military, and is, in my opinion, the most ambitious piece of musical theater to come out of Brazil. Brazzil—Y ou were seventeen years old when Jobim called you for a studio session. How did the veteran players receive you? Dori—It was beautiful because an American couple was 41

'I producing a movie about Rio de Janeiro, like a documentary or something, and they asked Jobim to write the score. And I just couldn't believe that Jobim called me to play. It was my first time in the studio, and I was going to be playing with pros like Milton Banana and Edison Machado and Paulo Moura. We recorded "SO Tinha de Ser corn Voce" (It Had to Be With You). I was so young, so inexperienced, and those older guys kept telling me, "Good, man! That's really good." It was fantastic. I'd played on TV with Nana, but to record with Jobim and all those guys.. .that was magic.

needs him. He was the person we could go to and show our work. We had to show him.

Brazzil—In what ways do you feel the music scene today is different from the days of bossa nova? Dori—I'm an old man right now. I'm fifty-eight. Forty-one years of music has made me an old man, so I'll probably sound a little gruff, but the thing is, this "globalization" of music is really stupid. Everybody's rapping, everybody's funking, everybody's Mariah Carey, every new singer has to be naked on the album cover, and this impression of music is burned into Brazzil—Y our musical foundation was molded byJobim the minds of the kids. They're poisoned, and there's nothing we and JoAo Gilberto, so I'm wondering what your feelings were can do about it. Music videos hide bad music. Bebel Gilberto is doing this new kind of bossa nova, but it's at that time about the growing presence and popularity of predictable. It's something with no tricks and no heart. Bebel American jazz? and the other young kids in Brazil think that they're singing Dori—The main problem for me was that when we first had Some ofthem call it "acid-bossa" or "acid-jazz." I'm bossa nova. this j a77 thing in Brazil, I was completely in awe ofJoao Gilberto's not a big fan of that, you know. The quality is gone. The other looseness and intimacy with Brazilian rhythms. I'd be listening day, a journalist called from Brazil and asked me, "Nowthat Jorge to him playing and suddenly he'd say to Astrud, his fiancée at (Amado) is gone, who is going to take his place? And who will the time, "Astrud, sing something for me." And she would start take your father's place when he's gone? Who's next?" You album Chet Baker Sings singing "But Not For Me" because the know what? We probably have great talents, people who will was very, very well known among musicians. And then sudfollow in their footsteps, but right now they're hidden by the denly, Astrud was singing professionally, and people stopped system. Brazil's new generation is hidden in small cities all over talking about Jobim and Gilberto and started talking about Stan Brazil. They're there. Getz and Astrud. I was pissed offi I'm sorry, but those guys were my heroes. I had a terrible Brazzil—Caetano Veloso acknowledged you as the most argument with Jobim about that. Actually, for a while, the influential Brazilian guitar player afterJoao Gilberto. Would newspapers were attacking him for being too American. Oh, you comment on this? yeah, they called him "The American." And that wasn't the first Dori—Yeah, I don't know. there are so many good guitar time they had done something like that. They also did it to Carmen, Miranda. But Jobim overcame the problem when he players. Maybe his statement is based on our musical youth wrote "Aguas de Marco" (Waters of March). Oh, man, did they together. I used to travel a lot to Bahia to see my grandparents regret it. Because Jobim, man, you don't touch Jobim with naked and my aunts, and I remember meeting Caetano in Bahia when we were like nineteen or twenty years old. I was already a guitar hands. player. Well, not a guitar player. I was a chord player, a rhythm guitar player, you know? I had, and still have a special dedicahat ever happened to the arrangement you Brazzil—W tion, a special love for Brazilian rhythms, especially all the album? started for Jobim'sMatita Pere knowledge that came from Baden (Powell) and Joao (Gilberto). started the arrangements, but because Jobim was Dori—I disappointed with the situation in Brazil, he took the arrange- I'm glad that he feels that way about me. ments to Claus Ogerman in the United States. Brawl—How did you feel when you first heard the Tropicalista music of Gil and Caetano. you like what Ogerman did with the material? Brazzil—Do had a terrible reaction. Terrible! I was so strongly Dori—I things Claus did stylistically, which! love, were Dori—The basically what we had already done in Brazil. Jobim was so against Tropicana at the time, that I refused to work with complete harmonically, so prepared, that you can listen to Caetano, to collaborate with him on his albums. I couldn't hear songs like "Saudade do Brasil" and hear the orchestra doubling or share that music with them. For me, it was a commercially exactly all the voicings he's playing at the piano. The orches- oriented movement that didn't fit with my own ideas about tration is complete. That's why Claus used him as an instrumen- music. talist. The album was released just before Urubu, both in Brazil Brazzil—Speaking of your own ideas and ofJolio, can you and the United States, and marked the beginning of the kind of music that made the press in Brazil take their hats off and talk a little about the arrangement you wrote forJoio and Rita recognize they had a maestro in their midst to whom they had Lee for the show Grandes Nomes? Dori—Well, actually, it was not my arrangement that they not been paying the proper respect. I miss Jobim a lot. Sometimes when I'm sitting in my little performed. I wrote something for Joao, but he changed his mind garden, I think about the musician, the man, that incredible so many times that I got mad, threw the arrangement in his lap person who died so early. I'm not the kind of guy who says, and walked out. I told him that! never wanted to work with him "Well, that's how life goes." I'm still pissed off that he's gone. again. I think they used my basic outline, but not the way it was He was too young. And now with the deteriorating quality of intended. Man, did we have a serious falling out. After working music that we have all around us, we especially need him. Brazil with him for two days—and believe me, he is not a very easy 42


person to work with—I went to the studio with the arrangement under my arm, and in front of all the studio musicians, you know, the entire string section, he says, "You know what? I changed the chords." So I said, "You know what? I quit. Don't bother paying me. Nothing you could pay me would be worth this nonsense. I'm outta here." Oh, man, I wanted to kill the guy. I think Guto Graca Mello took the arrangement. Maybe I had a bad attitude, maybe I was too impatient, but I'm still not prepared for that kind of craziness. That isn't normal. Brazzil—Have you noticed how many fabulous North American singers have recorded "0 Cantador" (Like a Lover)? Dori—Yeah! There are so many wonderful artists who have done this song, so many people. I'm very pleased with all their versions. I remember Sarah (Vaughan) saying, "Oh, I think this version is much better than Carmen's." And I had to say, "Oh, yeah," which was funny because Carmen (McRae) was also a dear friend and asked me, "Who truly recorded the best version of the song?" Both women were marvelous. Brazzil—Did you record it with Sarah before doing her Brazilian Romance album? Dori—Yes, we recorded "0 Cantador" together in Brazil, just guitar and voice before that album. She actually recorded two albums in Brazil before Brazilian Romance. It was so good, so meaningful for me to work with Sarah Vaughan. Sarah is one of my heroes. I still think to myself, "Ah, my God, I worked with Sarah Vaughan!"

Brazzil—Tellme a little about your Grammy nominations. Dori—My first nomination was in the World Music category for Brasilian Serenata. Then Kicking Cans received the nomination for BestJazz Solo, but that was Herbie Hancock's contribution. The concept is mine, as is the arrangement, but Herbie, man, his soloing is so beautiful that he really deserves it. For Cinema, I received nominations in the Arranging and Composition fields, and in terms of competing with the top guns, that was the most impressive nomination. This is the category where you find incre ible arrangers like Don Sebeslcy and John Williams. Don't tell nybody, but I didn't belong there because, although I did som thing creative with my arrangement of Mancini's "Pink Pan her," and Mancini is one of my heroes, it's not really an orchestr larrangement. It's a small group arrangement. Brazzil—I've heard Cinema, and Tom Scott, as always, sounds fantastic. Dori—I love th t guy. Tom Scott was so generous. He played four saxopho es and charged only for one. You know, our budget was gon . "Listen," he said, "I love the way you write. I'll do it." He ave me his time and his musicality. It's difficult to find a ma like that who is so intense, yet so gentle. Anyway, those are m nominations, and although the Academy should create a separ e category for small group arrangements, that last nomination as an honor that no one can take away from me.

Brazzil—Y ou contributed five compositions to Brazilian Romance, which was nominated for a Grammy, and you arranged the album. Do you feel it has the same balance, composure, and natural flow normally associated with Sarah Vaughan's recordings? Dori—We shouldn't be talking about these things, but there was a basic mistake with the production of Brazilian Romance. I don't want to mention names, but the producers were all thinking pop while I was thinking jazz. Recording in the pop vein was shortsighted, a real disservice. The approach for a first class vocalist like Sarah Vaughan is nothing less than... Sarah Vaughan. Anyway, there was this misconception, which made her very difficult to work with, and to further complicate things, she was making this album for CBS without permission from Quincy (Jones), who held her contract at Qwest Records. There were many, many hassles, but there are great moments, especially the song "So Many Stars."

Brazzil—Has Gil vans had any influence on your arranging style? Dori—Gil Evans i my God! You know, my wife and I were listening to the radi today and heard Miles playing Gil's arrangement of the C ncerto de Aranjuez. I'm sad to say that Joaquin Rodrigo hate their version of his work because there is something so beauti Lilly full in Gil's arrangement. Years ago Gil and I took a pictur together; it's still hanging on my wall.

Brazzil—Which other American vocalists you would like to work with? Dori—I'd love to work with Shirley Horn. I really love the work she did with Johnny Mandel. When I was at the Grammy nominations in New York and Johnny saw me, he shoved his cassette player into my hands and said, "Dori, you have to hear this."' Man, I couldn't believe how fabulous this woman sounded. They recorded a second album together last year, which I played -guitar on, but their first one is from 1992. Please, if you have a chance, buy this album. It's so beautiful. When she sang the title .track at the Hollywood Bowl, oh, my God! No one in the audience was breathing.

Brazzil—On your new CD, Influ incias, you've shared the vocal spotlight with any guest vocalists. Why? Dori—This CD is ery special. It's a rediscovery of everything Brazil did for me, everything that inspired me from the time I was four years old un il I was fourteen. That's the concept, so I had to invite my favorite singers. Unfortunately, El is (Regina) is not here anymore and I miss her. But Bethania, Gal, and Nana are, and I was lucky enough to know how to use each one of them. I thought, "Nana will be great here, Gal can do something beautiful here, and Bethania can kill here." And on "Serenata do Adeus," with the beautiful melody and lyrics that Vinicius (de Moraes) wrote, she did. That's a gorgeous song, but, you know,


Brazzil—Have wily of Hollywood's "top guns" sent work your way? Dori—The other day Johnny (Mandel) invited me to write an arrangement for guitar and strings, and I was a little scared because Johnny has always been one of my inspirations. But he told me, "Man, we're on the same wavelength." Helied to me. I know what I'm capable oftechnically. But I work from the heart and so does Johnny.


harmonically, Vinicius was not that good. You can hear Jobim's touch. Once you add Jobim' s magical chords, that' sit. Overall, I'm very happy with the CD, but it was pure luck. I'm really not that good. (laughs) Seriously. Brazzil—What's Jorge Amado's connection with the tune "E Doce Morrer no Mar"? Dori—The fountain of inspiration for this tune was a book written by Jorge Amado in the forties called Mar Morto (Dead Sea). Later, Jorge asked my father to write some music for a poem from this book called "E Doce Morrer no Mar" (It's Sweet to Die in the Ocean). Actually, last year or the beginning of this year, like they always have with Jorge Amado's works, like they did with Gabriela, TV Globo in Brazil created a soap opera called Mar Morto that is based on the same book. When I was in Brazil a guy from TV Globo called me and asked if I would write a string arrangement for "E Doce Morrer no Mar." At the time, I was also arranging for my sister, Nana, so I had to write quickly, but now every time a fisherman on the show dies, you hear this song. Globo asked me afterward if I would include it on Injluencias. Even though I already had fourteen songs, the string arrangement, which is the only one on the CD that was recorded in Brazil with Brazilian string players, came out so beautifully that I omitted a tune we had already recorded and substituted "E Doce Morrer no Mar." This is a song I remember hearing my father sing when I was four years old. As you know, Jorge recently passed away, just days before turning eighty-nine. My father was eighty-seven in April, and they had been best friends since 1939 or 1940. Jorge was like my uncle. I feel sad, yet at the same time relieved because he was suffering and wasn't recognizing people any more. He wasn't the Jorge Amado, that very sweet person with the vibrant personality, who I first met. Paulo Cesar Pinheiro, my lyricist, says that Jorge Amado taught Brazilians how to read. This is the finest epitaph anyone could have made for Jorge Amado. Brazilians didn't have this thing about reading, but I think his books gave this to us. I grew up with his books. Brazzil—Y ou and Elis Regina were in the same musical orbit. Why didn't you ever record together? Dori—Just before her death, we were talking about this. Elis was saying, "We've been friends for so long and have never worked together. On my next album, I want the strings of Dori Caymmi." We missed our chance. After she died, her brother took some of her live tapes, isolated the instrumental and vocal tracks, then asked me and Wagner Tiso and a few other arrangers to score some fresh arrangements, which he situated behind her voice. In a strange way we finally made a recording together. Brazzil—With the exception of the vocal parts and the strings on "E Doce Morrer no Mar," Influencias, was completely recorded, mixed, and mastered in Los Angeles, as was Cinema: A Romantic Vision. Why? Dori—I like it here. I think the best studios and the most disciplined and responsive technicians are here. It's so good for me to work here, far from Brazil where I don't have anybody giving me advice and telling me what is or isn't good. I miss so 44

many things about Brazil, but at the same time my ideas are not being diluted. It's nice to be here in my little house in Woodland Hills looking at Brazil through binoculars. The distance gives me abetter perspective, albeit a sad one. I miss the Brazil that they promised me. I miss that. Brazzil—Do you also find North American instrumentalists more disciplined and responsive to your intentions? Dori—Technically, my first concern is the studio and its engineers, but over and above that, I live here and budgets are never that good. We aren't talking about spending five hundred thousand or a million dollars on an album. When you start paying for airline tickets and hotels, it gets rough, so I use the guys here. Maybe it's because I'm not familiar with the new generation of Brazilian musicians or what's new, but I'm learning more about them, and maybe we can make it up to them. Anyway, the Brazilian flavor that I need comes, basically, from Paulinho da Costa and my guitar. And I have a great drummer, Mike Shapiro, who learned from Airto (Moreira) and played with Sergio (Mendes) before working with me, so he's digested three different styles from the same generation of musicians. The bass players I like, guys like Jimmy Johnson, Abraham Laboriel, Jerry Watts, and John Leftwich are all here too. And you're right, there is a question of discipline. Those guys have known how to play my music for years, and it's difficult to establish that same telepathic looseness with new guys. This is especially true for the pianists I love, like Herbie Hancock, Dave Grusin, and Billy Childs. I hope my Brazilian friends won't get mad, but I don't think the piano is a very Brazilian instrument, at least in terms of the music I make. There is something about the American jazz culture and the American pianist that really attracts me. Besides, there really aren't that many Brazilian musicians around. Teco (Cardoso) is always around because he travels a lot, and he's also a lover ofMoacir's music. And I've been thinking about Airto, who lives here. There is something about Airto that I like very much. Maybe we can work out my Moacir ideas together. Romero Lubambo, an outstanding guitar player, is also in the States. I heard him with Dianne Reeves the other night at the Hollywood Bowl. Oh, my God! He's probably the biggest surprise I've had in terms of guitar players. So it's not a question of segregating American and Brazilian musicians at all. I play with Brazilian bands when I'm in Brazil, but because of the distance and the expense, it's very difficult to bring up some of the musicians I've wanted to work with in the past. Oh, there are so many good guys. I'd love to bring up a great guitar player like Helio Delmiro. Brazzif—Dori, what's next? Dori—Right now I'm very, very into this new album, but I'm thinking my next will be the music of my contemporaries, each song written by a composer from my generation: Edu Lobo, Caetano, (Gilberto) Gil, Ivan Lins, Geraldo Azevedo, Joyce, Sueli Costa. My generation was Brazil's third richest, and in terms of composers, it's absolutely unbeatable. Those composers who I've just recorded are the fathers of Brazilian music. Noel Rosa, Ary Barroso, Dorival Caymmi, and JacO do Bandolim, they're the great beginning. BRAZZIL -OCTOBER 2001

And the next generation with Jobim, Dolores Duran, and Joao Gilberto, especially Joao's approach with rhythm, was the trick. Unfortunately, the way that the world outside Brazil learned that rhythm and the secrets ofJoao's guitar was through a filter that sterilized its swing, but that's the bossa nova that everybody knows today. When I first heard Getz/Gilberto, the album that the world considers the "classic" bossa nova album, with "The Girl From Ipanema," I was furious. Brazzil—Tell me more. Dori—Bossa nova was transformed into something completely different from our original samba feeling and Joao's approach. A long time ago, Miles talked about the magic ofJoao Gilberto and how difficult it was for guys like Charlie Byrd and Herbie Mann and Stan Getz to master this language because it came from our Brazilian roots. The other day I heard something, and I hope Dizzy (Gillespie) will forgive me, but I heard his version of "Desafinado," and I was horrified. . Maybe I'm too Brazilian, but the way the bass player and the drummer... ahhh! Everything sounded awkward and removed from our roots. But it works both ways. Jazz is something that a lot of people play, but very few really grasp, like Miles, Coltrane, Wes Montgomery, Red Garland, those monsters who we're still learning from, especially we Brazilians. We love jazz, but, you know what? I can't play jazz. I don't know how. Brazzil—Well you certainly arrange and compose with jazz harmonies. Dori—Well, that's something that comes from those same African and European roots. The same mix that gave us jazz, gave us the samba. There's is an incredible rapport within these forms of music. That mix, forme, is the best ofthe best. It not only gave us Cuban and Puerto Rican music but also that fantastic swing from the Caribbean islands that people call salsa. And when it came to Brazil, it took on the flavor ofthe samba. My father's generation and even the one before learned these traditions.

Brazzil—Dori, I know that good acoustics and audience contact is important toyou,so I'm wondering how you feel about some of the venues you'll be playing on this tour. Dori—Actually, I learned a lot about the intimacy you can have with 15,000 people the last time I Went to the (Hollywood) Bowl and heard Shirley Horn and Dianne Reeves. Man, it is 'possible! And the show I just did in the Northeast with my 'brother for 25,000 people, was terrific. Everyone was singing 'together, dancing, and having fun. Every one of my father's songs, every one ofJobim's, and every song of mine was good


for them. They wer prepared, and it was a great tour. Sometimes, wh the audience is fantastic, you can do it. But the thing is, yo have to be very concentrated when the distance from the st e to the last row is so vast. You know, the first time I went to th Bowl, I was shocked by that distance. But there are some artists who can do it. They compress the void and connect with their au ience. Gal is going to be very comfortable. She always perform for large audiences and knows how. My God, she knows ho to do it. She's so good. Oh, yeah! She's unbelievable. Brazzil—Havey ur musical styles and preferences helped in choosing the repe toire? Dori—Gal and I have the same heroes, and our opinions bout the way to sing are exactly the same s Joao Gilberto's. We have the same pproach. Although life has taken Gal to ifferent stages, like Tropicana, we've erformed some excellent shows together, ike the one with Jobim at Carnegie Hall. On this tour Gal is going to do some things from her new album, like "Sophisticated ady" in Portuguese as well as some Jobim. he also wants to sing a tune called pring" from my Kicking Cans CD and e first song from my new album, onversa de Botequim." And, of course, ere will be some ofGal's hits like "Baby," ough I'm going to change this pop stuff a little (laughs) to be more Dori oriented. 11 be changing the harmonies, and my d will play different arrangements. For there's no "glitz." We want the audice to hear the music. Don't say anymg. Brazzil—JoAo Gilberto is notorious not showing up for concerts, and I'm ndering why you didn'tshow at the last ai Festival where you were scheduled erform with Oscar Castro-Neves. Dori—I completely forgot. I was workon arrangements in Brazil, Tommy uma was calling me long distance from States to cut something for Diana 11, and my life was miserable from jugg so many commitments at the same e. I called the Ojai people from Brazil and apologized, and I ca led Oscar. It was embarrassing. I love Oscar. I felt so uncomfo able. He's an old friend. My wife says it was her fault because he books me, but it wasn't. How we could forget Oscar. We' e so close. But I'll be there for the next one. Brazzil—Dori, my n xt questions were going to be about Bahia, but maybe we'll ip them. Dori—No, it's not a roblem. I don't like the music they're making in Bahia now, so if you want to ask me, ask me.


Brazzil—W ell, generally, Bahia is seen as kind of laid-back place where increasing tourism is impacting the lives of visitors and residents alike. Would you comment on this? Dori—Yeah, it's something that bothers me a lot. All that "progress" in communications and universalization and globalization—whatever—has been bad for Bahia. Bahia has lost its essence, all its poetry. It's gone. They have built so much and there are so many tourists. The beaches are treated miserably. They're only thinking progress, and unfortunately, pollution and progress go

Romantic Vision Tome Conta de


eu Filho, Que est Tambémjd Fui do Mar

A Felicidade Happiness (Tom JobimNinicius de Moraes) Tristeza nao tern fim Felicidade sim Tristeza nao tern fim Felicidade sim A felicidade é como a gota De orvalho numa petala de for Brilha tranqiiila Depois de leve oscila E cai como uma lagrima de amor A felicidade do pobre parece A grande ilusao do carnaval A gente trabalha o ano inteiro Por urn momento de sonho Pra fazer a fantasia De rei ou de pirata ou de jardineira Pra tudo se acabar na quarta-feira Tristeza nao tern fim Felicidade sim Tristeza nao tern fim Felicidade sim A felicidade é como a pluma Que o vento vai levando pelo ar Voatao leve Mas tern a vida breve Precisa que haja vento sem parar A minha felicidade esta sonhando Nos olhos da minha namorada E como esta noite passando passando Em busca da madrugada Falem baixo por favor Pra que el a acorde alegre corn o dia Oferecendo beijos de amor

Sadness has no end Happiness yes Sadness has no end Happiness yes Happiness is like a drop Of dew on a flower petal It shines tranquilly Then lightly oscillates And falls like a tear of love The happiness of the poor seems to be The great illusion of Carnaval People work all year long For just a moment to dream To make the costume , Of king or pirate or of gardener But everything ends on Wednesday Sadness has no end Happiness yes Sadness has no end Happiness yes Happiness is like a feather The wind carries through the air It flies so lightly But has a brief life It needs a wind without end My happiness is dreaming Of the eyes of my sweetheart Like the night passing, passing In search of the dawn Speak softly please She needs to awaken happily with the day Offering kisses of love

;Don Ca Dorival, and

EMI Music Velas ia-noite CavmmiemFamilia Som Livre Qwest/Warner If Ever

1 996 1 995 1 994 1994

aymmi Familia aymmi em 1992 Polygram ontreas 1992 Qwest/Warner Kicking Cans Brasilian QwestlWarner 1990 Elektra/Musician 1988 C'aymmi Dori, Nana, Danilo Dorival Caymmi 1987 EMI-Odeon ao Vivo 1987 Bra iian Romance CBS Caymmi Grandes 1986 EMI-Odeon Amigos 1984 Luz das Estrelas Som Livre (Posthumous relew 1982 EMI-Odeon Don Caymmi 1980 EMI-Odeon Don Caymmi 1973 MCA atita Pere 1972 Odeon Don Caymmi Philips

hand in hand. Brazilians get mad when I mention this, but Ivan Lins and I were in Salvador with our families, and we were swimming in front of our hotel. There's a little tram that takes you about 200 or 300 yards down from the top ofthe hotel to a little dock where you can jump into the ocean. But I noticed something happening to the water and started shouting, "Get out of the water. Now!" You're not going to believe this, but it's true. One of the hotels was flushing all its sewage into the ocean, and that beautiful blue was turning brown. It was disgusting, and I was outraged. I love plants and animals, but sometimes I hate people. That was when I became convinced that people are destroying the planet. It's not only Bahia, it's Rio. Rio used to be my city. I was born in Rio. I grew up in Rio de Janeiro. Geographically, there is no city in the world that you can compare to Rio. It's like God put out his finger and said, "That's it!" But the things that they're doing with the city.. .There's no space. There's no security. And the tourism and the drugs... Ahhh! It's terrible. BRAZZIL -OCTOBER 2001


Brazzil—How do you feel about AntonioCarlos Magalhaes being referred to as the "Caymmi of Evil"?4 Dori—I don't think Magalhaes deQuern é homem de bem A man of goodwill Ndo trai o amor que lhe quer Doesn't betray his beloved serves the name Caymmi, not even if it's Seu bem quem diz muito que vai, He who protests too much will borrowed. He personifies the progress Ndo vai assim como ndo vai Neither come nor go that I was talking about. Progress without Ndo vem quem de dentro de si And he who doesn't come out of himself sense, with no respect. He's a man with a Nào sai vai morrer sem amar Will die without ever loving anyone black vision who wants to control everyNinguem o dinheiro de quern The money of someone who doesn't give Ndo dá é o trabalho de quem Is the labor of one who has nothing thing and have his name inscribed everyNdo tern Capoeira que é born Capoeira, who is good, never falls where. He's a dictator, a very dangerous Ndo cai e se urn dia ele cai, And if one day he does, person. My father once told Antonio Cai bem He falls well. Carlos that he felt more Carioca (native of Rio) than Baiano (native of Bahia) Capoeira me mandou Capoeira sent me a message Dizer que ja. chegou To say he has already arrived, because he'd been living in Rio since Chegou para lutar Arrived to settle a grudge 1938 and all his kids were born there and Berimbau me confirmou Berimbau sent me confirmation two still live in Rio. Antonio Carlos got so Vai ter brigade amor That there's going to be a fight for love pissed off that he started attacking my Tristeza camara Sadness, my friend L father in the media saying, "Oh, there's is r UI something about `Baianidade' Conversa de Botetwim Bar Banter (Baianness). Once Baiano, always Baiano. (Noel Rosa) Forever!" But he's a politician, who has Seu garcom faca o favor de me trazer depressa Hey, waiter, could you bring me to have the last word, a miserable guy Uma boa media que no seja requentada A fresh cup of coffee with cream with nothing but ambition. Uma pdo bem quente corn manteiga a beca A piece of hot toast with plenty of butter Sure, he has some friends—Jorge Urn guardanapo e urn copo d' Agua bem gelada A napkin and an ice-cold glass of water Amado was his friend—but many people Feche a porta da direita corn muito cuidado Shut that door over on the right hate him. Don't get me wrong, Magalhaes Que eu nao estou disposto a ficar I am not ready for the Exposto ao sol sunlight has done some good stuff, like Napoleon VA perguntar ao seu fregues ao lado Go ask the customer next to me did some good stuff for France. I don't Qual foi o resultado do futebol The soccer game's score have much more to say unless it's, "Arrest him!" (laughs) Magalhaes is a rotten Se voce ficar limpando a mesa If you keep cleaning the table Ndo me levanto, nem pago a despesa I won't get up or pay the bill guy. There's a lot of corruption related to VA pedir ao seu patrao Go ask you boss men like him in Brazil. Politicians are all Uma caneta, urn tinteiro, For a pen, some ink over the world, and I hate them all. The Urn envelope e o cartdo An envelope and a postcard word "politics" is something that has Ndo se esqueca de me dar palito Don't forget to give me a toothpick never made any sense in my life. E um cigarro pra espantar mosquito And a cigarette to frighten the mosquito Berimbau (Baden Powell and Vinicius de Moraes)


VA dizer ao charuteiro Go tell the tobacconist Que me empreste uma revista, To lend me a magazine Urn cinzeiro e urn isqueiro An ashtray and a lighter Telefone ao menos uma vez Para 34-4333 E ordene ao seu Osorio Que me mande urn guarda-chuva Aqui pro nosso escritOrio Seu garcom me empresta algum dinheiro Que eu deixei o meu corn o bicheiro VA dizer ao seu gerente Que pendure esta despesa no cabide Ali em frente

Brazzil—It's been said that your father is to Brazilian popular music what Bach is to the music of the world. What's Dial at least once the most valuable lesson you learned The number 34-4333 from Dorival Caymmi? And tell Mr. Osorio To send me an umbrella Dori—Oh, there are so many, so many. Here to our office Just being his son and seeing him create Waiter, please, lend me some change this difficult music and beautiful poetry As I left my money with the lottery man as a valuable lesson. When others were Go tell you manager To hang the bill up on the coat rack taking the line of least resistance, he was Over there laying really intense pieces ofmusic like '0 Mar" (The Ocean) and putting on his •Il quit with a lot of dignity and taking his guitar to sing at night so he could support wife and three kids. He taught me to persevere. He told me, "Don't play cornercial music unless you absolutely have t." This was something he modeled. I I armed that no price can buy dignity. He taught me that integrity is what b ys respect, and that was confirmed a amn and again. Writers, painters, comp sers, poets, and important intellectu-


als came to collaborate with him and seek his approval or just Dori Caymmi, though uncredited, wrote the arrangements and to shake his hand. A lot of people tried to buy him, saying stuff was responsible for the musical direction of this as well as like, "Oh,! love your work. I want you to have this new car." But Gilberto Gil's first album. 2 Dori is the oldest son of composer Dorival Caymmi, the he would tell them, "Oh, thank you very much, but I don't drive." bard ofa now classical vision ofBahian He never took favors. folk culture. Once his best friend confronted him on the way Johnny Mandel added to his to the airport. He was in his forties and still didn't have Grammy collection by wining Best his own apartment. He just paid rent. And his friend, Arrangement Grammys for Natalie this very rich guy told him, "Caymmi, I have a check Cole's Unforgettable album (1991) here for you to buy any apartment that you want, and and Shirley Horn's Here's to Life I don't want you to pay me back." It was one of the (1992). most difficult decisions of his life. He came home and 4 Ex-Senator Antonio Carlos discussed the matter with my mother for hours, for Magalhaes is a national political figdays. It was taking him so long to make up his mind ure and the head ofBahia's very effecthat the guy got fed up and just bought the apartment tive political machine, whose cultural policy is to promote Bahia for him. It took my father many years, but he paid back every cent. as a fountainhead of Brazilian culture and to sponsor, and even Three words characterize Dorival Caymmi: dignity, integrity, control, all emerging cultural phenomena. His barrel-chested and art. That's why everybody loves him. Everybody knows physique, striped shirts, and white hair recall Dorival Caymmi. Caymmi. He's just a sweet, compassionate person with incredBruce Gilman, music editor for Brazzil magazine, ible talent, a very good godfather and very good dad. That's my received his Masters degree in music from California father. He's unique among men, a national treasure. Those are Institute of the Arts. He is the recipient of three some of the lessons I've learned, and that's how I try to live. government grants that have allowed him to research traditional music in China, India, and Brazil. His articles on Brazilian music have been translated and 'Gal divided her 1967 debut album, Domingo, with Caetano published in Spanish, German, Serbian, and Portuguese. Veloso because the Philips label didn't believe either artist You can reach him through his e-mail: warranted an individual album. Gal and Caetano divided the cuica(&, twelve tracks, six each, none of which was performed together.


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Morte e Vida Severina (Severino Death and Life)—Adapted by Rossini Castro from the poem of Joao Cabral de Melo Neto of same name. Northeastern migrant Severino runs way from the drought and ends up in a slum. With Fabrica Vivas, Joao Miller and Edna Lima. Qualquer Gato Vira-Lata Tern uma Vida Sexual Mais Sadia Que a Nossa (Any Stray Cat Has a Healthier Sexual Life than Ours)--Girl asks a scientist to help her get back her fiancé. Written by Juca de Oliveira, directed by Bibi Ferreira, with Rita Guedes, Thierry Figueira and Andre Garolli.

Do vies

RIO Copenhagen—Scientists Niels Bohr, from Denmark and German Werner Heisenberg get together to discuss the construction of the atomic bomb. Both were awarded the Nobel Price. Written by Michael Fryn, directed by Marco Ant6nio Rodrigues. 0 Gordo e o Magro Vdo para o Ceu (Larry and Hardy Go to Heaven)—A couple and their adventures to build a wall. Written by Paul Auster. With Isabel Cavalcanti and Ronaldo Serruya. Bugiaria—Jodo Cointa and his misadventures before the Inquisition. Considered the best play by the jury of respected Governo do Estado award. Written and directed by Moacir Chaves, with Ora Figueiredo, Claudio Baltar and Candid° Dam. Sermdo da Quarta-Feira de Cinzas (Ash Wednesday Sermon)—Preacher Padre Ant6nio Vieira (1608-1697) tries in seven different ways to prove that the only truth we can be sure of is that we all will die one day. Text from Padre Ant6nio Vieira, directed by Moacir Chave, with Pedro Paulo Rangel and Josie Antello.

SÃO PAULO Eu Falo o Que Elas Querem Ouvir (I Say What Women Want to Hear) Comedy. Politicians kidnaps a theater director so he can help him win the election. Written by Mario Prata, directed by Roberto Lags, with Paulo Gorgulho, Javert Monteiro, Angelo Paes Leme and Maria Clara Fernandes. A Mulher Macaco (The Ape Woman)— Written by Paulo Faria. A fortuneteller comes to a circus and makes amazing revelations about the past of Cida, the Ape Woman. Written and directed by Paulo Faria, with Daniel Alvim, Eliseu Paranhos and Silvia Borges. Patty Diphusa—From Pedro Almodevar book of same name. The tale of an insomniac pornostar who spends her nights writing her memories made mainly of hilarious and bizarre sex fantasies. Adapted by Christiane Tricerri who also has the role of Patty. BRAZZIL -OCTOBER 2001

Just-released American movies: Swordfish (A Senha—Swordfish), A.I. Artificial Intelligence (A.L—Inteligencia Artificial), Memento (Amnesia), Atlantis: The Lost Empire (Atlantis: 0 Reino Perdido), Dr. Dolittle 2 (Dr. Dolittle 2), Moulin Rouge (Moulin Rouge—Amor Em Vermelho), Down to Earth (0 Ciu Pode Esperar), Bridget Jones's Diary (0 Didrio de Bridget Jones), The Gift (0 Dom da Premonictio), Original Sin (Pecado Original), Planet of the Apes (Planeta dos Macacos), Town & Country (Ricos, Bonitos e Infieis), Rugrats In Paris: The Movie (Rugrats Em Paris— Os Anjinhos), Shrek (Shrek), See Spot Run (Spot—Um Cdo da Pesada), Scary Movie 2 (Todo Mundo em Panic° 2) Palavra e Utopia (Word and Utopy)-Portugal/France/Brazil/Spain, 2000—In 1663, Priest Antonio Vieira is called by the Portuguese inquisition to explain his ideas on slavery, Indians and the relations between Brazil and Portugal. Directed by Manoel de Oliveira, with Lima Duarte, Luis Miguel Cintra, Ricardo Trepa and Miguel Guilherme. 2000 Nordestes (Two Thousand Northeasts)—Brazi/2000—Documentary. The shock between modern culture and the folk traditions of the Brazilian Northeast. Directed by Vicente Amorim and David Franca Mendes. Memdrias Postumas (Posthumous Memoirs)—Brazil/Portugal, 2000—An adaptation of Machado de Assis's Memorias POstumas de Bras Cubas. Already dead, Bras Cubas tells about his adventurous and sad life filled with passion and money problems. By Andre Klotzel, with Marcos Caruso, Walmor Chagas, Sonia Braga, Milena Toscano, Vietia Rocha, and Otdvio Milner. See www.memoriaspostumas. Copacabana—Brazi 1/2001—The theme: old age in the most famous beach of Brazil: Copacabana. Alberto, an old photographer getting ready to celebrate his 90th birthday, reminisces about his past. By Carla Camurati, with Marco Nanini, Ida Gomes, Myrian Pires and Laura Cardoso. Taind—Uma Aventura na Amazonia (Taind—An Adventure in the Amazon)— Brazil/2000—Indian girl Taind lives in the Amazon with her little monkey Katu. Some smugglers give her a hard time trying to get her animal. By Tania Lamarca and Sergio Bloch, with Eunice Baia, Jairo Mattos and Caio Romei. 0 Grilo Feliz (The Happy Cricket)—Bra-

zil/2001—Cartoon. Grilo Feliz cannot be the joy of the party anymore when lizard Maledeto decides to steal his guitar. By Walbercy Ribs 0 Sonho de Rose, 10 Anos Depois (Rose's Dream, 10 Years Later)—Brazil/2 000— Documentary. By Tete Moraes. The director, in 1987, filmed the story of Roseli da Silva, who with many other families had occupied the Annoni farm in Rio 'Grande do Sul. This new movie shows the family da Silva, after the matriarch's death. They lost their lot and moved to a city close to the farm. Bicho de Sete Cabeeas (Seven-Head Beast or Puzzle)—Brazil/Switzerland/Italy/ 2000—Drama. A rebel student is sent to a mental institution by his father when he starts smoking pot and tagging walls. Based on autobiographical Canto dos Malditos, a book by Austregesilo Carrano Bueno. Directed by Lais Bodanzky with Rodrigo Santoro, Othon Bastos, Cassia Kiss, Gero Camilo, Altair Lima and Caco Ciocler.

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• FEIRA LIVRE RATES 500 a word Phone is one word. • DISCOUNTS. For 3 times deduct 5%, for 6 times deduct 10%, for 12 times deduct 15% • POLICY: All ads to be prepaid Ads are accepted at ourdiscretion Yourcanceled check is your receipt Please, include address and phone number, which will be kept confidential • DEADLINE: The 25th of the month Late material will be held for the following month if appropriate. •TO PLACE AD. Send ad with check, money order or your Credit Card number (plus your name and expiration date) to: BRA ZZIL P.O. Box 50536 Los Angeles, CA 90050-0536.


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is a monument, in the manner of Venice or Kyoto; a town which became the revered pivot of Brazilian independence and where for the first time art on American soil a colony surpassed the art—in poetry, sculpture and architecture—of the European mother country. I had no idea what to expect, except that this town was crowned by the very distinctive peak of Itacolomi, a mountain everyone seemed to be searching for in the late 17th century. One group of paulista bandeirantes—settlers who organized expeditions into the interior to enslave natives and find precious metals—led by Fernao Dias, exI am a cartophile; I love maps. Apart from plored the junctions between Salvador, Rio my world atlases, I keep local maps reli- and SA° Paulo for seven difficult years. giously in alphabetical order in an old paper FernAo Dias sadly missed out on his triumfiling folder. And I have the most maps of phal reception into Sao Paulo for he died on Belo Horizonte than of any other city. I have the banks of the Rio das Velhas in the maps from three different travel guides, maps autumn of 1681. As a tearful son, Garcia Fernandes, led from history books, maps given free by hotels and maps that come with the state tourism his father's mortal remains back to the town, brochures. I have so many maps of BH (only the rest of his bandeira under the Spaniard Westerners call it Belo, locals use its initials: Manuel Borba Gato encountered a royal Be Aga in Portuguese), and I still manage to party led by Dom Rodrigo de Castel° Branco who was supposed to take over. Strangely, get lost in the place. Originally I blamed it on my first map Borba Gato was very adverse to relinquishpublished in that early edition of a travel ing command there was friction between guide, which shall remain nameless. It had the two men and in October of 1681 he printed the mirror image by mistake in the ‘, murdered the royal representative and disapway newspapers sometimes print photos and peared into the Mata Atlantica. The inhabitants of Sao Paulo could not make you look out the window to check if cars The discovery of gold in England still drive on the left or if, as the make head nor tail of such odd behavior, for picture shows, they have changed the system Borba Gato had condemned himselfto death: in Brazil was to change while you dozed off. You can imagine the be it the gallows or the jungle. But Garcia havoc such a misprint can cause to a new Fernandes held the key to the motive: his the course not only of the arrival. After hours of feeling as intelligent as father's group had accomplished the dream country's history, shifting a pair of windscreen wipers and an animated of the Portuguese ever since Brazil had been visit to the tourist office ("You have built the discovered. Green with envy at the immedithe economic and town wrong!") the penny finally dropped. But ate acquisition of the Spanish crown's Aztec 'even with correct maps—and my collection and Inca gold treasures, begrudging the subpolitical center of gravity now looks like overcompensation—I still man- sequent discovery of the silver mines at aged to get lost. BH, Brazil's first planned city Potosi, the Portuguese had been impeded for from the Northeast to the founded in 1895, does not just have a grid that two centuries by Brazil's unhealthy climate, crosses at right angles, but occasionally a inhospitable jungles and hostile natives in South, but also the global diagonal street comes through, resulting in a their search for treasure. The word was out: balance of power. six-way crossing, which makes following a Borba Gato had killed the royal envoy, bestraight line quite a challenge: cops, once cause the expedition had found gold. The more I have moved to anotherAvenida. What West's first gold rush had started aptly with a murder. Lo_t_thim fun. Unfortunately Garcia Fernandes could BH and me didn't start on the best of terms. It doesn't help that BH with its rapid not scout his way back and for the next 17 post World-War II industrialization is a modern ugly city with its original features dynamited years the paulistas made various exploraby developers. One of the nicer Art Deco buildings, the Old Market, Feira de Amostras tions into their northeastern interior occaPermanentes, was demolished in 1970 and the rodoviaria—which I would get to know very sionally reappearing with enough precious stones to keep the interest up—until a dark well—built in its place. With my backpack stiff on my shoulders and a late flight from Manaus behind me, I mulatto brought back some strange black chose to walk the small distance from that very same rodoviaria to the oddly named Hotel pebbles. When he had them examined propAmbassy (with an 'A'), which sounds grand, but ain't. It's at a rickety-rackety junction, ear- erly, the tests revealed rich gold ore under a splitting with noise and brimming with danger, since the area around the rodoviaria until thin film of black oxide. The news spread at least the Praca Sete is one of the shiftiest and crime-ridden in BH, with pimps, whores and like a jungle hyperblaze: this black gold had drug-dealers monopolizing not only the night hours, but the daytime as well. Hell, 1 thought, been panned by the banks of a river under a peak which split into two: the smaller apI was only in BH in order to return to the rodoviaria next morning to visit as cidades peared like a boy: the Boy-Rock, Itacurumim historicas of Minas Gerais. in Tupi, or as it is now known, Itacolomi.

The Words You'll Need guarda volume = luggage area in stations and airports aqui jaz = 'Here is buried' as cidades hist6ricas = the historical cities bandeira = a flag. It also denotes an expedition into the interior of Brazil by bandeirante': explorers and Indian slavers who were 'carrying the flag'. chafariz = public water fountain Scheisse = German exclamation for shit mal educado/mal educada= it is an insult to a Brazilian (male/female) to tell them they've had no education. Amazingly this is a source of pride for the self-made entrepreneur in Britain. mineiro = inhabitant of Minas Gerais rodoviaria = bus station roteiro historic° = historical route



There was a particular town with a cult reputation: one that had witnessed the first gold rush of modern times, the first to be declared UNESCO patrimony of mankind by Brazil— and it is the whole town, brimming as it is with baroque interiors and rococo facades, that

*** The bus to Ouro Preto stops high above the city next to the tourist office. You don't


notice the town until quite late, so I remember vividly the thrill of seeing the twisted peak of Itacolomi for the first time: so that's what the Boy-Rock looks like! I could imagine Antonio Dias letting out a winner's cry. But then the town caught my eye and held it wide open: this was not the stereotypical Brazilian landscape I had come to expect: no beaches, no jungle, no concrete-and corrugated-iron buildings, but gentle rolling hills and two-storey colonial houses, Mediterranean-style with fuchsia-red pantiles in the roofs Your first baroque Brazilian town is special for its surpassing of expectations as you are bombarded with architectural splendor of the highest caliber. Perhaps, had I visited Olinda first, I might have thought otherwise, but on that first trip, after the wilderness of the Amazon and the shabbiness of Belo Horizonte, I stepped out of the bus onto Ouro Preto's narrow, roughly cobbled streets and felt as if! had walked right into a frameless Renaissance painting: I could be in 18th century Florence, or Sienna. There may be other great vista points in Brazil gazing down on man-made magnificence or supreme natural beauty, but that initial, mouth-watering moment ofsurprised shock still brings me goose-pimples. The tourist office sold me another map and tried very hard to flog me a human guide, as well. I would have none of it as I also rejected their advice to take the bus to Praca Tiradentes rather than walk down the steep hill with my backpack. I zigzagged my way to the central square, every step a new vista and every house—two storey, large wooden door, square windows, painted windowsills—a gem; in our century of uniform housing and apartment blocks, the 18th century individuality in design of every single dwelling is poster-worthy. In fact there was a beautifully constructed poster that attracted my attention: Balconies of Ouro Preto and Mariana. It could have been titled Meetings with Remarkable Windows: first floor French arched doors leading to a Mediterraneanstyle narrow balcony with lantern lights hanging on the sides, flowerbeds sprouting irregularly; railings ranging from simple horizontal beams to elaborate arabesques on sculpted soapstone; rectangular glass panes contrasting with elaborate shouldered arches and complex skewed fanlight designs; ceramic red, blue mauve, yellowish brown, sand pink, ink-blue colored grilles framed in glowing white. The secret of the beauty of Ouro Preto is its homogeneity: streets of terraced two-floor houses, all in the same style, and yet each one unique in character. I took up residence in the Hotel Pilao facing the main square—an old colonial mansion with wooden creaking floors and ceiling tall enough to accommodate a training trampoline gymnast. As I walked out, my eye fell on the price list. This was not the figure I had heard—or had I heard correctly? "250,000 cruzeiros for a single room? I thought it was 150,000", I asked timidly.

"No, it is 150,000", said the woman receptionist wearily. "It's such a pain rewriting the rates; we have put the list up to last a month. In the meantime we pretend we give discounts." This was 1993, the time of spiraling inflation when the currency was the cruzeiro. So hard to come to terms with this mess even as a tourist, I reminded myself. I walked out into the wide space of Praca Tiradentes. Something wasn't quite right, but I couldn't put my finger on it. To my left stood the old Town Hall with central clock tower and its four sculpted muses; on my right were the winding stairs of the old governor's palace, now the School of Mines; in the center, a tall memorial to Tiradentes, the main Brazilian Independence hero; next to me stores selling precious stones, minerals and soapstone sculptures; opposite me restaurants, bars and taxis. Something wasn't quite right. Only when I started walking down the side of the Governor's Palace, armed with my map of the roteiro historic° for the arduous trek east to the Chapel of Padre Faria did it dawn on me that there was no church in the main square. *** The gold rush found the Portuguese crown both unprepared and wizened from the Spanish plundering experiences of earlier centuries. It thus acted quickly to establish its authority to collect taxes. Dom Joao V, who was on the throne for almost half a century, acted decisively: there would be no foreigners in the region—and no troublesome Jesuits. Foreigners were only allowed in the early 1800s after the mines had been depleted and a small number of Jesuits only in 1745 to establish an educational college; but as they were expelled from Brazil fifteen years later, they did not acquire the domineering influence they had in Bahia or Pernambuco. Central square, administrative buildings, no church! One cannot comprehend the development of Minas Gerais and the character of its inhabitants without pondering over this isolation of Minas from the outside world and the freedom from the Jesuit ultra-conservative influence. It was the lay orders, led by the third order of sao Francisco and the third order of Carmo who were going to be the motive force competing in extravagance, as the former included the mine owners and the latter the town grandees. The biggest effect of the absence of Jesuit influence was an explosion in artistry with minds freed from the bridles of proscription. ***

The church of Santa Ifigenia commanding a top spot on the Alto da Cruz was the first one I visited—if only to catch my breath after the tortuous climb. This is the part of town where the slaves lived: You can still tell from the uneven sharp cobble stones, the ever darkening color of the residents and the one-rather than two-storey houses that flank the eponymous street. No wonder, for Santa Ifigenia was the church built by the black slaves and class mobility is not exactly a phenomenon for which colonial societies are famous for. Legend goes further: it is supposed to be the church built by Chico Rei. It is now we enter the realm of ghosts— and it will be hard to leave it, for in Minas they merge with the living as easily as they straddle the dead. Chico Rei is a mixture of a historical figure and a folk tale compiled by that great ethnographer, Camara Cascudo. Mineiros have no doubts, however; walking around Ouro Preto, you'd be forgiven to think that his existence was as certain as the church he allegedly built: a sheet describing his life in minute detail is sold at the entrance to his haunted mine. The tale is an allegory of the changing labor practices in Minas—from harsh and horrid to lax and liberal. As slaves were imported from Africa to work in the gold mines, the mineiros— many of whom were new, open-minded Portuguese arrivals—eventually realized that they were dependent on the skills and wills of their workforce more than the sugar-cane landowners who could treat their slaves as cattle and expect the same response. No, here, free paid labor with some private incentive proved rather more productive, especially as the years wore on and gold became scarcer: slaves were allowed to work extra hours to buy themselves off; a relative benign attitude came to prevail and a new consensus emerged, receptive to the new ideas imported by the sons of the scions of the community who sent them to study in Europe. But after all, maybe Chico Rei's story is so popular because, if not authentic, t is certainly one we'd all like to be true. So, 'm not going to cast doubt on it any more. Chico Rei was an African King who was efeated in a tribal war and sold to the

slavers along with his family and his tribe. His wife and all his sons but one died in the passage. Once in Ouro Preto he started working in the mines. He could have been one of the many Sudanese slaves who were sent in the mines from Africa. In 1735, a census taken by the authorities for a poll tax counted more than 100,000 able bodied men and women, a reminder that in the mid 18th century Vila Rica was one of the largest towns in the Western hemisphere. *** A small street urchin started following me and two elderly Brazilian women as we entered the church. "Santa Ifigenia was built between 42 and 49...", he started. The two women turned and tut-tutted. "What century my boy? It sounds like 1942-1949. What century? You must say 1742-1749. Say it", said one lady. "The church was built between 1742 and 1749", he repeated slowly staring at the woman with apprehension. "Good", she said abruptly and went in leaving the boy confused. Santa Menlo could only have been built by black slaves. The spot is one of the best in Ouro Preto—high on a hill their church can't be missed from wherever you stand in town, a two-finger salute to their masters. The front is old-fashioned and austere, and looks more like an Olinda church than the rest. Inside it is full of the famous grisalha murals which were uncovered during recent restorations. They are subtle, monochrome scenes of everyday 18th century life: couples in love and guitar-playing musicians decorate the walls, a reminder of the life-affirming African beliefs—no wonder they were covered up later. I can picture 19th century prudes shouting "profanity!" "The church is haunted", said the boy behind us suddenly, causing one of the women to scream. The school main tut-tutted again. "Every church in Ouro Preto is haunted my boy", she said confronting the kid, eyebrows crossed. This time, he didn't budge. "When the church empties," he said, "the walls start to speak in old, African languages". I looked around. The grayish images felt alive and creepy. The screamer woman seemed perturbed. "How come you know if they speak when the church is empty?," confronted him the school main. The boy had the answer ready. "You can hear the murmurs from the outside", he said. The screamer crossed herself and dug in her purse for some notes. "There", she said and winked let's-go to her friend. "Thanks for the information". The boy looked at the notes and smiled the smile of the deceived. Living with a 2500 percent inflation has

many day-to-day effects which you only notice when you experience it. One of these is that you start upping your tips and your handouts to the beggars with notes of ever increasing value. So unless you are a real cheapskate and you pitch in last week's accepted rate, the poor see their intake increasing, so they never look glum when they check out your donation, even though it will be worthless next week. Whether we wanted it or not, the kid took us to the chapel of Padre Faria whose interior is decorated more lavishly than its exterior would betray. This chapel stands next to a Pontifical cross and a modest, rare standalone belfry. It was built in 1710 by Padre Faria who found gold and abandoned his habit, in a rush to shelter the image of Nossa Senhora de Rosario which was taken from another makeshift church whose priest was murdered during Mass. The ladies pointed at the odd-looking angels on butterfly wings, the church's ornamental claim to fame. It, too, comes with a tale and this one is recent: a worker is said to have found a hidden box of treasure when repairing a window in the 1970s. I wonder if this is what set off the wave of restoration work that followed. Oh, who cares? I'm hungry. ***

Mineiro cuisine is one of these unexpected joys which make traveling exciting. This is bandeirante expedition-food, high in protein. The base is thefeijao tropeiro, one of my favorites: black beans, manioc, bacon and eggs mixed together accompanying a range of meats: vaca atolada—ox ribs in manioc sauce, came de panela—stewed steak, dobradinha—a kind of tripe, moela de flung° chicken giblets, rabada corn agriab—an oxtail stew, costelinha corn canjiquinha—pork chop in ground corn sauce, frango ao molho pardo—chicken cooked in its own blood in the manner of the Pernambucan cabidela, galinhada— chicken and rice stew, linguica—primitive, meaty sausage; all served with a range of steamed or boiled vegetables like couve— finely cut salty kale, chayote, okra, pumpkin, cabbage andjiI6, a cucumber-like bitter Brazilian green whose tang goes well with meat and, of course, different kinds of bean concoctions: molho de feijclo corn pimento— bean pepper sauce, tutu de feijcio pureed stewed beans with manioc. The sweets are, as in all Brazil, very sweet indeed and they tend to be transportable: stewed fruit: figs, oranges and crystallized citrus rinds, plus milky pulses like the exuberantly-named ambrosia—an eggbased sweet, the impossibly-named esperamarido ("Husband-wait!") another milkand-egg sweet, arroz doce—sweet rice, doce de leite corn coco— coconut-and-milk sweet: you get the picture; goiabada—guava marmalade chucks, doce de banana—a banana marmalade and rapadura: cane sugar in cubes. It sounds terribly unhealthy on the

carbohydrate front, but it all stores well for those interminable bandeirante days on horseback through the jungle. Not that /did any horse-riding, of course, but the hills of Ouro Preto make you feel tired as a horse rather than a horseman. I retired to Praea Tiradentes and sat down at a restaurantpromising authentic tutuamineira: a mixture of meats with kale and feijcio tropeiro. In fact, outside the moquecas, this is the food I have also cooked at home. The taste of slight garlicky kale with meat stew and the wonderful mineiro beans is one I serve in London dinner parties. *** Dusk was setting in. I looked at my watch. Maybe I can fit it in. I got up from Marilia's fountain, crossed the street and turned right before the Largo Antonio Dias. There, past another small bridge is the haunted Mine of Chico Rei. In 1946 ground subsidence revealed a sealed mine in the area where the Encardadeira might have been—again you sort out the fact from the fiction since this is Ouro Preto and I'm already overwhelmed. What I can tell you is that in order to reach the mine I had to duck under the wide-leafed plants of someone's garden and cross to a private house yard where an unmanned reception desk awaited me. "Anyone here?" Talk about haunted. "Anyone here?" I walked past the desk—the ticket office?—into a patio. A small white statuette of a minstrel which I assumed to depict Chico Rei stood next to a rather modest cave-like opening. "Hello?", I shouted again. No answer. A sparse set of light bulbs was lighting the main gallery. I decided to go it alone. Where were the owners? I walked in and the welcome, cold air surrounded me, chilling my skin as my own sweat stuck on my T-shirt and turned frosty. After about 30 feet, Ouch! I bumped my head and caused a minor subsidence. I remembered how it was discovered. The ground had given in. Did someone die here? Is this why it's haunted? This is an old mine, indeed. The supports seemed more and more primitive, the deeper I entered, and the ceiling ever lower. Five minutes in, I walked squatting. A spotlight on the wall pointed at a seam. I checked. Can't be gold, of course, it would have been mined out already. Maybe fool's gold. The air became warmer. I looked to my right—there was an arch leading to another gallery. Where does the warm air come from? I went in carefully. Pure Dark. Can I get up and rest my legs? I can. Can I stretch them? I can. I had better not stray from the light in case there's a hidden shaft. After a few minutes in that dark side


gallery, I heard the murmurs. At first I thought it was the sound of water nearby, an underwater rook, or seepage. But then I distinguished the timbre of individual voices with characteristic Brazilian nasality. The mine is closing. A party is probably returning from a guided walk. Wait here and join them. And what if I frighten them, and cause an accident? John, don't be silly. So why aren't the voices getting any closer? I said, don't be silly! I left my Pure Dark chamber and walked into the narrow illuminated main gallery. The voices had stopped. Mines are full of vertical ventilation shafts propagating sound from the most improbable places. I know that, but I'm splitting anyway. >0**

My first glimpse of Aleijadinho's work were the wooden sculptures in the Museu da Inconfidencia, and like every visitor before me, I was a convert: you immediately know that here was a grand master at play. The cedar statues are not life-like, though many, like the statue of St George, complete with spear, are life-size, but they are highly individualistic in style—almond-eyed, hair obsessively undulated, clothing sharply pleated and expressions out of the Eastern book of spiritual countenance rather than the optically accurate canon of Western Renaissance. If there can be a comparison, it is with another unique stylist who brought Eastern elements in his line: Aleijadinho's sculptures are like El Greco paintings come to life. Like Bernini, not only was Aleijadinho a sculptoi, but he was also a grand architect who advanced the Baroque he inherited into a graceful rococo. I started from the other far end: to the Western old Ouro Preto parish and Nossa Senhora do Rosario dos Pretos. In the Catholic church of times past, there was a kind of saint's apartheid operating. Nossa Senhora do Rosario was the Madonna of the Blacks accompanied by a set ofAfri can-born saints: Santo Elisbao, Sao Benedito, Santo Antonio do Noto and Santa Ifigenia. The latter was a slave's church; this was more of a multicultural one. A book tells us of the fraternity's orders of 1715: Article 1 states that "Every person black or white of both sexes, free or captive, of whatever nation who wants to become brother may come to the fraternity's registry to apply." Article 2 reminds us that this is a thlack church though: "There shall be elected a King and Queen, both black, of any nation, and they will help and be present in festivi4ies" The educational superiority of whites at the time is betrayed in Chapter 3: "There shall be elected two judges, one male and ane female, both black, freed or slave, a

secretary and a treasurer, both white and a black proctor to administer the fraternityIn tune with such liberated thinking the exterior of the church consists of a radical elliptic front—like an athlete proudly blowing his chest, tucking back his shoulders to the point where the two bell towers hover, facing a courtyard ofthe best-looking and best-preserved complex of residential houses in Ouro Preto. Had Nossa Senhora do Rosario been situated anywhere else but in this feast of baroque art that is Ouro Preto, it would have been the top attraction in town. The walk down the Rua Antonio de Albuquerque past the simple chapel of Bonfim—where the last rites for those about to be hanged were administered—did take me to one of the jewels in the Crown of Ouro Preto: the Matriz of Pilar, built in a traditional Latin cross, heavily laden with precious metals: a full 434 kilos of gold and 400 kg of silver have been used to ornate the interior. From the Bohemian crystal chandeliers—donated later by Dom Joao VI—to the illusionist painting of the lamb on a cross in the ceiling (echoes of Salvador's Sao Francisco) and the eight silver angels to the painted ceiling, this is exhibitionist, extravagant baroque: when the Matriz do Pilar was started in 1733, the riches of Vila Rica seemed inexhaustible. Gothic was the style of the Catholic church administrative: unquestioned, ultimate arbiter, superior to secular rule, arrogant and haughty; baroque was the style of the church in conflict against the new Protestant minimalism, overvenerating the Madonna, displaying its opulence to overwhelm the faithful through ornamentation; rococo was the church re-triumphant, a holistic requiem like the new symphonic music that was emerging, but now the saint was a sinner—threatened and uneasy. Rococo did not really take root in Spain, but somehow it did in Portugal and found its peak in Brazil's colonial gold-mining towns. If we want to find a reason, we have to return to the gold rush which brought the best Portuguese artists to Minas. Aleijadinho's father, Manual Francisco Lisboa was registered for his license to work as a carpenter in Vila Rica in 1724. He was an architect and a sculptor in his own right and there are payment records showing that he was a major team leader of the church decorators. So how did he do? Far too well, is the answer. Some observers quoted by the town historiographer Lucia Machado de Almeida feel that "in this Matriz, with its profuse wealth of decoration in gilded carving there is a real orgy of the baroque, a touch of the profane that hinders devotion, suggesting a ballroom where minuets are heard, rather than litanies". Normally I walk into a church and take off my black sunglasses; in the Matriz do Pilar I almost had to do the opposite. I walked out to face a trio of young German tourists. They were sitting in the

yard dejected two ofthem were short blond and cute and one of them, tall brown-haired and cute who was close to tears. "Scheisse", I heard him say shaking his head.

Aleijadinho has become such a legend that despite ample historical record, (we have for instance his signatures on his invoices and a biography in the mid I 9'h century where his still living niece collaborated) there has been controversy even about his existence—surely the highest accolade for a man who would be myth. One of the unknowns is his birth date: either 1730 (going by a possibly wrong birth certificate) or 1738 (what most modern historians accept) counting back from the age on his death certificate in 1814. Whatever: he was born Antonio Francisco Lisboa of mixed race, a mulatto, from one of his father's slaves, although the father freed him at birth. He was unmarried, but there is a record of a son of his with one concubine. We have no idea what became of his offspring. He learned his trade from his father who `lad three more legitimate children: two daughters and a boy, who became a priest; Brother Felix also dabbled in woodcarv_ng—two ofthe black saints in Nossa Senhora do Rosario are attributed to him. It was his 'ather who was the main influence on Aleijadinho, and it was his father who put his stamp on the architectural harmony of Ouro Preto proper: he was the architect of Santa Ifigenia (Chico Rei's church), the Matriz of Antonio Dias, and had a hand in the Matriz do Pilar amongst others. He soon became such a respected—read rich—figure in the town that, as records show, he was elected a member of the fraternity of the exclusive Third Order of Carmo on Christmas day, 1746. This very church of the Carmelites stands high on the side of the Museu da Inconfidencia----Aleijadinho's father started it, but he died soon after and his son, only 28, continued to finish it and produce his first xemplary monument. This early two-tiered physiognomy of the facade became Aleijadinho's trademark: the door, an upper central fanlight and its two lateral, subordiate windows are embossed under curved transoms, flanked by triumphant cherubic angels, under makeshift heraldic crests in toating, delicate soapstone reliefs; individual

elements being subordinate to the overall theme deciphered only by the onlooker. Inside the church has six side altars with Aleijadinho-supervised or Aleijadinho-made dramatic sculptures. Blue azulejos add the final, tessellated touch in a harmonious interplay of diversity with the paintings of Brazil's master of frescos, Manuel da Costa Ataide, Brazil's top painter who, like Aleijadinho, stamped his authority in Ouro Preto. *** In 1777 there is a chilling entry in the annals of the Church of Merces e PerdOes on whose construction Antonio Francisco Lisboa was working. There is a charge of 1/ 2 oitavo for two blacks whose task was to transport the master. It's our first indication that his illness had struck. There has been a mountain of paper speculation regarding what debilitating misfortune hit Aleijadinho at the age of 39. Was it a venereal disease? Was it deformative neural rheumatism that made him scream with pain? Surely the symptoms not far, far more severe—imagine: a master sculptor begging his slaves to amputate his malignant fingers with a chisel. Was it leprosy that turned first his legs and then his hands into stumps? But if, so, how come he was not shunned by the townsfolk and was eventually buried inside a church? Was it porphyria as a recent exhumation—rather inconclusively—suggests? Was it a Faustian pact with the devil—a romantic tale created by Saint-Hilaire after his trip in Minas in 1816: did Antonio Francisco Lisboa drink a potion of an elixir called cardina to enhance his senses and reach even greater heights of artistry—a strategy that backfired, turning him into Aleijadinho—little cripple', the name he bequeathed to history? *** Whatever Aleijadinho's disease, its results were grim. His teeth rotted away and fell. His lips retracted; his lower jaw dropped and gave him a sinister expression of ferocity. His hands ended up resembling stumps. He gradually lost his sight until he turned completely blind. He could not walk and was transported by his slaves: Mauricio, Agostinho, who were both sculptors, and Januario. He started wearing a blue cape that wholly covered him, special shoes on what remained of his feet, and a brown broadbrimmed hat to hide his face. He became irascible, short-tempered, self-conscious about his ugliness. And throughout all this, pain, constant pain—for 38 long years. Even earlier, he is on record complaining that the Carmelites paid him with counterfeit gold; his advancing disability and the deaths of his slaves probably rendered him subject to exploitation. His family abandoned him and left him—except for his niece, who nursed

him during the last, terrible, bed-ridden years of his life which he spent in abject poverty. There ends his life, but here starts the legend, for he continued to work—in Sabath, Sao Joao del Rey, Ouro Preto. The myth of a handless master sculptor was created by European traveler-explorers starting with Saint-Hilaire. And it is half-blind, in constant pain, with mallet and chisel tied by Mauricio on his wrists that Aleijadinho produced his breath-taking Gesamtkunstwerk of Born Jesus in Congonhas. His story is either a triumph of the indomitability of the human spirit or a proof that Faustian pacts do, after all, exist.

volving around the dance floor composed of lit squares straight out of Saturday Night Fever. Is it because the city is still so ugly? But diss not Belo Horizonte: we have to thank it for becoming the new capital of Minas, drawing the developers and so keeping Ouro Preto pristine.

When I saw the peak of Itacolomi and the town of Ouro Preto spread below it, I stepped out and back into my own dreamlike déjà vu. I sniffed the crispy mountain air, looked wistfully down below and felt those goose pimples again. The city map in the tourist office was more expensive at three * reais, but the offer of a guide sounded all so I returned to Belo Horizonte eight years familiar. This time, I did take the bus later during Brazil's 500th year, a little after signposted 'Padre Far/a', which ran down the journey which forms the backbone of and up the narrow stony streets like a this travelogue. This time I had more money, rollercoaster; it took me down to the very so!stayed as far from the dreaded rodoviaria bottom of the town—to itsfin-de-siecle railas I could: I got a good weekend deal in an way station inaugurated by Pedro II in one of apart-hotel in upmarket Savassi with its posse the last acts of his Emperorship. Praca Tiradentes was shockingly full of of illuminated restaurants, clubs and latenight bars. From my 1 1 th floor window I people and buses; tourism was now internal could have a look on the exceptional horizon as Brazilians with more money in their pockthat gives the town its name—it is encircled ets started discovering their country. Hotel by the Serra do Curral and its jagged peaks PilAo was still there; the restaurants on the at dusk and dawn convey to Belo Horizonte Praca were still serving tutu a mineira; the the air of a tropical Denver, Colorado. I bars on the Rua Direita where I had spent a wanted to give the town a second chance and night with the Germans were all there, as I in the buffet of the restaurant Caldo de remembered, but seething with clients; and Minas in the corner of Rua Sergipe and the entrance to the Museum of Inconfidencia Santa Rita I re-discovered the wonderful was still expensive, but hell, I visited it mineiro cuisine—although meatiness can again, for my knowledge of the history was be a disadvantage if you are stuck behind a so much more complete. In the slave barrio of Antonio Dias, I mother and her small boy. She was fishing chicken pieces from a galinhada casserole. walked into a bakery for a pie and saw the For inflation did come under control in local newspaper headline. A petrol station the mid-90s with Finance Minister's Auto Posto Sorriso would stop its 24-hr Fernando Henrique Cardoso—later Presi- operation because of repeated hold-ups. "The robbers were surprised by the ardent FHC—Real Pan which, much like the Euro program, introduced a new currency, rival of a police car and they fired back with the real, by working gradually and changing a revolver 38 special. There was a real gun people's expectations first ratherthan battle on the early hours of Sunday. They shock them into submission at once. arrested three of them". He shook his head. Crime had arrived in But then Brazil tied its currency to the dollar at a rate 1:1 which became Ouro Preto. unsustainable. Jeez, Brazil for a few An expanded version of this article years became expensive—but that's can be found at a story too far. blaoctO 1 .htm Savassi with its high-rise luxury apartment blocks (attached garages JohnM is a computer programmer for every resident) is plush, rich, selfand occasional journalist working in assured attracting young revelers who London, England using his earnings to party in its bars and clubs. The choice travel between contracts. A fluent was staggering: there was a piano Portuguese speaker, he has traversed bar, straight out of a 40s movie; a the whole of Brazil from Manaus to reggae bar decorated Jamaican style with Porto Alegre and from Recife to the hammocks to lean back on from your seat; a Pantanal sampling the life and history cocktail bar where shelves and shelves of in the course of four separate journeys. books vied for your attention of the The author can be contacted at belohorizontino beau monde; a three-floor iohn(&, This is an mansion on top of a hill converted into a extract from his extensive Brazilian restaurant with the clientele absorbed in travelogue, which includes numerous board games; a video bar serving a range of fine pictures, in http:// Margaritas, and a gay club, Mix-Excess— mentioned with pride in the state tourist index.htm brochure—whose extravagance put anything His personal site is in http:// in Rio or Sao Paulo to shame. I counted 30 multi-point lasers on three megalights re-




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Profile for Brazzil Magazine

Brazzil - Year 13 - Number 187 - October 2001  

Brazzil - Year 13 - Number 187 - October 2001