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MUSIC: A musical revolution in Curitiba

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They didn't quite get there yet. Still they can be seen everywhere: in the Army, driving buses, piloting planes, in the tribunals and even as Supreme Justice. The they we are talking about are Brazilian women. Some people might not have noticed, but in Brazil there are already more women psychologists (89 percent), lawyers (59) and doctors (54) than men. South America's most populous and important town, Sao Paulo, has just elected a woman, Marta Suplicy, for mayor. And a woman judge, Ellen Northfleet, the great-granddaughter of an American refugee, has been appointed for the Federal Supreme Court. These are impressive numbers when you know for example that until 1932 Brazilian women were not allowed to vote and that in 1970 there were a mere 18.5 percent of women working outside the home. Today women represent 51 percent of the country's workforce. This picture could be even brighterweren't forthe fact that women are still making much less than men toiling in the same position. In average they earn 60 percent of what a man takes home. Another distressing news is the fact that one quarter of all Brazilian families has now a woman as head of the household. What might be seen in other circumstances as a sign of progress is mainly a reflex of family disintegration and destitution. By and large, however, the portrait we present on our cover story is one full of promise.

Send mail to: P.O. Box 50536 - Los Angeles, CA 90050-0536 Ads/Editorial: (323) 255-8062 Subscrip.: (323) 255-4953 Fax: (323) 257-3487 Brazzil on line: E-mail: Publisher and Editor: Rodney Mello Assistant Editor: Leda Bittencourt Art&Design Director: Marina Yoshie

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Cover Good news from the female front Cover by Salvino Campos

Contents UI

Fashion Gisele, ma belle


Law US expatriates adoptee


For Laughs US still counting the votes


Amazon Looking for a better defense


Politics Impunity is forever

21 21

Ecology Amazon is ours alone Rumors America's new geography

24 27

Short Story "A Farnilia" by Mafra Carbon en


Travel Rio, way after sunset

31 31

Travelogue I left my sweet tooth in Rio Government Bringing more bureaucracy to the US


Impressions Fragile, precious Sao Luis

42 52

Music The original sounds of Curitiba

Immigration Brazilians take the Midwest

Medicine Brave Escola Tropicalista Baiana

Departments OB Rapidinhas 10 letters 49 Cultural Pulse 51 Classifieds 52 That's Brazilian

WWW. aff11311 .00 M BRAZZIL - DECEMBER 2000


Fashion Naughty Uberbelle Despite repeated statements by the supermodel herself about how ephemeral her career would be, Brazilian Gisele Caroline Bilndchen, 20, continues to shine in the rarefied firmament of super stardom. After gracing hundreds of magazine covers and appearing in fashion shows and ads, the model, who leapt to international fame in 1999, was chosen as the entrĂŠe for the 2001 Pirelli calendar, a free, limited edition publication (40,000 copies) that is sought after the world over. Giselle was chosen for the month of January. Having started as a staple of greasy auto shops, the Pirelli calendar today is a luxury item, an object ofdesire that few people ever acquire. Gisele needs no introduction. She is the world's most famous iThermodel today. The beauty, who won Vogue's Model of the Year Award last year, was discovered at the age of 14. She was born July 20, 1980, in the little town of Nova Horizontina (pop. 17,000), in the state ofRio Grande do Sul, inthesouth of Brazil. She told French magazineParisMatch: "I was called Olive Toothpick, after Popeye's wife, or even The Skeleton. I looked like a little mosquito. My legs were the same size as my arms. And I was never allowed into the group of girls who tarted themselves up to go dancing and entice the boys." Gisele has been the talk of the world: dozens of websites with her pictures have sprouted and magazines write about her romance with Titanic's Leonardo Di Caprio. One of her latest assignments was to model in provocative poses for lingerie maker Victoria's Secret. The Brazilian president received her at the end ofNovember and Globo TV wants her in the cast of Porto dos Milagres (Miracles Port), anew novela (soap opera) on the dominant network TV in Brazil, which is rumored to be the most expensive serial Globo has ever produced. Each half-hour episode is expected to cost $100,000 compared to today's per episode cost of $75,000. Four months ago the model went through a screen test for the leading role of facobina, a movie by director Fabio Barreto, whose 0 Quatrilho (1995) was nominated for an Oscar as Best Foreign Movie. Gisele never thought she would become famous for her beauty. Now British tabloids say that the Brazilian model is the first name on Revlon's list to replace Cindy Crawford, 34, who was fired after being the symbol for the cosmetics company for 11 years. Gisele was the target of criticism recently for having posed for the British men's magazine Arena. Controversial American photographer David LaChapel le took the pictures that some people called "depraved." While the model is not shown totally undressed in the 25-page photo essay, her poses have provoked furor. In one of the pictures Gisele is shown lying on a kitchen table with her right leg raised as she holds a rolling pin in her left hand touching her black panties. On


Beauty and the President

1 to


' Gisele in the Pirelli calendar Le


the table there are an empty egg carton, a pan with flour on it and a just baked phallic-shaped cookie. Standing on a chair facing Gisele is a child with closed eyes and raised arms. In another picture she holds.a nighta police cap black bra stick d while wearing panties. Another page show: her holding a green snake while gardening on all fours. On the cover of Arena in whichthe ' ince model appears for the thirdtinte --.s---- 1oot sheis washing tired Once again theint ls sexual fantasies with th recalls hand belle clutching a water hose with one Brazilian while holding a sponge full of soap in the

Cold Empire of law

Brazil's bevy of beauties doesn't stop withl4BOndchen.ThePire oil ofitself ca esi:eildar them has three other belles in its pages, - (including Gisele) shotby Italy. mpher Mario Testino in Na Y. are Ana Cliudia Michels Fp and Mariana Weickert. Four nods from Pirelli to Brazilian charm only 40,000 pripeagrdiginliV4rka— world will get tit calendar throughout ughout.the _ .. tit beauties Is able to see e Brazilian ies http://www.pirellLcorn.: together " beauties They are all t of other countries: January: Blindcheren• Feb A:PI'lutralel March: Karen Elso nlna;IY May: Mariano VVeichert; June: Fernandá Tavares; July: Angela Lindvall; August: Ana Cbludia Michels; September: Llisa Winkler; October: Noemie4.4enoir; Novem• ber: Frankie Rayder; December: Carmen Fernanda, 20, also started early is a ion model. She was sti1113when she st in her first TV commercial. BQIII in capital of Rio Grande do Norte, the model moved to Sclo Paulo with herfamily When she was 14. She got her big break dime years ago when she went to work for the Marilyn Agency, which invited her to live in Paris. Within a few weeks hercareer took oft Soon she was modeling for Chanel and Chloe and appearing in Europe's main fashion magazines. Ana Claudia, 19, is fromBlumena of Santa Catarina. Her faceandbody should be recognized everywhere since she is starring in the new Calvin Klein's jeans campaign. She' s being called thenewTWiggy by fashion writers forthe way she looks at you. She became well known in Brazil after appearingon billboards forNI. Officer, aclothes manufacturer. Mariana, 20, has been called Barbra Streisand due to her likeness to the Ameri•an actress and singer. She is what can be called an exotic beauty with freckles and anot very appealing nose, bi a recent acl campaign or Ellus she appeared as one Charlie's Angels— or Ellus Angels as they are called in the promotion of the Brazilian clothes manufacturer. Mariana has been living in "New York City for the past three years. BRAZZIL - DECEMBER 2000

• Jelin Herbert, 22, has been in =dunce November sn't speak any Portuguese d has lived 15 years in as the adopted son of an Ame can con*, Jim Her Saunders, being deported to his ative Brazil was the on to get out ofjail. Despite being I gaily adopted. Herbert aforeignerbecausehisparentsna er applied for his natural adoption, .wbolivedinaBraziliaño to sel falling into a police • • ktiwelotbes policeman fro s e yo on bumanitariSii he was not p family to go so claimed t adoption is an genceAvon and t of his. razilhins •in a SäOP UJ to live with y in the streetsof foreigner eel mov • Brazil in schooLEV '*a people in theUnited States are s as it happened tome?' Hispri He isalreadysayingsornew The youngster also confi

e interior of S eertsaidthati d,"betoldrepoi verydiff'ercnt.fn ormy nrg e nine th

. His hit o chin' •tsintlieU but is is netn et gi but also the otasdimatical1yas arotm rdingtoi rejectedanddepo ` de zi : at the endPfNovember by del ethe Ai'ccf) ziliart " matic 667% increase in depo tioEnoelifcBrliow ths this y at lIvul Jan Police 1999. Numbers from the F othercountr from tober 1,359 Braziliattswere tumedhomefromthe foreign Brazilians of 1999 there were 177 cases 20 ?a on7 2° 0,fin' stances pf urrenwere BYet*e In a single day in Nowa There ban average ofsix such tekaday M°sttimes people suspect that the person ith a tourist visa wishes torn country. Most of the deported ome from the states ofSlio Paulo Janeiro and Minas Gerais. The by nited States loads the countries more Brazilians back, followe and more thatsi reoen England, Portugal, Mexico. Not every one that is sent k was thinking about living illegally. the foreign country, but the de ortation experience is away*humiliatu and many times cruel. Some kept incommunicado for hours or da in the airport andare Mken Mh •dcuffs tattle plane. Their passportis co fiscated by the police and giv to the plane crew who gives itthentotl Brazilian federal police.


Like the rest of the world, Brazilians had a raucous and am rthful time USA follow ing the post-election fiasco conducted by its northern neig-Abors in the United States of America. Besides repeating jokes told around the world Brazilians had a chance to deal with their own inferiority complex and for a change felt superior to the Americans. TSE s (Tribunal Superior E le korai —Electoral Supreme Tribunal) Information Secretary, Paulo Cesar Camara°, called the American model for voting archaic. "The U.S. eectronic ballot box is the size of a refrigerator," he said, amused. Our system, besides being uniform across tie country, is also inviolable, fraud proof, and we are able to announce the results faster?' We can almost see him laughing while saying this. After all, Brazil has just had national elections in which every v ate—around 110 million of them—was cast electronically ma computer terminal a little bigger than a shoebox, which showed the pictures oldie candidates so voters could confirm he or she was the correct person before casting their votes. In less than six hours (5 hours and 42 minutes to be precise) after the end of the elections tie TSE already had die official results from 325,000 ballot boxes throughout the nation. For the pre4dent of TSE, minister Nerida Silveira, it's waving that the U.S. doesn't have a national roster of voters and its system has no antifraud security. Forums on the Internet opened their pages so leople could talk about the U,S. election. Hundreds of messages were posted at the (iI:obo portal "Do you see what happens when you are outdated technologically'," asked Celso Polettka (veneza® Not only in elections but also in their banking system Americans are behind compared to Brazilians. Contrary to what happens in the U.S., the Finance Min. sty, for example, acc cpts tax returns via the %tenet." Lucia Maria de Lima ( wrote that Brazilians could teach something to Americans regarding voting: "When the subject is elections the U.S. is a Third World couna-y. It's unacceptable that a .-wintry that exercises its power over the world, that goes to space, that keeps secrets, bungles it so tenibly when it's time to elect the planet's 'most powerful' maa." Some people were mad to see their fellow 13raziliars so wonied with what was happening up north. "I think this discussion is a total waste of time," wrote Eric Souza dos Santos ( "I' d like to lcnow ifthese two American citizens are going to be elected president ofthe wadi or ofa single country? I can' t understand why Brazili are so worried with an election in which whoever Win!. Will not change at all the imperialistic relation of the U. towards the rest ofthe undedeveloped world. Do y au think they discuss the fights between our Rio Governor Garotinho with mayor Cesar Maia? Or the fights between senator /UMW° Carlos Magalhaes and President Fernando Henrique Cardoso? They don't even know what the capital of Brazil is. Stop this hie-Toone-1y and come back to reality. Beware Uncle Sam." Eli Teixeira ( says that Brazilians should pity the American . - bp e or having suc an outdated way of voting and invites Brazilians to be sofidarity: "Besides the huge fiasco of showing the rest of the world an election in which the results came so late and which was subject to mistakes and fraud, there is something even worse: the indirect election, which can elevate to the presidency a candidate who the majority has not elected In face of all of this, we Brazilians, who recently got rid of a regime of oppression, have to offer our solidarity to the American people. Let's lend them our slogans: "The people united, will never be defeated! Democracy in the USA! Direct (elections) now!" For Christiana Buena ( tie American embarrassment and humiliation is a good lesson for the country: "They are finally tasting what hr is to be underdeveloped with their primitive system of elections. We should send a committee of observers and share with them our technology in electronic ballot boxes, which is perfect for the exercise of a true and fair popular election by direct vote." And Ismenia Albuquerque ( went a little further: "The mask has fallen. The U.S. has shown what in fact it is: a fraud." "The problem is that Americans are too dumb," concluded Ronaldo Fontoura ( Echoing the feeling of other quarters, Mauro Simtes ( made fun of the U.S.: "Due do our interests in that country, I think Brazil should send observers to follow the ballot counting. Is this a new idea or have I heard it before in a reversed way?" To which Wit:nor litarique ( added: "The U.S. is having the election it deserves. This way Americans will learn they are not superior to anything or anyone. They are always interfering in questions of cther countries but are unable hold an election with openness and competence. Don't you think there ought to be an international intervention in the American elections? Didn't it happen in Peru, Venezuela...?" Concurring with many c f these opinions and aointing to the good example of Brazil, The New York Times wrote in its op-ed page on Noverr ber 24: "One very important lesson of the 2000 presidential election, regardless of its

Better tin Tin



outcome, is already clear—you get what you pay for when it comes to tabulating ballots. America's unwillingness to invest in a reliable, up-to-date system for casting and counting votes has helped produce the chaos that now clouds the outcome of the presidential election. "Brazil, a country larger than the continental United States, held the first national election conducted entirely on an A.T.M. system, with resounding success. More than 100 million people voted on 186,000 machines. Alas, in America, the land of rapid technological change, the act of voting remains a nostalgic one. In New York, we use the same machines our grandparents did1, and a third of Americans attempt to punch out chads that were state of the art the year the Beatles appeared on 'The Ed Sullivan Show."

REIO BRAM !ENV, ft400.nomi


Disenchantment Luis Fernando Verissimo, who lived and studied in the United Statesand is one oftlie mostrespectedwriters in B couldn't resist going back again and again to the American fiasco in his daily column in the dailies 0 Globo (from and 0 Estado de S. Paulo. In one of them, after explaining the reason for the electoral college (it was created to maintain the balance between the agrarian Southern states and the North that was growing demographically) he concluded: "With the present mix-up it is even possible that the Americans may reform the Constitution and put an end to the electoral college, and the popular vote—preferably registered on trustworthy machines, as it happens in developed places like Caruaru (alittletovvn in the backlands)—becomes decisive. And, more than 200 years afterwards, the spirit ofthe admirable document in which for the first time it was put on paper that common men e equal to kings, will prevail over their hypocrisies. Verissimo returned again to the same topic on November 15 in a piece called "Disillusion, Disillusion": "No else was serious; we couldn't trust anything else but the American democracy. There it was a society• that, say what the might, could give the world lessons of how an electoral system of free choice by direct suffrage works, and frequently gave, Now we find out that all the recent American elections, done with the same confusing methods and obsolete mechanisms as this last one are under suspicion—and that the suffrage, after all, was never direct. Nothing is serious anymore, there's nothing we can trust." Andvithen Florida had already certified the victory of Bush, Verissimo came once again to the theme writing: The United States should propose a UN emergency meeting to discuss sanctions against Florida, that weird place in the shape of an appendix in which the presidential elections were defrauded more shamefully than in Yugoslavia. An mil intervention by theNATO forces to end the ethnic cleansing of votes for Gore wouldiet be advisable,sincetherewoir always be the possthility of the bombs missing their target and killing Mickey Mouse, with international repercussions, but an economic blockade like the one they have against Cuba and Iraq would be justifiable. In the recent unacceptable elections in Yugoslavia the fraud was more discreet. At least the authority in charge of saying if the votes could be counted or not had not participated actively in Milosevic's campaign, as the State secretary of Florida did in Bush's campaign." Writing at Folha de Seto Paulo, Ricardo Freire had a good time making fun of the U.S. in an article entitled, 'America Doesn't Know how to Vote.' "The United States might have asked for help from their technologically advanced neighbors like Brazil. We would send immediately a load of electronic ballot boxes—used onesfor sure but in perfect working condition. The Quixeramobim (a funny-named village in the interior of backward Ceara state) ballot boxes for example. Our election ended and they are there, inactive, waiting for the next. This way the Palm Beach folks could vote without any mistakes. Because all they had to do was to punch a number, wait for the picture of George W. Bush or Al Gore to appear and then press the CONFIRMA key. "To make things easier, instead ofthe candidates' pictures, the electronic ballot boxes loaned to the Americans could show little drawings of the running parties' symbols. If the Palm Beach voter punched the Republican oaadidate's number, the image of an elephant would appear. If the Palm Beach voter punched the Democrat candidate's number, the image of a little donkeiwould appear. I know thatbynow you don't believe anything! write, but I SWEAR the Republican Party symbol is an elephant, and that the Democrat Party symbol is a little donkey. A little don-key "1"Itis obvious that a country that allows the alternating of power between little elephants and little donkeys can't really go far in life... "How long will our brothers from the North put up with being at the technological rear end of the continent? How long will they allow their elites to shroud emselves in their own backwardness, boycotting high-end technology developed verseas? The United States cannot insist anymore in its provincialism, in the illusion that they will be able to continue immune to globalization. Fat chance. Sooner or later the free market will take care of bringing to the Americans technological innovations from the outside world. Things like direct elections, the etric system, football (soccer), sunga (short swim trunks), avocado with sugar."



Everyone in Brazil independent of political affiliation seems to be interested in the defense ofthe Amazon these days. With American troops training in neighboring Colombia fears of an invasion have increased. VillasBoas Correa, a well-known political commentator for Rio's daily Jornal do Brasilhas raised the issue recently. In Congress, Mozarildo Cavalcanti, senator for the state of Roraima, also touched on the matter of a possible American invasion. Brazilian borders with Colombia are 1,700 km (1,062 miles) long, an area sparsely populated and with an insignificant Brazilian military presence. It is a wide open border where guerrillas, drug traffickers, weapon smugglers, and bio-pirates all come and go freely. Cavalcanti does not embrace the old idea of massive occupancy of the border by stimulating internal migration. Disorderly occupation by crowds of peasants ignorant of local cultures and habits is not something he 7w,' accepts since past experience showed it to be predatory. He also has no illusion that it is possible to maintain the Amazon untouched. He believes, however, that the Amazon should be occupied according to well-prepared ecological projects that have shown viability and efficiency in the past. In his own state of Roraima, as well as in the stare of Amapa, self-sustaining projects were established with excellent results and were internationally recognized as such. Careful occupation does not destroy but protects forest reserves, teaches the senator. The senator also warns that the military should modify ancient concepts, abandoning their old colonial strategy that concentrates the defense of the country on sea borders as if to defend Brazil from foreign invasion by sea. While there is a concentration of 44,000 military men in Rio, in the Brazilian Amazon, which occupies over two thirds of the country's territory, there are only 22,000. Cavalcanti believes that the United States intervention in Colombia will not end soon. He says that Brazil has to accept the facts and protect its territory near seven bordering South American countries. The geopolitics ofthe Amazon must change, he argues, pointing that natives who live along the border feel more like Bolivians and Venezuelans than Brazilians, Among the senator's solutions are the rearranging ofthe Brazilian territorial division in order to assure more efficient administration, and better territorial defense and geographical equilibrium of the country. Cavalcanti is the author of three projects proposing a referendum, as the Constitution determines, to create three new states: SolimOes, on the west side of the Amazonas state; TapajOs, on the west side of the Para State; and Araguaia on the north side of Mato Grosso state. Approved with a few changes by a special senate committee, the matter will be voted on next year in the Senate and then by the full Congress. The Fernando Henrique Cardoso administration likes the idea; the Ministry of Defense approves of it. Despite the odds in his favor, Cavalcanti is not overly optimistic. He says, "This is a long and difficult struggle, but this is the only way we will be able to prevent the risk of foreign interference in the region." Fifty years ago this December 2001, a Brazilian cowboy roped a small plane and almost dropped it to a ranch pasture. If his rope had not broken, Eucl ides Guterres of Arroyo do SO, from Santa Maria, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, might have been with the first lasso kill of a flying object. As a result, Irineu Noal, a young member of the Santa Maria Aero Club, lost his flying license, paid a fine, and was barred from taking up any aircraft belonging to the Club. The penalty was imposed on Noal for his conduct "unbecoming a gentleman and a pilot" by harassing cattle and people with his joy rides repeated dives and low level passes that, according to the Club records, had "jeopardized the plane and threatened life and limb of the pilot and of people on the ground.". It took international news services some time to find out whether the "COWBOY LASSOES PLANE" item was legitimate. Ofcourse, most not even knew where Rio Grande do Sul—Brazil's southernmost State—was located. After verification, Time magazine did print a 36-line story in its February 11, 1952 edition. Guten-es, never known for more than his liking of dark eyes women and his inclination to join fist free-for-all, later moved to Uruguay where he traded in cattle. A few years later, he returned to his home pagos and sank back into obscurity. Today, nobody even knows when he died. As to the foolhardy pilot, Noal —now a seasoned senior member ofthe Santa Maria society—dismisses lightly his adventure: "It was a little boy's joke," he says.

Sky Cowboy



illtilig the Tide Of all changes occurred in the last two decades, the most impressive was the massive entrance of Brazilian women into the nation's workforce. They are in the Army, the Brazilian Academy of Letters, and all the government branches. The first woman was just appointed to the 11seat Supreme Federal Tribunal. MARTA ALVIM

Benedita da Silva BRAZZ1L - DECEMBER 2000

Nea y sixty years ago, songwriters Ataulfo Alves and M io Lago teamed up to compose what would become one of the most enduring hits in the history of Brazili n popular music. It was an unpretentious samba, led Ai, quesaudades da Amelia, and it struck a chord ith both male and female audiences throughout Br il. Lago's lyrics rhapsodized about a former melia, "a mulher de verdade" (the real lover woman who had stuck by her partner faithfully under e most excruciating circumstances. Thai samba so accurately mirrored society's entrenche I view on the "proper" role of females that before I ing, Amelia was unofficially incorporated into the (Br ilian) Portuguese vernacular. According to the Aurelio ictionary (Brazil's most prestigious), Amelia is syno ymous with "a woman who accepts all sorts of affli • ions and/or abuse, without complaining, for the love of her man." Even today's generation of young Brazili ns knows what "ser uma Amelia" (to be an Ameli ) means, although the number of Brazil's Amelia has since dwindled considerably. Br ilian women have arrived at the end of the 20th century with a long list of achievements to celebrate. Be they amous or unknown, they've achieved the right to vote d decide what to do with their own bodies with 11

The Female Revolution Women are the majority in the following professions: 97% Social Workers Speech Therapists 97% Receptionists and Phone Operators 92% Librarians and Archeologists 92% Nurses and Nutritionists 91% Domestic Workers 90% Psychologists 89% 77% Teachers 71% Beauticians 59% Lawyers 54% Physicians Men and women tie in the following areas: Judicial System Workers Biologists Administrative Assistants Dentists College Professors Architects Artists Civil Servants Journalists

The Feminist Movement 52% 51% 51% 50% 50% 50% 49% 48% 47%

Women are the minority in the following segments: Engineers Agronomists Metal Workers Chemists Bricklayers Pilots Longshoremen Mechanics

9% 9% 3% 2% 1% 1% 0.5% 0.5%

Source: Secretariat of Federal Revenue

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • Parliamentary representation of • women in different parts of the world: • • • Europe 15.5 0/0 • 14.9% Asia • Americas 14.7% • • 10.9% Africa 7% • Brazil • Arab nations 4% • • Source: Inter-Parliamentary • • Union • Women in World Politics

• • • • • • • • • OOOOOOOOOOO 12

regards to birth control. They have stormed the workplace and taken over traditionally held male realms. They have demanded and succeeded in putting a stop to the impunity bestowed upon wife killers, who invariably got acquitted for their "crimes of passion" by pleading the "honor defense" on the grounds of wife's adultery. It hasn't been easy to overcome cultural barriers against Brazilian women, especially since the laws of the nation only reinforced women's marginal role in society. Until the early '60s, Brazil's Civil Code recognized only the man as the sole head of the household, and it greatly restricted women's rights concerning fundamental aspects ofher life. By getting married, for instance, women became subject to their husbands' authorization just to sign a work contract; to open a checking or savings account; to travel abroad; and she did not even have a say when it came down to deciding where the couple would set up residence. In 1962, those resolutions were stripped off the Civil Code, and the following years were marked by significant changes. For one thing, women's enrollment in Brazilian universities soared, and that in turn increased their presence in less traditional areas of the job market. However, it wasn't until the mid '70s that the first organized women's groups started to blossom and to spread all over the country.

Although the ideas ofAmerican feminist Betty Friedan and French philosopher Simone de Beauvoir were discussed and debated by Brazilian women in the early stages of Brazil's feminism, Brazilian women's movements have always been more active and successful in dealing with concrete social issues. Whereas in the United States women were proclaiming free love, in Brazil the Female Movement Against High Prices was demanding more food for the nation's households. And while hordes of French women took to the streets of Paris, demanding the right to have an abortion, in Brazil the Female Movement for Amnesty was confronting the military dictatorship, which then ruled Brazil with an iron fist. Thousands of husbands had either disappeared or been arrested under the military rule, and women were fighting to bring them home. However, this doesn't mean to say that no reshaping of Brazilian attitudes towards women was taking place on other fronts. The media began to openly discuss issues related to women's sexuality, including some that had been taboo subjects before, such as lesbianism and birth control. Plays, movies and TV soap operas also reveled in these new sources of inspiration and reference. In 1980, Malu Mu/her (Malu Woman) was the most popular and successful TV program in Brazil. In its weekly episodes, it depicted the daily struggles and achievements ofa divorcee— Malu. Divorce had been legalized three years prior to that, in 1977, and Malu Mu/her symbolized the doubts and expectations of Brazilian women at that time. In addition, none other than Regina Duarte had been chosen to star as Malu. The famous actress, nicknamed the "Namoradinha do Brasil" (Brazil's Sweetheart, due to the docile roles she played in numerous soap operas) had been the archetype of a submissive woman, through the characters she impersonated on TV. So out went Ai que saudades da Amelia, and in came Come car de Novo (Starting Over), the Malu Mu/her theme song by Ivan Lins and V itor Martins, which became the hit of the season. It was also during the mid '70s and the early '80s that Brazilian feminists waged a relentless campaign targeting violence against women by pressuring the judicial system into properly prosecuting and punishing those so-called crimes of passion which previously had been committed with impunity. For centuries, Brazil's legal system condoned the murder of unfaithful wives, companions and lovers. During the colonial period, a man could use the honor defense if he had caught his wife in the act of adultery and killed her, or her lover. Although the Brazilian Penal Code officially abolished this type of defense in 1830, this BRAZZIL - DECEMBER 2000

practice nonetheless continued to be widely used in 20th century modern Brazil. The women's upheaval came in the wake of several infamous, high-profile murders, whose victims were, among others, Angela Diniz, shot by playboy Doca Street; Eliane de Grammont, murdered by popular bolero singer Lindomar Castilho; Eloisa Balesteros, killed by her wealthy mineiro (from Minas Gerais State) husband, just to name a few. With the slogan Quem ama net?) mata (He, who loves, doesn't kill) and by staging widely publicized street protests, demonstrations and petitions, Brazilian feminists managed to mobilize the nation around their cause. In 1985, the governor of Sao Paulo State, Franco Montoro, created the first specialized women's police station (DEAM) to assist the female population. Today, there are 255 DEAMs across the country. However, of all the changes that occurred in the last two decades, the most impressive was the massive entrance of Brazilian women into the nation's workforce. They have gained access to once-exclusive male enclaves such as the Army, the police force, the Brazilian Academy of Letters, the judicial system, and the legislative and executive branches of government. Just last October, President Fernando Henrique Cardoso appointed the first woman to the 11-seat Supreme Federal Tribunal, Brazil's highest court. Work Conditions In 1970, 18.5 percent of Brazilian women worked outside the home. A recent study conducted by Seade Foundation (an entity linked to the government of Sao Paulo State) shows that women now represent 51 percent of Brazil's workforce, compared to 47 percent in 1994. The same study reveals that 43 percent of the country's women have a High School diploma, compared to 35 percent six years ago. Another revealing indication of the widespread participation of women in Brazil's job market comes from the income tax returns of Brazil's working population. Data provided by the Secretariat of Federal Revenue confirm that women are active in nearly all professional categories and have even surpassed their male counterparts in several of those. (See accompanying chart.) In the corporate world, changes are evident as well, although women are still the minority in decision-making positions. One remarkable exception is Maria Silvia Bastos Marques, now CEO of National Steel Company (CSN). Last year, she was the only woman featured among the twelve most important business personalities selected by Time magazine. Ironically, until three years ago, the very same CSN didn't have any female restrooms at its industrial unit in the town of Volta Redonda. Other companies, such as Merrill Lynch, are hiring an increasing number of female workers. Ofthe 244 people employed by Merrill Lynch' s Brazilian branch, 42 percent are women, but only a third occupies high-ranking positions. Carmaker Citroen is betting on a bolder hiring approach, though. Last October, the company opened a Sao Paulo dealership in which all of the employees—from management to reception and security, as well as all the mechanics—are female. Citroen's decision was made after company research revealed that the women's opinions are decisive in the sale of seven out of ten cars in Brazil. However, not all that is well ends well. On average, Brazilian working women still earn 60 percent of what their male counterparts earn in the same position. In the United States, that difference has been decreasing and is now up to 82 percent. Much needs to be done to fully implement and enforce the existing labor laws as well, although women's organizations agree that Brazil's labor legislation is relatively satisfactory and even more advanced than in other countries. For instance, Brazilian women are granted 120 days of paid maternity leave, with the State covering 100 percent of their salaries during that period. Other countries offer fewer days, such as Argentina (90 days) and the U.S. (84 days). Legislation in Australia and the United States guarantees job stability, but no payment of wages. BFtAZZIL - DECEMBER 2000

The Trailblazers 1534 — Ana Pimentel takes on the administration of SAo Vicente Province. 1752— Brazilian Teresa Margarida da Silva Orta is the first woman to publish a book in Portuguese. The book, titled Proverbs on Virtue and Beauty, was published in Portugal. 1814—Ma \Teri, the pioneer of Brazil's nursing movement, is born. 1882 —Maria Augusta Generoso Estrella graduates from New York Medical College and Hospital for Women, becoming Brazil's first female physician. Due to the repercussion of her case, Brazilian higher education schools opened their doors to women in 1881. 1888 — Princess Isabel, Brazil's regent during the second Empire, signs the end of slavery into law. 1899 — Chi quinha Gonzaga, the first Brazilian female songwriter, composes"OAbre-Alae, Brazil's first Camaval tune. 1914— Euge nia Brandao, hired by carioca (from Rio Janeiro) newspaper A Rua, becomes the first Brazilian female reporter. 1918— Mar a Jose de Castro Rabelo Mendes is appointed to the Ministry of Foreign Relations, a.k.a. Itamaraty, as the first female diplomat. Initially barred from taking Itamaraty's grueling entrance examination, she eventually took the test and placed first in the examination process. 1922—Berta Lutz founds the Brazilian Federation for the Advancement of Females, which later becomes a fundamental tool in the movement for the women's right to vote. In 1932, Brazilian women voted for the first time—ahead ofFrance, Switzerland and Argentina. 1922 — Ansia Pinheiro Machado receives her license from the International Aviation Federation, and is the first woman to pilot an airplane in Brazil. 1928— Alzira Soriano, the first woman to run for office in the country, is elec ed mayor of Laj es, in Rio Grande do Norte State. 1930 — Gaticha (from Rio Grande do Sul State) Yolanda Pereira is the first Brazilian to win the Miss Universe pageant. 1932— Swimmer Maria Lenk is the first Brazilian and South American female to participate in the Olympic Games, which was held in Los Angeles that year. 1933 — Carlota Pereira de Queiroz is the first female elected to Brazil's Lower House. 1939— Caxmen Miranda leaves for the United States and is the first Brazilian woman to succeed in Hollywood. 1947— Do a Ivone Lara is the first female songwriter welcomed into the composers rank of a Brazilian samba school and is one of the fnunders of Imperio Serrano. 1958 —Brazilian Maria Esther I3ueno is the youngest tennis player to win the Wimbledon tournament at the age of 18. 1961 — In Germany, Brazilian Marcia Haydee becomes Stutgart Ballet's first ballerina. 1971 —Leila Diniz shocks the country by wearing a bikini in Ipanema Beach while proudly displaying her six-month pregnant belly. 1977 — Writer Rachel de Queiroz is the first woman elected to the Brazilian Academy of Letters. 1979— Eunice Michiles is elected the first female senator in Brazil. 1982—Esther de Figueiredo Ferraz, the first Brazilian female minister, is appointed to the Ministry of Education. 1994— Benedita da Silva is the first Afro-Brazilian woman elected to the ration's Senate. 1994 —Roseana Samey is elected Brazil's first female govemor, in the state of Maranhao. 1996—Writer Nelida Pifion is the first woman to preside over the Brazilian Academy of Letters. 1999 — Actress Fernanda Montenegro is the first Brazilian woman nominated for an Oscar, for her role in Central do Brasil (Central Station). 2000 - Ellen Gracie Northfieet, the great-granddaughter of an American expatriate who left Virginia for Brazil after the Civil War, is the first female appointed to Brazil's highest court, the Supreme Federal Tribunal. (Female judges already represent approximately 40 percent of all Brazilian judges.) 13

In Brazil, problems arise because many companies systematically ignore the labor statutes. According to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), 26 percent of all heads of households (approximately one out of four) in Brazil were women in 1999, compared to 23 percent in 1995. However, rather than a sign of emancipation, the increase in the number of Brazilian female heads of household is more symptomatic of family disintegration and poverty. Abandoned by their husbands and companions, women are left to fend for themselves, usually with the added responsibility to provide for their children, as,their partners often disappear without paying any kind of child support. The situation is tragic, especially among low-income women. Unable to afford private daycare centers and faced with limited choices of public,funded centers, those women often have no choice but to leave their minor children alone in charge of the household and of themselves while they are away at work. On the other hand, working middle-class women have become increasingly +ore dependent on hired household help. Approximately 17 million women make a living as domestic workers in Brazil. Few laws are on the books to protect these workers, though. For centuries,IBrazilian labor legislation has systematically ignored this professional subcategory, where workers often toil under conditions resembling slavery. Seventy percent of domestic workers are black women, and the majority of them are either the primary, or the only breadwinners in their family. The average income in households where females are the sole breadwinners is only 2.6 times the minimum wage, versus 6.3 times for families where men are the primary providers. Brazilian feminists have dubbed this phenomenon "the feminization of poverty". Dona Lila vai esperar Cava.; para o jantar. Pag. 5A Political representation Brazilian women still represent only a small fraction of the country's top-level politicians. Although a woman recently was elected mayor of Sao Paulo, Brazil's largest city, only 7 percent of all federal deputies and senators in the legislative branch are women, and President Cardoso has not yet appointed a single woman to join the government. That could change, though. Today, 55.4 percent of Brazilian voters are females, versus 54.1 percent of male voters. In the year 2000 municipal elections, women won only 11.5 percent of seats on city councils in 5,500 municipalities and only five of the 26 capital states' mayoral races. However, the number of female mayors countrywide has increased 85 percent in the last three elections, from 171 mayors in 1992 to 317 in 2000. Until now, no woman has ever been considered to Brazil's vice-presidency, much less to the presidency. If Marta Suplicy, mayor-elect of Sao Paulo, can prove she's a capable administrator, she might become the second female presidential hopeful, along with Roseana Sarney. Maranhense (from Maranhao state) Sarney, Brazil's only female governor, has been recognized as a skillful administrator with an exceptional ability to cross party lines.

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Brazilian families have changed a great deal overthe past few decades. RIO UMW IGNEJA CPI do Walla oo stwro nos One of the most significant demographic changes is the sharp decline in la descuipa oak/ cousos strosokas our tiro rai ram birthrate. In 1965, the fertility rate was 5.7 children per woman; today, it's 2.3. According to the Civil Society for Family Wellfare in Brazil Flnd o pole Gil gook (Bern fam), 99.6 percent of Brazilian women are aware of some type of comPe. 1"0 modern contraceptive method. However, sterilization is still one of the Palnudra. zons most frequently used methods of contraception in Brazil. Four out of ten , gen galada sexually active women of childbearing age have been sterilized. This situation can be attributed at least in part to negligence in the public health sector, which still lacks a comprehensive healthcare program for the nation's women. Women's organizations, researchers and even government officials all lament the excessive use of sterilization in the country, which borders on abuse. Whereas in developed nations only 7.6 percent of women choose sterilization over other contraceptives, in Brazil 27.3 percent of women opt for this ultimate resource. In 1986, the Ministry of Health designed a project called PAISM (Program ofIntegral Attention to Woman's Health) that was supposed to address not only the contraception issue, but also intended to reduce illness and deaths among women and children. Unfortunately, the program has yet to be effectively implemented. As a result, pregnancy-related mortality is still remarkably high-150 deaths per 100 thousand live births. In the United States, that ratio is 10 to 100 thousand. It is estimated that 14 percent of all pregnant women have no prenatal care whatsoever. Moreover, cervical cancer, which is curable and preventable, is now the main cause of death among non-pregnant Brazilian women. Only about 10 percent of Brazilian women undergo periodical Pap smears (a procedure used to detect this type of cancer at an early stage). Another 10 thousand women die every year as a result ofillegal abortions. Still outlawed in Brazil, it is estimated that 1 million clandestine abortions are performed every year. Complications arising

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from botched procedures are the fifth leading cause of hospitalization in the country, at a cost to the State of nearly $30 million a year. Only recently did the Brazilian Congress pass a bill that will allow women to seek abortions in cases of rape or imminent risk to the woman's life. On another front, there is an alarming increase in the number of AIDS cases among Brazilian women. International health organizations have praised Brazil's government for its swift actions to prevent this deadly disease, which has dropped sharply among Brazilian men. However, Brazilian health officials acknowledge that they have been unable to stop the spread of the HIV virus among women. Two decades ago, there was one HIV-positive woman for every 27 men; today, there is one for every three. According to the World Health Organization, 100 thousand Brazilian women are now HIV-positive. Sadly, the great majority of infected women are married and were completely unaware that their husbands carried the virus. Many were infected while they were pregnant and therefore not concerned about the use of contraceptives. One important factor is that many women are inhibited in insisting on the use of condoms by their own submissiveness or by intimidation from their husbands or companions. Behavior

• IBM•II•• •

•••• •••••••••••••••••

Comecar e Novo • • (Ivan Lins'Vitor artins) • • Comecar e novo • E contar comigo • Vai vale a pena • • Ter am hecido • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Starting over

• •

Starting over And counting on me It will be worthwhile That morning has come

• •

Ter me ebelado Ter me ebatido Ter me ma hucado Ter sob evivido

That I rebelled That I struggled That I hurt myself That I survived

Ter virad a mesa Ter me c nhecido Ter virad o barco Ter me socorrido

That I turned the table That I knew myself That I turned the boat That I rescued myself

• • • • • • •

Comecar de novo E contat comigo Vai valer a pena Ter amanhecido

Starting over And counting on me It will be worthwhile That morning has come

• • • • • • • • • •

Without your claws Sem as tu S garras In spite of all the victories and achievements of Brazilian Always so firm Sempre ta seguras women in the last few decades, make no mistake: machismo is Without your ghost Sem o teu antasma • well and alive, and still permeates much of the Brazilian men- • Without your frame Sem tu moldura • tality and daily life. Sexual harassment is a reality, but contin- • • • ues to be greatly underreported and unpunished. • Without your crutches Sem tu escoras • Likewise, physical violence against women is still wide- • Without your control Sem o te dominio spread, though largely invisible and not reflected in official staWithout your spurs Sem tu esporas tistics. A report released by the United Nations' Commission • Without your spell Sem o te fascinio • • on Human Rights in 1996 concluded that "...machismo, as it • • exists in Brazilian society, is imbued with the notion that vio- • Starting over Comec de novo • lence is a natural part of a relationship between men and women, • And counting on me E cont r comigo • • as an indication of passion". It will be worthwhile Vai va er a pena • In many activities, gender taboos still prevail, and it will most • To have already forgotten you • Já ter te squecido • likely be a long time before they can be eliminated. A case in • • point is Brazilians' sexist attitude towards female athletes, Starting over... Comecar 1 e novo... • perceived as being masculinized and often plagued by rumors • • • about their sexual preferences. The gender discrimination ex- •••••••• •111•111M•11111•••111•MIIIIIIIIM tends not only to female soccer players but to basketball and volleyball players as well. Some athletes try to counter that kind of speculation by making public appearances with boyfriends, husbands and children, and even by posing nude for Playboy, as it was the case with basketball star Hortencia. Although more independent due to their substantial participation in today' s job market, most Brazilian women still prefer to share a house with a man rather so•••••••••wesom •••••••••••• ■ ••••• ■ ••• than live alone—no matter who • How do I miss Amelia Ai, que saudades da Amelia the head ofthe household may be. (Ataulfo Alves e Mario Lago) • According to Bemfam, there • has been an increase in the numI've never seen so many demands Nunca vi fazer tanta exigencia ber of couples who, instead of Neither someone doing all that you do Nem fazer o que voce me faz marriage, are opting to live toYou don't know what's conscience Voce ndo sabe o que é consciencia gether under the so-called "conYou don't see I'm a poor lad MID ye que eu sou urn pobre rapaz sensual union". Brazil's Constitution of 1988 sanctioned this All you can think is luxury and riches Voce s6 pensa em luxo e riqueza type of union by extending the All that you see you want to buy Tudo que voce ye voce quer same rights given to married Alas, my God, how do I miss Amelia Ai, meu Deus, que saudades da Amelia couples to those in such cohabitThat really was a woman Aquilo sim 6 que era mulher ing relationships. To date, 13% of couples have chosen this path, Sometimes she would starve by my side As vezes passava fome ao meu lado compared to only 9 percent in And thought that having nothing to eat was E achava bonito tido ter o que 1986. pretty comer But when she saw me upset Mas quando me via contrariado Marta Alvim is a Brazilian She would say: "My son, what can we do?" Dizia: meu filho, o que se ha de fazer? journalist, freelance translator and interpreter. You can reach Amelia wasn't vain in the slightest Amelia ndo tinha a menor vaidade her at Amelia surely was a true woman Amelia e que era mulher de verdade BRA7.ZIL - DECEMBER 2000

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Eric Ballinger balmngererio@holmaiLcom


Hi, I am a Chinese boy who is so worried looking for one of my relatives in Brazil. We lost communication because he is too old to write back to me. Is there any possibility to find him, if I send the proper address and name to you? In fact, his life is a moving novel and the signal of Chinese history. I believe he is a wonderful material for you to interview, please, anybody, help me! Jack 1111111.111111 Having just finished reading your article about the "Big-Butt Girls," lam fascinated by what you consider a bigbutt. A photo as example might suffice in the future.., don't you think? Harold Schinman Via Internet


I found your article on Globo TV very interesting and factual. I am considering getting satellite Globo TV. Am particularly interested in seeing the Carnaval Parades in the Sambadrome. Do you know if the parades will be broadcast on the TV satellite programs for the US? If so, will the coverage be complete for all three days? Robert Aldrich, MD San Antonio, Texas

ammiLia You are invited to participate in thisdialogue Write to Letters to the Publisher P 0 Box 50536 Los Angeles, CA 90050-0536 or send E-mail to

As a Brazilian businessman in New York City and resident for over 20 years in the United States I do have my doubts about the 2000 election. Let's see... Florida too close to call... Gore wins popular vote... Bush brother runs Florida...Votes missing in predominantly democratic county... Where are the UN monitors to oversee the vote count? Obviously we're not as far removed from Third World corruption as Americans like to proclaim. Why do the American government try to get other countries to have free elections where the people vote for President and the one with the most votes wins, but in the United States it doesn't matter how many votes you get? Maybe we should do what we tell others to do so the voters really count. Historically, the country has not prospered economically under Republicans, as everyone believes. As the Estadao, a Brazilian newspaper, reported months ago, between 1928 and 1998, the stock market did 26 percent better under Democrats than Republicans. People who are voting for V" are voting for his dad, Dick Cheney, and Cohn Powell, but let's not forget that the buck stops with him, and he's a scary guy to have a finger on the red button. Francisco Chagas New York, New York

[11 1{1:11^i111111'1.11 , I have just found your Website for Brazzil. For us in the U.K. this is the most exciting find since the Jobim Website! So much interesting information and articles. We love Brazilian music and plan to visit next year to learn so much more about this fascinating country. It's a shame I cannot have a sample copy of the magazine. Is it possible to subscribe in ÂŁ GB, and if so, how much would that be? Meanwhile, I shall keep browsing the site to read more. Many thanks. Liz Ashton United Kingdom I I lam a graduate student at Columbia doing a research project on FEBEM. I am having trouble finding objective information on FEBEM. Basically my topic is this: How did FEBEM stray from its original goal as an institution to reform street children to an institution that creates harden criminals and how does this provide a lens for gender socialization in Brazil. I am also looking at Ruth Cardoso's program Comunidade Solidaria and how it differs from FEBEM and how so has this program been bastardized. I know you are very busy but it would be of great help to me if you were to shed some light on sources of info on these subjects. 16

In reference to "Tear Down the Wall" (Brazzil, October 2000) I certainly agree with your article about eliminating the need for a visa. In fact, just the hassle of having to obtain one is keeping me from visiting your country, because it's so much easier just to go somewhere else where a visa isn't required. Thanks for the article. Hopefully, our governments can work something out. David Turbeville Dallas, Texas I agree completely with you regarding the need to do away with the required visas for Brazilians and US residents to visit each other's countries. Brazil offers tremendous tourist opportunities and the US certainly needs the experience and dollars Brazilians bring to the US. Steve Stone Via Internet I used to subscribe to Brazzil when Hived in New York City, and I loved every issue. In January I moved to Portugal, and though I love it here I've really missed Brazzil. Now that I have a computer and found your web site I'll be sending in my subscription check tomorrow! Jack Carroll Lagos, Portugal I just thought I'd look Hermeto Pascoal up on the Web

and then found Bruce Gilman's article... Nice to see the maestro appreciated. He was live in Toronto here some years back in a double bill with Gismonti. Great of course. That old Airto double album with Sivuca as well is dynamite. Nice to see your LP list. Who knows where to get a hold of these? None up here. Hunter Vaughan Toronto, Canada I got into your site by accident and loved it. I was looking for information on Brazilian idols because I have a strong opinion about who you idolize, who you are. Unfortunately, our brothers are more and more lost in the sexuality that Globo makes everyone swallow. I'd love to participate in any way. Haissam Salle Kearny, New Jersey ' ni I'm a Brazilian judge. I've been dedicating the latest years to the fight against the destruction of wildlife and the traffic of animals, especially the traffic of the blue macaw, which is a beautiful bird in advanced process of extinction. I have one CD in which I sing songs that talk about nature and I'm making shows in any place with the goal of giving funds to the Brazilian non governmental organization called Centro de Defesa das Nascentes do Rio Parnaiba, in Alto Parnaiba city, State of MaranhAo, Brazil, Please, I want to make contact with people interested in helping me, taking to the United States my music and with it a message of conservation of the environment. If it's possible, I'd like to receive the addresses of radios and TVs that play Brazilian MUSIC. Marlon Reis Can you please tell me where I can find a listing of top selling books in Brazil? I am looking for a good Christmas gift for my brother in law who is from Brazil and now lives in Sweden. Can you help? I am going to send him your magazine and if he likes it, I will give him a subscription for Christmas as well. Christina Severinghaus Orange Park, Florida First of all let me, in joy, congratulate all of you for the great job done so far for spreading Brazilian culture around the USA with your nice Brazzil magazine. Your magazine was introduced to me (almost at the same time) by two friends: One Canadian living in Seattle and a North American living in Dallas. I was well impressed with the high quality level of articles, nice layout for both hard copy and on-line magazine. The activity in your site proves the emotional quality that Brazilian ways add with happiness to everything we do, no matter where in the world we shall be. Paulo Cesar Smith Carvalho Recife, Pemambuco, Brazil



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A series of major tests for one of Brazil's key institutions Pressure for results led to the November 16 dismissal of the is unfolding. It involves situations Brazilians have seen come force's regional chief in Sdo Paulo, Yokio Oshiro, but what and go many times over the years, with predictable results: high- happened to him next left the impression he wasn't exactly ranking public officials or prominent members of society are punished: Oshiro was assigned to be the new Security Attaché exposed for multi-figure backroom embezzlement, the ugly at Brazil's Embassy in Buenos Aires. deeds are investigated and described in detail by prosecutors and The head of the force, Agilio Monteiro Filho, actually uses the media, an outcry follows.., but seldom does it all lead to a the FBI to fight off questions about the feds' commitment to fitting finale. Something is always missing for the guilty to be arresting the former Judge: "runaway criminals are not excluconfirmed, and invariably it all wraps up with another chapter sive to Brazil, and even the FBI can't capture all its fugitives", added to Brazil's lengthy history of impunity. The institution he says. It's important to note that Brazil's Federal Police anin the spotlight, swers directly to quite approprithe Justice Minately, is the Judiistry. ciary. In the past Three speweeks, new cific cases have documents prothe potential to duced by prosmark a new beecutors have ginning, a real strengthened change in this the case against undesirable rouJudge Nicolau tine for any naand former Setion wishing to nator Luiz Estecall itself demovao. Much of cratic. On the the new eviflipside, if none dence surfaced of these cases rein the United sult in proper States, and indipunishment, cates that at they will surely least three bank contribute to reaccounts—two affirm the sad in Miami and reality Brazilians one in New have grown unYork, reportcomfortably acedly belonging customed to. A to Estevao and more dangerous consequence will be the his wife—were used to siphon message that yet another round of impumoney from the courthouse project nity may deliver: that a"free for all" menin Brazil to Judge Nicolau's account tality, which many claim already exists at in Switzerland. Police surveillance some levels, is now somehow official— of Estevao has now been increased if the law can't reach certain people, no because of fears he might try to leave matter how blatant and obvious their misthe country. The new evidence is redeeds, why should anyone need to bother ported to be sufficient for a second with the law at all... arrest order to be issued at any moThe first ongoing case, and the one ment against the former Senator. His drawing the most attention because of its lawyers freed him of the first one in sheer magnitude, hits the Judiciary diless than 24 hours. rectly. It involves former Labor Court Many in Brazil felt impunity had On November 18, several media Judge Nicolau dos Santos Neto, accused outlets reported Nicolau was ready taken a major hit back in 1992, when to turn himself in. According to his of masterminding one of the biggest single acts of corruption ever made pubPresident Fernando Collor de Mello lawyer, he demanded that he not be lic in Brazil: the misappropriation of "publicly humiliated or exhibited as about $93 million earmarked for conwas forced out of office. Unfortu- a trophy by police". President struction of a new Labor Courts building Henrique Cardoso, in nately, since Collor, far too many Fernando in Sao Paulo. The case has already led to Panama at the time to attend the the first-ever expulsion from the Brazilcases have managed to escape un- Ibero-American Summit, answered ian Senate. Wealthy Brasilia entrepreneur back: "certainly there is to be no deal. Luiz Estevao was ditched by his peers, punished. Someone being pursued for misapand stands accused of being the actual propriation ofpublic funds must simowner of the construction company in ply be arrested. Whether he is found, ADHEMAR ALTIERI charge of the ill-fated court-building or turns himself in, is a mere detail." project. On paper, the company is supposThe President should chat with his edly owned by two "front men"—both good friend, Justice Minister Jose were jailed and released on bail. Gregori, who admitted on the same day to having met with The case has become something of a joke because Judge Nicolau's lawyer, but insisted no negotiations took place... Nicolau has been on the run from police since April of this year. The second ongoing case that popped up in the media again His wife disappeared soon after that. Brazil's Federal Police, in recent days involves former banker Salvatore Cacciola, the equivalent of the FBI in the U.S., is questioned frequently another runaway charged with fraud and misuse ofpublic funds. because of its inability to find a runaway 72-year-old retiree. Cacciola was actually arrested, in connection with a highly

Crime and Impunity



questionable 1999 bailout with public funds supplied to his investment bank, Banco Marka. The arrest was seen with enthusiasm: could it be, at last, that impunity is finally in check? But the letdown came quickly, when a Federal Court judge agreed to let him await trial in freedom. New evidence surfaced shortly after and anew arrest order was issued, but Cacciola had already left Brazil by car to Buenos Aires, and flown to his native Italy. Cacciola had not been heard from for months, until Brazil's TV Globo located him and aired a story on November 16 about his current routine in Rome. He is said to be spending most of his time in a small apartment surfmg the Internet, awaiting a decision by the Italian Judiciary on Brazil's request for his extradition. Because Cacciola holds Brazilian and Italian citizenship, bringing him back to face the music in Brazil is expected to be a difficult negotiation. Cacciola may have hinted that he doesn't expect to be sent back, when he told TV Globo he is planning to move to the outskirts of Rome in December, with his family. The third situation drives a long, jagged nail into the heart of what is the first love of most Brazilians. The game of football—soccer for our American readers—is being exposed for what most in Brazil have always known or suspected it to be behind the scenes: a cauldron of corrupt activity, with clubs and federations used as power bases by mostly unscrupulous politicians, often with the knowledge, cooperation and involvement of coaches and star players admired around the world for their artistry on the field. Two parliamentary inquiries into football have been launched—one at the Lower House of Congress, the other at the Senate. At first, both were nearly laughed off as pointless investigations, since so many team and league bosses are also elected officials, who have found a way to be directly involved in both inquiries. Nobody seriously expected them to investigate themselves. But it now seems that with two investigations happening simultaneously, a bit of a race between them is taking place, to see which is able to uncover more than the other, and thus appear to be the "serious" one before the public. While installing these parliamentary inquiries appeared frivolous at first, with many analysts saying Congress surely had more important matters to look into, the facts prove otherwise. For example, studies have shown that Brazilian football ought to be comparable, in terms of its financial strength and ability to retain top players, to that of Spain—one of the better leagues in Europe. Instead, what Brazilians have witnessed over the past few years is the early departure of just about any player that shows some promise, and not always to top leagues elsewhere in the world. In effect, Brazil has become little more than a player supplier, to countries that couldn't dream of ever accomplishing what Brazil has already done on the world football scene. Kind of like the NBA losing its top players to German or Mexican clubs... Even worse is the spurious way in which these player transfers are carried out. Common features include transaction fees always much lower than those involving players of similar caliber elsewhere in the world, and Brazilian players often retransferring soon after leaving Brazil. But the amount of that second transfer is always substantially higher—amazing how quickly those Brazilian players increase in value once they're playing elsewhere! What nearly every Brazilian football fan suspects is that most player deals that take stars away to other countries are done mainly under the table. The small transfer fee officially announced is what was put on paper. The "difference" can usually be pinned down when the same player transfers again, for a far more substantial figure. What it all means is that Brazilian football is being filched relentlessly, because the people who run it are very willing participants, corrupt to a point where even the staunchest football fan in Brazil at times wonders how it was possible for this country to accomplish everything that it did, and establish itBRAZZIL - DECEMBER 2000

self as a world football power over so many years. Football, which has obvious potential to be a healthy, prosperous enterprise in Brazil, generating jobs, economic activity, entertainment and a positive image, currently does all of the opposite: clubs are mostly broke, the best players are gone, crowds are dwindling even for matches between the most traditional clubs, and the quality oftn atches is nondescript. One of the parliamentary inquiries int6 football has summoned the transfer documents for thousands of players dealt to other countries over the past eight years {these will now be crosschecked with Central Bank records abqut each transfer. Plenty should surface from that exercise alo e. Of course, th re is also the matter of a multi-million dollar sponsorship cont act between sports equipment manufacturer Nike and the Br zilian National Soccer Federation, around which numerous ccusations have been made. These range from payoffs to leagu bosses, to interference by Nike at the 1998 World Cup Final in which Brazil was defeated by France 3-1. Specifically, Nik is accused of forcing the Brazilian side to field its star striker Ronaldinho--a Nike-sponsored athlete—who had suffered what has been described as something of a nervous breakdown hours before the big match. Ronaldinho played terribly in Brazil's losing effort... Many in Brazil felt impunity had taken a major hit back in 1992, when President Fernando Collor de Mello, swamped by evidence and accusations of corruption — even from his own brother — left office to avoid impeachment. His political rights were taken away for eight years nevertheless, a moment savored by many in Brazil who felt personally responsible for what took place, such was the wave of discontentment that hit the streets and dominated the media. The full force of that civic effort was felt all the way at the top of the power structure, and a President was forced out of power—no coup, no messing with the institutions: everything done by the book. Unfortunately, since Collor, far too many cases have managed to escape unpunished. To be fair, Brazil's federal legislative—probably because it comes under public and media scrutiny much more easily and directly—has indeed reacted and come a long way in dealing with impunity. Several expulsions have taken place, and even a pair of arrests. There is also far more awareness of wrongdoing in Brazil nowadays, far less tolerance for it from society, and even less from an at times hyperactive media when it comes to sniffing out scandals. Most of this, however, does not apply to the Brazilian Judiciary, which continues to carry on in ways that defy reason, and lead to rather unflattering conclusions about those whose main concern should be upholding the law. The three cases mentioned here are special because they are so typical, involving high-profile people, large amounts, plenty of media coverage and multiple, serious, damning details exposed. Whether it be Judge Nicolau turning himself in, banker Cacciola sent back to face trial, or big name football players, coaches and bosses eventually indicted over what the inquiries uncover, Brazil's Judiciary is going to get several cracks at very high-profile, heavily exposed and documented situations. Major opportunities to show that it too has had enough, and wants to turn the page on impunity, this most negative chapter of Brazil's contemporary history. Adhemar Altieri is a veteran with major news outlets in Brazil, Canada and the United States. He holds a Master's Degree in Journalism from Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, and spent ten years with CBS News reporting from Canada and Brazil. Altieri is a member of the Virtual Intelligence Community, formed by The Greenfield Consulting Group to identify future trends for Latin America. He is also the editor of InfoBrazil (, an English-language weekly e-zine with analysis and opinions on Brazilian politics and economy. You can reach the author at 19


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lf, to minimizp eriii( of le ing it lit the „„hantis o Brazilia the US wanti internation ize the Amazon, we should iria ternationalize the US' nuclear arsenla15: .They demonstrated they are Capable of using these arms, cauSing destruction thou. sands of times greater than the burnirigs in the forest of Bra-

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During a recent panel discussion in the United States, I was asked what I thought about the idea of internationalizing the Amazon Rain Forest. The young man who asked this question began by saying that he wanted me to answer as a humanist and not as a Brazilian. This was the first time that anyone has ever stipulated a humanistic perspective as the point of departure when asking me a question. In point of fact, as a Brazilian I would always argue against the internationalization of the Amazon Rain Forest. Even though our government has not given this patrimony the care that it deserves, it is ours. I replied that, as a humanist who fears the risks posed by the environmental degradation that the Amazon is suffering, I could imagine its internationalizationjust as I could imagine the internationalization of everything else of importance to humanity. If, from a humanist perspective, the Amazon must be internationalized, we should also internationalize the entire world's petroleum reserves. Oil is just as important for the well being of humanity as the Amazon is for our future. The owners of the reserves, however, feel that they have the right to increase or decrease the amount of oil production, as well as to increase or lower the price per barrel. The rich of the world feel that they have the right to burn up this immense patrimony of humanity. In much the same way, the wealthy countries' financial capital should be internationalized. Since the Amazon Rain Forest is a reserve for all human beings, an owner or a country must not be allowed to burn it up. The burning of the Amazon is as serious a problem as the unemployment caused by the arbitrary decisions made by global speculators. We cannot permit the use of financial reserves to burn up entire countries in the frenzy of speculation. Before we internationalize the Amazon, I would like to see the intemationalization of all the world's great museums. The Louvre should not belong merely to France. The world's museums are guardians of the most beautiful pieces of art produced by the human genius. We cannot let this cultural patrimony, like the natural patrimony of the Amazon, be manipulated and destroyed by the whims of an owner or a country. A short time ago a Japanese millionaire decided to be buried with a painting by a great artist. Before this could happen, that painting should have been internationalized. While I was at the meeting during which I was asked about internationalizing the Amazon Rain Forest, the United Nations convened the Millennium Summit, but some presidents of countries had difficulties in attending due to U.S. border-crossing constraints. Because ofthis, I said that New York, as the headquarters of the United Nations, should have been internationalized. The city, or at least Manhattan, should belong to all humanity. As should Paris, Venice, Rome, London, Rio de Janeiro, Brasilia, Recife—each city, with its unique beauty, its history of the world, should belong to the entire world. If, to minimize the risk of leaving it in the hands of Brazilians, the United States wants to internationalize the Amazon Rain Forest, we should internationalize the United States' nuclear arsenals. If only because the country has already demonstrated that it is capable of using these arms, causing destruction thousands of times greater than the deplorable burnings done in the forests of Brazil. In their debates, the United States presidential candidates have defended the idea of internationalizing the world's forest reserves in exchange for debt relief. We should begin by using this debt to guarantee that each child in the world has the opportunity to go to school. We should internationalize the children, treating them, all of them, no matter their country of birth, as patrimony that deserves to be cared for by the entire world. Even more than the Amazon deserves to be cared for. When the world's leaders begin to treat the poor children of the world as a patrimony ofhumanity, they will not let children work when they should be studying, die when they should be living. As a humanist, I agree to defend the internationalization of the world. But, as long as the world treats me as a Brazilian, I will fight for the Amazon Rain Forest to remain ours. Ours alone. Translated by Linda Jerome ( Cristovam Buarque ( is an economics professor at the University of Brasilia, Brazil, and the founder of the Missao Crianca, an NGO dedicated to keeping the world's poor children in school. He was the Workers' Party governor of the Federal District of Brasilia from 1995 to 1998. This article was originally published as "0 mundo para todos" on October 23,2000, in 0 Globo (Rio de Janeiro). BRAZZIL - DECEMBER 2000


Durante debate recente, nos Estados Uni dos, fui questionado sobre o que pensava da internacionalizacao da Amazonia. 0 jovem innou suapergunta dizendo que esperava a resposta de um humanista enao de urn brasileiro. Foi a prirneira vez que um debatedor detenninou a 6tica humanista COMO o ponto de partida para uma resposta minha. De fato, como brasileiro eu simplesmente falaria contra a internacionalizacao da Amazonia. Por mais que nossos govemos nao tenham o devido cuidado corn esse patrimonio, ele nosso. Respondi que, como humanista, sentindo o risco da degradacao ambiental que sofre a Amazemia, podia imaginar a sua mternacionalizacao, comotambern de tudo o mais que tem importancia para a Humanidade. Se a Amazonia, sob uma 6tica humanista, deve ser intemacionalizada, intemacionalizemos tambem as reservas de petreleo do mundo inteiro. 0 petrOleo é to importante pare o bem-estar da humanidade quanto a Amazonia para o nosso futuro. Apesardisso, os donos das reservas sentem-se no direito de aumentar ou diminuir a extracao de petnaleo e subir ou nao oseupreco. Os ricos do mundo sentem-se no direito de queimar esse umenso patrimenio da Human idade. Da mesma forma, o capital financeiro dos paises ricos deveria ser intemacionalizado. Se a Amazonia é uma reserva para todos os seres humanos, ema nao pode ser queimada pela vontade de urn dono, on de um pals. Queimar a Amazonia 6 tao grave quanto o desemprego provocado pelas decisOes arbitrarias dos especuladores globais.Mo podemos deixar que as reservas financeiras sirvam para queimar paises inteiros na vol6pia da especulacao. Antes mesmo da Amazonia, en gostaria de ver a intemacionalizacao de todos os grandes museus do mundo. 0 Louvre nao deve pertencer apenas A Franca. Cada museu do mundo é guardiao das mais belas pecas produzidas pelo genio humamo.Nao se pode deixar que esse patrimonio cultural, como o patrimenio natural amazonico, seja manipulado e destruido pelo gosto de um proprietario ou de urn pals. Nao faz muito, urn rnilionario japones, decidiu enterrar corn ele um quadro de um pride mestre. Antes disso, aquele quadro deveria ter sido mternacionalizado. Durante o eacontro em que recebi a pergunta, as NacOes Uniclas reuniam o Forum do Milenio, mas algims presidentes de paises tiveram dificuldades em comparecer por constrangimentos na fronteira dos EUA. Por isso, eu disse que Nova York, como sede das Nacoes Unidas, deveria ser intemacionalizada. Pelo menos Manhattan deveria pertencer a toda a Humanidade. Ass im como Paris, Veneza, Roma, Londres, Rio de Janeiro, Brasilia, Recife, cada cidade, corn sua beleza especifica, sua historia do mundo, deveria pertencer ao murido intern). Se os EUA querem internacionalizar a Amazonia, pelo risco de deixa-la nas maos de brasileiros, intemacionalizemos todos os arsenais nucleares dos EUA. At6 porque eles ja dem onstraram que sao cazes de usar essas arrnas, provocando uma destruicao milhares de vezes major do que as lamentaveis queimadas feitas nas florestas do Brasil. Nos seus debates, os atuais candidatos A presidencia dos EUA tern defendido a ideia de internacionalizar as reservas fiorestais do mundo em troca dadivida. Comecemos usando essa divida pare garantir que cada crianca do mundo tenha possibilidade de it a escola. Internacionalizemos as criancas tratando-as, todas elas, nao irnportando o pais onde nasceram, comopatrimemio que merece cuidados do mundo inteiro. A inda mais do que merece a Amazonia. Quando osdirigentes tratarem as criancas pobres do mundo como um patrimonio daHurnanidade, e les nao deixarao que elas trabalhem quando deveriam estudar; que morram quando deveriam viver. Como humanista, aceito defender a intemacionalizacao do mundo. Mas, enquanto o mundo me tratar como brasileiro, lutarei para que a AmazOnia seja nossa. S6 nossa.

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Made in Brazil "I can, without hesitation, affirm that the U does not want to amputate a piece f our geography in the country's s hools. All these rumors are a consc ous act on the part of people linked to right-wing sectors." PAULO R. DE ALMEIDA

Recently I became aware of the existence of a new wave of Internet rumors about American maps showing a divided Brazil, maps supposedly used in schools in the United States. On October 9, the "Discussao de Hist6ria do Brasil" [Discussion of history of Brazil] mailing list— which apparently discloses each and every piece ofnews from its subscribers without questioning either the contents or the basis of the supposed "information"—gave wider readership to what is no more than the grossest disinformation. The mailing list, nevertheless, insisted in treating the "news" as if it were credible. To those who were not following the earlier wave of rumors (which circulated between May and June of this year), I would like to say immediately that such apparently alarmmg "news" has no basis. I can, without hesitation, affirm that the United States does not want to amputate a piece of our geography in he country's schools and that the supposed maps simpl do not exist. All these rumors are merely "national," 'made in Brazil" disinformation, a conscious act on the prt of persons and groups not yet fully identified but wh o are linked to right-wing sectors that specialize in transmitting news of supposed attacks against our sovereignty in a manner that is not merely paranoid, but also irr sponsible. These gioups, apparently acting out ofbad faith, have found supp rt in other sincere or ideologically "antiimperialist' sectors that always appreciate hearing stories about $ pposed American threats against Brazil's territorial irtegrity or sovereignty over its Amazon region. Many other persons, with no political motivation, sincerely believe that these maps exist and that they are consciouslY being divulged as part of a broader, longterm strategy to internationalize the Amazon Rain Forest and amputate a piece of Brazil. Since the story was unintentionally circulated for the first time by the electronic bulletin Ciencia Hoje [Science Today], I reproduce below the formal denial issued by Rubens Antonio Barbosa, the Brazilian Ambassador to the United States, which was published in the Sociedade Brasileira para o Progresso da Ciencia [Brazilian Society for the Progress of Science] electronic bulletin Ciencia Hoje on June 8 of this year. In summary, these rumors are completely unfounded; Moreover, they are not being spread in the United States, but in the electronic bulletins of sectors nostalgic for the "Brazil as a Great Power" military era (the unidentified authors use the slogan "Brasil, Ameo ou Deix -o" [Brazil: Love It or Leave It]), sectors 21

dedicated to propagating false news about Amazon maps supposedly being reproduced in United States schoolbooks to initiate (or prepare, according to the paranoid) a future dismemberment of the Brazilian Amazon. These allegations have no foundation, and these maps do not exist. They are merely an example of irresponsible rumormongering that was involuntarily disseminated by the always-open channels of electronic mailing lists. I want to clarify the fact that the website that divulged the false "news" about the Amazon maps no longer displays material about the maps but continues divulging similar notes about the "threats" that still weigh upon the region, among them that of a "Yanomani Socialist Republic," presided over by a United States citizen. Finally, I would like to ask the readers to reflect upon the ethical problem posed by divulging over the Internet each and every allegation heard from unidentified sources without at least verifying the contents or the veracity of such "information." I would ask all those who receive "news" like this to endeavor to adopt a less alarmist attitude: do not disseminate baseless news, endeavor to clear up the rumors, and try to apply a little rationality to an inconsistent matter that has already mobilized many people for a very long time for absolutely no reason whatsoever. Paulo R. de Almeida Minister-C,ounselorofthe Brazilian Embassy in Washington, D.C. 3006 Massachusetts Ave. NW Washington, DC - USA 20008 Ph (202) 238-2740 Fax: 238-2827 Web page: < > http:// E-mails:< > Denial of Rumor by the Ambassador of Brazil in Washington, D.C., June 8, 2000 From: Paulo Roberto de Almeida Sent: Thursday, June 8, 2000, 17:56 To: '' Subject: Ciencia Hoje/Amazonia Attention Editors of Ciencia Hoje Eletronico, Jose Monserrat and Tiago Indiani: Due to the unforeseen repercussions and the great commotion surrounding the matter of the so-called "Amazon maps," I ask that the following note be published over my signature. Cordially, Rubens Antonio Barbosa Embassy of Brazil in Washington < > Fax: (1-202) 238-2827 On May 11, 2000, the journal Cie'ncia Hoje Eletronico [Science Today Electronic] published a letter to the editor from Simone de Freitas, of the Department of Ecology of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, in which she expressed her concern about instructional geography materials supposedly distributed in American schools that show the Brazilian territory divided into areas under Brazilian control and an "area of international control" (the Amazon Rain Forest). There were inconsistencies in the supposed information, and this was indicated in a letter sent to the CHE editor on the same day by Minister Paulo Roberto de Almeida, my assistant in this Embassy. Such "news" caused a predictably great commotion in the community concerned, inspiring an enormous amount of correspondence and much additional disinformation, a process that continues to this day. Asked about the source of her information, Ms. Freitas offered, on May 16, a letter of apology, published by the CHE on that day, which acknowledged that it had been an error to 22

divulge information about which she had no confirmation or corroboration and concluded "that, most probably, this information is not true. I make a formal apology for divulging this information without concrete proof and without certainty of its veracity." At the same time it was revealed that the information was being disseminated with its origin misleadingly attributed to the Brazil Center of the University of Texas, implicating Michelle Zweede as the person supposedly responsible. Ms. Zweede then furnished a "disclaimer" to justifiably exonerate the Brazil Center from any responsibility in divulging such false information. This disclaimer, however, did not stop those alarmed about the supposed "news" from continuing to disseminate it by means of the Internet. Some journalists compounded the error by divulging uninformed articles on the matter. What can the Embassy do to clear up the matter from now on? The initial source of the supposed news was a website <>, associated with the slogan "Brasil, Ame-o ou Deixe-o" [Brazil: love it or leave it], but with no identification of those responsible for the website. The site actually contained the "news," the wording of which corresponded exactly to Ms. Freitas's first "letter" to CHE. The "news" was in the meantime (between the 16th and the 18th of May) removed from the website, and in its place a "Retraction" was published justifying the lack of identification of the "news" sources by alleging that the hard drive had been lost. The "retraction" is found at < retrata.htm>. No evidence has yet appeared that such maps exist or that they are being used in American schools. Everything appears to have originated, not from a supposed "American conspiracy" to dismember the Amazon Rain Forest, but from disinformation "made in Brazil" by sectors still unidentified. Rubens Antonio Barbosa Ambassador of Brazil in Washington, D.C. < > Fax: (1-202) 238-2827 (translated by Linda Jerome,

Chronology of a Rumor March/April 2000â&#x20AC;&#x201D;The following note appears on the <> website: "A surprising fact was recently brought up by Brazilians observing the United States primary and middle-school education system: the world map used in the geography classes in some important American schools shows a divided Brazil. On the map in question, Brazil is the territory below the Pantanal and the Amazon region; the remainder of the country is labeled "Area of International Control." In other schools, the teachers ask for student support of an intervention and, if necessary, a war to tear the Amazon region away from the "destroyers ofnature (Brazilians)." This is yet another proof that the foreigners' idea of intervening in the Amazon has now evolved into the operative phase." The note spreads throughout the Internet. Soon maps of a divided Brazil accompany the messages, maps that are also found on the <> website and are apparently the creation of the website's authors. May 11, 2000â&#x20AC;&#x201D;After receiving the message, Professor Simone de Freitas, of the Department of Ecology of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, writes to the Sociedade Brasileira para o Progresso da Ciencia [Brazilian Society for the Progress of Science] journal Ciencia Hoje Eletronico [Science Today Electronic] (CHE). Without verifying the origin of the information, CHE publishes the letter online, thereby giving it credibility and causing it to circulate even more. On the same day Minister-Counselor Paulo Roberto de Almeida, of the Brazilian Embassy in Washington DC, writes to CHE, BRAZZIL - DECEMBER 2000

asking the journal to obtain clarification from the reader Simone are those in Brazil who believe that the United States is out to de Freitas and indicating that once it possesses precise infordominate the world. They see Uncle Sam as the big bully with mation, the Embassy can investigate the matter. Also at the the big stick. Typical of that way of thinking is the belief that beginning of May, Senator Marina Silva (Workers Party, Acre) the United States has secret plans to invade the Amazon in the telephones the researcher Michelle Zweede, of the Brazil Center name of saving the rain forest. That idea is so ludicrous that! at the University of Texas, Austin, asking the researcher's help feel a little silly talking about it. But in the name of moving on, in investigatin the messages. Zweede then sends an E-mail of allowing Americans and Brazilians to get to the serious issues to "contatosV, Drasil.," the address indicated on the that we face together, let me make this clear: The Amazon website, asking, "Which American schools were using the belongs to Brazil. It always will. And the myth that the United maps? Who are the "Brazilians observing" the phenomenon? States would invade is simply ridiculous. Period." Zweede receives no response from the site, but three days after October 11, 2000—In discussing Third World debt during sending her own message, she receives a message from the the second presidential candidates' debate, George W. Bush University of Florida asking her the very same questions. To says, "Or do you trade debt for valuable rain forest lands? Makes her surprise, the message from Florida reproduces the note from some sense." <> but, in addition, her signature, Michelle Zweede, now appears at the bottom, along the affiliation ofthe Partially adapted from Lida Beck, "Internet cria rumor University of Texas, thus adding supposed credibility to the sobre internacionaliz_acAo da Amazonica" [Internet creates invented information. rumor about internationalization of the Amazon], Estado do May 16, 2000—CHE publishes a letter from Simone de Sdo Paulo, June 12, 2000, by Linda Jerome Freitas apologizing for spreading information that is possibly ( incorrect. May 17 or 18, 2000—The <> website publishes a retraction. "The source of the news is no longer [sic] in our possession due to computer problems," it alleges. "We lost the hard drive containing it." The authors of the site admit that "after much research, it was not possible to locate the origin" of the news, "nor can we find it on the World Wide Web" or among the site's collaborators. "In spite ofreaching a certain consensus BEST SERVICE + BEST RATES among our team members as to the AIR - IATA 01-1-9279-012 author of the assertion [the source] OCEAN- FMC 3853 and since we do not have the proof in our hands, we judge it inconsiderate to keep the denouncement on our website and we are withdrawing it," concludes the note, adding, "We hope this withdrawal is only tempoTO ANY AIRPORT IN BRAZIL rary since we will continue our efforts to solve the problem." May 23,2000—After receiving the E-mail with Zweede' s forged signature, the Estado de Sao Paulo newspaper social columnist Cesar FULL CONTAINER & DIRECT CONSOLIDATIONS Giobbi publishes a note that, once WITHOUT TRANSLOADING IN MIAMI again, reproduces the original message. A copy of Giobbi's note is distributed over the Internet citing the newspaper—but not mentioning the society column—as the source. June 8,2000—Due to the publication of his letter by CHE, Minister-Counselor Paulo Roberto de Almeida is inundated by messages from angry Brazilians demanding action. On the same day Ambassador Rubens Barbosa sends a new letter to CHE, explaining that there is no evidence that such maps exist in the United States. June 9,2000—The University of Texas initiates an investigation of the unauthorized use of its name. June 11, 2000—At a ceremony in Brasilia, Admiral Sergio Chagasteles, the Navy commander, gives a speech that is interpreted as a warning of the imminent internationalization of the Amazon. June 15, 2000—Anthony Harrington, the new U.S. Ambassador to Brazil, concludes his first official speech in Brazil by saying, "There


BRAZIL CARGO SPECIALIST "Ship to Brazil with the company that really knows how."




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Brazilian Who? oots of Brazil are trying to take hold in the American Midwest, but will Brizilian expatriates nurture those roots? In Indiana, a new influx of Brazilians could permanently alter stereotypes of Brazil and Brazilians that are founded in ignorance and misinformation. PHILLIP WAGNER

On an unusually warm Saturday evening this past October, Brazilian festivities commenced in the Indianapolis, Indiana Westin Hotel Grand Ballroom. The event took place within walking distance of where, some two decades earlier, Latin Americans of all stripes and persuasions were honored in perpetuity along with their North American counterparts. Indianapolis, at that time, had dedicated the Pan Am Plaza to memorialize its hosting of the tenth Pan American games which, by all accounts, were a great success. Those games, in retrospect, seem to have been something of an omen. For the Latin American population of Indianapolis has literally exploded in the years following. Few people living in central Indiana at that time would have forecast the need for printing Bureau o f Motor Vehicles instructions for license plate renewal in both Spanish and English. Fewer still might have been able to guess that local fire and police departments, as well as hospitals, would seek out bilingual candidates and volunteers to satisfy a growing need to respond to emergencies where and/ or when, English might not be spoken. Indianapolis, after all, isn't Santa Fe, New Mexico, San Diego, California, Miami, Florida or Brownsville, Texas. Indianapolis then was about as black and white as the checkered flags used to acknowledge completion of 200 laps at the world famous Indianapolis Motor Speedway. And when it became obvious that central Indiana was beginning to reflect a more Latin American influence, residents and local television newscasts continued to focus on the annual influx of seasonal Mexican migrant workers, although that was really nothing new. When "Grand Bazaar Brazil" was decided on as the theme for a HealthNet Foundation annual fundraiser supporting area HealthNet Community Health Centers no one anticipated so 24


enthusiastic a response. And, especially, no one expected to see so large a number of locally residing Brazilians in attendance. Who are these people, and where have they come from? First things first. HealthNet Foundation, is presided over by Executive Director Hikmet Kutlu, an immigrant from Turkey. Hilunet initiated and oversees the annual "Grand Bazaar" fundraiser, which each year takes on the flavor of another country. Eli Lilly & Company, Clarion Health and Bank One were gold sponsors for the event this year. The President and CEO of Eli Lilly, a company that has proven itself to be a good community partner throughout its global domain, is Sydney Taurel. As it happens, Sydney's wife, Kathy, is from Rio. Sydney and Kathy served as Honorary Chair for the event, along with the Brazilian Ambassador, Senator and Mrs. Richard Lugar, Governor and Mrs. Frank O'Bannon, Mayor and Mrs. Bart Peterson and two other couples. But more significantly, Kathy Taurel was the Event Co-Chair, along with Alpha Blackburn. Other Brazilians, like Adriana de Aguiar, served as Goodwill Ambassadors of Brazil. Few stones were left unturned to ensure the success of this event for what most everyone expected to be a pretty much nonBrazilian audience receiving their first real exposure to Brazilian food and culture. The number of seats and tables far exceeded any previous Grand Bazaar and an aura of Brazil in Indiana permeated the premises. Ironically, Brazil, Indiana, is only about an hour west of Indianapolis! On entering the Westin attendees were directed upstairs where the pre-event mixer was conducted in open spaces displaying fine works of art depicting Brazilian culture, matted photographs of African Brazilian Bahia, Brazilian flags, a display of Brazilian gemstones and two tables dedicated to Partners of the Americas. An authentic, and appropriately attired, gazicho greeted all arrivals. Indiana, after all, is a Partner State to Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil. Thanks primarily to the hard work of Adriana de Aguiar, a number of Brasileiras dressed in regional Brazilian traditional and Carnaval costumes circulated among the delighted crowd whose expressions revealed a sense of unexpected discovery. At least one of Adriana' s troupe was, naturally, emulating Carmen Miranda. Curiosities were piqued. Lampiao was also there, handing out Senhor do Bonfimfitas of various colors while at the same time explaining the tradition and instructing fascinated patrons as to how the "wish bracelets" should be knotted. Only later would the feast ofBrazil be revealed in all its glory. Croquete de came, bolinho de bacalhau, coxinha de galinha, caipirinha, moqueca defrutos do mar, salada de palmito, pao de queijo, arroz a brasileira, tutu a mineira, churrasco couve a mineira, farofa, molhovinagrete and suco de maracuja opened many eyes, triggered many smiles and sated many hungers. And yes, the moqueca was complete with oil ofdencte! But the highlight of the evening for me, and I must believe for many if not most of those in attendance, was the performance of Roots of Brazil, directed by Lygya Barreto. Roots of Brazil, Inc. or Roots was founded in 1984 as a New York City not-for-profit performing arts organization to provide North Americans with an opportunity to discover something more of Brazil's unique cultural heritage. The rich tapestry of 500 years of indigenous, Portuguese, African, European and Asian influences form the basis of its authentic dance, music and theater performances, lectures, demonstrations and outreach programs. The high caliber of Roots performances is reflected by the fact that Lincoln Center, the Brooklyn Academy of Music, Carnegie Hall, the Annenberg Center, Radio City Music Hall and the United Nations have all hosted its performances, and to rave reviews. BRAZZIL - DECEMBER 2000

Artistic Director Lygya was once dance instructor for the previously mentioned Adriana de Aguiar, who happened to run into her here in t e U.S. Lygya, who is from Rio, was discovered by performi g artist Alvin Ailey on his first company tour of Brazil in 1987. he began her dance career in Bahia studying Afro-Brazilian D ce under the tutelage of the highly respected Master King. In 1 74 she joined the University Dance Company of Bahia, and late served as featured soloist for performing arts companies in S vador, sao Paulo, Rio and London before moving to New ork. For Grand Ba aar Brazil, Roots featured portions of its Afro Brazil Productio , which introduces various aspects of African cultural influen es. Lygya and Roots introduced historical foundations of th se influences including capoeira, traditional samba, maculele (African stick dance), the afoxe musical style and influences o candomble religious ceremonies. Traditional instruments were explained and everyone in the hall was encouraged to particip te by providing accompanying chorus and rhythmic claw g. Enthusiasm rippled through the hall like a tsunami. The at eticism and flawless execution of Roots performers was eno gh to impress even the most knowledgeable and indoctrinates fan of Brazilian performing arts. Roots of Br I was the perfect "main attraction" for Grand Bazaar Brazil. I onclude this not only because of their incredible talent and i pressive delivery, but also because a legitimately significa t Brazilian community has lain down Brazilian roots here. I d long been aware of the surprisingly large Brazilian studen population at Indiana University, a school that is a perennial c si tender for the NCAA national soccer championship, and its very well organized Brazilian Student Union, BAIU. BAIU hosts well attended annual churrascos and other events and maintains an impressive mailing list under the Braznet national internet umbrella. And the annual autumn Lotus Festival at Indiana University always seems to include a Brazilian presence. Several years ago that was Olodum, the Bahian drum cotps that backed up Paul Simon on Rhythm ofthe Saints. But I now realized that Indianapolis itself was home to far more Brazilians than anyone seemed to have realized. This commtmity could permanently alter stereotypes of Brazil and Brazilians that are founded in ignorance and misinformation; and inany of the Brazilians in attendance seemed to share this thought. That, in itself, was not surprising, but the number of Bra ilians in that community was. To my own amazement anJ that of the general Consul of the Brazilian Consulate in Ch'cago who was in attendance, there were indeed many Brazilian at the Bazaar. A large number of Brazilians in Indianapolis are employed by Eli Lilly & Company, and virtually all of them are from Sao Paulo. But there was a large contingent whose origins, spouses and/or family are connected to Bahia. And yet more came from Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, Rio Grande do Sul and states in the North and Northeast. How had it happened that so many Brazilians had relocated here so undetected? The primary "problem", if! may refer to it as such, seems to be that this (Brazilian) community has no annual signature event to pull it together and generate an awareness of its presence in the larger community. Adriana and others have made attempts to establish a Brazilian Cultural Association, BrazIndy, which might serve as a common focal point. But, to date, the selfless willingness to allow the group to chart its own course has been lacking. The "collective will" must be allowed its own direction in order to establish itselfwith a sense of permanence. But at times there seems to be an excess of over-investment in personal priorities regarding what the character of such an organization should be. I've heard complaints that "Brazilians are simply not used to volunteering", which I think is a fair and 25

objective observation. I've also noted that many local Brazilians, at this point, are really only looking for some way to connect with other Brazilians. Perhaps first establishing a "sense of common identity" might serve to create a critical mass of "Brazilian-ness" more predisposed to later respond more favorably to ambitious and demanding opportunities. And I'm aware that, in some cases, offers from non-Brazilians to help organize Brazilian activities are not always welcomed, even in instances where the non-Brazilian is engaged to marry a Brasileira. I can't help but wonder whether this pattern is being repeated in other cities of similar size where the Brazilian population is larger than had been realized, but not so noticeably significant as say in Miami, Washington D.C., Boston or Los Angeles. I can't help but wonder how it is being dealt with in other places. More importantly though, I wonder whether local Brazilians will find a way to nurture the "roots of Brazil" that have been established here (and/or there), such as they are. Footnote: If you wish to learn more about Roots you should take time to visit their Website at . To contact Roots or make a tax-deductible contribution to their educational program, or performances, you may contact them by postal mail or e-mail at: Roots of Brazil, 575 Warren Street #3L Brooklyn, NY 11217, Tel: 718/622-1561, Fax: 718/2224524, E-mail: The author is a freelance photojournalist and regular contributor to Brazzil. Phillip has an extensive Brazil Website atâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;pwagner/brazilhome.htm that includes photographs, recipes, information on the unique Afro-Bloco movement in Salvador, Bahia and more. He can be reached by e-mail at pwagnerAielnet


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The family Talking to himself the old man whispered something I didn't understand. And then he went away as if nothing had happened. My father despised me. MAFRA CARBONIERI


Meu pai, japerto dos cinqtienta, ia casar-se corn uma muffler de vinte e oito anos. Ele mesmo deu a notfcia durante a sobremesa. Isso aparentemente apressou a decisao que tomei de deixar a familia logo no dia imediato. Nao apenas a casa e a fazenda onde nasci e me criei. Mas a familia, abandona-la duma sel vez, como quern despe atraves da cabeca uma batina inc6moda. Desculpe, Irene. Eu tinha dezoito anos. 0 outro caminho seria permitir que me sufocassem. Empurrei a xicara. Marina olhava-me corn severidade. Meu pai mexia o cafe. —Que voce acha?—perguntou-me num esgar. HA muito eu esperava a ocasiao oportuna de desaparecer pela porta da frente; e na passagem, bate-la corn raiva. —Nada. Vendo os punhos da rede, no alpendre, pendendo dum dos ganchos do pilar, eu evitava fita-lo. —Nada? —Claro. 0 meu cunhado Jorge se inquietou. Ao lado dele Marina p6s acticar na xicara ja borrada dum resto de café. Irene, a minha irma solteira que abortara a tempo de impedir o escandalo, segurou a alca do bule, disfarcando o tremor. Meu pai insistiu: —Voces tambem nao acham nada? Marina disse: —Uma coisa justa. E voltando-se a Jorge: —0 papai ainda e moco. Jorge sempre concordava corn a mulher. Irene ergueu-se e saiu corn a travessa do an-oz-doce para a cozinha, deixando o bule. Fazia frio na sala. Eu ocupava a ponta da mesa e meu pai a outra, face a face comigo e de costas para a porta da varanda. A direita Jorge e Marina. 0 lugar da esquerda era de Irene, que depois de me espreitar pela cortina de croche, veio em silencio e sentou-se, curvando a cabeca. A mecha de cabelos, caindo,ocultou-lhe ainda mais o rosto descorado. Tomou o cafe. Gordo e calmo, sempre de sobreaviso, Jorge moveu a colherinha corn cautela e fez dissolver-se o aciicar. Os mOveis de nogueira, bacos. Perto do armario o arreame de estimacao, recendendo a couro e a suor de cavalo. Naparede o retrato de meu avo. Irene disse: —Eu conheco a Liicia. Jorge perguntou se nao era a filha mais velha do Ferreira. —Sobrinha—respondeu Marina.—Pois pensei que fosse filha. Irene acomodava as xicaras na bandeja. Sao tao parecidas... Ninguem toma outro café? Brusco, eu tirei do bolso o maco de cigarros e joguei-o ostensivamente em cima da mesa. Puxei urn cigarm. Agora mordia-o na cortica. Corn as maos em concha risquei o fOsforo. Ao quebrar o palito nos dedos a fumaca se soltava numa breve onda cinza. Todos emudeceram. Nao se fumavanapresenca do pai. Irene empilhou as xicaras para que o bule coubesse na bandeja. De repente, estalando o soalho, pressentimos que uma paz doentia pareceu ter entrado pela janela, vinda da invemada e dos campos verdes. Eu fixava o gancho do pilar, pela porta, alem da fumaca que se esfiapava corn lentidao. Percebia, melhor do que via, movendo-se como cobra, o sarcasmo no rosto comprido e ovalado de meu pai. Adivinhava-lhe onariz adunco a arfar. Minhas irmas e meu cunhado nao se atreviam a dizer nada. Obstinado, eu consumia o cigarro, experimentando uma embriaguez lUcida. 0 tempo passava depressa. Os labios demeu 27

pai, descaidos, eram finos e tinham uma cor de sangue pisado. Como ele aparasse a barba uma vez por semana, a tesoura, os olhos avultavam no fundo do que se assemelhava a um chumaco de algodao sujo. A testa, apoiada no olhar escuro, raramente se franzia sob os cabelos crespos e grisalhos. Meu pai falou devagar: — Nao sabia que voce fumava. —Nao se pode saber tudo. Mesmo o senhor. Nao tenho certeza se ele riu. —Noto que ainda mereco urn pouco do seu respeito. — Urn pouco nao ha quem nao mereca. — Escute. 0 peixe morre pela boca. —SO o peixe. A voz monotona do velho: — Quern tern vicio sustenta. —Dom inei-me para nao gritar. Mas devo ter gritado. —Certo! Certo! A brasa, vestida duma tenue camada de cinza, atingira a cortica. Cuspi fora o lepo, já apagado, que bateu na cristaleira e rolou pelo piso ate a baldrama. Agarrando-me ao rebordo da mesa, a espinha em arco, eu amarrotava a toalha e olhava meu pai na cara. 0 velho me xingou: — Bosta. —Sirva-se. Horrorizada, Marina levou a mao a garganta. Irene sumiu corn a bandeja, pass ando pela cortina da cozinha. Jorge, perplexo. Hesitando apenas por um rapid° momento, o velho ergueu-se. , —0 que? Afagou a barba. Analisava-me num olhar parado. Quando me coloquei em pe, senti que ele se surpreendeu. Tinhamos a mesma altura. —Pelo que vejo, moleque, voce esta disposto aalguma coisa. —Sempre estive. 0 senhor nao reparou antes. —Ndo perdi nada. —Nem ganhou. A rigor, um dialog() sem sentido. 0 velho fez uma pausa. Talvez no intimo ele ponderasse. o silencio se prolongava. —Hum. Demorando-se, entretanto sem qualquer indecisao ao mover-se, meu pai se acercou do arreame. Carregou-o no ombro ate o alpendre e de la chamou urn peao. Veio o Jodozinho Pinheiro, que pegando a tralha, afastou-se rumo ao paiol. Pondo na cabeca o chapeu de feltro mole, o velho murmurou algo que nao entendi, falando consigo mesmo. Depois foi embora como se nada tivesse acontecido. Meu pai me desprezava. Ainda a tremer, muito palida, Irene sussurrava atras da cortina: —Louco. Jorge saiu de sobrecenho fechado. A negrada da cozinha queria saber o que sucedera. Ouvi Marina lidar corn a Margarida, já meio caduca, exigindo que ela se calasse. Outra vez senteime. Tito, o nosso perdigueiro castanho, descansava a cabeca em meu joelho. Alguem tirou a toalha. Debrucei-me na mesa nua. Era junho. Terminava-se mais um almoco em familia. II Irene disse, rindo: — Voce me dá urn cigarro? Coitada. Provava-me assim estar a meu lado. Irene fumava e bebia as escondidas. Dei-lhe o mac°. — Tome. — Tudo rid°. — Va. Ela escondeu-o no avental. Subi para o quarto. — Louco. HI

Tito me acompanhara pela escada. No corredor passou-me a frente e esgueirou-se pela porta ma! encostada. Quando cheguei, ele deitava-se sobre o tapete de couro, agitando a cauda, as patas espichadas no soalho. Pela janela entrava oar frio, que percorrendo a paisagem e contaminado por ela, impunha no comodo uma presenca aspera. Meu quarto, de teto baixo e corn vigas falsas, era estreito e comprido. Ao lado da escrivaninha o piano. Protegia-o da poeira a capa de gobelino bord6. Tito olhava-me, emitindo um ganido. Fiz estalar os dedos. —Tito. Tito. Acariciava-lhe a cabeca. Ajoelhado no tapete de couro, eu me refletia dentro de seu olhar tambem castanho, mas dourado e limpido. Meu pai me desprezou sempre. Tito lambia-me o dorso da mao. Desde menino eu tocava piano, embora o velho achasse que isso ndo fosse ocupacdo de homem. Comecei corn Irene, que afinal nao foi alem do Beyer e do Schmoll. Marina terminara o ConservatOrio com as freiras do Sao Jose, casou-se, nunca mais abriu o piano. Tive um professor em Santana Velha. Atraves da janela, o dianublado. Meu pai me conheceu corn quase seis meses. Na ocasiao, sendo a temporada da pesca no Mato Grosso, ele estendeu longamente a viagem, interessandose por uma fazenda em Goias. Enrijeceu-me o corpo a rebenque. Punha no riso um escarnio, ao me ver enrolar no cabo do machado urn trapo de estopa. Contudo, na lida, eu era tdo born ou melhor do que loaozinho Pinheiro. As vezes me pergunto, corn indiferenca, se a causa de tanta inimizade nao seria justamente essa. Eu falava pouco, porem pensava em voz alta sem escolher a hora. Detestava que ele matasse os nossos velhos cavalos a tiro de Winchester. Dal partia para a miseria que sufocava os peOes, de cujo salario se deduzia ate o leite em nossa fazenda de gado, gado, gado. Valia o meu feijao e apanhava sem uma lagrimana cara, de igual para igual, fazendo doer nele cada lambada seca que me atingia. Em agosto, alem dos aceiros, a terra crepitava sob o ceu violaceo e denso. De seu halito se lancavam robs de fumo para O alto, desmanchados na contorcao amarela e negra da queimada. Soprava entre os arbustos a aragem quente, que acendianos galhos ja despidos uns frutos de brasa, vivos; depois arrancava-os, apagava-os, acendia outros e fazia-os voar num jorro de fagulhas. 0 ar faiscava. ApOs o que, como dedos dum gigante meio enterrado que os crispasse antes da morte, restavam os cambards no campo, descarnados, apontando para o céu cinzento. iamos cada qual corn o seu machado. Jodozinho Pinheiro nao enxugava o suor. . —Cambara. Chegou o seu dia. Eu mergulhava as maos numa vasilha de agua morna. Impressionado, descobrira que podia compor. 0 piano ficava de canto na sala de visita, a direita da janela que se abria para o alpendre. Saindo do colegio na praca Martinho, em algazarra, depois de apostar uma corrida pela escadaria dos fundos e atingir o patio, onde as botinas de eldstico iam batendo ruidosamente corn suas chapas de ferro no salto e na ponta da sola, eu tomava o onibus para a Vila dos Lavradores. Atento ao barulho do trajeto, eu imaginava uma cor em cada som desgarrado. Atravessava de 6nibus quase toda a cidade, passando pelo pontilhao da Estrada de Ferro e indo ate o terminal, fora do calcamento. Entdo andava. Primeiro a granja dos japoneses. Agora o bosque de eucaliptos. Urn cheiro acre. 0 vento zunia e despertava na sombra da folhagem urn silencio que eu entendia corn o corpo. Os bois desciam a encosta azulada. Ao longe o alagadico e as touceiras do bambual. Aqui o nosso portao de cedro. —Tito. Tito. Livrava-me do uniforme de brim caqui e vinha pela escada, de chinelo, corn calcao e blusa. Sentava-me ao piano. 0 dono BRAZZIL - DECEMBER 2000

da Casa Carlos, na ma Riachuelo, me vendia os macos de papel com pentagrama, que eu ia preenchendo numa grafia nervosa. Combinava acordes, e como se eu sofresse numa perturbada evocacao, notava que a melodia nada mais era do que urn caminho que nao levava a parte alguma, igualmente percurso e chegada, sem comeco e sem fim mas com breves solucaes que se espraiavam ao acaso em qualquer direcao a que eu me voltasse, comovido e grato. Uma viagem, que apesar de surpreendente, já nascia decifrada, objeto de si propria, e onde eu edificava o meu enigma. Como o pai se irritasse, pusemos o piano em meu quarto. Fechava-me por dentro, se abrindo a porta quando o Tito arranhava o batente pelo lado de fora. As costas me doiam. Tambern os pulsos e os dedos. Uma dor compensadora que me descansava. Na janela, torcendo a macaneta da cremona, eu trancava apenas uma das folhas da veneziana, obscurecendo urn pouco o quarto. IV Apareceu Irene. — Sarou? —Hum. —Entao toque. —Nao. — Sim. Toque. V Impossivel opor-me a minha irma. Nao por ser minha irma. Simplesmente por ser Irene. Tito e Irene fariam de mim o que quisessem, porque os outros faziam deles o que bem queriam, ainda acrescentando corn relacao a Irene uma censura. Sempre me angustiava saber que os dois queriam tao pouco ou mesmo nada: urn afago na cabeca, uma aprovacao, uma palavra sem dureza. Ajoelhando-se no soalho Irene fincara os cotovelos no acolchoado sobre a cama. Nao se afastaria enquanto eunao fosse ao piano. Tito deitou-se de lado e logo ressonava. Girei o assento da banqueta, regulando a altura. NA° me custava dedilhar qualquer coisa no teclado. Perguntei: —Qua!? —Aguela. Irene semicerrou os olhos, e vergando o corpo ate a cama ranger, amparou o queixo com os dedos cruzados. Pensei:— "Aguela..." Na verdade Irene nao distinguia a diferenca entre Mozart e Granados. Calidamente expus o Bolero de minha Suite Garcia Lorca. Ao terminar, sustentando no pedal o Ultimo acorde em mi menor, ouvi Irene indagar: —E sua? —Sim. —Muito bonita. —Hum. Enquanto balbuciava que a miisica era bonita, ergueu-se e se colocou anis de mim, pondo a mao em minha nuca. —Quantas voce ja escreveu? Dei de ombros e segui tocando. Como Irene insistisse, respondi, corn a voz abafada: —Nao sei, Irene. Nao sei. Entristecia-me. 0 Bolero já existia desde o tempo em que o piano ficava na sala de visita. —Nao. Nao pare—disse Irene.—Agora outra. —Serio? —Sim. Nao perguntei qual. Ela indicaria sempre aquela, com um ar astuto, de conivencia, fingindo um segredo de cuja lembranca eu partilhasse. Agora eu tocava, tambem minha, a Melodia de Don Cesare, a mao esquerda sublinhando ern arpejos o canto que a direita desdobrava suavemente com a estranhabeleza dum BRAZZIL - DECEMBER 2000

quadro em sepia, uito antigo e amargo, porem nftido. A agonia de Don Cesare, • ersonagem de Roger Vailland em La Loi, permaneceu com.go apos a leitura do romance. 0 grande velho morria no silenci que divagava entre os seus moveis senhoriais. Desses homens ue brotam do chAo como um carvalho, Don Cesare oferecera sua sombraenquanto vivia, e vindo do fundo da terra corn a lei tenor e superior aos juizes, investira contra o scirocco e med a-se corn ele, verdadeiro como a sua prOpria raiz e fiel a sua emente. Don Cesare orria. Pois a verdade morre. Ela deixaria de ser verdade ca o resistisse ao tempo e se eternizasse, embalsamada d ante a vida e assim se tornado falsa: estandarte ou miunia. Irene, cantarolando corn a voz hesitante, ia acompanhando a melodia. Eupensava:—"Aquela ..."Nao me causava nenhuma surpresa que essa misica, com a sua chamada para a nostalgia, se insinuasse em Irene e logo se instalasse como numa cidadela derrubada. —Outra vez—pediu Irene apertando-me o ombro. —A mesma? —Sim. Outra vez. Olhando acima do teclado, no tampo de madeira, eu reconhecia o vulto de Irene e imaginava na sombra o seu olhar sem firmeza, aflito, amolecendo a face encovada. Irene tremia ao debrucar-se sObre o corpo de minha mAe, na urna, corn as maos agitadas no rosto da morta e os cabelos em desordem, uma aparicao, atras o panejamento com borlas de prata. Tres meses antes de minha ink morrer, numa noite, o doutor Rubens matara rio ventre de Irene urn feto esptrio. 0 medico, tirando o palete na sala, pos uma bata branca e subiu a escada, corn a maleta. Magro e enrugado, tinha o cabelo a escovinha. Ao descer, trazia a bata no brag°. Limpando as lentes dos Oculos no lenco, sentou-se. Depois passeou pelo comodo os olhos esquivos. Conquanto vivesse disso, o doutor Rubens simulou nada pretender de meu pai, em pagamento, dizendo-se lisonjeado por servir a uma familia de tanta importancia. Acrescentou: —Sinceramente. Assumindo urn ar contrafeito, muito persuasivo, corn indiferenca pelo ridiculo de tudo aquilo, o medico estendeu a encenacao ate o limite. Acabou por sucumbir a tempo, suspirando, enquanto guardava o cheque na carteira. Deixou o palern desabotoado e despediu-se na porta, gravemente. —Boa noite Ja cancerosa e em breve com a pele sobre os ossos, gritando de se ouvir em ualquer lugar dos campos verdes, minha mae morreu apos o frimento. Sua unica preocupacao corn Irene era evitar que o ato se propalasse. Conseguindo isso, deixouse morrer. Tin a sabia conviccao de que o nosso dinheiro substituiria co vantagem a membrana rompida. o caixao sa u para a tarde de so!. Irene, apoiada em meu ombro, murmu ou: —Outra ye . Outra vez. —Nao, hen . Chega. VI Marina veio. —Com licenca. Sera que o heroi nao se aborrece corn mais uma visita? —Merda—respondi. Marina nao se abalava. —Sujo. Sentou-se na cama e fingiu entreter-se com as unhas. Como eu me voltassena banqueta, girando-a, fiquei de frente para Irene que se acomodara na cadeira da escrivaninha. Avisei: —Vou embora amanha cedo. —Como?—estranhou Irene. Marina riu. 29

—Outra bobagem. —Ndo se meta—ameacei. —Claro, meu querido. Ndo tenho nada corn isso. —Pois nunca se esqueca. — Va. Que coisa. Voce se queima a toa. Irene disse: —Ndo. Marina fitava-me talvez corn curiosidade. —Eu ainda ndo acredito. Corn as mdos no rebordo da banqueta, sentado, eu lentamente me deslocava dum lado e de outro, enquanto falava: Eu ia segunda-feira. Ate já arranjei tudo. Mas o melhor sumir quanto antes. E observando Irene, acrescentei: — Preciso ir. Houve um silencio constrangido. —Para sempre? Ingenuidade de Irene. Marina espreguicava-se. —Que drama. Balancando as ancas, aproximou-se do piano e tocou 0 Bife. Chamei o Tito. Fomos dar urn passeio. No corredor ouvi a voz de Marina: —Ciao. Irene olhava-me do alto daescada. 0 vento deslizava em meu rosto seco. —Tito. Ia o cachorro na frente. Quando atingimos o cimo do morro, parei; e enchendo os pulmOes, segui corn os olhos a nevoa que se esfarelava num torn alvacento, semelhando urn imenso retalho de algoddo que o vento rasgasse. La embaixo, na planicie dum awl sem brilho, as pastagens eram de repente urn horizonte frio. Tito voltou, e erguendo-se, Os as patas em meu peito. Abracei-me ao perdigueiro. Ficamos s6s. Meu Deus. As lagrimas, resina de minha condicao, nao fluiam, conscientemente trancadas por dentro. Na rua Antonio Alves, a dois quarteirOes da rua Riachuelo e portanto perto de Luis Balarim, eu alugara os comodos dum dentista que morrera e deixara alem da viava uma filha de dez anos. Uma edificacdo independente da casa, ao lado dum abrigo para carro e dum pequeno jardim a antiga, corn buxos cercando urn coqueiro-ando e uma roseira. Na frente a grade de ferro, corn o pond°. Duas saletas conjugadas. A da entrada, que se abria para o jardim, comunicava-se ao fundo corn o sanitario, onde fiz instalar o chuveiro eletrico e urn ralo major. No quarto, a direita, as minhas novas estantes de madeira cobriram toda a extensao da parede, do soalho ao forro. Pela vidraca eu viaa rua e a folhagem das tipuanas. Ao entrar, muito abatida e corn o olhar errante, vendo que nada recordava o consultorio, a vidva disse numa voz apagada: —Ficou... Ficou born... Lembro-me de que, atras da porta, a menina de dez anos me mostrava o seu perfil duro. VII Meio nervoso, term inei a interpretacdo. Em virtude do exagerado empenho eu transpirava e sentia doer os dedos, principalmente os da esquerda. Quando me encostei a janela, empun-ando a cortina, Gino Balarim apareceu no quintal e se dirigiu ao depOsito. Ao me ver, perguntou: —0 Luis ja veio? —.M. 0 senhor quer falar corn ele? —Ndo. Deixe. Ele seppre arriva troppo tardi. Agora Luis estudava aTtentamente a minha partitura, apos ter ouvido duas vezes a execucdo de toda a peca e ter-me feito repetir certos trechos isolados. Eu me preocupava corn a demora de Luis. —Entdo? —Espere. Na epoca eu ainda ndo completara as doze partes da Suite 30

Garcia Lorca. A abertura, que Luis ia examinando em silencio e cujo titulo era Passos no Campo de Trigo, antecipava corn variacOes os temas que eu desenvolveria a seguir. Posteriormente eu escreveria para cada peca urn poema em redondilha maior, sobre a liberdade, colocando como pano de fundo algumas vinhetas da paisagem que Lorca mais amava. Luis bateu os meus acordes no piano. —Urn casamento entre Chopin e Stravinski. Virou-se muito serio na minha direcdo. — Voce sabe compor as melodias. Mas ndo sabia liga-las. Afinal a musica tern uma sintaxe, que eu, intuitivo, ainda ndo divisava corn clareza. Pensando suprir a falha, eu utilizava como recurso o dialog() entre a dissonancia e a pausa sUbita. Porem, a persistencia corn que essa fOrmula ia sendo aplicada, empobrecia a qualidade da composicdo. Luis abordara o ponto exato. —Concorda comigo? —Sim—respondi. —Ndo se aborreca. — Claro que ndo—falei vivamente.—Isso ndo me desanima. Já tenho uma iddia para recomecar. --Otimo. Fui ate a estante de Luis e tirei urn Beethoven, o volume das sonatas por Alfredo Casella. Ao puxa-lo, caiu no piso um exemplar do KOhler, abrindo-se. Apanhei-o. Sem querer observei urn trecho: "Studiare dapprima con mani separate, poi con mani unite. Ripetere ciascun esercizio parecchie volte..." Disse em voz alta: —Studiare. Luis riu. —E poi da capo. Devolvi o Kahler a prateleira e pus o Beethoven no piano. Sou muito grato a Luis. Logo na primeira vez em que me ouviu tocar, alertou-me para a vantagem do Beringer sobre o Hanon e mesmo o Pischna. Corn isso, em dois meses de disciplina e castigo, livrei-me de varios defeitos. Quando consegui decorar os cinqtienta estudos de Cramer, ganhei de Luis urn Chopin revisto por Ignaz Friedman, Walzer, numa edicao Breitkopf-Hartel. Infelizsnente, sem dedicatoria. Ironico, Luis referia-se a meu professor: — Ele ainda nao suporta a deselegancia de Gulda? —Ainda. Era o Nicola. Um tipico mestre de provincia, rotineiro e vaidoso. Cortando o cabelo no estilo dos cadetes alemdes, espalmava a mdo no peito quando presumia no ar os sons de Wagner. Dizia-se livre-pensador. Para prova-lo, tocava orgdo na catedral e num templo presbiteriano. Ap6s alguns anos, apesar de eu te-lo ja dispensado sem explicacao, Nicola pareceu ndo guardar magoa e sempre me induzia atocar corn os seus alunos nas audicaes do Tenis Clube, figurando o meu nome no programa como compositor. Nab sei se ele se servia de minha masica ou do nome de minha familia. Em todo caso, Luis me aplaudia. A experiencia desse tempo foi decisiva. Tudo o que fiz depois, compondo ou escrevendo, decorreu do entusiasmo dal originado, que nunca mais renasceu mas a cujo reflexo eu me agarro. Ontem a noite, em meu quarto, acabei a Suite. Exausto, vi o frio na vidraca. Corn o capote abotoado ate o pescoco, suspendi a gola ao descer do 6nibus, levando os originais numa pasta de couro. Pouca gente no centro. Lembrava-me de ter observado pela janela do onibus o relogio da igreja de Lourdes, conquanto nao notasse a hora. Na esquina da Riachuelo corn a Marechal Deodoro, andando depressa, virei a esquerda e atravessei a rua. Ndo reparei em nenhum conhecido. As vezes, num sopro gelado, o vento despertava por cima do casario urn ruido de inverno. Crescia pelo muro uma trepadeira que quase ocultava a passagem dos fundos por onde entravam os alunos de Luis, corn cadernos e metodos sob o brag°. BRAZZIL - DECEMBER 2000

Abaixei a macaneta, empurrando o pequeno portao. Ao fecha-lo, ouvi uma frase ao piano. Seria o cansaco? Subitamente percebi que ndo podia andar. Vinda da vidraca, a luz batia no pessegueiro e espalhava na terra folhas de sombra. Algo me impressionavamuito, e agindo sobre a fadiga, aumentara a acuidade de meus sentidos ate o limite da vertigem. Nao sabia o que era, mas alguma coisa me tolhia au, e embora me preservasse a consciencia, impedia que eu me reconhecesse diante daqueles objetos tao familiares. A direita a escada de seis degraus levava ao c8modo de Luis. Na porta do depOsito o ferrolho. As garrafas empilhadas sob o telheiro. Estreitei contra o peito a pasta de couro. Como um pintor, que ao pintar espedacasse a tela e a recompusesse em cores, Luis dizia um som que a noite ampliava sem medida. Durante um momento, indiferentemente minimo ou extenso, em que ndo importava se tal magia era ou nao uma sonata de Beethoven, nem mesmo interessando que aquilo fosse ou ndo urn piano, eu, fascinado, tinha o privilegio de ouvir Luis, so Luis. Talvez nem ele tivesse ainda a nocdo de que havia chegado a sua hora de ser. Ele era Luis e eu via isso, acompanhando dentro da noite o sinal de sua passagem. Quando tornei a mim, nAo por ter perdido a lucidez e sim por ter penetrado numa outra dimensdo dela, note i que me aproximara da escada e me sentara no ultimo degrau, abaixo da vidraca. Dali, num dngulo escuro, eu näo poderia ser visto por ninguem. Demorei-me. Luis continuava ao piano. Caindo da janela urn pouco de luz sobre a pasta, a meus pes, compreendi que ndo seria honesto interrompe-lo. Outra vez abracei-me a pasta, sentindo no queixo o contato do couro frio. Boa noite, Luis. VIII Sal devagar. Na verdade eu ainda ndo amadurecera para o que pretendia. Por isso tomei um conhaque no Cristal e comprei urn mac° de cigarros. Fumando, fiz o longo trajeto de volta. Pensei em rasgar os originais. Todavia um comboio, passando pelo pontilhao, arrastou o pensamento na viagem ate o ruido morrer. Na ladeira, boiando no ar as luzes palidas da vita, a minha sombra se deformava a cada poste. Dormi pesadamente. No dia seguinte acordei muito tarde. Ao abrir a janela, acudiu-me uma ideia para refazer toda a Suite. Sob o jato da agua eu me esfregava corn violencia, molhando todo o banheiro. Indeciso, ainda de roupdo, explorei no piano os efeitos duma frase tocada em sextas. Vestindo-me, deixei a verificacdo para depois do almoco. Desci a escada e pus a jaqueta no respaldo da cadeira. A sobremesa meu pai anunciou o seu segundo casamento. —Obrigado—disse Jorge a Irene, que lhe servia o arrozdoce. Jorge afastou corn o garfo um pedaco de cascade limdo. Eu iria embora. V iveria de aulas particulares. No inicio do ano faria o vestibular e nao me seria dificil conseguir uma vaga no Liceu Azevedo Franco. 0 velho: —Voces tambem ndo acham nada? IX

Gritei: —Jodozinho! A cavalo, o pea() virou o corpo. —Abra as duas porteiras. Enquanto o Tito latia, a cam ioneta parou perto do alpendre. Os carregadores saltaram. —NA° morde? Na hora de remover o piano, Marina se interpos: —Que é isso? Quem the deu ordem para tirar o piano? Curvado sobre a maleta de fibra onde eu acomodara os discos, estremeci. Lentamente ergui os olhos. BRAZZIL - DECEMBER 2000

—Cuidado, Marina. NA° me aborreca. —0 piano 6 meu. —Voce sabe que ndo. —0 papai comprou para mim. Como os ca egadores viessem pela escada, fui ate a porta e mandei-os es m erar na sala. Certificando-me de que desciam os degraus, vol ei-me para Marina. —0 que vo e quer? —Adivinhe. —Aqui em asa s6 eu toco. —Pretensi o. —Ndo digo que o piano lido seja seu. Mas tambem 6 meu e da Irene. —Seja. A inha parte ninguem leva. Comecei a e enervar. —Marina.. —Voce po e passar por cima da Irene, que é uma tonta. Por cima de mim, unca. —Merda. Ao quero passar por cima de ninguem. --Verdade Ndo me le bro de tudo. Houve uma aceleracdo em mim e nos objetos do uarto. 0 soalho oscilava sob os meus passos. Fiquei quase ce o. Marina, agitando o rosto e os bracos, andava a meu redor. Os nossos gritos: —Cadela. —MD sou Irene. —De que 1 e serve o piano? —Ndo inte essa. —Filha du a puta. —Ciao. Ci o. Ciao.

Por terem o meus dedos crescido no teclado daquele piano e ndo de outro, • quietos, desgastando o marfim corn o percurso de meu suor e inha angustia, empurrei Marina contra a vidraca, corn muita forc , o vidro negro dos olhos se espatifou e vi o odio cintilar por tr s dos fibs louros de seu cabelo, iluminados, quando as mec as the cobriram a face e o corpo caia no soalho, ali os cacos mUltiplicados. Eu poderiate-lapisoteado no rosto, minha irmd, arrancando de seu medo o nosso sangue. Porem pelo vidro partido dajanela veio o ar dos campos verdes. Ndo sei bem o que aconteceu. Coloquei no ombro a maleta. Sabia que ap6s o susto Marina me odiaria corn obsessdo, urn Egli° magnifico, desses que s6 se cultivam em segredo no fundo do sentimento lde familia. Irene perg ntou: —E o pian Bebi um c ope corn os carregadores. Era uma camioneta corn a lataria f sca. Depois Irene me ajudou a arrumar os livros nas prateleiras Nao conhe o minha madrasta. Meu pai ofereceu o Tito de presente a urn azendeiro do Rio Grande do Sul. Abandonei a Suite. A garoa e fevereiro escorreu na ramagem das tipuanas. X

0 servente do Liceu tocou-me ao ombro. —Telefone para o senhor, Atravessando o galpAo fui ao corredor e dai a porta. —Aro? ' Ouvi a voz de Jorge, abafada pelo alarido do patio. Irene, internada no Charcot, morrera. 0 corpo chegaria de sao Paulo pelo Ultimo trem. Respeitoso, o chefe da estacao me comunicou urn atraso de meia hora. Muita gente na gare. Vi de relance o meu pai. Deilhe as costas. Mas inconscientemente acendi um cigarro. This short story originally called "A Familia" was published in Os Melhores Contos Brasileiros de 1973, Editora Globo, 1974, 226 pp



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Entertainment Ipanema & Leblon To find out what's going on at night, pick up the Jazzmania ;287-0085), on Rua Rainha Elizabeth, is Jornal do Brasil at any newsstand and turn to the enter- Rio's most ser.ous jazz venue. They have more internatainment section. On Friday they insert an entertainment tional stars than any other club, but also the best of magazine called Programa, which lists the week's events. Brazilian jazz. The club is expensive at around $10 cover Nightlife varies widely by the neighborhood. Leblon on the weekend and a little less on weekdays. The music and Ipanema have up-market, trendy clubs with excellent starts about 11 pm and goes late. jazz. Botafogo has cheaper, popular clubs with more People's (294-0547), at Avenida Bartolomeo Mitre dancing and samba. Cinelandia and Lapa in the Center 370 in Leblon, is a posh club with some of the best names have a lot of samba and pagode and are also the heart of in jazz. To hear the great music you have to pay a $8 cover gay Rio. Try some ofthe bars around Sala Cecilia Meireles. charge and endure the incessant smoking and talking Copacabana is a mixed bag, with from the snobby crowd. When it some good local hangouts but also a gets crowded the Yves St Laurent strong tourist influence with a lot of types seems to get in and seated, sex for sale. while the Lonely Planet crowd gets Entertainment is less organized left at the door. and more spontaneous in Rio than There are several other expenyou'd expect. Much of Rio's nightlife sive restaurants/clubs in Ipanema happens on the streets, in front of and Leblon, which have good jazz bars, in restaurants and anywhere but look like a scene right out of outside with room to drink and sing. Los Angeles or New York. Chiko's Most bars stay open until 4 am on Bar, at Avenida Epitacio Pessoa busy weekend nights and to around 2 560 on the lake, goes late and has am other nights. no cover charge. Mistura Up, at Centro & Lapa Forr6 is the popular da ce Rua Garcia d'Avila 15, and Un Getting a taxi late at night in Deux Trois (239-0198), at Rua music of Brazil's Northeast nd Lapa or Cinelandia isn't a problem; Bartolomeo Mitre 123, are also there is also limited bus service all popular. there are plenty of Northe stnight long. You can catch buses to Lord Jim's British pub is the the zona sul along the Praca Maerners in Rio going out danc ng place to go if you want to play hatma Gandhi on Avenida Luis de darts. It's at Rua Paul Redfern 63 every weekend. We actually I ke Vasconcelos. in Ipanema. The Garota de Ipanema Suburban Dreams, at Pedro Lessa is at Rua Vinicius de Morais 49 and the accordion-laced forr6 m re 41, Centro, behind the Biblioteca has lively, open-air dining. There Nacional, is a bar, open until very are always a few foreigners checkthan most of the current sam a, late, and right in the center. It's the ing out the place where Tom Jobim and the dancing is a blast. only thing open on the block. The and Vinicius de Moraes were sitsuburbs referred to here are the poorer ting when they wrote The Girlfrom areas on the outskirts of the city. The Ipanema. A recent Brazilian Playbar is frequented by many gays, boy survey rated its chopp as the blacks and zona norte people. It's a best in Rioâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;a bold claim indeed, good change from the zona sul club scene but don't bring but who can resist a sample? The petiscos are delicious. too much money to this part of town late at night. There's The Zeppelin Bar, behind the Sheraton Hotel on no cover charge. Avenida Niemeyer, is a quaint CafĂŠ Bohemia is a vegetarian resbar and restaurant overlooking taurant by day and has wild transvesthe ocean. It's medium-priced tite shows on Friday, Saturday and with great live folk and pop muSunday nights. For a couple of dollars sic from Thursday to Sunday you get dancing and a very funny night. It has a very relaxed atmoshow if you can get by in Portuguese. sphere. It's on Avenida Santa Luzia; turn right Our favorite bar is also Rio's off Avenida Rio Branco. The show oldest. In a town that's losing its starts about 1 or 2 am. traditions rapidly to modern Bar Brasil in Lapa is an old boheWestern schlock, Bar Lagoa has mian hangout and is always lively. changed little. They tried to close Some Cariocas who live in the zona it down to build a high-rise, highsul only come into the center to go to tech, condo complex, but opposiBar Brasil. Lapa is generally an intertion was too strong. It's open from esting area to explore at night. about 7.30 pm to 3 or 4 am with Botafogo food, drink and a loud Carioca Cochrane, off Rua Voluntarios da crowd. Patria, is one of Rio's more popular Brazilian Dancing gay bars. The following clubs have Vaticano, Rua da Matriz 62, is a popular Brazilian music like hip bar, popular with the arty Rio set. samba and forro and Rio's popuCopacabana lar dance classes. You're unlikely Galeria Alaska, on Avenida Nossa to find any tourists, or middleSenhora de Copacabana, has a transvestite show and class Brazilials there. If you want to learn about Brazil dancing and is a Center of gay Rio. and dance, or just watch Brazilians dancing, these are the places.

Car ioca Nig hts



Pagode da Passarela has samba and pagode on Friday and Saturday nights. It's very crowded because it's affordable to almost everyone: $0.50 for women and $1 for men. It's in the center near Praca 11. Bola Preta (2408049) is a big dance house with different types of popular music each night. They have serestas, roda de samba and pagode. The club's right in the center, on Avenida 13 de Maio. Another good place to samba, but out in the suburbs, is Pagode Domingo Major (288-7297), at Rua Gonzaga Bastos 268, Vila Isabel. It's probably a good idea to go with a Brazilian if you don't speak Portuguese. If you'd rather not go into town, Clube do Samba (399-0892) is out in Barra at Estrada da Barra 65. They have samba and pagode Friday and Saturday nights, On Sunday you can get a feijoada there. This is a middleclass club, with admission costing about $8. Forro is the popular dance music of Brazil's Northeast and there are plenty of Northeasterners in Rio going out dancing every weekend. We actually like the accordion-laced forro more than most of the current samba, and the dancing is a blast. A good club for forty') is Estudantina (232-1149) at Praca Tiradentes 79, Centro. They go Thursday, Friday and Saturday nights until about 4 am. The cover charge is $3. Samba Schools As early as October or November the samba schools begin holding rehearsals and dances, typically on Saturday night. These are generally open to the public for watching and joining in the samba. Almost all the escolas de samba are on the north side of town and, of course, things get going late, so you need a car or a taxi. Check with Riotur or the newspaper to get the schedules and locations. Each school has a quadra (club/arena) but they also hold rehearsals around town. The major schools' addresses are: Portela Rua Clara Nunes 81, Oswaldo Cruz (390-0471) Mocidade Independente de Padre Miguel Rua Coronel Tamarindo 38, Padre Miguel (332-5823) Sao Clemente Rua Assuncao 63, Botafogo Imperio Serrano Avenida Ministro Edgard Romero 114, Madureira (450-1285) Mangueira Rua Visconde de NiterOi 1072, Mangueira (234-4129) Beija Flor Rua Pracinha Wallace Paes Leme 1025, Nib:Spas (791-2866) Imperio da Tijuca Rua Conde de Bonfim 1226, Usina da Tijuca Salgueiro Rua Silva Teles—Andarai Big Shows Circo Voador under the Arcos da Lapa is a big tent with reggae, samba and trio eletrico music. The crowd is mostly from the north side. It's one of my favorites and is very reasonably priced. They get many of the best bands from Bahia and Sao Paulo. Their Sunday night dance gets really crowded. It starts at 11 pm and goes till late. Cover charge is $3. Down the block is Asa Branca (252-0966). They have samba and pagode shows that aren't especially for tourists, though they are staged shows. Scala, Plataforma I and Oba Oba have expensive Vegas-style shows with naked samba. Scala II has many top musicians like Gilberto Gil playing there these days. It's a show house, flashy and artificial, but I'd go anywhere to see a Gil show. Pao de Acdcar has a regular performance of the samba school Beija Flor on Monday from 9 pm to 1 am. It's 34

expensive and touristy, but it's samba. Carioca nights are held Friday and Saturday from 10 pm to 4 am. Mostly rock, but not always, the shows are not terribly expensive and are under the small pavilion on Morro da Urca—the first stop to Sugar Loaf. It's a spectacular view. Canecao also gets the big stars of music. It's right next to the giant Rio Sul shopping mall at the entrance to the Copacabana tunnel. Maracanazinho is the smaller stadium next to Maracana in Sao Cristovao. The biggest shows, like Milton Nascimento, play there. Parque Catacumba, along the lake, often has free outdoor concerts on Sunday at 5 pm. Check the newspaper. Discos There are many discos with bright lights and loud music in the big city, but the hip venues change regularly—check out a copy of Programa. Interestingly, many of the discos have stiff dress codes and admission charges, designed in part to deter the many prostitutes who come to meet tourists. Some are even called private clubs and require you to pay $20 through a concierge at your fivestar hotel in order to enter. Help calls itself the biggest disco in Latin America and no one seems to doubt it. It's at Avenida Atlantica 3432 in Copacabana. Lots of drunken gringos seem to get robbed just outside. Caligula in Ipanema is where the rich and famous hang, out. The current favorite is Resumo da Opera; it's in Lagoa at Avenida Borges de Medeiros 1426. Things to Buy Most stores are open Monday to Friday from 9 am to 7 pm (some stay open even later). Saturday has half-day shopping, from 9 am to 1 pm. The malls usually open from 10 am to 10 pm, Monday to Friday, and 10 am to 8 pm on weekends. Pk de Boi This store sells the traditional artisan handicrafts of Brazil's Northeast and Minas Gerais, and it's all fine work. There's lots of wood, lace, pottery and prints. It's not an inexpensive store; you have to buy closer to the source to get a better price, but if you have some extra dollars—$10 to $20 it a minimum—these pieces are the best gifts to bring home from Brazil: imaginative and very Brazilian. The small store is worth a visit just to look around. Ana Maria Chindler, the owner, knows what she's selling and is happy to tell you about it. Pe de Boi (Bull's Foot) (2854395) is in Botafogo on Rua Ipiranga 53. It is open Monday to Friday until 7 pm and on Saturday from 10 am to 1 pm. FUNAI Brazil's Indian agency has a tiny craft shop at Avenida Presidente Wilson 16-A (it's actually around the corner from the main entrance). Open Monday to Friday from 9 am to noon and 1 to 6 pm, the store has woven papoose (baby) slings for $5, jewellery from $0.50 to $5 and musical instruments. Casa Oliveira This beautiful music store (222-3539) is at Rua da Carioca 70 in Centro—Rio's oldest street. It sells a wide variety of instruments, including all the noisemakers that fuel the Carnaval baterias (rhythm sections), a variety of small mandolin-like string instruments, accordions and electric guitars. These make great presents and it's a fun place to play even if you don't buy. Malls Brazilians, like Americans, seem to measure progress by shopping malls. They love to shop at these monsters. Rio Sul was the first mall to maul Rio. There are all kinds BRAZZIL - DECEMBER 2000

of stores. The C&A department store has a good range of clothes and is inexpensive. Rio Sul is right before you enter the Copacabana tunnel in Botafogo, There are free buses from Copacabana. Barra Shopping, in Barra da Tijuca, is newer and bigger. It's at Avenida das Americas, on the right as you drive south into Barra. It's hard to miss! They're about to build a tribute to Ayrton Senna out the frontâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;a giant racing helmet. Bum Bum Since your bathing suit has too much fabric attached to the seams, resign yourself to buying a new one. Bum Bum is the trendsetter of the bikini world, and it knows it. It's not cheap, but you're paying for style not fabric. It's in Ipanema at Rua Visconde de Piraja 437. If you're on a budget, there are plenty of other boutiques that sell bikinis for less money but with just as little fabric. KiTanga is a good example. Hippie Fair This is an arts and crafts fair, with many booths selling jewellery, leather goods, paintings, samba instruments and clothes. There is some awful stuff here and some that's OK. Prices go way up during the peak tourist season and the air rings with the sounds of New Yorkers hunting down good buys. The fair takes place every Sunday at the Praca General Osorio in Ipanema. But you can find the same items at Praca 15 de Novembro in Centro or at the northern end of Copacabana beach. If you're just beginning to travel in Brazil, skip it. Nordeste or Sao Cristovflo Fair The Nordeste Fair is held at the Pavilhao de Sao Cristervao on the north side of town every Sunday, starting early and going until about 3 pm. The fair is very Northeastern in character. There are lots of barracas (stalls) selling meat, beer and cachaca; bands of accordions, guitars and tambourines playing the for,* comedy, capoeira battles and people selling magic potions. It's a great scene. of course there's plenty to buy. Besides food, they have lots of cheap clothes, some good deals on hammocks and a few good nordeste gifts like leather vaqueiro (cowboy) hats. If you're ready for adventure and have a car, it's best to arrive the night before the market. This is set-up time and also party time. At about 9 or 10 pm the barracas open for dinner and beer. Some vendors are busy setting up, others are already finished. Music and dance starts, and doesn't stop until sunrise. It's great fun so long as you're careful. Bus The buses are a real mixture of the good, the bad and the ugly. The good: Rio's buses are fast, frequent, cheap and, because Rio is long and narrow, it's easy to get the right bus and usually no big deal if you're on the wrong one. The bad: Rio's buses are often crowded, slowed down by traffic and driven by raving maniacs who drive the buses as if they were motorbikes. The ugly: Rio's buses are the scene of many of the city's robberies. Don't carry any valuables on the buses. Don't advertise being a foreigner, and do have your money ready when you enter the bus. Be particularly cautious if you're boarding a bus in a tourist area. If you feel paranoid about something on the bus, get off and catch another. In addition to their number, buses have their destinations, including the areas they go through, written on the side. Nine out of 10 buses going south from the center will go to Copacabana and vice versa. All buses have the price displayed above the head of the money collector. The buses you need to catch for specific destinations are listed under individual sights. Train The train station, Estacao Dom Pedro II, is at Praca BRAZZIL-DECEMBER2000

Cristiano Ottoni on Avenida Presidente Vargas. To get there take the metro to Central station. Metro Rio's excellent subway system is limited to points north of Botafogo and is open from 6 am to 11 pm daily, except Sunday. The two air-con lines are cleaner, faster and cheaper than buses (discounts are offered with multiple tickets). The main line from Botafogo to Saens Pena has 15 stops, of which the first 12 are: Botafogo, Flamengo, Largo do Machado, Catete, Gloria, Cinelandia, Carioca, Uruguaiana, Presidente Vargas, Central, Cidade Nova and Estacio, which is common to both lines. At Estacio the lines split: the main line continues west towards the neighborhood of Andarai, making stops at Afonso Pena, Engenho Velho and Tijuca, and the secondary line goes north towards Maracana stadium and beyond. The main stops for Centro are Cinelandia and Carioca. Taxi Rio's taxis are quite reasonably priced, if you're dividing the fare with a friend or two. Taxis are particularly useful late at night and when carrying valuables, but they are not a completely safe and hassle-free ride. First, there have been a few rare cases of people being assaulted and robbed by taxi drivers. Second, and much more common, the drivers have a tendency to exaggerate fares. Here's how the taxi is supposed to operate: there should be a meter and it should work; there should be a current tabela to determine the fare; upon reaching your destination, check the meter and look that up on the tabela, usually posted on the passenger window, which is used to determine the fare. Now, what to watch out for: most importantly, make sure the meter works. If it 'doesn't, ask to be let out of the cab. The meters have a flag that switches the meter rate; this should be in the number one position (20% less expensive), except on Sunday, holidays, evenings between 10 pm and 6 am, and when driving outside the zona sul (some taxis will switch to the high rate near the airport, which is legal). Make sure meters are cleared before you start (find out the current starting number). Make sure the tabela is original, not a photocopy. The taxi drivers that hang out near the hotels are sharks. It's worth walking a block to avoid them. Most people don't tip taxi drivers, although it's common to round off the fare to the higher number. The meters are weighted towards distance not time. This gives the drivers an incentive to drive quickly (for a head rush tell your driver that you are in a bit of a hurry) and travel by roundabout routes. Taxis don't always run during thunderstorms because alcohol-powered cars stall easily in the wet, but buses usually plough on ahead. It's illegal for cabs to take more than four passengers. This is, of course, irrelevant except for the fact that most cabs won't do it because of conventions of the trade. The white radio-taxis (260-2022) are 30% more expensive than the cornuns, but they will come to you and they are safer. Walking For God's sake be careful! Drivers run red lights, ran up on footpaths and stop for no one and nothing. Excerpts from Brazil - A Travel Survival Kit 3rd edition, by Andrew Draffen, Chris INIcAsey, Leonardo Pinheiro,and Robyn Jones. For more information call Lonely Planet: (800)275-8555. Copyright 1996 Lonely Planet Publications. Used by permission.


Rio! "A Sweet htheartednessl Brazilians' black and white and brown bodies interlock in volleyball games, in wrestling, in affection. The Cariocas' bodies are sinewy or supple, whether gliding across the beach, or moving sensuously in a samba. JILL WEISSICH

There are no right angles in Rio de Janeiro; Rio is all curves. The city winds around the mountains, and 53 miles of beaches twist along the base of the foothills. In dental floss bikinis, the Brazilians' tawny bodies are showcased among foam-scalloped waves. Lissome Brazilian models rule! In Rio, life is alegria, a "sweet lightheartedness," amidst the music and the sun and the sea. High above Ipanema Beach, a tram is suspended mid-air, nosing up Sugar Loaf Mountain. Corcovado, which means hump-backed mountain, is Rio's highest point, from which the 98-foot statue of Cristo Redentor stands. The statue, of reinforced concrete, is covered in limestone. Illuminated by night, and even shrouded in fog, the Redeemer's perennially outstretched arms are visible as He blesses the city, whose motto may well be: "There is no sin below the equator." Rio's Parque Nacional da Tijuca is the largest urban park in the world where enormous butterflies swoop over caves, waterfalls and the canopied rainforest, all that remain of the tropical jungle which once surrounded Rio. If Brazil symbolizes a tropical paradise, Rio de Janeiro is the Cidade Maravilhosa or, Marvelous City. Rio is known for Carnaval, the riotous celebration at the beginning of Lent. Rio embodies the festival conception of life, from the city's samba schools to the Carnaval balls. During Carnaval, the entire city of Rio, from the poorest in the favelas to the politicians and stars, mingle in a contagious, costumed revelry. Months after Carnaval is past, Cariocas, (the locals of Rio) show fading glossies of their elaborate costumes. "Sadness has no end. But happiness does" was written about Rio's working poor, who save all year for a costume for Carnaval, "a single moment of fantasy." Carnaval signifies the start of Lent, the forty-day period when Catholics abstain from a particular pleasure in preparation for Easter. The days of Carnaval are a savored indulgence of what will be missed. Thirsty Cariocas sacrifice caipirinha. Now the rage in Europe, this Brazilian drink is made from cachaca (Brazilian sugarcane liquor), lime and sugar. The Cariocas do drink in style, after work, in an area called Telles Arch. At 5:00, bars set up their tables and chairs outside along narrow alleys winding through the business district of downtown Rio. Soon dozens of barefooted children appear, handing out tiny cornucopias of peanuts. The peanuts are followed by beer such as Bohemia, or Cerpa. Draft beer is chope. More peanuts are sold, and many more cold beers and snacks, such as cheese, twisted around a stick, cheese patties or deep-fried codfish balls. Local men and women, jostling for a seat at the tables, eye each other while shedding blazers, neckties, and shirts in the tropical heat. Alegria! Although the word Carnaval sounds primitiveâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;even exoticâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;"carne-vale," means "abstinence from meat." Brazil is cattle country, and the tang of roasting meat is in the air everywhere: sold at street stalls, meat on sticks is dipped in hot sauces; in snack bars, or on the beach, as an aperitivo. In a bar, a group will share a fillet cooked with spring onions, spearing it with toothpicks; in pubs, it's sliced in sandwiches, or barbecuing on skewers. Brazil's cattle industry is one of the world's best, and nowhere will you find beef in such glory, drama, quantity and flavor than at the Restaurant Marius. Located on Copacabana Beach, Marius is in a huge space, befitting the enormity of this dining experience. The tones of the restaurant are muted; the wood and burlap and straw interior is the sole aspect of Marius which is understated. From the ceiling, huge, gleaming copper pans hang above a cosmopolitan buffet. Bresaola, covered with fresh ground Parmesan is arrayed between a cascade of hearts of palm, and a platter of deep red, ripe tomatoes. Select one tomato, and an attentive waiter appears with a sizzling pan of bubbling mozBRAZZIL - DECEMBER 2000

zarella cheese. A cart with leather covered wheels, befitting a covered wagon, holds covered platters offeijoada, (the National dish of Brazil,) individual fish dishes and lasagna. Achingly fresh sushi and sashimi are accented with bowls of fresh shredded ginger, green horseradish and soy sauce. But after sampling the salads, lasagna, a perfect sushi and the sashimi, one turns to the true point of Marius. Costumed in a billowing white shirt, the waiter approaches. Like a matador, he bears a long skewer held at an angle. As he carves a slice off the body of the roast, it is considered good etiquette to spear the slice before it flops onto the plate. A pewter dish is anchored to the bottom of the carver's rigging to catch the dripping fat. The roasts, charcoaled and burnt fiercely on the outside, when sliced, reveal the pink flesh beneath. After the roast came a serving of wild boar, a very high, gamy taste, followed by a filet mignon. For variety, there were skewers of roast chicken, chicken gizzards, and chicken hearts. One is expected to have several pieces of each offering. It's easy to do since you never see a giant filet steak on your plate, but only a slice at a time. It looks too good to refuse. It tastes too good to refuse. In Brazil, everyone who can afford it eats meat with a vengeance. It is the staff of life; from the vast ranches comes the wealth of Brazil. As the waiters carve, and as patrons dine, "carnal" (as in desire) here takes on a new meaning. On each table stands a silver globe, which the diner turns. When turned to green, it signals the waiter to "keep serving;" yellow means "serve, but more slowly;" and red is "stop!" The price for the feast: $32.00, or $16.00 without the meat service. Children are free. Waves and Swing The last surviving open-air tram ascends up the steep hills to the Montmartre district. Rio's Santa Teresa is a colorful neighborhood, where once elegant mansions now stand in raffish disrepair. A tiny museum, Museu Chacara do Ceti (Little House of Heaven) displays 18k and 19kcentury landscapes, the Brazilian artists interpretation of the New World. The Museum is set in manicured gardens, which affords a 360-degree view of Rio, including the pink-roofed favelas. These shantytowns of Rio's poor tumble down the hills onto the pavements' curving patterns, one of which is Avenida Atlantica. On this broad pedestrian walkway in front of the round Hotel Rio Internacional, in an Escher-like design, the letter "S" undulates, not unlike the nearby waves. A blindfolded Rio native, they say, could identify which barrio he was in from the sidewalk's design. Across from the Rio Internacional, on Copacabana Beach, the Brazilians' black and white and brown bodies interlock in volleyball games, in wrestling, in affection. The Cariocas' bodies are sinewy or supple, whether gliding across the beach, or moving sensuously in a samba. From Copacabana Beach, an open-air jeep can get to the harbor in ten minutes. Another perspective of Rio is that from a sailboat in Guanabara Bay. The modern city sparkles above the grassy Esplanade. On the opposite side of the bay is the island of Niter6i, where the Museu de Arte Contemporanea is located. As dramatic as the Bilbao Guggenheim, this museum has been compared to a flying saucer. Its improbably narrow base expands into a symmetrical, circular structure. Defying gravity, and suspended in space, the circumference of the museum billows out over the water. Why was this fantastic structure built on Niter6i rather than Rio? Oscar Niemeyer, who also designed Brasilia, the capital of Brazil, explained: "At the Museu de Arte Contemporanea in Niter6i, the BRAZZIL - DECEMBER 2000

landscape gave ne the main guidelines. Everything started when I deliberately dismissed the highly-praised right angle. This world of curves arose naturally from where I lived, white sand beaches, huge mountains, old baroque churches and beautiful sun-tanned women. In all sketches, the curve prevails as an omnipresent element." To enter the Museu de Arte Contemporanea, ascend the slight slope of a shocking pink ramp which unfurls, invitingly. Glimpses of Rio's coastline are visible across the bay. Inside, the museum's 28' round base displays the art while the museum's exterior circumference consists of windows. Less resembling a flying saucer, the interior is more like the inside of a stationary top. Bat multiple visions of Rio, each framed by a windowpanes makes the site of the museum much more than understandable, the choice of Niter6i was inevitable. Each pane ofthe musetim's windows highlights an aspect of Ipanema or Copacabana Beach or Rio itself, which only distance makes visible. Alegria! The antic esthetic of the Museum's shimmering exterior rivals the artwork, already challenged by the framed views o Rio's beaches. The island of Niter6i is accessible from e water, or by driving across Ponte Costa e Silva, the secon largest single span bridge in the world. Brazil's nati nal dish, feijoada, is made with cured beef, baby back spare *bs, and chorico, for example. To describe the dish as a stew fai s to do justice to this feast. That feijoada is a black bean bas dish, served with a starchy grain called manioc, is true. ut combine the sweetness of the sausages with the tang of harp onions; pair the rough texture of cured beef with juicy orange slices. The result is a dramatic and unpredictable dish, equivalent to the surprises of a piĂąata. Feijoada is eaten in great style, almost only on Saturday afternoons. At Delightful, a restaurant on Delightful Street, the entrance is through a rough gate in a stone wall. In the garden, four chefs in white toques bustled over the round stone oven, and the open grill. The feijoada was served over rice on ceramic plates. But oh! the accompaniments! Slices of orange ringed the ceramic platter amidst onions, bay leaves and heaping manioc. Because of the heat, beer is more popular than wine. Bohemia is available in bottles but the draft beer, chope, is the favorite. Brazil's national soft drink is guarand, from a red fruit in the Amazon forest. Guarand tastes like cream soda but its caffeine content may be the source of its popularity in a population that starts the evening at 11 p.m, and is on parade at 8:00 a.m. the next day. Brazilian desserts include papaya and mango puddings, "angel's Belly," made of egg yolks and sugar and "baba de mop", the "drobl of a virgin." Oh, sweet light heartedness! If You Go: Hotel: Rio Internacional, Av Atlantica 1500, Tel: 5431555 Major Credit Cards, US $175 Marius Restaurant, Av Atlantica 290, Tel and Fax: 5422393 Open Daily, Major Credit Cards First you ne d a Visa, which costs about $45 and you need three passport-s zed photos. Airport Deprture tax is another $40 Jill Weiss ch, an attorney, is the Travel and Food Editor for San Fran isco Attorney Magazine and has contributed to se eral other publications. She can be reached at 37

The Plague It is unacceptable that the "trust no one" policy of the Brazilian government be extended to Americans who live in the US. Such measures only help to fuel the inaccurate international perception that Brazilians are dishonest crooks and that in turn trust no one. ERNEST BARTELDES It is ironic. I'd only left Brazil for a week or so when I spotted an employment opportunity advertisement in the New York Times. The ad said that they needed someone who could use a computer and have good Portuguese skills. I figured that I had the qualifications for the job, so I took the chance and dialed the number that was printed on the ad. The person on the other side of the line was a Brazilian-born woman who was in charge of selecting prospective employees for the position. We basically spoke in Portuguese as she told me what the job consisted of. At first, she thought I was a Brazilian citizen, so she constantly repeated that I'd need a US job permit in order to be eligible. It took me several minutes to finally convince her that I was an American citizen who happened to speak Portuguese as a native, since I'd spent most of my life in that country. Then she told me which documents were needed to apply for the position, which set me aback. They wanted notarized copies of my passport and high school (or university) diplomas, plus a doctor's statement saying that I am -apt" for working forty hours a day, and in addition to all that, they wanted me to go to the police and request a "Statement of Good Conduct," which would prove that I have never been arrested or prosecuted. In Brazil, no photocopies of documents are accepted unless they are notarized, and notary publics are a very lucrative industry in the country. Any contract you sign must be registered in a notary office and your signature has to be authenticated by a notary public at a charge of about $1 for every authenticated document. The procedure is taken to avoid forgery. Brazilian law requires that employees have a yearly physical performed by a physician, and the law has been very lucrative to doctors. In Brazil, such expenses are paid by the employer, which is not the case in New York. In order to apply for a simple job, I would have to spend no less than $80 (the Police certificate alone costs $30). It is good to remind the reader that the minimum wage in Brazil is less than that, so most Brazilians would have been unable to apply for a job like this. However, we are not in Brazil. Upon learning that, I immediately e-mailed my mother so that she'd send me my original diploma, which I had left in Brazil in order to get the proper translations so I can register for my master's degree in January. Unfortunately, the documents never reached me in time for the application deadline. On that last day, I went to the UN offices with the documents I had in hand (plus a photocopy of my Brazilian university diploma) and I was denied applying for the job. The woman in charge (I will not mention her name here, for it is not her fault) told me that no exception would be made, since the Brazilian government stated in a circular letter that incomplete applications would be automatically disqualified. I argued that my diploma was not a forgery, and that I would make a sworn statement of that if necessary. The lady replied that unfortunately, due to the government's bureaucracy I knew so well of, she was unable to help me (what about thejeitinho?). It is totally unacceptable that this "trust no one" policy of the Brazilian government be extended to law-abiding, legal aliens or American citizens who live in the U.S. Such measures only help to fuel the inaccurate international perception that Brazilians are dishonest crooks(as mentioned in Brazil and The Brazilians, by E. Twegen) who no one is entitled to trust and that in turn trust no one unless you actually document that you can be trustedâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;which is no evidence of anythingâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;just take a look at the recent happenings in Brazilian politics. If Brazil wants to seek a change in their image, the country has to step ahead and make an effort to believe in people until they give evidence of being unworthy of being believed in. Ernest Barteldes, the author, was born in Michigan USA and has been a teacher of English in Brazil for over ten years. He is a graduate from Cearl State University and recently married a Brazilian. Barteldes has been a regular columnist for the Greenwich Village Gazette in New York City and has also collaborated to a number of magazines and newspapers in the US and in Brazil. He can be contacted at 38



A wild looking man rushe er screaming that I had to corn d see his magnificent vie eps,' he told me. S e of a quiet life I di w made me gasp. PHILIP B AZDEL

Sitting watching the setting sun turn my beer glass into Originally stablished as a plantation, the decline of sao liquid fire it was hard not to believe that I had fallen through Luis began in e 19th century when the demand for sugar and another one of Alice's Brazilian rabbit holes and landed m cotton dropped Despite some notable investment in the city by another tropical wonderland. A wonderland with no straight companies ho ing to exploit mineral resources and launch edges, where everything was in a state of transition and, satellites from earby Alcantara the decline is still occurring perhaps, if you took your eyes away from their swaying fronds today. Most p ople who visit will be drawn to the colorful for just a second, the palm trees would rush the city and once colonial build' s, which cluster together in the town's hisagain smother it in a blanket of tropical calm. toric center an will rarely venture away from the historic Sao Luis is often touted by those who write guidebooks and center. tourist literature as one of the highlights of the northeast of However, i •isn't the city's charmingly appealing crumBrazil; even UNESCO has jumped on the bandwagon stating bling colonial buildings or partially restored town center, that "The late 17th-century core of this historic town, founded known as the ojeto Reviver (Project Rebirth) that will make by the French and occupied by the Dutch before coming under me want me t • return to sao Luis, but rather it is the overPortuguese control, preserves its oriOnal rectangular street whelming feeli g of transition, the sense of the slow passage pattern in its entirety. Thanks to a period of economic stagna- of history and feeling of one's own mortality which even a tion in the early 20th century, an exceptional number of high- casual stroll ough the city brings. quality historic buildings have survived, making this an outFrom our h • tel s splendidly decrepit and fragmented balstanding example of an Iberian colonial town." Today, it is cony which w a mess of brick dust, cracked ceramic tiles and home to about a million people many of which who are sweaty workm n, it was possible to look out over the city's descended from Bantu slaves. splintered roo ops towards the thick ring of tropical foliage However, as you wander the calm hilly streets which seem which fringed t e city. Each day the palm trees seemed to press to roll aimlessly around the town, like a drunk staggering home closer as Moth r Nature pursued her inevitable plan against from a heavy night on the town, it's easy to believe that the man's encroac ii ment on her land. town is just another one of Brazil's transient paradoxes— Perhaps it is Mother Nature's eternal quest that gives the something far too fragile and precious to be real—and that city its unique tropical feel. There was definitely something in tomorrow when you wake up in your crwnbling hotel the city the air that made me shorten my stride, slowed my speech and will be no more and something equally paradoxical and inscru- lifted the veil of fatigue from my limbs. More tropical than table will have appeared in its place. Cayenne and many places I had been in the Caribbean, Sao Sao Luis, the capital of Mararthao, was founded in 1612 by Luis might just be Brazil's last tropical classic—albeit a Daniel de la Touche de la Ravardihre, a French naval officer. tropical classiq that is gracefully sliding into the sea in a He named the city in honor of Louis XIII (I bet the locals were poignant ballet f decomposition rather like a prominent Prima pleased that he didn't name it after himself). It was to be the Dona's slide is o alcoholism. only city that the French founded in Brazil. Their colonization The decay is impressive to say the least, and despite, was aided and abetted by the local Indians who had a patho- perhaps even is spite of, the commendable efforts of UNESCO logical hate of the Portuguese. However, France at that time and what appe red to be half of Brazil's bare-chested plasticwas itself weak and the Portuguese captured it in 1614 or 1615 shoed workme , the town still looks like it could be 4demoland set about pacifying the local population. From 1641 to ished with a fe well-chosen harsh words. I was never sure if 1644 the Dutch held it but lost it once again to the Lusitanian the legions of orlcmen in the city were actually knocking the crown. BRAML-DECEMBER2000


buildings down or rebuilding them—half the time they never seemed- sure themselves and spent hours wandering around looking for things to bash with their 5-lb sledge hammers. A walk in the streets left your ears ringing and your clothes covered in a grimy layer of brick dust. Parts of the town reminded me of Hiroshima but Hiroshima could never hold a candle to Sao Luis in terms of magnetism or refinement. Hiroshima is always too aware of its past and lives too much on the memories of tragic events, whilst sao Luis shrugs its shoulders to the inevitable ravages of history and lets Fife carry on as normal; it seems oblivious to its crumbling surroundings. Out of a Movie As soon as I arrived in town I went in search of a beer. The streets even at five o'clock on a Thursday night were deserted and I walked through the oppressive heat alone with my thoughts. On one corner where a tangle of wooden scaffolding held a crumbling burnt out building together I found a tatty group of street children kicking a rag ball around. The scene was a pure West End production of Oliver and I instinctively put my hand on my wallet less the Artful Dodger decided to Tick a pocket or two', but the song they would have more then likely been singing was 'Consider yourself one of us,' and they happily led me down a rat's run of back streets to a small leanto general store which eked out its existence in a rough timber shack erected between two scaffolding joists. From this wobbly shop the owner, who was all beer belly and flashing white teeth, dispensed the necessities of modern day life: cards for mobile phones, bottled water, contraceptives and beer. He even had a couple of optics for measuring out shots of pinga (local booze), which I thought was a brilliant touch. Refreshed! left the shop and returned to the tropical night. I could smell the sea a few blocks away and the slight salty tang in the air was tempered with the rich smell of the nearby palm trees. The kids escorted me back to the main street and then resumed their game of football. The streets were deserted and as the sun began its rapid decent below the horizon I quickened my pace. I didn't want to be alone on the streets after dark fall. However, I shouldn't have been worried as not only was the city relatively safe there were enough watchful eyes on the street to deter even the most crazed mugger. The windows of the houses that lined the street had all been thrown open to the balmy night and out of each one peered a pair of watchful eyes. Even the most tumbled down building had its watchful guardian. For the local population it must have been as good as any other way to pass the night and if hanging out of windows and chewing the fat with your neighbor ever becomes an Olympic sport I am sure that Sao Luis will sweep the board of medals. Some faces, which appeared momentarily from the shadows, looked as wrinkled and crumbling as the city itself, whilst others, especially the wild haired youngsters who were clearly descendants of Bantu slaves, watched me with what could only be described as mild amusement. Their radical and street-wise clothing was the only thing modern in the town but they still seemed to belong here. From their shadow shrouded smiles there seemed to be no trace of banzo (the profound longing of the slaves for home which would often result in their death), perhaps, I thought, this would be more evident in the stone and azulejos (ceramic tiles) of the town's buildings. I laid a hand on a wall, being careful not to demolish it, and tried to read the cities history from the smooth ceramic tiles. Enigmatically I felt nothing but the dull wet heat of four hundred years of colonial rule, historical incursions from the French who named the town, the Dutch who brought some semblance of European culture to the town, and the Portuguese who filled the town with lonesome Bantu slaves. On my second day, impressed that my hotel hadn't collapsed overnight, I set off to see the city's sites. The wonderfully helpful tourist office had provided me with enough maps and booklets to open a small store and the hotel's charming manager had also beenready to extol the delights of some of the city's more obscure sites. I had a busy day ahead of me. I walked back through the deserted Projeto Reviver, which despite ten years of UNESCO funding was no more than a handful of beautifully candy-colored colonial buildings many of which were bars or restaurants. Apart from a solitary 40

chewing gum hawker the streets were deserted and calm. It felt like! was walking through a cemetery and I hoped that the echo of my footsteps didn't shatter the morning's calm. Something Missing I wandered into the Museu de Artes Visuais in the heart of the Projeto. Housed in a wonderfully blue-tiled building, which was reminiscent of Delft's finest exports, the museum has an eclectic collection of old ceramic tiles and paintings. The collections of tiles were arranged in a thought provoking and methodical manner but the paintings were grouped together in a purely random way. Most of them were badly conceived and unappealing. I tried to ask my self-appointed guide what was the significance of some of the prints but she was too busy chewing gum, listening to her walkman and staring out of the window to help me. She must have been eighty-five years old if she had been a day. From there I wandered down more back streets and along deserted main streets in search of the Museu do Negro. Occasionally I would catch a tantalizing glimpse of the sea and a whiff of salt air, but there was still very little life on the street. The museum was definitely not easy to find and it took the combined efforts of three school children, two workmen, a postman and myself to track it down. When I did eventually find it the big blue tourist sign that the city had given to all its important attractions had been propped up inside the museum against the bathroom door. I had expected more from the museum than one bored looking Caucasian curator who had her head buried in a magazine about Leonardo Di Caprio and one whitewashed room of dusty fetishes and charms. The building, which had been the storehouse for the freshly arrived slaves, was now just another forgotten building in a crumbling city. The labeling of the exhibits was enigmatic to say the least 'Fetish—Burkina Faso.' It tantalized the mind, but ultimately left me unfulfilled. In a city of enigmas this was perhaps the bitterest to swallow. It seemed a tragic and heartless loss of an important part of the city's history. The next day, up with the first rays of the sun, I bought a boat ticket to Alcantara. Although it was still early in the day, the sun was scorching and the day promised nothing apart from blue skies, palm fringed beaches and tropical escapism. I was joined on deck of the gently bobbing boat by a gaggle of trainee tour guides who were on a field trip to learn the history of Alcantara. They dutifully ignored their teacher who was giving them a potted history of the city and rushed over to practice their Spanish with me. As tour guides, they told me, it was essential that they spoke another language and had all suffered long painful Spanish lessons and were keen to practice some simple sentences. Their Spanish was as about as bad as mine and we soon dissolved into fits of giggles and reverted to the much prettier language of Portuguese. I asked if they perhaps might like to study English, as this would undoubtedly be more useful for tourism than Spanish. This came as a shock to them and they ran screaming back to their professor blabbering about mad English men and being linguistically mauled. The crossing was relatively smooth but this didn't stop, despite the administration of some ingenious patent medicine, one of the junior travel agents spectacularly vomiting every few minutes. By the time we arrived at Alcantara an hour later she told me that she had decided to switch careers to something less stressful—like the military police. Stepping off the boat at Alcantara I had a feeling that perhaps this place would be something special. I wasn't sure if it was the peeling fishing boats that were gently banging against the harbor wall, the dim lean-to bars which lined the main quay or the lush tropical forest that seemed to blanket the town—Alcantara seemed to charm me even before I had stepped off the boat. Founded in 1600 by the use of extensive slavery Alcantara was once the hub of the region's busy commercial sugar and cotton trade. When the industry went into decline Alcantara suffered much more than Sao Luis and entered into a spiral of decline that it still hasn't broken free from today. It is a pitifully poor town and despite its many humble mud brick houses and cracked cobbled streets many experts claim that it is an architectural treasure and that it contains the most homogeneous group of colonial buildings to be found anywhere in Brazil. However, unlike Sao Luis it hasn't received any money BFtAZZIL - DECEMBER 2000

from UNESCO and the decay and ruination of the buildings is in a much more advanced stage. The charm factor is also much higher and I found it instantly impossible not to fall in love with Arcantara. I rarely feel this way about places. From the quay I followed a cracked cobblestones path up a steep hill towards the town's center. Occasionally a small child, wearing only a dirty pair of shorts, would emerge blinking from a simple wooden house and ask tentatively if I spoke Portuguese and needed a guide. When I explained to them that I didn't need a guide they would look at me with large dark wistful eyes, shrug and then remind me that there was really only one decent restaurant in the town and to make sure that I stopped by there for a beer on my way back. I admired their attitude immensely. As I reached the top of the hill a wild looking man, all raggedy hair, wild eyes and elastic limbs rushed over screaming that I had to come and see his magnificent view. He thrust his face into mine and told me that without a doubt it was the finest view in Brazil. Having a healthy respect for mad people, and not being in a hurry, I allowed him to drag me down an overgrown path to a quaint white washed church. 'Climb the steps,' he told me as he excitedly bounced from foot to foot. So, for the sake of a quiet life I did and the view made me gasp. Down below me was a thick forest of dense babacu palms whose swaying fronds were mottled in the noontime sun. Now and again this rich green tapestry was punctuated with the remains of long forgotten colonial buildings whose faded red brickwork was slowly being re-absorbed into the jungle. Beyond this was the choppy greeny-blue water of the Atlantic Ocean and miles up miles of unexplored white sand beaches, which were home to rare red breasted Guara birds. It was another tropical classic. My newfound friend, who had now calmed down, looked knowingly at me. I had been wrong to doubt his sanity. I wondered happily around the town for a few hours in the blistering tropical heat. The locals were sensible enough to lounge in their hammocks or stare out from their cool shady rooms at me as I walked by. They could have given the locals from Sao Luis a run for their money in the staring out of the



window and watching the world go past Olympics. One or two of them shot me quizzical looks as I walked that seemed to remind me that only mad dogs or English men went out in the mid-day sun. I passed one shop which doubled as an undertakers and a grocery store: 'I have a pound of ham, two apples, a bottle of beer and that lovely wooden coffin on the left. In the center of town, on a wonderfully tended lawn that seemed perfect for a game of cricket, was the best-preserved pelourinho or whipping post in Brazil. Close to that was the ruined church of Nossa Senhora do Carmo whose splendid classical arches seemed to mock the stone post. There was also a large mango tree under which I sat and had a beer. A few hundred years ago I could have sat here and had a ring side seat for a show of man's inhumanity to man. I felt a slight twinge of guilt as I sipped my ice-cold beer. There wasn't much more to see in the townâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;a few beaches and some lonely bars. It was a place of feelings and emotions rather than tangible tourist attractions. I sat under the boughs of the great mango tree and slowly roasted in the sun. People came and went to the bars and restaurant and a group of Brazilian tourists wandered past with a video camera. Apart from that time stood still and I imagined I could hear the whisper of the town as it slowly crumbled into the sea. When it was time to leave I felt a pang in my heart and was half tempted to stay for a few days. It would have been the perfect place to spend a few quiet days and catch up with my reading, but as ever, distant horizons were calling and I needed to be on the move. As the boat eased its way out of the small harbor and into the choppy straights I hoped that one day I would have the chance to return. The travel agent sitting next to me, who was already being nosily sick, probably didn't feel the same way. Philip Blazdell is English by birth, a scientist by training and a traveler by nature. He has traveled extensively in Brazil and is a regular contributor to numerous magazines and web pages. When not traveling he can be found in Fortaleza and can be contacted at




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Curitiba. A place with no past and an uncertain future. For the past thirty years, this modern capital ofthe southern state of Parana has been an ecological pioneer and a model for urban planners around the globe, emphasizing open space and public transport. Among its notable innovations, Curitiba counts the first pedestrian-only street in Brazil and a center for environmental education. But the city seems to have lost its vision and transformed itself into the Detroit of South America. Not only are five automobile-manufacturing plants located there, but an increasingly affluent population is turning its back on the vaunted transit system and clogging the roads with vehicles. On the cultural front, the city never had much to say for itself. Populated chiefly by European immigrants, many of them Poles, Curitiba hasn't enjoyed the benefit of native and African fonts that have enriched popular culture in other regions. Its most famous poet, Paulo Leminski (1944-1989), blamed Curitiba's cultural poverty and repression of leisure and creativity on the immigrants' puritan work ethic and excessive civic penny-pinching. "Freudianlly, Curitiba is anal retention. Our sin is avarice. To create is to waste. One creates only by excess. By exuberance," wrote Leminski. While the city's economic health permitted cultural consumerism ("Access to the industrial goods of civilization, the great existential adventure of the middle class."), there was no creative counterpart to the consumption, a fact that the poet ascribed to prosperity ("Perhaps culture is produced only in response to great privation.") and the absence of that "popular humus"— folklore. In 1996, ten years after Leminski published his observations in a book of essays, they were re-examined by Marcelo Sandmann in the article Algumas Canc5es em Curitiba (Several Songs in Curitiba, published in the literary review Letras). Sandmann, a professor of literature at the Universidade Federal do Parana and a poet in his own right, concluded that Curitiba' s musical output still hadn't changed sufficiently to prove Leminski wrong. Nevertheless, claimed Sandmann, the city has been manifesting a desire to change. In the absence of a fertile social soil into which it could sink roots, Curitiba is sending its roots into the air—as antennas—absorbing creative influences from the rest of the country and the world at large. Not surprisingly, much of the music being created in Curitiba was and still is rock and pop. Sandmann, however, focused his attention on three MPB (Masica Popular Brasileira) songs with a uniquely Curitiban flavor. "No De Pipoca ao Turista" (Don't Give the Tourists Popcorn), written by Carlos Careqa, Adriano Satiro, and Oswaldo Rio and recorded by Careqa in the album Os Homens Selo Todos Iguais (All Men Are Equal), is a simple jingle-like tune that makes specific references to city locales that are not tourist spots but typical venues for the city's marginalized population of blue-collar workers, transvestites, and prostitutes. "Passantes" (Passers By), composed by Luiz Antonio Fidalgo and recorded by the group Fato in its eponymous first disc, is a love duet enacted in characteristic public spaces—Rua XV, Galeria Schaffer— that are synonymous with the center of the city. "Filhos de Gdanski" ("Sons of Gdansk"), authored by carioca Antonio Saraiva and recorded by the Curitiban group Beijo AA Forca in the CD Sem Suingue (Without Swing), is a satirical inquiry into the city's cultural profile. The title incorporates the name of a Polish city into that of the famous Bahian bloco-afoxe Filhos de Gandhy (Sons of Gandhi, spelled with a y for some reason), and the tongue-in-cheek musical style is the AfroBrazilian ijexa, albeit performed by white singers in suit and tie. The quest for a clear voice continues, both within Curitiba and without, for at least two of the city's most talented artists have chosen to settle elsewhere.

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Sou of the How a city with no indigenous cultural roots is creating a musical legacy. DANIELLA THOMPSON


Chico Mello's Do Lado da Voz Born in Curitiba, Chico Mello studied composition with Jose Penalva and Hans Joachim Koellreuter, the classical composer who also taught Tom Jobim. Mello retraced Curitiba' s


Silvia, Benito, Paulo, Marcelo


immigration route back to Europe and since 1987 has been living in Berlin, where he finds greater freedom for esthetic expression. In Germany he continued his composition studies with German experimentalist Dieter Schnebel and learned Indian Dhrupad smghig with Amelia Cuni. He is equally active in Brazil and in Europe, and his work integrates Brazilian tradition with various international avant-garde trends. He has composed for chamber ensembles as well as for orchestras such as the Berlin Symphony, the Cologne Radio Orchestra, and the Bavarian Symphony, and has worked with such diverse collaborators as Sclmebel, Brazilian improvising composer/guitarist Silvia Ocougne, songwriter Carlos Careqa, and minimalist rocker Arnold Dreyblatt. Mello's remarkable new disc, Do Lado da Voz (From the Voice's Side), is his first all-song album. The recent interest in song stems from his studies of Dhrupad and his work with Silvia °coupe on the CD Mzisica Brasileira De(s)composta (Wandelweiser Records, Germany). Since the early '90s, he's elaborated unusual versions (or de-compositions, as he calls them) of well-known Brazilian songs of various eras. His novel and sometimes startling arrangements alter the songs' tempi, break their rhythm with pauses and repetitions, add samples of old recordings, and juxtapose instrumental dissonance against lyrical vocals, taking the songs out of their original contexts and transforming them into essentially new (re)creations. The earliest recording in this cycle of salvage is "Eu Te Arne (Tom Jobim/Chico Buarque; 1980), recorded on the CD 7 Artistas do Brasil (GGM Records, Germany) and also included in the new disc. It's scored for voice, piano, clarinets, electric bass, and percussion. The latter is used forpunctuation rather than for rhythmic purposes. In "Pensando em Ti" (Herivelto Martins/David Nasser; 1957), strings and clarinets play discrete repetitive phrases, while the vocals are an unpredictable dialogue between Mello's gentle voice and sampled fragments of Nelson Got-waives' chesty one in the original recording. Noel Rosa's samba "Mende (1933) maintains the original rhythm and is given a period feel with acoustic guitar, Mello's intimate singing, and a voice-generated fake trumpet. In another Noel Rosa samba, "J'a Cansei de Pedir" (1935), the period-style vocals and saxophone are countered by fragments of Mello's orchestral piece "Amarelinha," performed by the Berlin Symphony Orchestra. "Carolina" (Chico Buarque ; 1967) is given a quiet vocal interpretation with drone-like guitar and a violin that recalls the sawing of a didgeridoo or a Jew's harp. The waltz "Rosa" (Pixingumha; 1917) is transformed by slower singing and accelerated polyrhythms, the latter executed by guitars and the Middle-Eastern drum darabuka. The other side of Do Lado da Voz consists of five compositions by Mello, to which he applies the same de-composition techniques. "Achado" and "Chorando em 2001," both with lyrics by Carlos Careqa, utilize multiplication of acoustic instruments to create an almost electronic ambient. The violins in "Achado" recall Steve Reich's "Different Trains," while the title plays with the name of the Brazilian writer Machado de Assis. "Cara da Barriga" and "Valsa Dourada" are triumphs of simplicity, employing silence as an integral element of the composition. The singing here succeeds in being simultaneously straightforward and moving, and is accompanied by guitar and percussion in the former and by piano, violin, and bandoneon in the latter. The disc ends on the alliterative "Parama" (lyrics by Walnei Costa), where an electronic program of bass, drums, and synthesizer progressively alters the tempo. Mello's voice is an extremely attractive tenor that he keeps mostly in high registers and low decibels, like a muted horn. It's as unique and intriguing as his musical voice. Chico Mello: Do Lado da Voz (CD; 2000) Thanx God Records TG1008; distributed by Eldorado hay ://www eldora do mus TG1008?cgbC3wPL ; ; 105 1. Achado (Chico Mello/Carlos Careqa) 2. Cara da Barriga (Chico Mello) BRAZZIL - DECEMBER 2000

3. Pensand em Ti (Herivelto Martins/David Nasser) 04.-Mentir(Noel Rosa) 5. Chorand em 2001 (Chico Mello) 6. Ja Cansei de Pedir (Noel Rosa) 7. Carolina (Chico Buarqu,e) 8. Eu Te Amo (Antonio Carlos Jobim/Chico l3uarque) 9. Valsa D urada (Chico Mello/Carlos Careqa) 10. Rosa (Pi inguinha) 11.Parama Chico Mello/Walnei Costa) Marcelo Co rea Sandmann & Benito Rodriguez' Cantos da Palavra More than y other country, Brazil is home to that unusual hybrid, the acad mic popular musician. Perhaps the foremost example of this reed is world-renowned herpetologist Paulo Vanzolini, who e place is secure both in the Brazilian Academy of Science din the annals of samba. Luiz Tatit, founder of the 1980s SA Paulo band Rumo, a singer/guitarist as well as an excellent songwriter, is a, university professor. The authors of Cant's da Palavra (Songs of the Word) are both professors of lit rature at the Universidade Federal do Parana. Thus Marcelo C errëa Sandmann and Benito Rodriguez know their way aroun • words. Sandmann has been writing poetry for over ten years d just published a book of poems entitled Lirico Renitent (Rio de Janeiro, 7 Letras). Rodriguez is a scholar of popu ar Brazilian song. His doctoral thesis traced the parallel traje tones of two great lyricists—Catulo da Paixao Cearense and I restes Barbosa—whose work encompassed both literature d popular song: Sandmann s died classical piano for five years in his teens and played with ome groups in Curitiba, but abandoned music for letters. He b lieves that much of the good new music in Brazil is being c eated by non-professionals or by professionals in parallel p jects. "Few among the new [music makers] live of their o n esthetic projects," he says. His partner Rodriguez has ni musical education. "He has a guitar at home, but I've never se n him play!" says Sandmann. The two began to compose at ie end of 1995, alternating roles in writing music and lette s, either alone or together. Their joint disc demonstrates as risingly broad musical range, encompassing MPB, pop, ap, samba, funk, jazz, chanson, frevo, and rock. The opening song, "Cisco" (Particle), a paean to birth and life, shows off th strong integration between music and lyrics. It begins with the rhythm of a child's heartbeat (supplied by Sandinames so Francisco). The child's parents Sandmann and his singer/ ctress wife Silvia Contursi, break in with hypnotically all terative and onomatopoeic vocals, strongly punctuated by p lsating bass, keyboards, and percussion: Pulso por d tro do pulso Ritmo itirns em mim Mundo no do do fundo Vida na vid sem fim... Pulse inside pulse Intimate rh in me World at the depth of the depth Life in a life without end... "Rebulico" ( onfusion) is a funky argument sung by Silvia Contursi, with e ectric guitars, bass, with sampled drumming by Sly Dunbar d a sampling of Jason Miles' Psychic Horns. "Samba Danad ' (Tricky Samba) is not really a samba, but tricky enough evertheless. The title and the lyrics are a reference to Do ival Caymmi's classic (and highly melodic) "Samba da M. a Terra"—a standard recorded over the decades by vocal groups as disparate as Bando da Lua, Os Cariocas, and N vos Baianos and made famous worldwide by JoAo Gilberto. S &num' s song is an homage turned upside down, for his "T *cky Samba" is a hip-hop that de-emphasizes melody, with arrangement that weds acoustic Brazilian percussion (caix , tamborim, and xequere) to electric guitars, keyboards, and programmed drumming. Caymmi's lyrics,

which suggest that whoever doesn't like samba is wrong in the head or sore in the foot, here take on slightly altered but altogether new meaning, for Sandmann claims that whoever doesn't like this samba must be healthy of head and firm of Toot. "Louco" (Crazy), sung by Sandmann, is a man's gentle 'confession of madness to the woman he's about to leave, while "Sutileza" (Subtlety), beautifully sung by Contursi, pays tribute to French culture and the chanson in both melody and lyrics. "Ceti & Blues" (Sky & Blues) explores the jazz idiom in its lyrics, Contursi's vocals, and the arrangement for acoustic guitar, keyboards, bass, and pandeiro. Sandmann is the singer and guitarist in "Juros de Amor" (The Cost of Love), accompanied by Antonio Saraiva's soprano saxophone and Edu Szajnbrun's array of unusual percussion instruments. "" is a Carnavalfrevo that begins with a computer-generated prayer-like intonation and then tips the hat to the historic Carnaval samba "Pelo Telefone" (Donga/Mauro de Almeida; 1917) in its opening lyrics. It's followed by another seemingly requisite end-ofthe-century song, "0 Fim da Histeria," this one a rock about apocalyptic cults. "Samba na Feira" (Samba at the Fair) is about the beauty of musical miscegenation, appropriately accompanied by frenetic street-style batucada from Sidon Silva, one of the more talented members ofthe carioca band Pedro Luis e a Parede. In a drastic change of tempo, "Valsa da Madrugada" (Waltz at Dawn) is a lyrical song in the tradition of Tom Jobim and Edu Lobo, arranged for voice (Contursi) and piano (Grace Torres) by Torres, a member of the Curitiban group Fato. In "Deixa pra La" we're shunted to a funk mode, only to return to another samba, "Cantos da Palavra." The arrangement is contemporary, while the lyrics pay tribute to a long line of semmal musical figures stretching from the beginning of the 20th century until today. "Grao" (Grain) closes the album on a hopeful note with the same theme that opened it—the cycle of life—only this time in a slow ballad for voice and piano which is followed after an interval by a excerpt from "Louco" in which the wanderer returns home. All's well that ends well. Cantos da Palavra (CD; 1999) Independent release; Songs by Marcelo Sandmann and Benito Rodriguez Guest vocalist: Silvia Contursi Musical producer: Paulo Brandao 1. Cisco (Marcelo Sandmann/Benito Rodriguez) 2. Rebulico (Marcelo Sandmann/Benito Rodriguez) 3. Samba Danado (Marcelo Sandmann) 4. Louco (Marcelo Sandmann/Benito Rodriguez) 5. Sutileza (Marcelo Sandmann/Benito Rodriguez) 6. Cal & Blues (Marcelo Sandmann/Benito Rodriguez) 7. Juros de Amor (Marcelo Sandmann/Ricardo Carvalho/ Benito Rodriguez) 8. www . infol ia. c om.pc (Marcelo Sandmann/Benito Rodriguez) 9. 0 Fim da Histeria (Marcelo Sandmann/Benito Rodriguez) 10.Samba na Feira (Marcelo Sandmann/Benito Rodriguez) 11.Valsa da Madrugada (Marcelo Sandmann) 12.Deixa pra La (Marcelo Sandmann/Benito Rodriguez) 13. Cantos da Palavra (Marcelo Sandmann/Benito odriguez) 14. Grao (Marcelo Sandmann/Benito Rodriguez) Fato's Oquelatd Quelateje In Curitiban terms, Fato is an old timer. This septet has been around since 1994 and released three CDs in the past five years. From the very beginning, the idea behind the group has been to unite the disparate musical influences of its members. Bassist Ulisses Galetto's father was a child trombonist and

later worked in dance bands that played Brazilian and international hits of the '50s, '60s, and '70s, in addition to being a choro lover who played for fun with his friends. Keyboardist Grace Torres grew up hearing indiscriminately Henry Mancini, Ray Conniff, Jove»; Guarda, and Tropicana. At the age of six she began a course of classical piano, which took her all the way to university studies of Art Education. While there, she became engrossed in folklore and the works of Bela Bartok, 'which prompted her to listen to 20th century vernacular and classical music, as well as to innovators like Egberto Gismonti, Henneto Pascoal, and Frank Zappa. Drummer Ze Loureiro played Carnaval frvos, marchinhas, and sambas on Trios Eletricos, in addition to playing MPB and Brazilian rock in nightclubs. (One ofthe founding members who's since left is Silvia Contursi, whose voice may be heard on the group's first two albums.) Gilson Fukushima, who joined the group in 1996, learned classical guitar, all the while playing electric pop guitar with his friends. Fato's youngest member, for the past three years he's been studying composition and conducting, winning awards for contemporary composition, and listening to classical music from Bach to Stockhausen by way of Frank Zappa. Singer Alexandre Nero (who can also be heard on Cantos da Palavra) joined Fato in 1997. His musical education is completely popular, autodidactic, and intuitive. He loves street music, Carnaval, Brazilian percussion, and dance, and he's also an actor. Sabi Farah is another largely intuitive singer, although she took singing and vocal technique lessons for several years. Before joining Fato in 1998, she used to sing blues and MPB and was a radio announcer. Her favorite genres are pop, jazz, blues, and MPB. Percussionist Priscila Graciano studied piano and ballet, as well as Art Education. She comes from a family of musicians dedicated mostly to regional music. She's the drummer of two other bands, one playing techno-pop and the other MPB. What do Fato's Members have in common? A shared taste for certain artists and, above all, the desire to seek a unique sound. Borrowing inspiration from all corners of Brazil, the band blends traditional elements of maracatu, fandango, barer°, capoeira, flamenco, samba, reggae, and choro into their electric rock/pop, which is enhanced by intelligent lyrics and interesting arrangements. The group's first two CDs, Fato (1995) and Fogo Mordido (1997), were produced by carioca musicians Antonio 8araiva and Paulo Brandao, respectively. For Oquelata Quelateje, the group looked closer to home, to paunsta bassist Rodolfo Stroeter, although Brandao stayed on board for the mixing. Oquelatci Quelateje puts a spotlight on fandango, a traditional rhythm of Parana which is a mixture of the old Spanish fandango and the circle dances of the Carijo natives. Fandango dancers wear tamancos (wooden clogs), which they stomp for percussion, while the melody is carried by the rabeca (violin). Localized in the island of Valadares, the fandango might have passed into extinction were it not for the work of researchers Inami Custodio Pinto and Jose Eduardo Gramani. The rhythm of the clogs, accompanied by the traditional hand-clapping and violins, made its first Fato appearance on Fogo Mordido, in the song "A Noite" (Sandra° Fernandes/Ulisses (aletto/Grace Torres). In the same album, "Tamanco" (Ulissea Galetto) talked of the musical miscegenation being created in Curitiba: La vai fandango corn tamanco meu sinho Choro num =ado, um afoxe Bardo de dois, eu e voce Maracatu desceu pro sul pro remexer Samba no pe e a cuica no maculeM Corey lundu BRA221L-DECEMBER2000

Parana e Brancura negra... There goes fandango with tamanco my lord Choro in the xaxado, an afoxe Baifto for two, I and you Maracatu came down south to mix Samba dancing and cuica in maculele Core and lundu Parana is Black whiteness... In the new CD, the clogs appear again as percussion instruments. The opening track, "Valadares," is yet another statement of miscegenation, whose lyrics pair tamancos with the Afro-Brazilian agogo and Gramani's rabeca with the northeastern pifanos of Caruaru. Yet this song is a thoroughly modem creation, where Gramani's sampled country violin, sounding mournfully Jewish, is quickly followed by electric guitar and an eclectic host of percussion instruments producing a strongly danceable and decidedly urban street ambiance. "Encharque," a rock with a bit of Stevie Wonder's "Superstition" thrown in, restates the main theme: ...Percusseio de tamanco é danca Terreiro de candomble é danca Sopapo de capoeira é danca Dario' de mulata Tiro de polaca Grito gue saiu pela culatra... ...Percussion of tamanco is dance Candomble temple is dance Capoeira's blow is dance

make repeat appearances on the album, whose cover shows sperm penetrating an ovum—an apt metaphor for the cross fertilization going on here. Fato: Oquelatd Quelateje (CD; 2000) Independent release; http://www.fato.orn Musical producer: Rodolfo Stroeter Grace Torres: keyboards, vocals, percussion Babi Farah: ocals, percussion Alexandre N ro: vocals, acoustic guitar, percussion Gilson Fuku hima: electric & acoustic guitar, vocals Ulisses Gale o: bass, acoustic guitar, vocals Ze Loureiro eto: drums, percussion, vocals Priscila Grac ano: percussion, vocals 1. Valadare (Ulisses Galetto) 2. Encharq e (Alexandre Nero) 3. Odisseia Ulisses Galetto/Antonio Saraiva) 4. Vozes (A exandre Nero/Grace Torres/Ulisses Galetto) 5. Beira do amba (Rodrigo Campello/Antonio Saraiva) 6. Kismet ( lisses Galetto) 7. Cachimb (Babi Farah/Gilson Fukushima) 8. Rito (Uli ses Galetto/Marcelo Sandmann) 9. Morrer d Bem (Rodrigo Campello/Suely Mesquita) 10. Foz (Gra e Torres/Marcelo Sandmann) 11. Istm,o (G lson Fukushima/Ulisses Galetto) 12.A Lingua or Ela Mesma (Jana Mundana/Fabio Tavares) 13. Na Praia (Arnaldo Machado) 14. Baia-Rio (Antonio Saraiva/Pedro Ribeiro) Maxixe Mac ine's BarBabel

What's more fun? Punk rock or old tunes from the '30s? Maxixe Machine's unabashed vote is for the latter. This irreverent band whose name speaks volumes (maxixe is the oldest purely Brazilian dance and a precursor to samba, while machine is self- xplanatory) emerged in 1994 as a parallel "Vozes" is all about, yes, voices. The lyrics talk about project of the roc pop group Beijo AA Forca, which had been voices, and the singing, which begins with a male solo and around since 19 3. Eventually, the newer entity took over proceeds to an equally beguiling masculine duet, stops abruptly completely. The older band released the album Sem Suingue to make way for a Balinese Kecak ("monkey chant") laid over (Without Swing) and Maxixe Machine continues to wave the a feminine solo and Fato's chorus intoning the word vozes. same banner, a t ngue-in-cheek commentary on their home"Beira do Samba" is an unusual love song with a beautiful town that hails fr m the same crucible where Polish jokes are melody and sage lyrics: made. By now y u get the idea that Maxixe Machine doesn't look on the wo id with a straight face. Swing or no, they Quanto mais a genie entende manage to produ e a bewildering quantity of music, both old Mais a genie se surpreende tunes (sambas, archinhas, valsas, guaranias, polkas) that Mais a genie esta no ar... sound new and w tunes of their own that sound old. The band rec ntly recorded its second CD, a live disc of The more we understand marchinhas, tho e peppy and frivolous marches that used to be The more we are surprised, such Carnaval fa orites in days gone by. Their first recording, The more we're in the air... BarBabel, was n ambitious project comprising a CD, a magazine, and a 30-minute film featuring the legendary fig"Kismet" leads us back to the dance floor, to the accompa- ures of samba (ci niment of tamborins and vocal imitations of a football com- a 66-page color i ca 1930) in a bar setting. The disc comes with sert chock-a-block with photos, scenes from mentator and the media personalities Chacrinha and Silvio the film, intervie s, song lyrics, and technical information. Santos. Energetic and jolly-sounding, its message is rather BarBabel is a rollicking party, spreading before us a grim: Dance of mulatto woman Shot of Polish woman Scream that backfired

Cada um na sua, todo mundo por ninguem... Each to his own, everybody for nobody... "Cachimba" offers alliterative lyrics and a sitar-like viola caipira. "Rito," a poetic rumination on macro- and microcosmos, showcases Alexandre Nero's fine singing, while "Morrer de Bern" examines the positive aspects of death. Water, life, and natural elements BRA7_ZIL - DECEMBER 2000 45

smorgasbord of kooky styles. Some of the fun consists in hearing Noel Rosa, Assis Valente, Lamartine Babo, and Ary Barroso in pop clothing. Even more interesting are some of the group's original compositions that sound uncannily like authentic traditional sambas but are in fact carefully constructed pastiches. Perhaps the perfect example is "Deixa c'o Breque," which sounds like a Batatinha recording, complete with oldgeezer voice, coughing, and lyrics that don't betray their facetious nonsense unless you're listening very carefully:

Walmor) 23. Sede Titanica (Thadeu/Walmor/Edilson Del Grossi) 24. Sede Titanica (remix of Edu-K) 25. Curitiba (karaoke version) 26. Memoria Rd (karaoke version) 27. Bolero-Lero (karaoke version) Carlos Careqa's Miisica para Final do Seculo

Carlos Careqa is the best-known musician to come out of Curitiba, and it took getting out of Curitiba to become better known. He's been living in Sao Paulo since the early '90s, where he recorded his two CDs, Os Homens Sao Todos Iguais and Allisica Para Final de Seculo (Thanx God Records). The Samba that is samba, highlight of the first disc was the song "Nao Dê Pipoca ao When inspiration comes, Turista," which begins with the defiant line "Eu gosto de Increases the percussion in my chest... Curitiba" (I like Curitiba). The love song "Acho" (I think), from the same disc, was included in David Byrne's compilaComo cal bem o samba do Ataulfo tion Beleza Tropical 2. Now Careqa' s songs are being re0 Nelson sai cantando cavaquinho na vitrola corded by pop stars like Rita Ribeiro and Vania Abreu. Ncio tiro o cartola da cabeca With Arrigo Barnabe as artistic director, the first CD was Nem o Paulinho da viola... consciously without a central concept but infused with humor. Miisica Para Final de Seculo, which made David Byrne's Top How well does Ataulfo's samba sound 10 list for the year, is more homogenous and more serious. The Nelson comes out singing cavaquinho in the victrola composer tells that many of his friends have died of AIDS, I don't remove the top hat* from my head which made him think a great deal about life. He says that Jose Nor Paulinho from the viola... Miguel Wisnik asked him: "Look, if you have the petulance to make humorous songs, why don't you have the courage to * Cartola speak of love?" The result is a rich disc with a variety of music and of instruments, utilizing more percussion, sanfona (accorMaxixe Machine: BarBabel (CD; 1999) dion), acoustic guitar, and trombone. Independent release; My personal favorite in this album is maxixemachine/ "Chorando em 2001" (see lyrics) also recorded by Chico Mello. It's interesting to compare the Luiz Ferreira: vocals, cavaquinho, guitar, two authors' recordings. Mello's arrangement samples includes acoustic and electric guitars, piano, Ricardo "O Rosinha": vocals, zabumba, surdo, violins, and contrabass. Careqa's, arranged by pandeiro, callon, Portuguese adufe, tabla, drums, accordionist Toninho Ferragutti has pandeiro samples and sanfona. Mello sings in the upper registers, Rodrigo Banos Homem del Rei: lead vocals, whereas Careqa sings in the middle ones. guitar, samples Mello's version is modern music, while Careqa's Therciano Albuquerque: vocals, piano is Brazilian song. Walmor Douglas Goes: vocals, solo guitar The disc takes its title from the song "Musica Para Final de Seculo," a semi-rap that suggests 1. Maria Boa (Assis Valente) that the world isn't coming to an end at the turn 2. Perdendo Tempo (P. Leminski/Thadeu/ of the century, that in fact it's an opportunity for Roberto Prado/Walmor Douglas Goes) a new beginning. One of Careqa's themes is 3. Mulher Indigesta (Noel Rosa) urban space: "Manhattan Tan Tan" is a percus4. Com Mulher Nao Quero Mais Nada (Noel sive mantra for a large metropolis, while "A Rosa/Silvio Pinto) Cor de Nova York" (The Color of New York) MemoriaRa (Marcos Prado/Beto Trindade/ 5. is a wistful rock love ballad traipsing around Luiz Ferreira/Rodrigo Barros) cities of the world. Another recurring motif is 6. Cuco Maluco (Haroldo Lobo/Milton de nature: "Eclipse em Meia-Lua" (Half-Moon Oliveira) Eclipse) is a lovely ballad arranged for string quartet, guitar, 7. Gatos Malucos (Os Trigemeos Vocalistas) (Saint Solitude) could 8. Sabia (Antonio Thadeu Wojciechowski/Edilson Del and percussion, while "Sao Solidao" mlisica nordestina, as would fool you into believing that it's Grossi/Beto Trindade/Walmor G6es) "Temporal" (Storm). And there are some surprises. "Vou Sair 9. Alo-Atlo (Andre Filho) (as Comprinhas)" (I'm Going Shopping) is a peppy samba 10. Isso E La com Santo Antonio (Lamartine Babo) with humorous lyrics and a vocal delivery that recalls Joao 11. Deixa c'o Breque (Thadeu/Walmor/Trindade) Bosco in his heyday. 12. Curitiba (Marcos Prado/Thadeu/Walmor) I asked Carlos Careqa a few questions about Curitiba and 13. Como "Vaes" Voce? (Ary Barroso) its impact on his work, especially in his first album, Os Homens Bolero-Lero (Rodrigo Barros/Luiz Ferreira/Sergio 14. Seto Todos Iguais. Viralobos/Thadeu/Walmor) 15. Valsa de Yorick (Luiz Ferreira/Rodrigo Barros/score Brazzil—"Nao DE Pipoca ao Turista" is a kind of hymn from the play Estou Te Escrevendo de urn Pais Distante) for Curitiba, is it not? Would you describe some of the 16. Valsa Danada (Renato Quege/Jose Buffo) scenes you mention in the song? Are there ever any turistas 17. Pedra que Rolou (Pedro Caetano) in Curitiba? Casamento do Barriga (Luiz Ferreira/Rodrigo Barros/ 18. Beto Trindade/Ricardo "0 Rosinha"/Therciano Albuquerque) Careqa—My first CD was released (still in Vinyl) in 1993, 19. Bacalhau (Rodrigo/Thadeu/Roberto Prado/Walmor) when I was already living in Sao Paulo. I made this song, a Hino do Chupa-Cabras (Trindade/Ubiratan Goncalves 20. metaphoric kind of protest, in 1989 with Oswaldo Rios and de Oliveira/Edson de Vulcanis/Walmor) 21. Restaurante Espacial (Roberto Prado/Beto Trindade) Adriano Sarno. We talk in the song about obscure points in 22. A Tribo dos Cara-Palidas (Marcos Prado/Thadeu/ Curitiba, a tour of the hidden side of the city. Streets of Samba que é samba Quando vem a inspiracdo Aumenta no meu peito a percusselo...



prostitution, like Riachuelo, Praca do Homem Pelado (Square of the Naked Man), the Passeio PUblico mini zoo that for a long time attracted beggars and people of easy living. There are many Curitibas in Curitiba, and this is one of them. The underworld of Curitiba hangs around the Boite Metro (there's no subway in Curitiba) where people pay to have sex in the hole of the Metro. I'm happy that people are still seeking this disc after all this time. I'm a compulsive Curitibano, I love and hate, hate and love. Tourists began to discover Curitiba in the '90s, as a result of not very accurate advertising about the reality ofthe city. Yet Curitiba has many places to visit. But the best is to get to know the identity of Curitiba through Paulo Leminski, Alice Ruiz, Dalton Trevisan, HOU) Leites, etc. Brazzil—The cover photo of Os Homens Silo Todos Iguais put me in mind of Antonio Saraiva's "Filhos de Gdanski." Would you say this is a recurring theme in music connected with Curitiba? Careqa—The cover of Os Homens was made by the great plastic artist from Sao Paulo, Guto Lacaz. He thought of this idea of the mirror. At the time I still didn't know the work of Antonio Saraiva, of whom I'm a confessed fan. But I think there's a good relationship between the two. Brazzil—Has there been any change in your career since "Acho" was included in Beleza Tropical 2? Careqa—Not much, but here in sao Paulo, some people know and value this. I'm the only one in that collection without a large record label behind him; the song is there simply because it was selected. I was always a fan of David Byrne, for a long time I sang "Psycho Killer" in bars and shows. I admire his work and think that he does more for Brazilian music than many Brazilians here. As I always say, David Byrne is a Brazilian who was born in Scotland. Brazzil—"A Ultima Quimera de Sebastiao Antonio Pereira" is a grandiose, operatic duet. Who is Sebastiao Antonio Pereira, and who's the polaca? Any mentions of Poles automatically makes me think of Curitiba. Careqa—I made this song in 1983, at a party with my partners. We wanted to deal with the most common situation in Curitiba, class difference, whites and blacks separated by a system at times hypocritical. The Polish woman in question is a code name for a prostitute, part of an old history since the European immigration (not only Polish women, but German, Russian, etc.). It was good to make music at that time; we did it without thinking of a market. Sebastiao is a fictitious name invented on the spot, a night watchman. Brazzi/—"Couto Anual" is the kind of song that Maxixe Machine is likely to sing. Any comments? Careqa—I'm a great admirer of Beijo AA Forca, and Rodrigo is an excellent singer. When I was recording my disc, we shared the same studio in Curitiba in 1991, and I called Rodrigo to sing with me on this track. I also love Maxixe Machine, they're great. Brazzil—The play Al/es Plastik that gives its name to your song was performed in Curitiba by the German theatre group Grips in 1985. Did you participate in that production? Careqa—I was the musical director of the show Al/es Plastik in 1985, in partnership with the Goethe Institute. Paulo Leminski did the adaptation and the Portuguese versions ofthe lyrics, and Geraldo Henrique and I set the songs to music. Brazzi/—"Cidade" includes a chant recorded in a Curitiba church. Is the song about Curitiba?

Careqa—This is a lyric that I received from Milton Karam. I believe that it talks about Curitiba, but principally of small towns that are being transformed into big cities. The interaction with Curitiba is clear, because the chant recorded is traditional to Curitiba, dedicated to a venerated saint. This song was also composed in 1984. The arrangement was strongly influenced by Rogerio Duprat. Brazzil—"0 Outro Lado" is again the kind of humorous and extremely brief song that Maxixe Machine would engage in these days. Careqa—At that time there was still no Maxixe Machine, but I think there's always been this synchronism between us. Brazzll—Leaving Curitiba behind, we're tiow at the second CD, wh!ch gave me a very rich musical experience. Careqa—In sao Paulo I began to have contact with a Brazil that I didn't know in Curitiba, although I always like Brazilian music i I had the opportunity to do shows and compose with Brazilians of the northeast, where practically all the inspiration for this disc comes from. Chico Cesar, Toninho Ferragutti, were very important at this stage. In 1995 I went to Berlin to study German and I began to think about this work together with Chico Mello, who's been living there for ten years. I recorded part of it there, utilizing musicians who live outside Brazil. In sao Paulo I added the marvelous sanfona of Toninho, and Bocatto came with his trombone to complement the ideas. Brazzil—The lyrics of "Manhattan Tan Tan" could work as well for Sao Paulo as for NYC. Careqa—Tbey were made for SAo Paulo—a graffito on the walls that sail& "Sao Paulo, Manhattan of the third world." I like to make sOngs for places where I live and where I've passed, making # subversive commentary for the city. Praises I leave for the mayors. All the tracks of Carlos Careqa's two CDs are available for listening on the Web: Carlos Careqa: Masica Para Final de Seculo (CD; 1999) Thanx God Records TG 1001; distributed by Eldorado TG1001?EbUqmvqN;;108 Production: Carlos Careqa Musical direction: Chico Mello 1. Ser Igual E Legal (Carlos Careqa/Adriano Satiro) 2. Chorando em 2001 (Chico Mello/Carlos Careqa) 3. No Caminho Para Santiago (Carlos Careqa) 4. MUsica Para Final de Seculo (Carlos Careqa/Adriano Satiro) 5. Manhattan Tan Tan (Carlos Careqa) 6. Eclipse em Meia-Lua (Carlos Careqa/Arrigo Barnabe/ Adriano Satiro) 7. Cortei o Dedo (Carlos Careqa/Raul Cruz) 8. sao SolidAo (Carlos Careqa) 9. Temporal (Carlos Careqa) 10. Nao Minta pra Mim (Carlos Careqa/Helio Leites) 11. Feliz Amor (Carlos Careqa) 12. A Cor de Nova York (Carlos Careqa) 13. Ndo Pise nos Meus Carlos (Carlos Careqa/Adriano Satiro) 14. Vou Sair [as Comprinhas] (Carlos Careqa) Daniella Thompson is a writer and preservationist living in N rthern California. She can be reached at




I . (Marcelo Sandmann/Benito Rodriguez) Mandaram me avisar Este camaval promete Pode esquecer o confeti E logar na Internet pm gente brincar Meu bem no pense que 6 preciso dar a mao Modem dispensa essa antiga conexAo Eu ligo a placa do meu kit multimidia E a sua imagem la no video vai dancando em alta defmicao S6 tern vantagens nesse novo camaval Na realidade o nosso bloco 6 virtual Nao tern calor de lascar Nao tern pisao no meu pd Nem risco de lhe perder Nem tern voce (English version by the authors) I've been told This Carnaval is going to be a blast Forget the confetti and all the gear from the past Log into Internet and we'll really dance Honey, we don't need to hold hands anymore With the modem those old connections seem such a bore I just have to slot in my multimedia kit And your image starts dancing on my high-resolution screen There are only good sides to this Carnaval This really is a virtual parade There's no damn heat Nobody stepping on my toes No risk of losing you And no you!

Eu no me importo se o programa do Japao E contrabando aqui na America do Sul Porque HTML nao tern 'Atria E o que interessa 6 acesso facil A qualquer site clabliu, clabliu, dabliu

I don't care if here in South America We can only get pirate copies of this Japanese software HTML has no country You just need easy access To my Web site

Meu novo frevo é mesmo incrivel de se ver S6 movo urn dedo e crio efeito de 3-D Mas se o teclado tavar E o mouse nao responder 0 troco todo der tilt Eu you dormir

My new frevo dance is great to see I just have to move my finger and set that wonderful 3-D But if the keyboard locks If the mouse doesn't respond If this thing has a fit I'm off to sleep

Chorando em 2001 (Chico Mello/Carlos Careqa)

Crying in 2001

sei de cor aquilo que nao sei o mundo nao tá acabando nao nao you ficar chorando no fundo tá comecando assim que nem choro de gente que nem choro de joao chorando em 2001

i know by heart what! don't know the world isn't coming to an end i won't be left crying at bottom it's beginning like this like people's crying like joao's crying crying in 2001

quem fala: ouve, no escuta ta nao ve que estou cantando a morte é fria, feia e nao discuta, va fan-ndo outros pianos o seu antonio viu que vem a chuva pra horta florecer que sem a agua nao fazia vida que nem choro do joao que nao fazia sol na despedida do choro, da vida, dos pianos, da gente do mundo chorando em 2001 chorando em lugar nenhum chorando pra nenhum chorando, chorando em 2001 se o choro é born entao eu choro quando sO nao falo corn ninguem o tudo nada desafinando o sol sabendo eu nada sei no fim do mundo sei que sempre tern urn tal sorrindo pm ser ninguem sem ter lugar no trem chorando em 2001

he who talks: listen don't hear ok don't you see i'm singing death is cold, ugly, and don't you argue, go making other plans mr. antonio saw that the rain is coming to make the vegetable garden flower that without water there's no life like the crying of joao that didn't make sin in the farewell of crying, of life, of plans, of people of the world crying in 2001 crying nowhere crying for no one crying, crying in 2001 if crying is good then i cry when alone I don't talk to anyone the all nothing untuning the sun knowing i know nothing at the end of the world i know there's always somebody smiling to be nobody without a place in the train crying in 2001






rector presents to a decadent aristocracy a show in which actors play the role of outlaws. Written by Arthur Schnitzler, directed by Ariela Goldmann, with Adriana Simpa, Alvaro Franco, and Carlos Morelli. Mercado de Fugas (Flee Market)— Drama— Ponderings on slavery in Brazil in the mid 19th century. Written by Machado de Assis, adapted by Teatro de Narradores, directed by Jose Fernando Peixoto de Azevedo, with Carol Zilles, Marcelo Daher, and Pedro Mantovani.

Hill A Mentecapta (The Loony Lady)—Comedy—A gallery of odd characters who frequent a psychiatric clinic. Written by Mauro Rasi, directed by Ivone Hoffmann, with the troup,e Grupo de Atores da CAL. A Vida E Cheia de Som e Faria (Life Is Full of Sound and Fury)—Drama—Based on Nick Hornby's High Fidelity. Abandoned by girlfriend, DJ recalls past romances with five women in an effort to overcome his misery. Adapted and directed by Felipe Hirsch with Elenco Sutil Companhia de Teatro. Tudo de Born (All the Best)—Comedy— After being involved in a traffic accident in a New Year's Eve four people develop a strong friendship that will survive for years. Written by Regiana Antonini, directed by Claudio Torres Gonzaga, with Anderson Muller, Cristina Moullins, and Danton Mello. No Olho da Rua corn Dede & Pul (In the Middle of the Street with Dede & Pul)— Comedy—Show has started in street presentations with the authors/interpreters ridiculing Brazilian big shots. Written and interpreted by Decio Ferret and Pul Barreto with direction by Stepan Nercessian.

SAO PAULO Contos de Seducdo (Seduction Tales)— Comedy—Love in Belle Epoque France through the eyes of Guy de Maupassant. Written by J. E. Amacker, directed by Eduardo Tolentino de Ara*, with Brian Penido Ross, Clara Carvalho, Sandra Corveloni, and Zecarlos Machado.

Retdbulo da Avareza, Luxiiria e Morte (Retable of Avarice, Luxury and Death)— Drama—The public sits on tables sipping wine as if they were on a cabaret while the play is shown. Written and directed by Rodolfo Garcia Vazquez with Ivan Cabral, Tadeu Peronne, and Germano Pereira. Ao Papagaio Verde (At the Green Parrot)—Comedy—The day of the Bastille Fall, a tavern owner and former stage diBRAZZIL - DECEMBER 2000

Just-released American movies:102 Dalmatians (102 Dalmatas), The Cell (A Cela), The Art of War (A Cilada), The Little Mermaid (A Pequena Sereia), High Fidelity (Alta Fidelidade), Boys and Girls (Amor ou Amizade), Charlie 's Angels (As Panteras), The Virgin Suicides (As Virgens Suicidas), Celebrity (Cele bridades), Space Cowboys (Cowboys do Espaco), Dinossaur (Dinossauro), The Kid (Duas Vidas), 0 Brother, Where Art Thou? (E Al Meu Irma°, Cade Voce?), Shaft (Ele E o Maximo), Bedazzled (Endiabrado), Filha da Luz (Bless the Child), Autumn in New York (Outono em Nova York), Scary Movie (7'odo Mundo em Alnico)

Eu, Tu, Eles (I, You, They)—Brazil/ 2000—Drama. Based on the real story of Darlene, a northeastern woman who lives in the same house with her husband and two lovers. Directed by Andrucha Waddington, with Regina Case, Lima Duarte and Stenio Garcia. 0 Auto da Compadecida (The Compassionate Lady Play)—Brazi1/1 999—Comedy. Two men from the Brazilian Northeast, Jodo Grillo and Chico have a hard to survive and to through some hilarious situations. Directed by Guel Arraes, with Matheus Nachtergaele, Selton Mello, Marco Nanini, Fernanda Montenegro, Mauricio Goncalves and Lima Duarte. 0 Rap do Pequeno Principe Contra as Almas Sebosas (The Little Prince's Rap Against the Greasy Souls)—Brazil/2000— Documentary. Gun for hire Helinho and rapper Garnise, both from Recife (state of Pernambuco) suburbs, are the two heroes of this documentary on Brazilian hip-hop. Directed by Paulo Caldas and Marcelo Luna. Inquietude (Restlessness)—PortugalFrance/1998—Drama. Three stories about love and the passage of time. Directed by Manoel de Oliveira, with Jose Pinto, Luis Miguel Cintra, and Isabel Ruth. Quase Nada (Almost Nothing)—Brazil/ 2000—Drama. The stories of three country men who despite living without the amenities of modern life have to deal with similar existential problems as those faced by people who live in big cities. Directed by Sergio Rezende, with Jose Augusto Pompeu, Camilo Bevilacqua, Jurandir de Oliveira, Genezio de Barros. Amella—Brazil/2000—Drama. Inspired by French actress Sarah Bernhardt's passage through Brazil in 1905. Directed by Ana Carolina, with Marilia Pera, Beatrice Agenin and Miriam Muniz.

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COMPUTER 1 Como fazer planilhas,colecdo Sucesso Profissional. Publifolha, R$ 14,90 2 Como navegar na Web, colecao Sucesso Profissional. Publifolha, R$ 14,90 3 Manual completo do hacker, Spyman. Book Express, R$ 45 4 Como fazer cartas e malas diretas, colecao Sucesso Profissional. Publifolha, R$ 14,90 5 Como usar o e-mail, coleca- o Sucesso Profissional. Publifolha, R$ 14,90 6 Hacker, guia de consulta e aprendizagem, Spyman. Book Express, R$ 13 7 Dominando o Linux, Matt Welsh e Lar Kaufman. Ciencia Moderna, R$ 59 8 Delphi 5, Emerson Facunte. Brasport, R$ 28 9 Flash 4, criacties multimidias interativas, Marcos Jose Pinto. Erica, R$ 45 10 A Internet e os hackers, M@rcio. Chantal, R$ 39 According to Jornal do Brasil, 49


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The Brazilian Challenge When in 1865 in Salvador da Bahia some fourteen doctors started meeting regularly to discuss their local cases and original research, they initiated one of the few significant episodes of successful science in nineteenth-century Brazil and, indeed, in Latin America. The men met every two weeks at each others' houses and, after a long day's work, talked late into the night about unusual cases they had come across, medical articles that had caught their attention, the advances of parasitology and microscopy, and how it could all be applied to Brazil. They dreamed of producing original research that would "clarify and develop the study of Brazilian medicine." This seemingly innocuous intention jolted the Brazilian medical establishment in which medical ideas and practice were marked by conformity and replication of Western European medicine, particularly French. The group, known retrospectively as the Escola Tropical ista Baiana, proposed to develop a distinctive medicine of the tropics that although attuned to the newest European advances, adapted those advances to the particular concerns of Brazil, especially the Northeast. The regional specification was important because from its very inception the school challenged Rio de Janeiro's medical hegemony. One of the group's early problems was that, having no official framework within Salvador from which to operate, they had to carve out their own institutional base. They did this by using the main charity hospital as their "teaching" base, creating an influential medical journal, and, following the lead of three foreign founders with little insertion in the established patronage network, they struck out in new and original ways. The Evolution of a Medical Community in Salvador From its inception, medical education in Brazil was characterized by its adherence to French medical models, centralization, and the importance of patronage connections for advancement. Medical teaching in Brazil began in 1808 when the Portuguese Crown, fleeing Napoleon I, moved from Lisbon to Brazil. The arrival of King Joao VI in Brazil in 1808, accompanied by some fifteen thousand persons, under the protection of a squadron from the English fleet, inaugurated a period of fundamental change in Brazilian history. During his stay in Brazil, King Joao VI ushered in a number of momentous economic and social reforms as part of his attempt to upgrade the status of Brazil from peripheral colony to center of the Brazilian Empire. For example, all Brazilian ports were opened to foreign trade, thus undoing almost three centuries of mercantilist policy; prohibitions on manufacturing enterprises in


The three most important founding members of the Escola Tropicalista Baiana were Europeans. Otto H. Wucherer and John Ligertwood Paterson became well known in Salvador rather suddenly as a result of two epidemics that ravaged the city at midcentury: yellowfever (1849) and cholera (1855). JULYAN G. PEARD Brazil were revoked; a Royal Committee of Commerce, Agriculture, Factories, and Navigation was appointed to encourage the expansion of these activities in Brazil; and the Bank of Brazil was established in Rio de Janeiro with branches in Sao Paulo and Salvador. Equally important were the cultural changes introduced largely because the king recognized that, given the uncertainty of the outcome of events in Europe, the ruling elite would have to be trained on Brazilian soil rather than on Portuguese, as had been the custom. Thus printing presses became legal for the first time in Brazil and papers such as the Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro (1808) and the Idade d'Ouro do Brasil (1811) commenced publication. The first public library was established in 1810 in Rio de Janeiro with sixty thousand volumes. Realizing it needed to produce locally trained military and naval officers, engineers, and other experts, the government created a Naval Academy in 1808 and a Royal Military Academy in 1810, and organized courses in economics, agriculture, and industry in Salvador and Rio de Janeiro. The government quickly recognized, too, the need for schools of medicine to train Brazilians as doctors. The high death rate among soldiers in Brazilian hospitals had long been a source of denunciation by colonial authorities and some voices had long clamored for the creation of local medical schools. Now, these voices were joined by those of king and court who wanted to see health care practices in their newly adoptive country conform more closely to those in Portugal. In 1808, at the instigation of the surgeon-general, Jose Correia Picanco, Joao VI set up two chairs in the instruction of surgery and anatomy, and later two more in obstetrics and pharmacy in Salvador and in Rio de Janeiro . The teaching took place in the most precarious of conditions, at the military hospitals in the two cities. At the end of four years a


candidate could petition the surgeon-general for certification and on satisfying the requirements was recommended to receive a degree from the University of Coimbra in Portugal. By 1815 the Crown had upgraded the medical chairs in Rio de Janeiro and Salvador to medical-surgical colleges with a longer five-year curriculum, and more demanding entry requirements. In an attempt to replicate the European medical practice, the Crown aimed to create a sharp separation between the "empiricism" of barber-surgeons, midwives, and bleeders on the one hand, and the educated, theoretical understanding of formally trained doctors on the other. In 1827 the Crown, aware that Brazil's newly independent status would require an improved infrastructure for education, recommended further reorganization and expansion of the early courses into a school with a curriculum and faculty modeled after the medical schools in Paris and Montpellier. The changes were adopted in 1832 in the midst of the crisis of Pedro I's abdication and the initiation of the liberal federalist experiment during the Regency (1831-40). Initially, therefore, institutions of higher education had a good deal of autonomy in the allocation of their resources, the election of their directors, and the recommendations for changes in the content of the curriculum. However, once the Regency gave way to the increasingly centralized rule of Emperor Pedro 11 (1840-89), school autonomy was ended. Indeed, the creation of medical education by governmental decree determined that medicine would become a more or less centralized enterprise, depending on the relative power of the royal bureaucracy and the strength of local challenges to that power. On the whole, this control stifled moves for innovation and reform. Gradually the imperial government came to dominate all aspects of medical school life. An educational reform in 1854â&#x20AC;&#x201D;the Born Retiro law, named after the presiding prime ministerâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;formally ended the autonomy of the medical schools. The stated purpose of the new law was to bring Brazilian medical teaching more into line with the latest developments in the leading medical schools in Europe. Thus it called for greater practical training, for better laboratory and clinical facilities, for maternity centers, for adequate autopsy facilities, and for botanical nurseries to carry out research into Brazilian plants with medical properties, all improvements that were virtually unaddressed for another thirty years. However, the underlying purpose of the law, that is, the attack on the autonomy of institutions of higher learning, was rigorously implemented. As a result, the imperial government controlled the finances of the schools, nominated the directors, and, although professors were selected by competitive examinations, was known to overrule the outcome of a competition and appoint its own candidate. Another source of regulation over the schools was the annual reports dealing with all aspects of the schools' business, which were written by a different professor each year, read to the faculty congregation, and forwarded to the central government. In 1875 the government further tightened its control by deciding that adjuncts were no longer to compete for full chairs but to be appointed by government decree. Throughout most of the nineteenth century, the medical schools continued to draw on the French example in shaping the curriculum, choosing examination topics for vacant faculty posts, selecting subjects for student dissertations, and deciding what to publish in Brazilian medical journals. Indeed, many Brazilian doctors preferred to publish in France and in French. Ironically, the most original Brazilian medical work in the first half of the nineteenth century came from a French physician, Joseph Sigaud, a resident of Brazil from 1825 to 1856, who wrote an epidemiological work focusing for the first time on illnesses most common in Brazil. His book, Du climat et des maladies du Bresil; ou statistique medicale de cet empire (1844), remained the most innovative medical approach in Brazil until the advent of the Tropicalistas in the 1860s. As the century progressed, the numbers of graduating doctors increased dramatically and advancement in medicine became far more competitive. In the early decades of the new nation's history,


the number of physicians graduating per year in Rio de Janeiro and Salvador was sufficiently small so that the doctor/patient ratio was favorable to the physician. Thus Robert Dundas, a British doctor who resided in Salvador from 1819 to 1842, noted that the Brazilian physician "is chailacterized by a great liberality of feeling; is little disposed to jealo sy, and altogether devoid of professional intrigue." But this ort of comment contrasted starkly to the common complaint later in the century that some doctors unethically undercut others with iscount rates. Moving from graduation into a successful career, a thriving practice, and a prestigious position on the medical facu ty always depended on patronage, but as the numbers of gradu tes grew, competition for patronage was greater and the sought-after posts relatively fewer. After midcentury, the higher number of doctors graduating from the two medical schools in Brazil not only created competition among the doctors within the two cities but also exacerbated the differences between the two medical communities. Increasingly, the rewards for physicians in Rio de Janeiro were much greater than in Salvador. This was in part because of the much larger European and Europeanized population that demanded the services of Western medicine. The array of medical institutions in Rio was also greater: the medical scho I had more students and thus there were more professors; a succ ssful medical association formed in 1829, which became the Imper'll Academy of Medicine in 1836; and the academy had its own j urnal, originally titled the Anais de Medicina do Rio de Janeiro. But undoubte ly the most important factor for the advancement of the individual p ysician in Rio de Janeiro, as well as for the status of the medical pro ssion, was that Rio, as the capital of the Empire, was the seat of the court and of royal patronage. Thus, for example, in theory the me ical school in Rio de Janeiro lost as much autonomy as the B hian school under the centralizing tendencies of Dom Pedro II's g vernment. But, in fact, the school in Rio de Janeiro could co pensate for this loss of autonomy much more successfully than e Bahian school simply because it had close connections with t e high echelons of power. Rio benefited from the emperor's person interest in medical affairs. Fascinated by the development of ni eteenth-century science, Pedro II often attended sessions at the Im rial Academy of Medicine, Rio medical school theses defenses, d graduation services. He was thus personally known to a numbe of doctors. The outcome o the Rio medical community's proximity to the seat of power can dearly seen in the more liberal financing of the Rio de Janeiro sc ool and main medical institutions. It was also evident in the unb lanced dispensation of noble titles for the two medical communit es. Of the forty-nine noble titles Pedro I and II granted doctors, only one was given to a Bahian physician. The whole theater of royalty in Rio de Janeiro also gave the capital's medical community a glitter and sophistication that, as the century wore on, contrasted more and more with the provincial, backwater nature of the Bahian one. Whereas early in the century numerous Bahian physicians had managed to become nationally prominent, by midcentury the Bahian medical community played second fiddle to that of the capital. ljhe justification was that Rio de Janeiro attracted more brilliant mind. Ambitious Bahian physicians who could do so moved to the capitl. to pursue their careers. Those who remained behind began to ai their grievances. It is understandable, therefore, that those who managed to position themselves well in the system had little incentive to rock the boat by fostering dange. This may have been especially true at the Bahian medical school, where a medical education was often prized primarily as a means of entering the ranks of power and less as a scientific endeavor. Local grandees, when they could, preferred to send their sons to the law schools of Recife and SAo Paulo, from which the highest °portion of imperial civil servants was drawn. As the medical istorian Cassiano Gomes asserts: "Medicine, at least in Salvador, as the profession of poor people, of the sons of merchants with s all amounts of capital, or even the sons of


workers, of the petty bourgeoisie; herein lies the great social function of the school." Numerous examples in Salvador bear this out. Antonio Pacifico Pereira and his brother Victorino were of humble Portuguese immigrant stock, as were Jose Francisco da Silva Lima and Manoel Joaquim Saraiva. Pedro Severiano de Magalhaes began his studies at the orphanage school of Sao Joaquim. All of these men became prominent as doctors, as civil servants, or as politicians. The Bahian medical school, like the other institutions of higher learning in Brazil, was also a vehicle for the rising social status of the mulatto. The fact that the government provided scholarships for poor students to enter the professions, regardless of color, was one of the underpinnings of the elite's complacent belief that in Brazil, in contrast to the United States, there was no "Negro problem." Brazilians noted with pride, and foreigners recorded in amazement, the many prominent mulatto Brazilian intellectuals and professionals in the Empire. This was true of medical graduates and faculty in Salvador. The professor Lino Coutinho, for example, was of a poor, mulatto background, and Domingos Carlos da Silva, Luis Anselmo de Fonseca, and Raimundo Nina Rodrigues, students and later teachers at the medical school, were mulatto. The values of most young men entering the medical school, therefore, led to the passive acceptance of medical education as a general, philosophical training rather than as a functional and practical profession. As Gilberto Freyre has noted, the value system of culture and knowledge in the Bahian medical school, certainly until the last decade of the Empire, subordinated the "scientific study [of medicine] to the study of classical literature, oratory, rhetoric, elegance, and purity in speaking and writing, to debate over questions more grammatical than physiological, and to dissecting problems closer to the pathology of literary style than human anatomy." It was unlikely, therefore, that the impetus for change would have come from within the Bahian medical establishment. The Tropicalistas, more than any other group of doctors in nineteenth-century Salvador, first articulated a critique of Brazilian medical teaching and practice. As foreigners, the founding Tropicalistas were excluded from the existing network of patronage so crucial to the advancement of medical careers; none of them, for example, ever taught at the Bahian medical school. The fact that they were on the periphery of imperial power and patronage allowed them more room to develop questioning and sometimes controversial ideas than if they had been in the capital city, close to official medicine, where such an autonomous group would have faced serious obstacles. At the same time, they were aware of the important medical strides being made in Europe and were especially interested in German advances. Clearly, for these men, audacity, daring, and original investigation would pay far greater dividends in possible fame and personal satisfaction than adherence to the local Western tradition of medicine, which, they saw, was failing to move into the new era of scientific medicine. They pushed, therefore, to make full use of the research arsenal of European medicine such as, for example, medical statistics, new clinical methods based on measurement and applied physiology, the application of chemistry in analyzing bodily fluids, an increased understanding of hematology, animal experimentation, and, most important, microscopy, which they pioneered in Salvador and through which they began to question hallowed theories about the etiology of Brazilian ailments. Above all, they insisted on looking at disorders of primary interest to Brazil. The "scientific" form of medical knowledge that the Tropicalistas proposed was, at first, intrusive and unsettling. Their outspoken belief that it was time for a "shake-up" in local medicine threatened to upset the accommodation of Bahian physicians within the Empire, especially as the Tropicalistas drew on new German ideas of scientific and social medicine that were initially viewed in Rio de Janeiro as rivals to the older French environmental approach to disease. Over time, however, because the Bahian medical establishment did increasingly poorly within the system of royal patronage—


a fact it resented more and more bitterly—the Tropicalistas ended up becoming allies in the Bahian doctors' struggle to secure greater munificence from the central government. Between 1866 and 1890, therefore, the medical school in Salvador became transformed, a transformation initiated by the Tropicalistas' criticisms and propelled by the larger social changes unfolding during this crucial period in Brazil's history. The Founding Tropicalistas

The three most important founding members of the Escola Tropicalista Baiana were Europeans who made their home in Brazil. Two of them, Otto H. Wucherer and John Ligertwood Paterson, became well known in Salvador rather suddenly as a result of two epidemics that ravaged the city at midcentury: yellow fever (1849) and cholera (1855). Certain events in the two epidemics are worth highlighting for they were important precursors to the formation of the Tropicalista movement and in creating the early perception of the Tropicalistas—in the opinion of some—as disruptive outsiders. Soon after a puzzling epidemic arrived in Salvador, Wucherer and Paterson, the latter the physician to the British community in Salvador, diagnosed the disorder as yellow fever, in opposition to the opinion of most of the members of the medical school and several of those on the Council of Health (Conselho de Salubridade). They stated it was contagious, although the manner of contagion was unknown. The practical implications of this position, which called for quarantines in a port city and the likely disruption of trade, were highly unpopular. So, too, was the assault on the prestige of the Bahian medical elite. The latter retaliated with offensive articles in the local press against the foreign doctors, arguing that the disorder was one of local origin and that the epidemic was neither as contagious nor as frightening as had been made out. "The serious cases that have occurred," they stated, "were caused by the predisposition of patients to the disorder, to the panic that has taken hold of them, and to the use of unreasonable cures." However, as the cases multiplied in an alarming manner, it became clear that the Europeans were correct in their diagnosis and that yellow fever had indeed struck and was spreading in a manner suggesting contagion. In 1855 the animosity between the foreigners and some of the leading Bahian doctors was reinforced when a similar confrontation developed over the arrival of cholera in the city. When called to minister to the ailing captain of a British frigate, an English doctor, Edward G. Fairbanks, declared the illness was cholera. The provincial governor urgently summoned Wucherer, Paterson, and Fairbanks to discuss the situation. As in 1849, most local doctors and authorities opposed the view that cholera had struck, blaming the epidemic on the sale of rotten codfish and meat. When the Europeans proposed that three special centers be set up to treat cholera patients and limit its spread, officials opposed the notion. Once again there were scathing articles in the press about the foreign doctors, and for a second time, events proved local physicians wrong. The two incidents damaged the prestige of some of the most preeminent local physicians while enhancing that of the Europeans. The Council of Health, for example, several of whose members had opposed the Europeans, fell into disuse and finally ceased to exist in 1876. After 1851 the main sanitation body was the Board of Public Hygiene (junta de Hygiene Publica), run almost single-handedly by Jose Goes Siqueira, who became inspector of hygiene. The foreign doctors gained in prestige among the highest administrative authorities and in later years were asked to serve on a number of health commissions. Their help and courage during the epidemics also earned them praise from wide sectors of the population. There was a good deal of sympathy for Wucherer, for example, who lost his wife in the yellow fever epidemic after he opened an infirmary in his home for poor patients. The two episodes also led to a crisis of confidence in the then prevalent Bahian medical theories that, strongly derivative of outdated French medical ideas,


pointed to a vague and fatalistic notion of climatic miasma derived from the combination of poor living conditions and the humid heat of the tropics, rather than a specific source of contagion. Wucherer and Paterson's insistence that yellow fever was contagious suggested that they believed that even if unhygienic conditions and a tropical climate were important factors in the outbreak of disease, these were not the whole explanation. They wanted to be much more specific in pointing out how the peculiarly Brazilian social factors impinged on disease, as well as how the special conditions of a warm climate interacted on a human constitution to produce disease. Thus they provided a new approach to disease etiology in Salvador at a time when traditional explanations were being undermined. It took another decade for the foreigners—and a handful of Bahian physicians who recognized the deficiencies of the state of local medicine—to get together and organize themselves into a group interested in the exploration of new approaches. Undoubtedly the two epidemics and the role of Wucherer and Paterson acted as a catalyst for that effort. Wucherer, who was born of German parents in Portugal and then moved with them to Brazil when he was eight, became the most renowned of the Tropicalistas and was the crucial link between advanced European medical ideas and local medical concerns. With his studies of Brazilian snakes and their poisons, his finding of the hookworm in Salvador, and his discovery of the embryonic filaria, Wucherer, more than any other of the Tropicalistas, forged the group's identity, set its program of research, and made it visible in the European press. Wucherer brought to Salvador the newest ideas of laboratory medicine and parasitology—a knowledge he acquired at the University of Tubingen, from which he graduated in 1841—at a time when Germany was beginning to play a leading role in laboratory medicine. He was particularly influenced by the brand of German medicine espoused by Rudolf Virchow, who, even as he moved away from bedside medicine into the laboratory and greater specificity, remained one of Germany's strongest medical advocates of social reform. Indeed, Virchow's axiom, "medicine is a social science," can be seen as central to Wucherer and the Tropicalistas' approach to the profession. Wacherer's exposure to advanced European medicine increased during his time as a medical assistant at St. Bartholomew's Hospital in London before his return to Brazil in 1843. In 1847 he took up the position of physician to the German community in Salvador. After the epidemics mentioned above, he continued to run his own infirmary, where he tended to all classes. Although he never received an official appointment to the main charity hospital, the Santa Casa de Misericordia, he worked there closely with a handful of colleagues, particularly Paterson, Jose Francisco da Silva Lima, and Manoel Maria Pires Caldas. They performed operations and autopsies together and consulted one another on their cases. Wucherer supported the idea of weekly meetings of those physicians in Salvador interested in keeping up-to-date on new developments in medicine, and he was one of the founders of the prestigious Gazeta Medica da Bahia, to which he contributed a handful of seminal articles. His best-known work was in the field of parasitology. In 1865 he isolated hookworm parasites for the first time in Brazil; he was the first person ever to isolate the embryonic filaria, the parasite that leads to hematuria and elephantiasis. He was also a pioneer in the study of Brazilian herpetology, with two of his papers on snakes read at the London Proceedings of the Zoological Society in 1861 and 1863. The approach to medicine that Wucherer brought to Salvador was reinforced by the Scotsman Paterson, who graduated from the University of Aberdeen in 1841. At the time, Scottish medical schools were deeply interested in the idea that it was the government's task to safeguard the health of the public, and that questions related to housing, sanitation, sewerage, the water supply, and the adulteration of food were all within the purview of government. Moreover, they believed that such a government could act practically and


legislate wisely o ly if it considered the advice of the physician. After graduating, aterson was accepted into the Royal College of Surgeons in Lond n. He went on a medical tour of the best-known hospitals in Franc , Switzerland, Italy, and Vienna until, encouraged by his older b other, Alexander, who had set up practice earlier in the British corn unity in Salvador, he traveled to Brazil. By then in his any twenties, John Paterson planned to settle in Paraiba do Norte but succeeded unexpectedly to his brother's practice after the 1 tter succumbed to a paralyzing stroke in 1843. Except for a few ye s from 1869 to 1872, and 1879 to 1881, during which he returned t i Britain, Paterson remained in Salvador until his death, at which tim his practice had become the largest in Salvador. Like Wucherer, Pat rson was dedicated to the treatment of the poor. In a biographical icle on Paterson written in 1887, Silva Lima told how, from the be inning of his work in Salvador, Paterson had reached out to mo than just the British community. He worked from early sunrise i a small infirmary attached to his house and at the Santa Casa Ho • ital, serving not only British sailors but needy Bahians, some of horn he never charged for his services. At noon he wo Id start paying sick calls on horseback, often until after nightfall. When the infirmary ran low on the contributions on which it survive ,he subsidized it for a time from his own pocket before reluctantly c osing it down. Although other foreign doctors also attended Brazil an patients, none had the large numbers of poor patients that Paters in did. Thus, in his adopted town, wrote Silva Lima, he came to •e fondly known as pai do povo (father of the people). Paterson was i •ortant for Bahian medicine in two ways. First, he marshaled the i erests of the early Tropicalistas by proposing that they hold info al meetings in order to exchange ideas, talk about their own cas s, and keep abreast of developments in medicine and surgery. Th suggestion led in 1866 to fortnightly meetings of about fourteen B ian doctors and, eventually, to the birth of the Escola Tropicalista The meetings, at which there were earnest discussions on the • rk in parasitology of Angelo Dubini, Theodor Bilharz, and Wilh lm Griesinger, among others, emboldened Wucherer to write bout his own findings. Here, too, the third member of the initi 1 Tropicalistas, Jose Francisco da Silva Lima, first raised his intere t in beriberi. There were talks about advances in surgery, an area t at particularly attracted Paterson. From these interchanges also c e the idea of starting a medical journal; the Gazeta Medial da B hia was not the first medical journal founded in Salvador but it b came the most successful, privately financed Brazilian medical jo rnal in the nineteenth century. Second, as a result of his sojourns in Europe, especially in Scotland where he I arned about antisepsis, Paterson was instrumental in introducin Lister's method into Bahian medicine. During these visits, someti es extended due to family reasons, Paterson spent time at the mos advanced hospitals in Britain and attended the lectures of some of e most famous physicians of the time. In 1869 he worked with Josep Lister in Edinburgh. This was a turning point in Paterson's profes ional life, for he was rapidly won over to Lister's method of tisepsis. In 1871 the Bahi n physician Antonio Pacifico Pereira visited Paterson in Edinburg . Paterson took his friend to have a lesson in antiseptic measures • m the master himself In 1879, once again on leave in Scotland, Pa rson received a visit from Antonio's brother, Victorino Pereira. He oo was introduced to Lister and made familiar with his antisepsis. aterson and the two Pereira brothers were sufficiently impresse with what they had learned from Lister to introduce the method into their Bahian medical practice. In subsequent reports on surg in the Gazeta Medica da Bahia, whether by Paterson or his coil 4gues, the antiseptic preventions taken are usually noted. The third in the triad of founding members of the Escola Tropicalista, Jose Fr cisco da Silva Lima, provided the perseverance and continuity th t led to the group's success. Born in Portugal, Silva Lima moved at e age of fourteen with his parents to Salvador, where his father was a merchant and his uncle a pharmacist. He


who assisted, observed, and commented on their work as well as the lists of members of the professional associations formed by the Tropicalistas. A prosopographical analysis of all these sources together suggests a "core" group of Tropicalistas that, though never numbering more than about twelve members at any one time, was surrounded by a larger circle of identifiable supporters of about twenty to twentyfive men. Among the Tropicalistas were five foreigners: the three founders I have already mentioned, and two supporters, Dr. Thomas Wright Hall, who worked with the British community, and Dr. Alexander Paterson, John Paterson's nephew. The rest of the Tropicalistas, core or supporters, were Brazilian-born and trained, although a number of them made visits to European centers of medicine after their graduation. Since there was an average of thirty doctors on the faculty of the medical school and possibly as many as eighty-six to one hundred and fifty regular practitioners in the city, the Tropicalistas constituted a sizable minority of the total medical community. Moreover, because they were such an active minority in teaching (albeit extraofficially), in the creation of the city's medical institutions and commissions for the improvement of hygiene, in the main charity hospital, and in the establishment of the only successful medical journal in Salvador, they exercised an influence upon the whole medical community that belied their numbers. Because in their first decade nearly all the core Tropicalistas operated outside the existing Bahian medical establishment, and rapidly became a forum for its critique, they needed an institutional framework if they were to be a successful, innovating force in Bahian medicine. Of the fourteen men Silva Lima recalled at the early meetings held first in Paterson's house, only two were on the medical school faculty at the time. Over the next two decades the Tropical istas had considerable success in winning over adherents from the medical school, and many of their earliest supporters moved into teaching posts in the medical school. Thus, by the late 1880s, their teachings had become mainstream. But in the 1860s the two institutions that became pivotal to the success of the group, the Santa Casa de Miseric6rdia Hospital and the Gazeta Medica da Bahia, were outside the medical school. The Santa Casa de Miseric6rdia Hospital was a charity hospital administered by nuns that provided many social services under the aegis of the historic "Brotherhood of Our Lady," a part of the Portuguese colonial legacy. The hospital attended to the poor who were reputed to have a "horror of the hospital," so that they sought out its services only when they were already extremely ill. It also attended to sailors, prostitutes, those afflicted by venereal disease, and women with birthing problems. Other charity services provided by the Santa Casa included the provision of burials for the poor, dowries for poor female orphans, a "roda," which was a foundling wheel made from a little revolving door to the side of the main door, or elsewhere, where unwanted babies were left, a retirement house for "wayward" women, and another for orphaned girls. At the time of Emperor Pedro II, the province of Bahia had six charity hospitals run by the Santa Casa. The largest was the Santa Casa de Miseric6rdia in the city of Salvador, which from 1833 was housed in the old Jesuit quarters in the Terreiro de Jesus next to the medical school. It operated largely with donations and legacies made to the order by wealthy members of the community, and through the years it had amassed considerable wealth. In the course of the century The Making of a School of Tropicalistas its expenses mounted as a result of a rising population and growing Although existing sources do not give an exact figure for how expectations in social services. Moreover, the economic decline of many men formed the Escola Tropicalista, a rough estimate is the province that exacted its toll on the generosity of donors and the possible. In 1887 Silva Lima provided a list with the names of mismanagement of its finances led to hard times for the order. fourteen men whom he recalled started meeting regularly at Excerpted from the first chapter of Race, Place, and Paterson's house. The approximate correctness of this figure is Medicine â&#x20AC;&#x201D; The Idea of the Tropics in Nineteenth-Century confirmed by an examination of the doctors who published reguBrazilian Medicine by Julyan G. Peard, Duke University larly in the Gazeta Medica, and who were on its editorial board up Press, 1999, 316 pp. Peard is Associate Professor of Latin until the fall of the Empire in 1889. Further data can be gleaned American History at San Francisco State University. through a careful examination of the Tropicalistas' clinical papers published in the Gazeta Medica, which reveal the names of doctors

graduated from the medical school in Salvador in 1851. Between 1853 and 1881 he made five trips to Europe in part to advance his medical knowledge. One of the founders and longtime editor of the Gazeta Medica, he contributed some two hundred articles to the journal. His range of interests and activities within medicine was enormous. Like Wucherer and Paterson, he was a clinician who made his original contributions to the school from cases in his sizable practice. He was the first Bahian doctor to report on what he considered the beginning of an alarming epidemic of beriberi in the city. He was the first to describe ainhum, a disorder that caused the growth of a tumor on the small toe of a person's foot and that, according to Silva Lima, struck only Africans. He worked closely with Wucherer and others on hookworm, filariasis, and schistosomiasis. But it would be misleading to classify Silva Lima as interested only in what we now term tropical disorders. A scan of his writings in the Gazeta Medica reveals him as a doctor concerned with a whole range of clinical problems including heart disorders, diabetes, tumors, stigmata, surgery, hygiene, and legal medicine. He was very interested, too, in the latest developments in gynecology and obstetrics and sought to expand these specialties in Salvador. Regarding.medicine in Salvador, Silva Lima had two objectives. He wanted to professionalize medicine in Salvador, and he wanted to see the Bahian medical community contribute to the patrimony of international medicine and be given its due credit for it. By "professionalize- I refer to Lima's attempts to set boundaries around the medical profession in Salvador, excluding the "irregular- healers and including physicians and pharmacists trained in Western medicine and pharmacopoeia. To do this he worked to forge a spirit of solidarity among physicians, and also between physicians and pharmacists, so that they should agree on ethical standards of practice and behavior. He also endeavored to draw more physicians into medical scientific research. Physicians united in this way, he believed, would be in a stronger position to force the authorities to recognize their importance as experts in the nation's decision-making processes. To this end, Silva Lima was tireless in his efforts. Although he never held a paid official position, he helped create and chaired numerous professional bodies, such as the Doctors' and Pharmacists' Mutual Aid Society (Sociedade Medico Pharmaceutica de Beneficencia Matua), formed in 1868; the Bahian Medical Society (Sociedade Medica da Bahia), formed in 1888; and the Medical and Surgical Society of Bahia (Sociedade de Medicina e Cirurgia da Bahia), formed in 1894. He pushed for a national medical congress to be held in Salvador (it finally was held there in 1890) and sat on commissions to promote vaccination, to contain yellow fever epidemics, to improve the sanitary conditions of the city and of the port, and to look into the spread of beriberi in the province. Together, these three men spearheaded changes in Bahian medicine that led to their national and international recognition. Their vision led to the formation of a small research community in Salvador informed by some of the newest European ideas in medicine that provided an important precedent of original research and experimentation in Brazil yet never altogether shed the idea of the importance of environment in understanding disease.



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Brazzil - Year 12 - Number 178 - December 2000  

Brazzil - Year 12 - Number 178 - December 2000