Year 12 - No.175 - September 2000
iotAit 414 QUARTETO JOBIM-MORELENBAUM Royal Family of the Bossa Nova Paulo Jobim • Daniel Jobim • Jacques Morelenbaum • Paula Morelenbaum
Thursday, October 5 8:00 p.m. Performing Arts Center, Cal State Northridge Presented in cooperation with Brazilian Nites Productions. General Admission $19.50 Seniors $15 Students/Children $10 Tickets: (818) 677-2488 EM-F, 9:30 a.m. - 5:00 p.m.]
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BRAZZIL - SEPTEMBER 2000
Cover An agrarian reform that 's working
This is not a new phenomenon. The concentration of land in the hands of a few privileged started with the colonization of Brazil. Sugar cane, cotton, tobacco, all those cultures required large rural properties. The same is true for coffee, which became very important for the Brazilian economy starting in the second half of the 196 century. More recently, soybean and wood destined to the foreign market also contributed to keep unchanged this inequitable land distribution. According to INCRA (Instituto Nacional de Colonizacao e Reforma Agraria—National Institute for Settlement and Agrarian Reform), less than 1 percent of landowners in Brazil own 35 percent of all rural properties. Almost 50 percent of this land just rests there unused and unproductive. In the 1950s the Ligas Camponesas (Rural Leagues)—a movement that would be banned in the 60s by the military regime—tried to address the problem from the peasant's perspective. Today, in a more aggressive way, members of the Movement of the Landless Rural Workers are invading unproductive farms to force the government to give them the land. Our cover story shows aside rarely seen when we talk about agrarian reform: government projects that are working. Our reporter Phillip Wagner had a chance to see first hand one of these programs at work in the Brazilian Northeast and he talks here about the sense of responsibility and effort sharing among the participants. We hope his report will help the debate that will make landownership in Brazil more equitable and just. RAI
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BRAZZIL - SEPTEMBER 2000
Sex Doing it cheap in the movie theater
Crime The car-stealing industry
Marketing The names Brazilians love to buy
Human Rights Torture, tortured, torturers
Politics Politicians who represent no one
0 inion Let's start a Citizens Diplomatic Corps
Behavior All the thrills of Bonfim's fires
I pressions The revolution hasn't arrived yet
Short Story Three by losif Landau
Travel All the usual suspects in Rio
Impressions Manaus is worth a trip
Music ogether Geraldo Azevedo and Elba Ramalho
Music What's Brazilian Jazz anyway?
Departaments OR Rapidinhas 14 Letters 41 Cultural Pulse 49 Classifieds 50 That's Brazilian
IT Off-screen Thrill The phenomenon,' not new, bathe conservative Rio daily 0 Glob° has rekindled the arguments surrounding porno movie theaters in Rio de Janeiro. In a full-page article entitled "Porno Theaters Are Sanctuary for Clandestine Sex", the Carioca (from Rio) paper writes that XRated movie theaters have become the stage for ..-............... anonymous and promiscuus sexual encounters. "Rare are the filmgoers who go to these theaters to watch a movie," says 0 Globo. e majority of goers never even look at the screen. Last Monday, around 6 P.M., while thafilms Anomahas Sexuais (Sexual Anomalies) and Apertadinhas (The Quite Tight Girls) were shown at the Rex theater, approximately 300 men were circulatirg around the theater floor. Sexual activity happened in the wings of the theater and : in the womens' bathroom, whic i became an immense dark bedroom during the show." According to the Brazilian Penal Code, this kind of public sexual activity is considered a crime. Article 233 of the Penal Code states that the practice of obscene acts in a public place is punishable by a fine and prison time that varies from three months to one year, depending on the judge's discretion. Single women and couples are rare at these places. Group sex, though, is quite common and management seems to encourage such sexual trysts by removing seats from the auditorium in order to facilitate contact among the public. It is believed that the immense majority of the public is made up of young aid old gays and bisexuals from all walks of life: students, public servants, banIctellers, office workers, and also lawyers and executives dressed in jeans. Bermuda shorts or suits. Commenting on thisbehavior, sexologist Cel ia J. Morais says: 4`1Vien still hav- a need for aparallel life and for expressing their impulses in a marginal way. In the movie theaters no one sees or know; each other. They are men who often are married and live a life that's not compatible with that of a married man and who run the risk of transmitting diseases to their wives. Time and again they become addicted to these ephemeral measures." Among the movie theaters that cater to this segment of the public in search of cheap the ticket for the movie is less than $2.50—and high-risk sex there are the Rex and Orly in downtown Rio t -ie Scala at Botafogo beach and the Astor in the Madureira neighborhood. At these places the catch ofthe day for the n orn ng cleaning crew is a collection of wallets, cellular phones, underwear, whole suits, dozens of condoms and carrots.
Darin I Snatchers 'This may not be an ideal number but we would like to have only 40,000 stolen vehicles this year. It may not be the best, b it it is a considerable reduction for a state that used to have 51,000 stolen cars a year.' This is Rio State's . secretary of Public Security Josias Quintal's admission to a poor state of affairs the wake of a report that Rio has the worst record of all southeast statesfor recovering stolen cars. According to the CNVR (Cadastro NaZiOital de Veiculos Roubados—National Registry of Stolen Vehicles), a private company from Sao Paulo specializing m ' recovering stolen cars, Rio's police find onl} rercentd?f the carsstolen in the state. Quintal rejects the numbers sayingthat his police are finm g percent ofthe vehicles, even though he agrees that there is still room for improvement. With 2.2 million vehicles, Rio is second onl,/ to Sao Paulo, which comes in first with almost 9 million vehicles. Sao Paulo is recovering insta46 percent of its stolencars, cs, exceeding the state of Minas Gerais—the third argfleet, with 2 million autos— with a 39 percent recovery rate. Espirito Santp, by comparison, is recovering 77 percent of the vehicles stolen in that state, according to CNVR.
BRAZZIL - SEPTEMBER 2000
xi° s numbers aon t look good t even wnen me whole country is considered. Nationally the state ranks as the sixth worst place in the nation for recov-: •_ ern-1g a stolen car. The tiny state of Tocantins is first on the list with a mere 16 percent recovery rat; followed by Rondifinia (24 percent), Acre (29 percent) Alagoas (35 percent) and Roraima (36 percent). But while all these states combined had 766 vehicles stolen in 1999, Rio alone had 48,000. For Quintal, insurance companies shouldtake part _ of the blame for the high incidence of stolen cars. He criticizes insurance companies for the practice of of- fering policemen a reward equivalent to 18 percent of the car's value for each recovered vehicle. A popular car like the VoLcswagen Go1-1000, for example, is worth around $1600 when found. Press reports have already detailed links between the police and these recovery companies. Accordthe stolen car recovery industry is thriving ingto a special investigative report by Rio's daily 0 Globo, in Rio with over 50 companies making around $6.6 million a year. It works like this: the vehicle is stolen*. and hidden until the owner gets paid by the insurance company. As a chief of police told Rio's daily 0_ e's a policeman who finds four cars every month. This is very strange." D'za. "Th er It's believed that a criminal allian ce between policemen and agents from Detran (Departamento de Transito—Traffic Department) is the main cause for an explosion in car thefts in Rio. According to recer t reports, they are responsible for more than half of the 48,000 stolen cars in the state. Apparently, except for going out and stealing the cars themselves, the public servants do it all including "cloning" license plates. Cloning is the practice by which cars receive the license plate number of another vehicle. There arestorks of car owners who find another vehicle with the same pla as they have, "
Talk about soft drinks and for the majority of Brazilians this term will evoke images of Coca-Cola. What about other products? To discover the answer to this question, _ Abras (Associacao Brasileira de Supermercados Brazilian Association of • Supermarkets) ordered a study from the AC Nielsen research company regarding the brands and products preferred by Brazilians. The report, called "Sale Leaders," is an extensive portrait o f the nation's tastes and preferences, listing the five best-selling brands for 140 product categories. For all the globalization and Americanization of Brazil it's a surprise to see there are , many different brands tilling the Brazilian supermarket shelves. Minalba, for example, is the leading brand in the mineral watercategory. The bottled water sector grew 20.4 percent in the last 12 months, selling 459.3 ° million liters of the product and earning $101 million. In the house cleaning ' products' category, which made almost $700 million,, Pinho Sol is the champion of household disinfectants. Elefante is the tomato paste that niost people buy, but Pomarola is the• • favorite brand when Brazilians shop for spaghetti sauce. For canned vegiiaopis the leader in its category, etables Jurema is the favorite. As for coffee, with Bauduccobeingthebrand mostpP le prefer when buying cookies and a Brazil synonymous with yogurt. cakes. Then there's Danone, a word thaet°in While the yogurt market experienced 3 percent reduction in the last 12 months, coffee grew 9.6 percent, selling 232 thousand tons and * f. earning $817 million,, ' - during the same period. ••• Skol is the name • most Brazilians think first when buying a beer, a market that sold 1.2 billion liters despite having a 9.6 percent reduction in sales volume. BRAZZIL - SEPTEMBER 2000
"The captain said: 'We are going to take care of those people.' He drew his pistol and passed it to the lieutenant, the lieutenant to the corporal. The corporal looked at me. I had never shot anyone in my life. 'You have to do this....' Then, I was forced to hold the people who were there and kill them." That's the way an Army soldier described his initiation as a killer for the state. He had to kill innocent people only because they had by chance witnessed a murder ccmmitted by another soldier. Like him, everyone is given anonymity in Working in Violence: Brazilian Torturers and Murderers Reconstruct -4trocity, a 2000-page volume scheduled to be fmished in October. The book, written by Schenectady' s Union College sociologist Martha Huggins, is the result of interviews with 27 police agents, all identified as murderers and torturers. Huggins concluded that among informants, murderers and torturers, the latter are the most despised among the policemen themselves. This has created the idea among them that each person is never a torturer but his colleagues are. Thesociologist has been studying the Brazilian police system for 25 years. The bock will deal specifically with policemen involved in torture and murder during the military regime, which lasted from 1964 to 1985. Huggins opted for the less known torturers, not the big names or those who gave the orders, but those who were involved directly "with the dirty work" of killing or torturing. One of these men described some of his methods of torture: "Nail extracting, tooth pulling, eye perforation, genital perforation, electrical shocks on the scrotal area and eardrum perforation. Another method was to place an individual's head inside a plastic bag while his feet and hands were tied. I would leave him inside the bag for awhile and when I saw he was almost dead I would remove the bag. If we looked we could find almost two thousand types of torture." Rio's daily Jornal do Brasil, which recently dedicated a full page to the subject, reported that the state's repressive machine worked like a well-run business. They had a weekly :outine with scheduled meetings and predefined tasks. Mondays, for example, were used to deal with internal problems and concerns, it was the "dirty laundry" time, as they used to call it. On Wednesdays, the agents received sealed envelopes in which their secret missions were detailed. As an agent told Huggins: "They would callus and would show us the missions, present slides, the guy who was going to be eliminated, the places he frequented, people who lived with him, some members of his family, all his habits and favorite sports." The American sociologist fitted the torturers into four categories according to the way they justified their actions. The first are those who believed they were doing the right thing for what Huggins calls a "personal cause." In these cases, the torturer places the blame of the torture on tae tortured himself. who in some way would prova<e the agent to retaliate with just ire and punishment. In a second category are those classified under the label 'diffusion of respons inility." The policeman would only he a reflex of a whole society that is too violent. Thirdly, there are those who believed that everything was permissibLe, incinding torture and killing, because they were fighting an "internal war." Finally, afourth group invoked "professionalism" to justify their actions. Huggins told 0 formal do Brasil that one day she would like to forget about the mot e macabre stories she heard. She also found out that orturing does not pay. Some tortners have become alcoholics and most wish to forget the past. The majority of the agents she met is also facing poverty. From the 27 agents she interviewed only three were prom pted to a managerial position. When the author has a chan:2 to talk with Brazilian police agents she always te Ls them: "Be careful. You are doing dirty work for the government and afterwards instead of getting richer you will get sick."
They Can't 1 eruct
BRAZZIL - SEPTEMBER 2000
Arismario Dias de Oliveira is a 52-year-old proud, but worried husband and father to six children. A son and one daughter live in the sprawling metro ohs of Sao Paulo, far from the semi-arid caatinga where Aris ario has always lived and now aspires to build a dream. Another dau hter is married and lives nearby, while a son and two daughters re ain at home. After 29 years of marriage, he and his wife Olga w uld already have had two grandchildren, except that one did no survive. Arismario's characteristic features, thoughtful expressio sand serious manner reflect the mixed bloodlines, ever-present c ncerns and self sufficiency of people struggling to survive in o e of Brazil's most inhospitable regions. Arismario is cle ly the product of Latin and indigenous miscegenation, while 0 a is a direct descendant of African slaves. Their union symboliz s the history that forged their nation. A legacy ofthat history is the extraordinarily inequitable distribution of land in Brazil. In Brazil, inequitable distribution of land resulted from the establishment of" aptaincies" under the Portuguese crown, and the importation of gr at numbers of African slaves to sustain their economies. Each ca taincy was comprised of a vast tract of territory governed by a powerful administrator who ruled with impunity. Few individuals owned any land, and virtually all enterprise revolved around the cultivation, processing and export of labor-intensive agricultural products. This was particularly true in the Northeast, where sugar was king and tobacco was grown. Farther south, coffee and tea also became major cash crops. This economic and social "class" structure was replicated in the Chapada Rancharia is 1 of 49 special Diamantina region covering projects in the state of Bahia sup- parts of the states of Bahia and Minas Gerais where the t porting 2,250 families. The major- discovery of gold likewise mandated labor-intensive ity of land is worked communally. economic development. Eight times as many AfPersonal responsibility is reinricans were transported to • •• ' forced by requiring each family Brazil in chains as to the States. The social and to finance their own portion of the United economic marginalization of land through repayment of low a post abolition African majority combined with indigInterest government loans over a enous and miscegenated oth- ' ers has become problematic 20-year period. to the future of Brazil. It is now generally accepted that TEXT AND PHOTOS inequitable land distribution has been, and continues to be, a primary factor contributing to the retardation f economic and social progress in Brazil. Significant sup ort for land redistribution had first begun to appear in the 1930 . A "Land and Settlement Division", or DTC, was established wi hin the Agriculture Ministry in 1938; but remained relatively inert. It's been suggested that "the agrarian question resurface as an issue" after the Second World War. The Land and Settleme t Division was replaced in 1954 by the National Immigration and ettlement Institute, or INIC. Although ano er office within the Agriculture Ministry, it had been "set up as ate hnical agency suitably structured to carry out settlement activiti s". But INIC driven agrarian reform was outpaced in the drou t stricken northeast by formation of "peasant leagues" and the e erging activism of Catholic priests. Pressure BRAZZIL - SEPTEMBER 2000
continued to mount formore aggressive government expropria- Fund Credit to Combat Rural Poverty". Rumor has it that prestion and redistribution of land. In 1962 the Superintendencia de sure has come from social movements who interpret the current Politica Agraria, or SUPRA, was created and "made responsible name to suggest that there should be a more intense focus on for the implementation of agrarian reform". social issues. Brazil was, by then, led by leftist-leaning president Joao Arismario is president of an associated local project, named Goulart who, on March 13th, 1964, issued a decree that "autho- Rancharia, 15 kilometers beyond the little town of Senhor do rized the expropriation of 10 kilometer strips of land contigu- Bonfim. Bonfim, believed to be home to the most authentic and ous to federally constructed highways, railways and dams". The intense Festa de Sao Joao (Festival of Saint John) in Brazil, is military deposed him two weeks later, but deliberations on agrar- a six-hour (only one stop along the way) ride from the city of ian reform continued and on Nov 30, 1964 the military govern- Salvador by onibus executivo. Salvador, on the coast, is capital ment passed the Land Statute Bill. of the state of Bahia, and was the first capital of Brazil. Some authorities on Latin American land reform differenArismario has always lived in the caatinga, near to Bonfim, tiate between "disappropriation" and "expropriation" of land and has no resources to travel. He lives on, and manages, four by suggesting that disappropriation involves compensation and to five hectares of marginally productive land owned by his expropriation does not. I do not make that distinction. Refer- mother-in-law two kilometers nearer Bonfim. Morros, which ences: http://www.planalto.gov.br/secom/colecao/agrain3.htma have the appearance of being actual mountains although they're a Brazilian goverment site and http://wvvwfao.org/waicent/ not, can be seen from the open door of Arismario ' s small stucco faoinfo/sustdev/LTdirect/Ltan0006.htm, an FAO site. FAO house. The morros create a barrier, which are responsible for stands for the Food and Agricultural Office of the United a microclimate producing more suitable lands for fanning; but Nations. those lands are unavailable to Arismario and his neighbors. Electricity and running water are also unavailable to them Agrarian Reform but, surprisingly, the Spartan dwelling shared by Arismario and his extended family has an indoor toilet emptying into a septic The Land Statute Bill of 1964 made it legal for the federal system; a rare luxury in the region. Local children attend a small government to expropriate land for redistribution to the poor municipal school and there is access to a federal medical proand/or landless. What evolved was an agrarian reform approach gram in Bonfim. But the facility's resources, and the medical focusing on three criteria. An agency known as the Delegacia services provided there, are minimal. A distant windmill proRegional do Trabalho (DRT) determines whether the land is vides well water, but the aquifer, even so far from the coast, is being worked by persons who are not being compensated for highly salinated. Bottled water has to be trucked in for human their labor. If this is determined to be the case then the Instituto consumption. None of this seems to inhibit the hospitality of Nacional de ColonizacAo e Refonna Agraria (INCRA), steps people struggling to carve out an existence in the region. in to see if the land is being used in such away as to be "suf- Arismario' s family insisted we join them for a nice meal, which ficiently productive". included goat meat, beans, rice, and toasted manioc flour; all INCRA was only established in 1969, according to the World staples in the region. Bank. This may, in part, be accounted for by the fact that the Rancharia is 1 of 49 Cedula da Terra projects in the state of agrarian reform portion of the Land Statute Bill was largely Bahia supporting 2,250 families. In each project 20 to 130 famioverlooked at first (ref: http://www.planalto.gov.br/secom/ lies participate in an association involving 10 to 35 hectares of colecao/aarain3.htm ). A more significant contributing factor, land per family. Other Cedula da Terra pilot projects are being though, may have been that the government initially emphasized conducted in the states of Ceara, Maranhao, Minas Gerais and increasing agricultural production capabilities. Pernambuco. Finally, an assessment will be conducted to discover if the Data taken from the monthly Situacao de Projetos por Estado land is being used in a manner supportive of the natural envi- report, Maio (May) 2000 [essentially a Cedula da Terra monthly ronment. This last issue is pursued by Coordenacao de Recursos status report by state] included: Ambientais (CRA), on behalf of the state government and the Bahia -49 projects serving 2250 families on 42,135.49 hectâ€˜.,Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais ares of land acquired at a cost of 9,779,961.00 reais. Another Itenoviveis (IBAMA) on behalf of the federal government. 14,529,669.00 reais have been allocated for, or expended on, Although other agrarian reform programs are being developed, infrastructure investment. the three criteria approach continiles to exist. Funding for exCeara - 148 projects serving 2513 families on 93,295.57 ecution of land expropriation and redistribution under the three hectares of land acquired at a cost of 13,419,764.00 reais. Ancriteria approach is secured by the Companhia de De senvolvi- other 15,218,499.00 reais have been allocated for, or expended mento e Acao Regional (CAR). CAR, however, is not exclu- on, infrastructure investment. sively connected with land expropriation and redistribution Maranhao -50 projects serving 1588 families on 43,438.48 efforts. hectares of land acquired at a cost of 5,431,001.00 reais. AnToday, INCRA has overall responsibility for oversight of other 10,306,030.00 reais have been allocated for, or expended this three criteria approach. But it can take years to expropriate on, infrastructure investment. and redistribute land in this way. And doing so in the proscribed Minas Gerais (northern portion) -31 projects serving 1119 manner exacerbates tensions in what can already be a danger- families on 26,843.57 hectares of acquired land at a cost of ously polarized and highly charged environment. Advocates for 5,458,169.00 reais. Another 7,577,545.00 reais have been althe Movimento dos Sem Terra (MST), or "landless peasants located for, or expended on, infrastructure investment. movement", have described to me the need they felt some years Pernambuco -28 projects serving 800 families on 17,484.88 ago to traVerse stretches of road between the coastal city of hectares of acquired land at a cost of 6,500,628.00 reais. AnSalvador and the outlying caatinga cautiously. They traveled other 4,197,956.00 reais have been allocated for, or expended then with heads held as low as possible, for fear of being shot on, infrastructure investment. at by landowners who might recognize them. The pilot for a program known as Cedula da Terra, or CerRancharia Project tificate of Land, was established in 1997. The Cedula da Terra program name may soon be changed to the Programa de Credito The majority of land is worked communally. Personal reFundiario para Combater a Pobreza Rural, or the "Program to sponsibility is reinforced by requiring each family to finance 10
BRAZZIL - SEPTEMBER 2000
their own portion ofthe land through repayment of low interest government loans over a 20-year period. Beneficiaries of the previously mentioned and already existing three criteria approach have only 10 years to repay their loans. The associations managed as part of the pilot program are under the Coordenacao Desenvolvimento Agricola, or CDA, oversight and have been established on land purchased by the government. The Rancharia project began with discussions between Arismario and other locals, who believed they could successfully raise livestock in the caatinga. After becoming aware that there were government programs for land redistribution, they made contact with an agency known as Empresa Baiana Desenvolvimento Agro-pecuario, or the Enterprise in Bahia for Development (of) Agto-cattle Breeding. The term "cattle" in northeastern Brazil is often interpreted to mean "livestock". Their inquiry was redirected to CDA. CDA worked with Arismario' s family and 24 others to establish Rancharia on 780 hectares of land purchased by the government for 155,937 reais. Another 130,620 reais was provided for infrastructure & investment. Infrastructure capitalization is spent on community facilities, habitations, wells, water filtration equipment, livestock, seedlings (not seeds), and so on. Infrastructure & investment capitalization does not have to be repaid by Cedula da Terra project participants; only funding for the land. The amount of funding CDA provided Rancharia for infrastructure & investment was determined by subtracting 1/2 the total cost of land for the project from the product of the number of families involved and the per-hectare cost of land. This is a standard formula for CDA Cedula da Terra projects. In Bahia, 13 CDA technical consultants provide services similar to those provided by agricultural extension agents in the United States. The CDA consultant for Rancharia is Jacira SA, whose degree is in agricultural engineering. Jacira's name means "daughter of the moon" in Tupi-Guarani language, and her face reveals the strength of her Indian heritage. It was she who first met with Arismario and 50 or so other people to discuss the possibility of establishing a CDA sponsored project. Only 25 families initially decided to participate. This is, coincidentally, the maximum number of families that CDA had concluded could be accommodated in this case. Jacira guided Arismario and his 24 neighbors through the project start up and planning process. Although Jacira consults Rancharia on behalf of CDA, her primary occupation is with Banco do Brasil. Banco do Brasil established a Programa Nacional de Agricultura Familiar (PRONAF) to fund investments in "collectives" associated with agricultural reform. Participants in the Rancharia project may apply for PRONAFA program loans to address needs that exceed the land, and investment & infrastructure, capitalization provided by CDA. This is actually only one flavor of PRONAF program funding. There are also funding programs known as PRONAF-B, PRONAF-C, and so on. PRONAF program loans are capitalized at a maximum of9,500 reais ($5280) per family. PRONAFA assumes that only 70 percent of PRONAF funded capitalization will go for investment & infrastructure development, and 30 percent will be dedicated to ongoing maintenance needs. Today there are only 21 families in the Rancharia project because 4 dropped out soon after it was initiated. This may be a decision that the departing families will live to regret. The BFtAZZIL - SEPTEMBER 2000
association, whic was formed in February of 1998 and acquired land in June of th t year, has focused on raising goats to produce milk. They opted a strategy of supplementing the natural vegetation on hich their goats feed with cultivatedpa/mas, a form of cactus th very short needles so named because each "leaf' has the ap earance of the palm of a hand. The palmas fer a less nutritious diet for the goats than native vegetation but are extremely resistant to drought. Unusually frequent rains this year are allowing the palmas to establish themse ves more quickly. If climatic conditions in subsequent years evert to their normal cycles, the project will be in much better hape than might have been expected to sustain its precious lives k. Although the primary focus of their efforts is producin milk, about 100 goats are slaughtered annuassociation has tried their hand at making ally for meat cheese, which was apparently of exceptional quality; but this proved to be economically unfeasible. Only 50 to 60 of the 1,000 or so goats that are female are at the required level of maturity to produce milk and are lactating at any one time. These produce about 121 liters of milk over a 6day workweek. When one considers how little income this generates, the magnitude of the struggle to survive in the caatinga of northeastern Brazil becomes apparent. The association receives approximately 50 centavos (27+ cents) per liter. This means that the entire community of 21 families, with an average family size of 6, generates a collective $1,872.00 US dollars of annual income; 28+ cents per inhabitant per week. A single US citizen probably spends more on lunches over a comparable period. Under the guidance of Jacira (SA), Rancharia participants are attempting to improve output by experimenting ith different varieties of stock, and combinations of feed. N ve vegetation provides more protein. They've discovered that utting native vegetation back to 50 centimeters has resulted a threefold ability of caatingato sustaingoats. This idea was s ported by government research, but until now hardly anyone d been willing to seriously consider it. Jacira encouraged the sociation to give it a iry. Prior to cutting back vegetation each hectare of caatinga supported only three goats, but after cuttin back it supported nine. This kind of increase in productivity an mean the difference between life and death in such a harsh environment. Rancharia lso has 40 to 50 sheep and 5 bulls. Jacira suspects that the sociation, which is not in any way bound to follow her adv e, wants to purchase more sheep than they're willing to adm. . This would, naturally, divert resources from the purchase o additional goats, whose milk is the intended primary source of income for the ptoject. A serious discussion has ensued be een Jacira and Arismario, with no apparent consensus as t what should be done. But Jacira, whose only concern is for e welfare of the people involved, remains open minded and w its to continue the dialogue. If she disco ers that purchasing more sheep would be in the best interests o the association, then she'll attempt to redirect their efforts ac â€˘rdingly. But such an adjustment would have to be carefull researched because, on the surface at least, it 11
Tr i appears that sheep have limited potential to add long-term value. Jacira thinks this land can sustain sheep within a suitable timeframe for generating substantial income through the sale of meat provided that the rains are what they've been in recent months. But ifthe weather falls back into its expected, more arid, pattern, she believes this will become problematical. Traditional local farming practices have focused on the production of meat over milk; and these institutionalized habits are proving difficult to break. Jacira has attempted to convince the association that research indicates there is greater potential to sustain livelihoods by raising goats for milk than sheep for meat. Goats are more suitable to the arid climate, and Jacira currently believes that milk is more profitable. The association owns several varieties of goats and two varieties of sheep. Neither variety of sheep is suitable for producing wool. The association is hoping to diversify within three years to include the cultivation of coconuts and cajus (cashews). Although the overall project is managed communally, kibbutz style, each participating family is granted four hectares of land exclusively for their own use. This land is generally used to grow the staple foods of the region such as feijcio (beans), squash, manioc, watermelon and corn. Participants may sell any excess produce and may purchase livestock individually provided their income is sufficient to cover the cost. During our visit I noted that several of the residents had chickens and/or a pig. The primary mode oftransportation, aside from walking, is horseback, and horse drawn wagons are used to move building materials. Natural bowls in surface rock formations, known as caldeiroes, or caldrons, retain rainwater and are fenced off for protection. Although usually very dirty, and a breeding ground for bacteria and insects, this resource is considered acceptable for consumption when precious little water is otherwise unavailable. According to Leopoldo Mont' alverne, who is responsible for CDA oversight throughout the state of Bahia, implementation of Cedula da Terra is staged. Leopoldo was allocated to CDA after a decade with CAR, and has been with CDA for as long. He'd earlier spent seven years on the Corn issao Estadual de Planejamento Agricola, or State Agricultural Planning Commission, that were preceded by four years with Trabalhar corn Credit() Rural, which provided credit for small peasant farmLeopoldo Mont'alver ers. Data from the Brazilian office ofthe World Bank indicates that 150 million dollars was budgeted for the program pilot, which, as previously mentioned, was initiated in 5 northeastern states. (See http://www.dataterra.org.br/ cedterra.htm) Data detailing projects in each of those states as of March 1999 is available on-line, as is a project overview for those fluent in Portuguese. http://www.dataterra.org.becedterra/bahia.htm http://www.dataterra.org.brkedterra/ceara.htm http://www.dataterra.org.becedterra/maranhao.htm http://www.dataterra.org.brkedterra/minas.htm http://www.dataterra.org.br/cedterra/pernambuco.htm http://www.dataterra.org.brkedterra.htm Good Results Sixty percent of the overall budget, or $90 million, was 12
funded by World Bank to underwrite expenses associated with investments in infrastructure, technical assistance and soon. The federal government of Brasil provided another $45 million, or 30 percent of the budget, to finance acquisition of property. Participating state governments were made responsible for $6 million, or 4 percent of the budget, to administer, monitor and supervise the individual projects (like Rancharia). The final 6 percent, or $9 million, will come from project participants over time. World Bank believes that participants should finance at least 10 percent of community sub-projects by providing funds, materials or "sweat equity" labor. The Cedula da Terra pilot, according to Leopoldo, grew out of programs established to fight hunger in Bahia (Produzir) and in the arid semiÂ° region of the state of Ceara (Sao Jose). Each of the two anti hunger campaigns had been co-funded by the World Bank. The University of Sao Paulo in Campinas (Unicamp) and the Food and Agricultural arm of the United Nations recently conducted an assessment ofthe Cedulada Terra pilot. Favorable results were presented at a June 2000 'meeting with the World Bank in Washington D.C.; and funding for a postpilot phase will become available over time through normal administrative channels. Leopoldo says that CDA in Bahia already has sufficient funding for 60 more projects, which would bring the total in Bahia to 109. Phase I funding will probably not supplement investment in Bahia. It is primarily intended for use to expand geographic coverage, so that projects may be established in seven additional north and northeastern states as well as three states in the south of Brazil. The same assessment and review approach will be applied to phase 1 as was used for the pilot program. Brazilian government and World Bank officials have already agreed to providing $400 million for phase 1, and another $400 million for a second phase provided the pilot program successes can be repeated. Phase 2 funding would "kick in" automatically following a favorable phase 1 audit and review. Phase 2 funds will likely be used to expand existing production. Cedula da Terra is expected to invest $2 billion in its quest to facilitate redistribution of land benefiting 200,000 families in Brazil. Since the land being allocated to projects under Cedula da Terra is purchased outright, procurement can be accomplished in only months, and without re-igniting old tensions or precipitating new ones. The positive results delivered at the recent pilot program review in Washington seem to confirm that Cedula da Terra is having the desired impact. But the challenges facing Brazil are so serious that Jacira SĂĄ, her husband Jairo, and others remain concerned. Jairo works for CAR, the previously mentioned governmental organ that works to secure funding for very large projects undertaken to relieve the suffering of rural peasants. CAR is the organ that developed the original relationship with World Bank, and had the existing infrastructure to generate funding. But since CDA already had ownership of agrarian reform, a working relationship resulted whereby programs established by CDA are reviewed by CAR for consideration of funding by financial institutions. Under this arrangement, sole responsibility for Cedula da Terra program execution has fallen to CDA. But CAR has ultimate responsibility for Cedula da Terra oversight, to which four CAR executives are dedicated. Opposition to Cedula da Terra focuses primarily on the idea that a market-driven approach inappropriately rewards the wealthy while unfairly penalizing the poor. But this criticism overlooks the fact that society's "haves" are never inclined to BRAZZIL - SEPTEMBER 2000
give away advantage without incentives. And the "have-nots" are unlikely to assume responsibility without the challenge of personal investment. An excellent analysis of Cedula da Terra, including a detailed explanation of the opposition, has been authored by Zander Navarro for the Brazilian office of World Bank. See http://www.dataterra.org.br/docs ingles/ zander english.htm Zander's 28-page report includes a critique of the project implementation up until August of 1998, and consideration of risks associated with projected expansion. Opposition, in any case, does not seem to be widely institutionalized or cohesively organized (ref Zander's report). Perhaps because Cedula da Terra, as previously noted, puts land in the hands of impoverished and/or landless peasants more expeditiously than traditional land redistribution approaches. Also perhaps because many, if not most, of the program's administrative and technical staff are members of the Partido dos Trabalhadores (PT), or Workers Party (a personal observation in Bahia), which previously tended to support MST and other organizations now deemed critical of Cedula da Terra. Agrarian reform in Brazil has long been championed by politically fueled organizations like the Confederacao Nacional dos Trabalhadores (Contag), Comissao Pastoral da Terra (CPT) which is subordinate to the Conferencia Nacional dos Bispos do Brasil (CNBB), Movimento dos Trabalhadores (MT), Movimento de Luta pela Terra (MLT), Movimento dos Pequenos Agricultores (MPA) and, of course, the previously mentioned MST (Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais sem Terra). Jacira and Jairo say that support of future political administrations is critical. Cedula da Terra seems to be working for now. But the ever-present fear that a change of government could bring the program to an untimely end hangs over all of northeastern Brazil. And there are other concerns to be addressed. The magnitude of the more immediate need to redistribute land is so great that no one seems to be looking beyond the current generation. What will hold the children and grandchildren of program participants to the land their fathers manage to secure for themselves and their families? Improvements in living conditions could trigger a cycle of increasing expectations that ranching alone may not be able to satisfy. Determined future generations may resume the exodus to large cities that has contributed to the explosive growth of favelas and threatened to destabilize Brazilian society. Ecotourism and Internet telecommuting seem to offer intriguing future possibilities for creating a more diversified economic base. But aggressive long term planning to assess appropriate strategies, consider potential environmental impacts, design educational and training programs, estimate cost, secure fundBRAZZIL - SEPTEMBER 2000
ing and de me & establish prerequisite infrastructure would hay to be initiated. An artic eon page B1 of the 7 July 2000 edition of the Wall Street Journal describes a similar program undertaken on " esolate Indian land" in the United States. A catholic sc ool became the catalyst for what the article describes a "an Internet revolution", facilitated by "the generosity f an IBM retiree" and a "super-fast Ti line". The article otes that the "data line was installed by Gila River Tele ommunications Inc. (GRTI), an Indian-run telephone • ompany... that was established in 1990 as a non-profit t lephone company". Up until that time "fewer than 10 per • ent of the reservations residents had telephone service" • the estimated cost of public telephone service was pr • hibitive. A leader of the Pima Indian tribe that inhabits th 620-square-mile reservation is quoted as saying, "We'r an example of what can be done when you put your ind to it" Who w • uld be available to lead such an effort, and who would pay e bill? At this point there still seem to be far more impoveris ed and/or landless peasants than Cedula da Terra will be abl to serve. Jacira noted that each new dwelling constructed for roject participants costs only $1,500 reais; about $850. "Its conceivable" she says "that the government can't find the m ney to build more homes". In fact, on J ly 3"' the federal government announced its desire to supple ent 3.3 billion reais (Brazilian dollars) already targeted, but no yet approved, for land expropriation with another 1.2 billi reais to construct additional housing in rural settlements. Mo e than a quarter million families are expected to benefit throu h the year 2002. "What will be the cost to Brazil," Jacira onders, "if we fail to effectively address the hunger and mis ry of these people". 0 ganizations names in English: CAR — Ente CDA —Coor CNBB — Na CONTAG—
•rise of Development and Regional Action illation of Agricultural Development agency. ional Bishops Conference of Brasil ational Confederation of Agricultural Work-
ers CPT — Past al Commission of Land CTP — Cedu a da Terra Program CRA — Coo dination of Natural Resources DRT — Regi nal Delegation of Work DTC — Lan Settlement Division IBAMA — B azilian Institute of Environmental Conditions and Renewable Natural Resources INCRA — N tional Institute of Colonization and Agricultural Reform INIC — Nati nal Immigration and Settlement Institute MT — Labo er's Movement MLT — Fig t for Land Movement MPA — Sm. 11 Farmers Movement MST — Mo ement of those Without Land PRONAF — National Program of Common Agriculture PT — Work rs Party Phillip W gner is a free-lance photojournalist, a frequent traveler to razil and a regular contributor to Brazzil. His focus is on Br zilian culture and "constructive social engagement" tha helps people become self-sufficient. Phillip is a graduate o Indiana University and would like to pursue a graduate degre in Latin American Studies focusing on Brazil. He may be con acted at pwagnerAiei.net Jairo and Jacira Si may be co tacted at iairo*ifr.net , although preferably in Por uguese. Visit Phillip's Brazil websites at http:// www.iei.nett—pwagner/brazilhome.htm 13
Rubicon? May God help us all.
admitted to Hospital de Clinicas. He received excellent care, he only has good things to say about the doctors and the nurses. He recovered quickly. When he was discharged, a nurse came several Thank you for not including pornographic pictures or times to change his bandages. All of this did not cost him articles in your last issue. I feel free now to send Brazzil to or me one cent. Besides, he received one or two minimum salaries. I imagine that was to compensate for supposed many of my friends and acquaintances. Ms Brandon lost income. Of course, I paid 100% of their salary. When Via Internet I arrived there on April he was as healthy as before and working hard. My sister had a serious back surgery a year before in I am a reporter in the United States. I work for NBC News. Am urgently trying to find Miss Elma Lia Nascimento the Hospital de Clinicas. It did not cost her anything either. who wrote an article for Brazzil in 1995 tided "Praise the I was very happy to hear about that. No, these people are Lord and Pass the Catch-up," Do you know her telephone not poor, they are doing quite well. If I ever get sick, I will number by any chance or where I can find her? I would certainly go to Hospital de Clinicas in Porto Alegre, as I don't have health coverage here in the US. It is also less appreciate any help you can give me. expensive to fly there than to have a few test here. Victor Arango Cici da Costa Via Internet
You are invited to participate In thisdialogue Write to Letters to the Publisher P 0.Box 50536 Los Angeles, CA 90050-0536 or send E-mail to. firstname.lastname@example.org
I was shocked at reading Mr. Ricardo C. Amaral's article 'Overpopulated". Mr. Amaral wrote that in 1500 the Brazilian population was 0 (zero). Reading that, only one thing instantly crossed my mind: I'd like to ask all the Brazilian Indians for their forgiveness, since Mr. Amaral's sources weren't very trustful indeed. What a shame and an unforgivable mistake!
Geoniora G. Oliveira Fountain Valley, California 1111111111111ti 11 11 I 1
In reference to the president's bastard son article, it's I often come to this website for information as I have not that the Brazilian media is ethical or respectful....it's a cultural matter. Unlike the US, Brazilians are not in the found it very interesting, and I am suddenly much more custom of telling other people how they should live their attracted to Brazil and Brazilian Portuguese. I was also private lives. They elect the average men to be presidents wondering how can I find information on Americans visitnot popes. They are not expected to be saints or moral role ing or even working in Brazil. Also, are there any great models. Brazilian are not naives or hypocrites about hu- racial problems in Brazil? Nadine Carr man weaknesses. They are more concerned about corrupHampton, Virginia tion because it affects all of them. Americans are more , concerned about their president's private lives than they I'm doing a research on the consumer behavior of are about their religious leaders' behavior. Rudy Brazilians living out of Brazil. You mentioned in your article Via Internet "Go North, Young Man" the author Jose Carlos Sebe Born , ,, Meihy and his book Brazil Out of Itself Do you know if it is lli J 11 For the last four years I have enjoyed your magazine already available ? Will it be released in English or Portuand I don't want to miss a single issue. So I'm extending my guese? Other question you may help me: Is there any place subscription for two years. I have kept contact with many friends in Brazil, especially in Parana, Sao Paulo and I may find a research about this consumer behavior? Like, a) what's the percentage they save and spend? Minas. My friends are surprised I'm up-to-date with the b) on spending, how much (percent and US$) they Brazilian situation and sometimes I do get ahead of them spend on Brazilian products? about certain happenings in their country. I was made an c) how they acquire Brazilian products? honorary citizen of Brazil and I treasure this honor very d)which kind of Brazilian product they buy? dearly. I will be solemnizing the wedding of one of my Jefferson Tong students in Campinas, se Deus quiser in December. More email@example.com power to you. Priest Mike River Grove, Illinois
I married my Brazilian wife, Elisa, in Santos in 1967. Now she is an ex-wife. I'd Re to find her and marry her I just read your "Too Rich, Too Poor" article. It's very again. She was born in Crato in 1947. I don't know how to sad indeed to read about so much poverty and lack of find her. Do you have any suggestions? Larry kkGrail Ricardo Amaral writes in "Overpopulated" that "the health care. I went home for a visit in April and May and was larry_mcgrait@hotmaiLcom Brazilian government should put in place a policy to reduce saddened to see favelas sprouting by the roadside in Rio Phoenix, Arizona its population from its current 170 million people to a target Grande do Sul. of 100 million people by a certain attainable date." However, I have a good story to tell. I have a ranch 111111.1111"AIMMEmi I would like to renew my subscription to your excellent What an innovative idea! But one thing: How, Ricardo? there and I hired a young couple to care for it. Last Have you given the idea any thought at all, or are you just February, the gentlemarâ€ž otherwise a healthy 32-year-old magazine. Enclosed is my payment of $3. This is the greatest pechincha (bargain) in the world of journalism. another armchair intellectual talking out your ass. I agree man, became very ill with ruptured appendix. For some Samuel Cohn that overpopulation is a huge problem globally, but what's reason they did not teat him at our small local hospital, but Austin, Texas the use of your article if it proposes no solutions? It's just sent him to Porto Alegre, 44 miles away. There he was a waste of space and a waste of time to read it. It's too bad , drivel like this gets published when other more vital voices FOR MORE LETTERS AND ENTIRE Can't you Tind Brazzirat your Brazilian are not being heard. Next time, develop a thesis before you LETTER SEE: consulate? start writing. http://www.brazzilcom , Don't ask us why, ask the consulate. Peter Castles Wilson Loria New York, New York
I Dear Mr. Amaral, you wrote a courageous article. Brazil and the US are heading for big trouble. The USA has avoided much due to an economy that appears to be sound. Let there be an economic downturn and I can assure you the USA will surely need a thousand new prisons. As you are well aware. during 1996 the current administration waived the FBI background check to hustle through thousands upon thousands of new citizens. A political motive was suggested in a recent Los Angeles Times article. This was an exceptionally pertinent point: "Today some people wonder why there is so much crime in Brazil and why its civil system is breaking down. People look for simplistic answers to the problems. They consider drugs, or something else, as the reason for the breakdown. However, the obvious reason (population explosion) is never understood as being the cause of the problems." Cardoso and Clinton blame the guns. It is not the guns. It is not the dope, it is just as you have indicated. Politicians play the people, they use the people for their own power. Who will be as brave as you in the political arena of both nations in addressing this 21st century 14
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BRAZZIL - SEPTEMBER 2000
Voting Game As a rule, parties in Brazil—like the individual candidates themselves—do not put together programs, and those that do are not known for sticking to them. Mud-slinging is commonplace. What is a reluctant voter supposed to do? ADHEMAR ALTIERI
When President Fernando Henrique Cardoso was first elected in 1994, he campaigned on the need to conclude five basic reforms in Brazil. One of the five was political reform, a hot potato he simply did not deal with during that first term in office. Following re-election in 1998, Cardoso was asked about first-term mistakes he did not intend to repeat, and again he mentioned political reform—an unkept promise he said would be a priority o f his second term. With nearly half of term two gone, procrastination is about to claim from all Brazilians a steep price tag. Nationwide municipal elections are around the corner, and Brazil is nowhere near a badly needed sweeping reform of its political scene. Vital as they are to the democratic process, elections in Brazil fall short on a number of basic requirements. It is extremely difficult for an average citizen to vote responsibly because the process of selecting a candidate is quite complicated. Trying to get details of a candidate's platform is like pulling teeth, because the system is—incredible as that may sound—not conducive to that type of relationship between candidate and voter. In fact, most candidates don't put together a platform to begin with, and basically "wing it" throughout their campaign. Mud-slinging is commonplace, with candidates spending far more time attacking opponents than explaining what they have in mind. The net result is far from satisfying: there's little or no direct contact between candidates and voters, credibility is lacking, and voters are forced to decide based on generalities and superficial data. And forced is the right term, since in Brazil there is no choice: voting is mandatory, and skipping
an election carries numerous penalties. Invariably, it all leads to disappointment with the outcome. The trouble really begins with the fact that there are no districts at any level in Brazil. Most anywhere in the world where the political system is reasonably effective, voters only need to choose between candidates running in their district, riding or ward—different names for the same thing: an area which will be represented by whoever its voters elect, at the municipal, state/provincial or federal level. Normally, each party competes with one candidate per district, which certainly makes life easier for voters. They need to get acquainted with fewer people and platform details in order to make their choice. Compare that to what happens when there are no districts, as is Brazil's case. A resident of Sao Paulo, Brazil's largest city and third-largest metropolis in the world, will have to choose between 14 candidates for mayor, and well over one-thousand candidates from various parties and coalitions vying for one of 55 City Council seats. All candidates for council are allowed to campaign and gather votes citywide, but will not represent a specific area of the city if elected—at least not officially. Many will say they represent a certain area or neighborhood, but they are not in any way bound to that. With a mind-boggling number of candidates in the running, voters need help to tell them apart. The solution in use is to assign a five-digit number to each candidate. When a voter steps into the box, he or she will punch in a number, not a name. The first two digits of the number are common to all candidates from the same party, so if a voter hasn't decided on a specific candidate, it's possible to simply vote for a party. These votes are then split proportionally among that party's candidates. Many voters end up doing this, because they just can't decide, or worse, don't bother to decide, on a specific person to vote for. And political parties in Brazil being what they are, it's not as if choosing one of them ensures the pursuit of anything too specific—as a rule, parties also do not put together programs, and those that do are not known for sticking to them. All ofthis affects the way politicians campaign. Because they are not committed to specific areas, they campaign at a distance. A favorite "strategy" is the carreata, loosely translated to a car parade: a row o f cars covered in flags and banners drive through an area, with the candidate either on top of a vehicle or looking out through a sunroof. The longer the carreata, the more "powerful" the candidate. Residents are told in advance the candidate will be campaigning in their area, and those who come out to watch get to wave as the smiling hopeful drives by, or maybe throw an egg or two. Carreatas often go by at high speed and go through red lights at will—no participant has ever been known to receive a traffic ticket. All-candidates meetings at the school auditorium or community center, a fixture of municipal elections in many countries, are unheard of in Brazil—how could hundreds of candidates be rounded up? What would be the use of a debate among candidates not necessarily committed to your area? Would they represent that area ifelected? In effect, candidates limit personal appearances at meetings and events to situations where they can deliver a fast speech and move on. Questions from the floor are not habitual, unless, of course, the questioners can be pre-determined and offer no "risk" to the candidate... In case you're now wondering why the news media isn't exposing all ofthis as the campaign gets underway, you've come to the icing on the cake—the single most important piece of the
16 BRAZZIL - SEPTEMBER 2000
puzzle that politicians in Brazil do not want to see taken apart. There is something known as Election Law, which determines how election coverage can be conducted, and also that free time on radio and television must be allotted to political parties during the campaign. Broadcasters are forced to do this because their licenses are government concessions—the print media faces no such requirements. So the campaign gets about an hour and 30 minutes per day on radio and television, divvied up among parties according to seats held and votes received in the last election. This is bad enough—parties waste this time with mostly nonsensical, unspecific gibberish, and of course, more mudslinging, that goes a long way in further disappointing the electorate. But it gets worse: the Law also differentiates between how the print and broadcast media can cover the campaign. Radio and television face numerous restrictions, which seriously affect their ability to offer listeners and viewers appropriate coverage. For example, the law says all candidates must be given equal time. With fourteen candidates for mayor in Sao Paulo, this means covering all of them equally—in terms of minutes and seconds of airtime! This also affects debates: broadcasters cannot organize them unless all candidates are present, and time is equally allotted to all participants—try and imagine a useful debate with three, perhaps four candidates who are in fact contenders, and ten others whose reasons for being there vary from propping up or attacking another candidate, to "investing" in a future candidacy. Now carry this to the campaign for City Council: if broadcasters are forced to give all candidates equal time, how is it possible to cover the campaign for council with its thousand or so candidates, and stay within the law? The answer is that it is not possible to do this. Stations that try risk heavy fines, as candidates who feel that another has been "privileged" often file grievances, which are seldom turned down by Electoral Courts. The campaign is hardly under way, and numerous broadcasters have already been assessed heavy fines in Sao Paulo and elsewhere in Brazil, for cases would qualify as simple and basic airing stories that in coverage. This aspect of the Election Law is about to be questioned in the courts by several broadcasters, because it clearly defies what is on the Brazilian Constitution: like the American charter, the Brazilian version says no law can be created that in any way inhibits freedom of expression. Clearly what we have here is unconstitutional. The practical results of all this are absurd: after two years of almost continuous exposés involving municipal corruption in Sao Paulo, councilors kicked out and arrested, city officials fired and jailed, the near-impeachment ofmayor Celso Pitta, and effects ofthis felt throughout Brazil as other municipalities tuned in to their similar problems, the broadcast media finds itself unable to closely follow the election campaign for renewal of city councils. In other words, broadcasters are not allowed to exercise journalistic criteria in their coverage. This leaves a major portion of Brazilians exposed to nothing but the free-time campaigning by candidates. Although newspaper readership has grown noticeably in Brazil in recent years, it is still very low even if compared to other Latin American countries. So the majority, who get their information from radio and television, will take in little or no serious coverage of the campaign. Transpose this to all other elections in Brazil, and it should become quite clear why it is so disappointing to see no serious movement at all towards political reform—and certainly no effort whatsoever from President Cardoso in almost six years in office, in spite ofhis promises. Yes, this is a tough one to deal BRAZZIL - SEPTEMBER 2000
with—clearly 3razil's politicians want no part of district voting, or wide open coverage by the media: it would mean accountability f ced down their throats, a word for which there isn't even a own translation in Portuguese. They're in no hurry to create one. Theirs is the easiest possible routine: they campaign sup rficially and undisturbed by the media, and once elected, emain undisturbed because voters have nowhere to go— emember, those elected to municipal, state and federal legisl tures do not answer to specific districts, and thus, do not h ve to entertain any matters raised by an average citizen. As if fu er proof were needed, Congress recently offered up yet a other example of why political reform is often described as is country's most urgent reform. On Thursday, August 0, a majority of honorable members put on a grotesque dis lay of self-serving politicking of the worst possible kind, when they voted to overturn a presidential veto and reaffirm a roposal that any reasonable person would find totally unacc ptable. They voted themselves amnesty from election rule iolations committed in the 1996 (municipal) and 1998 (ge eral) elections. This had been approved in late 1999, vetoed y President Cardoso, and the veto now overturned by a ajority in the Lower House and the Senate— of course, in secret ballot. Members excused themselves from paying mes for things like plastering campaign posters and banners on city property— bridges, monuments, poles, buildings, etc.—or painting their names and numbers on walls. This is another ugly consequence of the way elections are conducted in Brazil: the need to campaign city-wide or state-wide, depending on the election, means candidates cover every centimeter of available space with their pictures, n es, numbers and colors, be it legal or not. Cities become orribly disfigured throughout any election campaign be ause ofthis. Later, as the past week has shown, all it takes is secret ballot for Brazilian legislators to quickly forget that t ey are the lawmakers, and not above the law. Election are the way out in any democracy—it is through the vote that changes are made in any civilized society. But in Brazil, this is a badly disfigured process. President Cardoso has acknow edged this, but must go beyond words. Had political ref rm in fact been treated as the priority that it is, as promise•twice by the President, many other reforms would very ilcely have been concluded in Brazil far more quickly. In pite of the way things are, Brazil has made impressive tides in the past few years. One can't help but wonder ho much more quickly the country might have progressed, fpolitical reform had been tackled seriously and appropriate back in 1994. Adhem r Altieri is a veteran with major news outlets in Brazil, Ca ada and the United States. He holds a Master's Degree in Journalism from Northwestern University in Evans on, Illinois, and spent ten years with CBS News reporting from Canada and Brazil. Altieri is a member of the irtual Intelligence Community, formed by The Greenfiel i Consulting Group to identify future trends for Latin AnOrica. He is also the editor of InfoBrazil (http:// wwvv.infibrazil.com ), an English-language weekly e-zine with analysis and opinions on Brazilian politics and economy. You can reach the author at firstname.lastname@example.org 17
Little things sometimes get our attention in peculiar ways. Periodically, while on one of my visits to Brazil, I would pass by the branch of a bank from Boston. I found that peculiar, because I couldn't make the connection between a bank in Boston and tropical Brazil. Then one day I thought to do a little light reading. I happened to pick up a copy of the 960-page Thy Will Be Done; The Conquest ofthe Amazon by Gerard Colby with Charlotte Dennett. Many strands were woven into the fabric of this exposĂŠ on socioeconomic assault and political subversion in Latin America. One strand focused on the attempts of a Guatemalan president to redistribute land in the 1950s. According to the book's author(s), Jacobo Arbenz "initiated his land-redistribution plan against foreign-owned United Fruit" in 1951. The story wasn't new to me. United Fruit owned so much property that the "more than 400,000 acres" of "fallow landholdings" Hasn't the time co Colby says Guatemala expropriated from them represented "one- atives to aiiielict seventh of the country's arable foster mutual u land". It's a matter of record that, US and Latin after "intensive lobbying among Latin American diplomats failed" zens Diplomatic to to force Arbenz to reconsider agrarian reform, the CIA interceded to destabilize his government. Arbenz fled into exile and power fell into the hands of a Guatemalan army general sympathetic to North American business interests. "All lands (previously)distributedtothepeasantrii were returned to their former owners". Guatemala thus became the first "Banana Republic", a circumstance that gave birth to a misperception that *Latin American countries were incapable of establishing democracies. But the book offered some interesting new insights. It described, for instance, one ofthe "last acts" of CIA operative E. Howard Hunt "before leaving Guatemala". He released from prison a young physician named Ernesto Guevara, "perhaps because he had applied for a job with United Fruit, or because he came from a respected family in Argentina". Ernesto, of course went on to become known as "Che", and Hunt gained notoriety for his involvement in the CIA's Bay of Pigs operation, and the Watergate break-in. I guess it really is a small world 18
after all. But I also discovered that the First National Bank of Boston had "long (been) the financial bulwark of United Fruit and Boston' s investors inLatin American sugar, coffee and railroads". And more than that, it had, by that time, already become "the first bank with head offices in American republics outside of Brazil, to operate in Brazil". That explained my "Boston bank sightings" in Brazil and redirected my thinking to foreign relations. In international relations there seem to be no real friends and few real enemies. Clearly, there can be allies and alliances. Initiative is principally guided by self-interest, with the nation in the most advantageous position wielding the most influence. Positive relations begin with a common perception that cooperation and/or consideration is in the interest of all parties. Negative relations can result from differing perceptions between nations as to their own best interests. r serious new initi- A nation's interests may be short, ast suspicions .and intermediate or long-term. And v when a nation holds significantly _ "uing between, the greater advantage than all other time It's for a tit!. parties, that nation can be expected to exercise its "influence". Influor Latin America. ence is the ability to impose will. Whether advantage is exercised in the interest of short, intermediate or long-term interest will depend upon the judgment of decisionmakers. It follows then, that judgment is a critical determinant in relations between nations. The interests of any nation need to be balanced so that decisions made today do not reap a harvest of ill will tomorrow. In the 21" century every nation should be mature enough to realize that heavyhanded opportunism is simply "out of order". This US presidential election year represents an opportunity for the two major political parties to declare unequivocal commitment to constructive socioeconomic engagement between nations. This is particularly true in the case of Latin America. Until recently, North American media seemed conditioned to represent Latin America in superficial ways, or only to focus on nations south of the border when the news was bad. The caricatured film roles of Carmen Miranda may have reflected North American perceptions that even Brazil was not to be taken seriously, BRAZZIL - SEPTEMBER 2000
or the fact that provincial North America was unprepared to whether Democrat]. or Republican, should be urged to enter understand the full breadth of Latin American sociopolitical and office with a plan fo sending citizens to, or exchanging citizens cultural dimensions. And, particularly after the Arbenz incident, with, receptive othe nations in the Western Hemisphere. If govvirtually all news coming out of Latin America was negative. ernment can alloc e taxpayer dollars to fund congressional We all remember the Cuban Missile Crisis, the excesses of "junkets", then sur ly there are funds enough to subsidize the Peron in Argentina, the "disappeared-ones" of Chile, and Iran- annual participatio ii of 200 good citizens, 4 from each state, to Contra with its connections to conflicts in El Salvador and Nica- begin cementing b er relations between the United States and ragua. And then there was "shining path" in Peru, Jim Jones in Latin America. A transformation of relations between the Guyana, the drug lords of Columbia, corruption in Mexico, run- world's industrial eader and its developing cousins is long away inflation in Brazil, Noriega in Panama and Venezuelan overdue. The fundament lkey to transformation involving multiple support for the OPEC oil embargo. There was bad news in Europe and Asia too, but reporting of events in Europe and Asia parties is cooperation. Let us all resolve between nations of the was more balanced. Ancestral origins, two World Wars and New World to begin to work together now for a better future. direct economic competition had galvanized North American Let's talk about it with our families and friends. Let's encourage our congressmen and senators to support the idea of a attentions to the west and to the east. The shifting sands of immigration and economic develop- Citizens Diplomatic Corps for Latin America. And let's chalment are demanding that we, North Americans, redirect our gaze lenge our presidential candidates to answer the call. with a new sense of reference. The largest single ethnic group in the United States is proj ected to be Latin American by the year 2050. Now is the time for the United States and its BRAZIL CARGO SPECIALIST citizens to turn their attentions toward their long neglected hemi"Ship to Brazil with the company that really knows how." spheric partners. Note the word partners. BEST SERVICE + BEST RATES The Democratic and RepubliAIR - IATA 01-1-9279-012 OCEAN - FMC 3853 can parties, and most particularly their presidential candidates, should without further delay issue clear public statements affirming that Latin America will be given no less TO ANY AIRPORT IN BRAZIL attention and/or consideration than other regions of the world. Brazil, representing half the territory and population of South America, FULL CONTAINER & DIRECT CONSOLIDATIONS should 'get much of that attention. Hasn't the time come for serious WITHOUT TRANSLOADING IN MIAMI new initiatives to ameliorate past suspicions and foster mutual understanding? Not since the founding of the Peace Corps have US citizens applied their generous spirit to formalize and sustain large scale international "constructive social engagement". The two major party presidential candidates, George Bush and Al Gore, should each consider establishing a "Citizens Diplomatic CONTACT MARIA OR JULIET Corps for Latin America". Goodwill between nations ultimately depends on understanding; and ownership of 12833 SIMMS AVE - HAVVTHORNE, CA 90250 understanding cannot be reliably secured without participation. OwnFAX: (310) 973-7113 ership of understanding is any nation's best defense against racism, bigotry and associated violence. The next administration,
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By late evening firecrackers were popping continuously and the smoke in the , street was thick enough td choke anelectric elephant. Once in awhile an especial-. ly loud explosion produced a concussion that startled the senses. It was time to break out the light swords, which can be very dangerous. PHILLIP WAGNER
The several hundred kilometers bus trip from Salvador to Senhor do Bonfim should normally take about six hours. But this was late June, and all of Salvador was on the move. Festa de Sao Joao was about to be celebrated and the need to consummate carefully arranged plans had triggered a biblical exodus from the bustling, chaotic state capital, and coastal city. Danielle Valim, her daughter Lua and I were headed for the usually sleepy little colonial village ofBonfim. Our bus slipped helplessly into a paralyzing morass of decades old automobiles, SUVs, micro vans, dusty pickups, motorcycles, "big rigs" and other buses that merged and converged on a singular main artery. The "choke point" spawned gridlock and, for a time, we were unable to progress at all. Favela, or slum, dominated urban sprawl obscured the view on each flank as seasonally predictable drizzle drifted monotonously from an overcast sky. Our driver and one passenger passed time in a futile attempt to lock in a signal on the radio. No music to lift the spirits. Finally, the vehicles ahead ofus began to inch forward until we were moving again. As darkness settled in we gained momentum and the urban landscape gradually gave way to a transitional environment characterized by small, improvised, communities. Intersecting arteries siphoned away some of the pressure on traffic and the road extended itself into the semi-arid, sparsely populated caatinga. I found myself wishing I'd brought along a windbreaker from the States. The seasons of the Southern Hemisphere are reversed and the region of Bonfim is at an elevation sufficient to consistently produce cool winter nights. Lua pointed excitedly as the lights of Bonfim came into view. Jairo Sรก met us at the rodoviaria, or bus station, after our exasperating 8-hour journey. Jairo escorted us to the inauspicious, but comfortable residence he shares with wife Jacira, son Bruno and daughter Luiza. I found their two-story house to be consistent with the rustic architectural personality of Bonfim. It was reasonably large with stucco walls, clapboard covered 20
windows, and open airy rooms with stone floors. Bonfim has retained the charm of its heritage, and feels inviting. Rooftops are predominantly red, orange or yellow tiled. There are many poor in and around the town, but class distinctions are fuzzy and there's no insidious favela-sprawl, no "social cancer". I realized that the people ofBonfim seemed to trust each other, something that contrasted sharply with the everpresent suspicion between educated masses and "marginals" in bigger cities of Brazil. As ifreading my mind, Dani pointed out that in this harsh, unforgiving region people have to be able to rely on one another. The rua on which Jairo and his family live is cobble stoned and uneven. Most of the streets in Bonfim are like that. A few are hardened earth or paved. Some buildings are constructed so that their exteriors belly up to the street. Others, like Jairo's, do not, but are protected by high walls that run the length of their property lines. Wooden gates open into driveways or what would approximate a front yard. At Jairo's home we were greeted by a gathering of celebratory zealots preparing for the anticipated festivities. Orange and jempapo (a fruit of Brazil) liquor, cerveja (beer), came de bode (goat meat) and ptio (snack breads) were passed around the room. I unexpectedly encountered a frog in the downstairs banheiro (bathroom) and my reaction triggered ripples of laughter. Late in the evening we all dispersed and reassembled at the praca, or Town Square. Most of the residents of Bonfim still prefer to communicate by word-of-mouth rather than by telephone. So we went to the square to find friends and fellow members of Jairo's bloco to make arrangements for the following day. The blocos ofBonfim are community groups characterized by a particular philosophy regarding how the festival should be celebrated. Jairo's bloco is named Carua, after a caatinga plant producing fibers stronger than sisal. Bloco Carua is especially dedicated to traditional cultural practices and the distinct original forms of the forro BRAZZIL - SEPTEMBER 2000
music specific to the region and to Festa de sao Joao. The kind When the gre n of your eyes offorro Cara plays is called Pe de Serra, or "foot of the mounspreads over e plantation tains", which traditionally employs only accordions, triangles, I reassure yo , so don't cry and a special kind of large drum known as the zabumba. This I will return, ou will see, my is the original form offorro, so named because it was born in the foothills ofBrazil' s rugged northeast. But Jairo' s Carua bloco sweetheart also incorporates six stringed acoustic guitars and four stringed A short while fter relocating to scaled down versions equating to something like a ukulele. According to legend the wordforrO is a bastardization of"for a table outside adjacent home all". The legend sugggests that an English speaking man referred that doubled as a mall grocery we to the music now associated with the quadrilhas of Festa do Sao were approaches by a banda de Joao as music "for all". Quadrilhas themselves appear to be ptfanos. The ban•consisted of four men, formerly landless troupes of Brazilian "square dancers". The most beaautiffully peasants of the Ms vimento dos Sem Terra, or MST, Movement ve are in the city of Maceie in the of those without and. They serenaded us with homemade incostumed quadrilhasI'seen struments, two drums and two flutes. The music they played had state of Alagoas, northeast of Bahia. The praca that first night was filled beyond capacity. A been passed down through generations of Brazilian peasants. - performing stage was constructed adjacent to vendor stalls and We shared pleas ntries, then provided food, beer and a small food booths. Great arrays of powerful speakers sent shock waves donation before ey moved on. A little while later we received rolling through our chest cavities as we passed by. Large quan- a similar, larger roup, comprised only of flutists. Once again, tities of hot dogs, beer, guarani soda, candied apples, straw- the instruments ere all homemade. By late aftern on it was time to prepare for the night to come, berries and limp water-soaked peanuts were distributed and consumed. The crowd was full of Latin looking slender young so we all shower d and changed. As evening approached the girls and muscular young men. Cowboy hats and short skirts Carua Bloco ga ered at the home of one of its members and were the order of the day. I watched in fascination as hours of we joined in a nig tlong procession of singing and dancing. The lively socializing, flirting, dancing, chatter and laughter melted bloco passed thr sugh the home of each member, stopping only long enough to fu ly consume the considerable quantities of food away. We departed sometime after 3 AM. Our second day in Bonfim began at the breakfast table where, and drink that ha been prepared and left out. Sometime between as everywhere in Brazil, cafezinho (exceptionally strong cof- 3 and 5 AM we andered back to bed. On the third say, café da manhei, or breakfast, was followed fee served in demitasse cups) was accompanied by several varieties of pito (bread), frutas (fruit) and queijo (cheese). by a shopping s iree. It was time to complete the purchase of Conversation flowed like an old river with a lazy sense of firewood andfo os, or fireworks. The growing sense of excitemanifest destiny. Green carpeted morros (hills) were visible ment was palpa i le; you could really feel it in the air. Chatter through a back door, the beneficiaries of a significantly greater began to focus in the impending tradition of igniting "light than normal rainfall in recent months. After breakfast we ad- swords", and th associated dangers of doing so. The Bonfim journed to the living room where the conversation continued. hospital staffed p. It stocked additional provisions for treating Jairo played Gilberto Gil' s latest CD, the sound track to a criti- burns and, in so e cases, fractures. A Brazilian form of sparcally acclaimed film, Eu, Tu, Eles, which reflects the culture, kler, firecracker and assorted otherfogos were also purchased, and features the forrO music of northeastern Brazil. The lyrics but everyone's ocus was on the "light swords". In late aftern ion we assembled with a bloco known as Jegue of the unofficial forro anthem "Asa Branca" (White Wing) written by Luiz Gonzaga and Humberto Teixeira sounded out: Eletrico, or Elec i *c Donkey, on a small lot where churrasco and beer were being erved. Jairo' s wife, Jacira, works at Banco do Brasil, which co ponsors this bloco. Entry to the lot was allowed Quando oiei a terra ardendo only for people earing the official Electric Donkey Bloco Tqual fogueira de Sao Joao shirt with spons •r advertising on the back. On the lot was a large, Eu perguntei a Deus do ceu, ai very tall, and c lorful donkey drawn wagon. The wagon was pra que tamanha judiactio mounted with n erous speakers, and a microphone activated speaker hung fri m the neck of the donkey; thus the "electric" Hoje longe muitas leguas donkey. People illed about excitedly as a band struck up some numa triste solid& music. Espero a chuva cair de novo I initially co cluded that this signaled the onset of our next pra mim vorta pro meu serttio activity, but 1w. wrong. It was only something to "get the juices flowing". In thi particular case the bloco included the children Quando o verde dos teus olhos of members as ell as the adults. Talking, dancing, eating and se espaici na prantacao singing contin ed unabated as emotions continued to rise. Eu te asseguro, nao chore tido, viu Finally, as if b silent command, the bloco moved off the lot eu vortarei, viu, meu coracao and into the str et. It was time for the bloco parade. We slowly wound our way through Bonfim accompanied at the rear by an When I saw my earth on fire enterprising en epreneur driving a beer truck of sorts. Revellike a Saint John's bonfire ers periodically fell back to refurbish beverage stocks as locals I asked God in heaven gathered along the route to smile and wave. At one point we why so much suffering? passed a carav n of horse drawn wagons transporting period piece costume actors and actresses in the opposite direction. Today I am many leagues away Automobile tr fic was halted as we crossed side streets. Parin a sad solitude ents struggled t • keep track of their children. Eventually we all I wait for another rain safely arrived t the square. serf& for me to return to my BRAZZIL - SEPTEMBER 2000
By the time we returned, the festive music, dancing and drinking on Jairo's street were well underway. Jairo built a fire outside his home using firewood that had been purchased for that purpose. So did pretty much every other neighbor. The air began to fill with clouds of smoke that rolled up and down the street. Jairo cut some beef, chicken and goat meat, which he skewered on long rods and laid over the fire. Children lit firecrackers and tossed them about indiscriminately. A few lit sparklers and waved them excitedly while chattering in animated Portuguese. Occasionally someone ignited a fogo that produced a "fountain" of sparks generating "000hs" and "aaahs" from the crowd. Tables were erected and plates, silverware and beverages were set out, along with side dishes to accompany the meat. A feast ensued. By late evening firecrackers were popping continuously and the smoke in the street was thick enough to choke an electric elephant. Once in awhile an especially loud explosion produced a concussion that startled the senses. By now, the eyes of some ofthe revelers were glazed over. This seemed to signal that it was time to break out the light swords. Light swords are basically tubes filled with gunpowder. The type, and size, of the tube determines how dangerous it can be. The standard commercial light sword is encased in something like stiff, durable cardboard with a clay liner to force the fire outward and prevent an explosion. A more serious, and larger, version is encased in hardened, glazed, clay like the tiles of which the roofs of many homes in Bonfim are constructed. Handling either of these fogos can be very difficult, and residents of the city understand the risks involved. Windows and doors that border the streets must be closed, locked, covered and/or boarded up before the light swords are ignited. Celebrants drift into the relative safety of driveways or yards, or indoors, as the night wears on. Temporarily controlling, and then throwing, a light sword is considered a rite of passage for young men. Particular skill and bravado are exhibited by managing to "write" messages with the light swords on the walls along the street. The "toss" is generally preceded by the kind of running start employed by javelin throwers. Once released, the firework cartwheels, caroms and careens wildly about the street, occasionally bouncing off walls or anything else it comes into contact with. The larger clay-tile-tube light swords can easily snap an arm or a leg on contact, and the threat of being seriously burned is always present, no matter which of the two types is used. A neighbor of Jairo's forgot to close the gate at the front of his property. A light sword found its way into the house and burned the couch there. But Bonfim residents are stoic in the face of these "assaults byfogos". Each time a light sword was lit people seemed to simply make a mental note, or turn to enjoy the show. When one was actually released nearby crowds scattered with the speed and precision of si lver-s ided prey-fish at the sight of a predator. But the crowds just as quickly, and efficiently, reassembled once the danger had passed. No matter how irresponsible a light sword handler appeared to be, there were never any looks of disapproval or expressions of concern, other than from myself. The perpetrators were always wordlessly accepted back into the group as if nothing had happened. Bonfim is on the edge of the caatinga, a harsh environment that serves to toughen its inhabitants. The atmosphere of Bonfim at this time of year reminded me of a frontier town in the old west of the United 22
States. Bruno, the son of Jairo, was now 13 and ached for an opportunity to wield the "weapon of Festa de Sao Joao". It seemed, on the surface, like a great opportunity for a photograph. Bruno positioned himself several dozen meters from my location and dipping his light sword into one of the bonfires along the rua, ignited it. For a moment it seemed that Bruno would lose control, but then he gathered his hands more firmly about the tube and began to wave it wildly, as if in triumph. There were cheers of approval. Possibly now overconfident, Bruno marked a nearby wall and began his "run up to the toss". Having gained sufficient momentum Bruno prepared to release the sword; but my perception was that the sword had finally gained the upper hand and released itself. I gaped in horror with my feet frozen uncomfortably to the uneven cobbled stones as the deadly tube cartwheeled in a direct line toward me. "How can this be?", I wondered, but my lips could only utter the expletive "Oh shit!". Did this particular tube have something against me? Was it being guided by the vengeance ofan evil spirit? Incredibly, it died out only a scant few centimeters from my still locked, but now considerably weakened legs. I'd survived another night of Festa de Sao Joao in Senhor do Bonfim. The fmal day ofBonfim festivities was almost anti-climatic. No binge drinking processions or death defying pyrotechnics. But all the positives remained. The ongoing hospitality was, as always, exceeded only by the personal affection that I'd begun to feel connected everyone in Bonfim. A young girl appeared at the gate to Jairo's home. After conversing briefly with her in soft tones he reentered the house and returned to the gate with a small/36'o, or bread. The girl was hungry and no one in Bonfim would refuse to help alleviate someone's hunger. Our intention that day was to visit a nearby fazenda, or ranch, after stopping at the residence of more friends of Jairo. The informality of life in Bonfim was reflected by the fact that our unexpected appearance failed to disrupt a family gathering. We were treated to beer, goat ribs and "flying biscuits" in an open-air patio while the children played in the street. The biscuits are so named because they're so light it seems they could take to the air. In a far corner of the patio was a small stone grotto, over the entrance to which a plain white cloth had been draped. At Jacira's urging, the man of the house explained that there was a statue of the Virgin Mary in the grotto and the cloth was intended to shield its eyes from the debauchery of drinking that accompanied Festa de Sao Joao. After forewarning everyone to shield their drinks, he proudly lifted the veil to reveal the statue and encouraged me to take a photograph. Not wanting to offend, I did so. We never found our way to the fazenda, but we did stop at another home where a churrasco (barbecue) was underway. A small three-man band played moreforro. Couples danced and friends were reunited. Cool temperatures and intermittent light rain failed to dampen spirits. All that remained was the concert in the praca that night given by Flavio Jose, one of the most beloved cantadores, or singers, offorro music in northeastern Brazil. Jose's accordion heavy concert was magical. It opened to an audience so tightly pressed together that the planned circulating ofpolice for managing crowd control nearly precipitated the panic it was there to prevent. With literally nowhere to go, BRAZZIL - SEPTEMBER 2000
the crowd began to collapse outward in its attempt to part before the police patrol. The pressure seemed to magnify as it radiated, and there were some tense moments when we all had doubt as to what might happen next. Jairo calmly counseled "ca/ma, amigos, ca/ma". His reassuring voice contributed to a restoration of the peace and tranquility that reverted to boundless excitement over the romance of Flavio's crooning the lyrics of Nanado Alves and Ilmar Cavalcante.... Already anyone can see that I love you Amo voce, ja clá pra ver That my glance reveals everything Que meu olhar diz tudo My heart doesn't speak, it remains mute Meu coracdo nao fala, fica mudo It seems my heart doesn't know me Ate parece nem me conhecer And in a later song. . . . Ah! Esse meu coracdo de novo Sabe Deus onde me levard Apostando tudo nesse amor Pos a mao no fogo E se me queimo hoje Sem um pingo de vergonha Quer voltar
Ah! Here comes my heart again Only God knows where it will take me Gambling everything in this love Puts my hand in the fire And if! should burn today Without a drop of shame My heart will yearn to return
Ah esse meu coracdo, menino Nao se conforma, em te perder Vive num banzo de fazer dO Mesmo sabendo que amou sO Morre de saudade De ciiimes de voce
Ah! This, my heart, is a child It doesn't accept losing you It lives in a sad place that makes one feel pity Phillip Wagner is a free-lance Even knowing it loved alone It dies of longing photojournalist, a frequent traveler to And feeling jealous of you Brazil and a regular contributor to Brazzil. Phillip is a graduate of Indiana Go my heart University and hopes to pursue a post Surrender yourself graduate degree focusing on Brazilian Every passion only tastes sweetly studies at some point in the future. Visit If it bleeds Phillip's Brazil web-sites at http:// www.iei.net/—pwagner/brazilhome.htm . Risk everything once more Phillip may be contacted at Try again In the wings of illusion pwagnerAielnet Fly again
Vai coracdo Te entrega todo Toda paixdo so tern gosto Se sangrar Arrisca tudo outra vez Tenta de novo Nas asas da Husk, Volta a voar
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I imagined the stories I could tell when I got back to Europe, about naked Indian women, exotic fruits, dangerous trips... All this embellishing of my personality swiftly ended when a snake slithered out of the undergrowth. Iran screaming back to the bus. So much for the brave travel writer. PHILIP BLAZDELL
I was dreaming that! was cruising, rather majestically, down the Yangtze, the sun was beating down on me and the beer was, by Chinese standards agreeably cold, when a sudden explosion bought me back to the land of the living. It was 6 AM and I was somewhere between Fortaleza and Belem. this thought alone seemed to cover the whole range of geographical possibilities. The driver slammed on the air breaks and bought the shiny yellow bus to a grinding halt. The six of us who made up the entire contingent of the passengers sleepily followed the driver off the bus and into the early morning. mist. We were, quite honestly, in the middle of nowhere. The road stretched behind and in front of me into oblivion. The early morning mist was just beginning to be burnt off by the first rays of the sun and only the grumbles and mutterings of the driver disturbed this primeval calm. Even from my limited experience with cars I could see that the tire was indeed shredded and quite beyond repair. So, we all piled back into the bus and let the driver drive another 20 km to test this hypothesis extensively. Indeed, it was as I had guessed shredded (large bits of rubber strewn across the highway seemed a bit of a give-away for me) and after a bone-grinding hour we once more came to a halt. As our driver began to dig around in the cabin for the jack and spanners he complained bitterly to me about having driven coaches for 25 years and that this was the first time this had ever happened. I didn't tell him this kind of thing happens reasonably often to me for fear of walking the rest of the way and I let him have his moan. I left the driver and the other passengers fiddling with the jack and getting covered in oil and mud from the spare tire whilst I walked back down the road to take some pictures. As I snapped away I imagined myself to be some heroic figure, alone in the Brazilian rainforest, armed only with my trusty penknife and my wits. I imagined the stories I could tell when! got back to Europe, about naked Indian women, exotic fruits, dangerous trips to forbidden frontiers in dugout canoes and the wild animals! had seen. liked the idea of naked Indian women especially. All this embellishing of my personality swiftly ended when a snake slithered out of the undergrowth and across the road. I ran screaming back to the bus, much to the amusement ofthe driver, who was now covered in oil, and complaining about his new white shirt. So much for the brave travel writer. The Amazon. Even the word has a romantic sound to it. It is perhaps one of the most evocative words in the English Language (after, of course, naked Indian women.) It is an area that everyone seems to have an opinion about, whilst few people can claim first hand knowledge.! had been into the jungle just once before, a few years ago when! took a gloriously drunken boat ride out ofManaus. I was returning this time for other reasons, and I thought! should at least try and make a token effort of getting to the heart of the enigmatic area. When we think of the Amazon we normally think ofvast tracts of virgin forest, and a lack of development. This is not always the case and there is evidence that the Amazon basin had been densely populated when the Europeans arrived. Scientists now believe that the Indians had learnt not only how to survive in the hostile environment but how to cultivate it. Charles Clement, researcher at the government's Amazon research institute, INPA, says the Indians domesticated a large number of wild plants (one of them was the pineapple) to make them more productive. But the arrival of the Europeans led to the ruin ofthe Indians, and the rainforest reverted to wild. Perhaps one of the first Europeans to visit the area was mercenary and adventurer Francisco de Orellana who crossed the entire Amazon basin in search of a fabled golden city. Instead of gold he discovered atribe of bare breasted women that he described as 'the tribe of women alone', the legendary Amazons after whom the forest is named. The thought of bare breasted women was enough to send me off on another adventure, and perhaps,! thought, I could find some gold knocking around whilst I was there as well. European naturalists who traveled to Brazil in the 18th and 19th centuries marveled at the exuberance of the rainforest, which they saw as an empty paradise created by God without the intervention of man. Baron von Humboldt, one ofthe first European naturalists to visit the Amazon basin, wrote home to Germany in 1799: "What BRAZZIL - SEPTEMBER 2000
an extravagant country we are in. Amazing plants, electric eels, armadillos, monkeys, parrots ... we have been running around like fools. For the first three days we could not settle on anything." Even Charles Darwin spoke of his "rapture" as he wandered by himself through the forest: "I collected a great number of brilliantly colored flowers, enough to make a florist go mad... the air is deliciously cool and soft." The "empty" Amazon also attracted adventurers in search of El Dorado, like the ill-fated British colonel Percy Fawcett, who disappeared in 1925 while looking for a lost city, or, more recently, the thousands of wildcat prospectors who overran the Yanomami reserve in their frenzied hunt for gold. The turn ofthe century rubber boom made fortunes for a few, but for 30,000 Indians used as slave labor it all too often meant death, although it was the technology they had developed which produced the latex.
Rush Goes On One hundred years later, Asian logging companies have joined the Americans and the Europeans in stripping the forest of mahogany and other hardwoods, and researchers from major pharmaceutical companies, eager to find the ingredients for new miracle drugs in Amazon plants, target the knowledge of indigenous communities, where shamans are the repositories of centuries of plant knowledge. Strange stories began to percolate slowly into the press about stolen DNA, scared sites being disturbed and the illegal selling ofnative blood. It read more like pulp fiction then hard news and tugged at my scientific curiosity. In the heady mix of intrigue, empty rhetoric and outright lies that make up Brazilian politics the Amazon region has become a topic of considerable lobbying power. Successive Brazilian governments have seen the rainforest's unplanned exuberance as a challenge and tried to discipline it with roads and settlements, subsidizing the burning ofthe forest to make way for cattle ranches; turning its giant rivers into waterways for huge grain barges: installing a free trade zone to swell the Amazon capital of Manaus with a sprawling circle of shantytowns, peopled by migrants from riverside villages. While the 07 countries have put millions of pounds into Brazil to protect indigenous lands in the Amazon rainforest, inside Brazil a powerful lobby of mining and logging companies is seeking to overturn this protection. In congress, rightwing representatives are calling for the reduction of Indian reserves, while a senator from the Amazon state of Roraima has presented a bill to provide amnesty for goldminers who have committed crimes while "exercising their profession in indigenous or environmental conservation areas". This would include the goldminers found guilty of genocide after murdering 18 Yanomami Indians. The rest ofthe world can only watch and shake their heads as vast tracts of forest disappear each year. Unfortunately, the government of social democrat president Fernando Henrique Cardoso is so weakened by the recent financial crisis and the infamous Central Bank scandal that, in order to secure support from the rightwing "Amazon bloc" in congress, he seems prepared to renege on his commitment to demarcate and defend Indian lands. It is not only the Brazilian right wing the indigenous people are up against. The UK rightwing think tank, LEA, has just published a booklet called The Myth of the Noble Eco-Savage, claiming that if left to their own devices, native peoples destroy the environment—while if collective land rights are replaced by private property, conservation thrives. It would appear that difficult times are ahead, and this was another reason to visit the area now, to see for myself this ecologically important region before too much damage had been done. I also had more personal reasons for going off on my own again.
Revolution Talk I had become increasingly sucked into Brazilian politics and it was beginning to take its toll on me. My normally calm academic life had been turned into a maelstrom of strikes, political meetings and empty rhetoric of both sides trying to calm the embittered professors who were threatening to strike again against their difBRAZZIL - SEPTEMBER 2000
ficult working con itions and lack of pay.! wanted to work, to teach and to do my res arch, but the political powers that be, were maneuvering me i4iore and more away from my lab and into the political arena. E erything I did had to be seen in the light of a political gesture and was accordingly assessed. A more profound person might havelfound all this terrible exciting, but for me it was just a bore, and we I beyond my comprehension. The tension most days was palatabl . In Sao Paulo, a world away, the police opened fire with tear gas drubber bullets. 'PROTEST' and 'REVOLUTION' screamed he newspapers. One day my n rmal bus ride to university was diverted due to a protest which h d blocked the main street, and access to my favorite restauran . This set the tone for the next month and the normally calm str ets of Fortaleza were thick with talk of urban uprising, civil un est and intrigue. The landless people who had occupied the stre ts, setting up their camp outside the police station—which I thought was a nice touch, seemed nice enough and I spent an afternoon chatting with them about their issues and ideals. They told me that events had been building up nicely since a Brazilian court acquitted three senior military policemen of the massacre of 19 peasants—despite the jury's bel iefthat the men were responsible for one of the most violent episodes in the country's recent history. Television cameras had unfortunately captured the police officers firing into a crowd of poor rural workers, led by the Landless Movement MST), who were demonstrating on a road at Eldorado do Carajds, a small town in the northern state ofPard. The MST, which has been dubbed, amongst other things, Marxist revolutionaries, and iS one of the largest and most effective grassroots movements in thç world, responsible for securing land titles for about a million p asants, took this in the spirit it was intended and organized their cwn protests. In Fortaleza this took the form of camping across e main road and spending the day facing down the nervous look ng police. The jury of even men told the judge that while they were convinced Colo 1Mdrio Pantoja, Major Jose Maria Oliveira and Captain Raimun4lo Almendra were guilty, there was not enough evidence to convict them. The police officers were in charge of the troops who shot into the crowd of 2,500 landless farm workers to break up a peaceful demonstration. Jodo Pedro S Mile, leader of the Landless movement (MST), said the acquittal shamed the country. "The judge will have blood on his hands if nore peasants are killed in Para," he said, "He has declared impuni for those who commit crimes in the countryside." After the ver ict, hundreds of MST supporters chanted "murderers, murderer", then charged through Belem (the capital ofPara) throwing stones it police. The police responded with plastic bullets and brutali which to me seemed both heavy handed and politically neve The whole situation seemed to be a tangled web of lies, exaggerated reportin and hyperbole. After making a nuisance ofmyself for a few weeks nd asking everyone about this, and hearing 100 different storie , I decided that if I was ever to understand the situation, and if my life was to get back to normal, I would have to travel to the s1ate where all this happened and try to learn some more. Perhaps,! thought, that if I went there and talked to the people and see the way they live then I would understand. Belem was now only a few hours away and I was beginning to feel a little tense. Would I find a city at war, people roaming the streets with stones and gun totting police, and more importantly, would I find a ince bar close to my hotel? I was less worried about the police than not finding a bar as I have a healthy respect for uniformed men with guns, and besides I had already witnessed my first shooting i4 Brazil, and didn't think things could get much worse. The shooting had happened outside my apartment building a few days beforeI left for Belem. It was close to midnight and I was leaning out my edroom window watching the street below when a lone motorcy list pulled up and emptied six shots into a guy on the other side o the street who crumpled in slow motion onto the street and beg n bleeding in a hideous manner which looked nothing like an film I have ever seen. The motorc clist sped off long before the police arrived leaving only a man ying on the street and six empty cartridge cases. 25
The police arrived and calmly interviewed a few people, called an ambulance and flirted a little with some ofthe girls who had spilled out the nearby restaurants to watch. It was just another night in Brazil, but for me it changed a lot of my ideas and slowly over the next few days my confidence began to drain away. I was therefore more than a little nervous of being alone in Belem. My guidebook didn't actually say 'come to Belem and die', it stopped just short of that, but it has to be the second most paranoid piece of travel literature I have ever read (the first being anything by the tourist office in Salvador which has a unique sales pitch which is somewhere along the lines of 'Salvadorâ€”a great place to get your throat cut'). My sense of dread increased as I wandered down the quiet side street to my hotel through piles of discarded hypodermic needles and the throb of construction workers sledgehammers. In away, when I eventually found it, I was quite disappointed that the hotel had a roof and four walls. It seemed to spoil the mood somewhat. No sooner, had I dropped my bag in reception ofthe quaint little hotel Le Massilia, the jovial French owner Franck bounded out, wrung my hand and welcomed me (in French) like a long lost brother. His enthusiasm was infectious (as was his accent) and he dragged me off to see my spotlessly clean room complete with hot shower, air conditioning and TV. The fridge, Franck was pleased to point out to me, was stocked with the finest French wines and vintage champagnes. 'Zee English', he smiled wiping a bottle of Krug lovingly, 'zee are like the French you know, zee wine, zee moonlight, zee romance ofthe jungle', and then noticing that I was actually alone, 'never mind, I have a video of zee world cup final instead if you are bored.' Shortly later I was pounding the streets soaking up the late afternoon sun. No one bothered to give me a second look as I went striding round the city. It seemed calm, content and surprisingly clean. The streets bustled with markets, hawkers and color. On one street corner a group ofbeautiful school girls stood gossiping about a forthcoming physics test, on another a beautiful Indian woman was showing her baby to some friends whilst the traffic police, in their worn combat boots and yellow hats, looked on peacefully. It seemed as far away from a center of intrigue and chaos as I could have imagined. Everyone I spoke to, from the coconut seller, to the shopkeepers to the schoolgirls seemed content and happy.
River Lure I jumped into a taxi to go to the old fort. I have never met a taxi driver anywhere in the world who does not have a strong political opinion and thought I could get some juicy political gossip whilst stuck in traffic. 'So, you want to go to the old town? It's a bit passed its prime I am afraid' 'Tell me about the people without land and their movement' 'I guess, if they gave it a lick of paint it might be o.k.' 'So what do you think about the police and the troubles, what does it really mean?' 'You know, I think its terrible about the paint, its not even a big job...' 'And the political future for the region'. At this the driver turned to face me, which was a little worrying as we were hurtling the wrong way down a one way street at the time, 'do you think red or green would look better for that building'. I gave up... The next morning, after a huge breakfast I was wandering round the famous Mercado Ver-o-Peso, which is one ofthe most colorful markets in South America. The name comes form the Portuguese who used to watch the weight (ver o peso) in order to impose taxes. I wandered deeper and deeper into the market, past the exotic fruits, the small stalls selling sizzling food whose spicy aroma made my taste buds drawl and my sphincter twitch, past the medicinal plants, past the stalls selling all manner of fetishes and towards the river itself. I climbed onto the railings and let the chaos and smells of the market drift out of my consciousness. I have a deep fascination for rivers. I can spend hours pouring over maps following their progress, wandering how it would be to travel on them, to know their twist and turns intimately and leisurely cruise their lengths between exotic ports of call with nothing to do 26
but lay in my hammock and make witty observations. Without a doubt the Amazon, being the world's largest river, holds my attention like no other and I had intended to hire a local boat and spend the day pottering around some of the tributaries pretending I was Indiana Jones. However, for the first time in my life, I had trouble finding a boat willing to take me out (the last time I had even gone near a harbor was in Hong Kong where I was kidnapped by a sampan owner and forced to cruise Aberdeen harbor to watch the sunset for hours on end) and so instead I settled for a day trip on the mighty river, which I booked through a local tourist agency. As the boat chugged away from the docks, the 2 century slipped away. The two other passengers scanned the jungle with high-powered binoculars as I joined the captain in the wheelhouse. Within a few minutes the city had faded away to be replaced by simple wooden dwellings, the putt-putt-putt of small outboard motors on simple native canoes and the sounds ofthe jungle. A flick of color here and there suggested parrots returning to roost. As our boat rounded a bend in the river two small beautiful mahogany colored children came swimming out to meet us. 'Where are you from', they called out to me in a thick accent. 'London, England', I shouted back. 'That's far?' asked the older one, 'yes very far' I replied. They swam off howling with laughter. We stopped after a few hours of apparently aimless meandering along flooded tributaries in a small village. A local guide, whose sun burnt skin give him the appearance of an old peach stone, greeted us warmly with a huge bowl of Brazil nuts and twinkling eyes. He lead us deeper into the jungle as he explained more about the legends ofthe forest, the history ofthe many exotic fruits which were growingly abundantly around us and how life had changed in the last twenty years. Later, as the rain lashed down, and we squatted in his simple wooden home listening to the squabbling of the monkeys in the eaves and the screams of children playing in the rain, I asked him what he thought about the landless movement and the other intrigues which seemed to be as much as part of the Amazon region as the mighty river itself. He sighed, and laid down his machete that he had been using to shell nuts for me. 'Things must change', he told me, 'but for better or for worse, I can't really say what will happen, only time will tell.' he then smiled, 'but remember this is Brazil, and anything is possible'. By the time I returned to Fortaleza a few days later the protestors had gone, the roads were calm again and the short period of civil unrest seemed to have been forgotten. The old man's words echoed in my head 'In Brazil anything is possible.' The author is a regular contributor to numerous travel magazines. He has traveled widely in Brazil and can often be found trying to go from A to B in the most difficult manner imaginable whilst using someone else's money. His only regret is that the coach companies don't offer frequent flyer miles. Articles by the author ranging from Tibet to China to Africa can be found at www.bootsnall.com . He can be contacted at philip(&,dem.ufc.br, and promises, if he is not away falling of the edge of the map somewhere, to write back. BRAZZIL - SEPTEMBER 2000
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(415) 643-5326 Servigo de baba: $5 BRAZZIL - SEPTEMBER 2000
Doacao: $10 27
0 homem se jogou pra dentro do —Ainda pensa em mulher? carro. —Amigo, tesao nunca desaparece... — Pra onde? perguntou o motorista. nao sou tao velho, nem fiz sessenta.. THREE BY Hesitacao, resposta: encosta, encosta ali, perto daquela puta... — Va em frente, te digo quando parar... Ei! Voce! Vem Quanto quer? 30? ate essa cidade é uma merda, tá tudo de que nao é caro, deixa eu ver os peitos! cabeca pra baixo, esse prefeito é urn hmm, nada mal... por que nao me olha, louco, o transit° um caos, buracos e mais deixa eu ver teus olhos, tu nao é homem buracos mas assim mesmo prefiro sair, por acaso? Por que tá fugindo? Merda, ficar sozinho entre quatro paredes, urn homem. Porra! castigo...esse cara ë louco mesmo, —Vamos seguir, deixa o coitado. qualquer dia vao me ver na televisao, —Tern razao, coitado mesmo. Nao preso, julgado por ter mandado aquele chega a minha idade, corn aquela doenca palacio pros ares...o sacana ainda tirou a maldita. Tenho urn cara que mora no meu coitada da mulherada de la. alem de predio. Boa pinta. Era. Agora, urn trapo. louco deve ser viado... imagina s6, soube Nem a mae dele quer saber. Fodidao. Diz que vai mandar acabar corn os pombos, que 6 feliz, que ye a morte todos os dias, castrar corn remedio, envenenar, é clue é linda, luminosa, nao da pra-acreditar. My wife left me, she ran away maluco... gosto de animal, mas passaros E defesa. Nao entendo como um cara sao minha paixao, sao lisos, nada with a guy. She is crazy, schizo- consegue gostar de levar na tarraqueta. pendurado entre as pernas, colhOes —Que é isso? phrenic. I know because I have vista, os buracos nao aparecem, os — Rabo, olhota, fiof6, olho de mosco, cachorros, os leOes, as girafas enfiam em coisa do meu tempo. Eu já levei dedo... read everything about it after she qualquer buraco, os passaros nao, os nao é que tu tá pensando... foi o medico, pombos em especial...ja viu pombo started to act weird. She told me exame da prostra... d6i paca. Perguntei: namorar? que delicadeza! ë tambem once she'd rather play with her doutor, como é que os viados giientam? inteligente, conhece algum bicho que é ele me respondeu que era sublimacao, capaz de se afastar tres mil quilometros finger than screw me. nao entendi muito bem... depois e voltar pra mesma janela? pois 6, o continuou: so doi a primeira vez, depois.... pombo faz...nao tern doenca como dizem o sacana tambem era bicha, s6 podia ser, por ai, nao tern mesmo, foi comprovado como sabia? arrumei outro medico.., tern num laboratorio na Belgica, é limpo, a merda dele nao fede, a muita bicha enrrustida por at. Tu sabia que tern nego que pede do cachorro, a do gato, uma fedentina...o louco quer acabar os pra mulher enfiar o dedo na hora? as mais escoladas enfiam pombos, como fazem na Alemanha...sabia que la nao tern vela. Uma puta me contou depois de me perguntar se eu pombos? sabe por que? sat) uns selvagens, ë por isso. Merda de queria...Filha da mae! Quer ouvir uma coisa engracada? prefeito! ainda vai me ver —0 que? na televisao... - Pois 6, escuta s6: ela, a — E viuvo? putaminha amiga, usava dedal, — MO! Casado! A daquele que mulher usa na mulher me abandonou, costura, nao queria cortar a fugiu corn um cara. E unha, al ela se descuidou e o maluca, esquizofrenica, sei troco ficou dentro do rabo do porque ii tudo a respeito, cara. Teve que usar uma pinca, depois que ela comecou a dessas que elas usam pra catar agir esquisito. Me disse urn o cabelo da sobrancelha. Deu o dia que gostava mais de major trabalho... pensando mexer corn o dedo nela que bem, nao 6 nada engracado... de meter comigo, ela ficava tragic°, é uma porra! corn o olhar perdido no Silencio. espaco e falava: ponho Depois: minhamdo esquerda no seio — Os bichos nao tem. direito e acaricio, a mdo —0 que? direita na boca pra molhar — AIDS. Dizem que os os dedos, comeco a mexer macacos... mentira. A putada naquilo, penso em tambem espalhou por ai que os sacanagem, a respirardo cachorros transmitiram pro ficamais pesada, o corardo homem a gonorreia. E possivel. bate forte, sinto chegar, o Muffler sempre foi coisa safada. corpo fica tenso, o rosto Li uma vez urn conto de um calorento, a gargantafecha, polaco maluco... o cara se os espasmos, primeiro suicidou... em que as mulheres rapidos, depois mais metiam corn jumento, la na espacados, depois terra dele... os pombos corn relaxo...contigonunca sinto certeza nao tem AIDS, se Waco, isso... pode, dapra acreditar? nao precisaria de veneno pra esquizofrenica, doida de matar, como aquele louco pedra, mas eu gostava dela. quer.... o outro dia ela me droga, fiquei corn tesao... chamou, pediu pra passar no
BRAZZIL - SEPTEMBER 2000
Salgado Filho. Fui. —Quem? A puta? —Mo. Minha mulher. —Tava doente? —Mo. Era o outro. Eta tinha cortado a pica do cara. —0 que? — Isso mesmo, cortou a pica do cara. Ele me enganou, falou, pensei que tinha pica grande, homens bem providos a gente conhece de longe, aparentam seguranca, neio tern que pensar no que as mulheres acham quando ficam nus, os de pica pequena scio inseguros, na'o sabem se agradardo, esse me enganou... louca esquizofrenica... morreu. —Quern? Ela? — Nao, o cara. TO vingado. Ele morto, ela no xilindro, melhor do que eu ter dado urn tiro em cada urn. Agora so quero saber dos pombos. 0 fllho da puta quer matar eles, fazem amor corn tanta delicadeza, a gente nem sabe se eles tern pica. Qualquer dia apareco na televisao... Ora aqui que you saltar.
Whiskey and Soda I will miss her, he was repeating in silence to himself while tying his tie. On the mirror he watched the woman lying there and still naked...what was he doing there, with a woman 30 years younger than he and naked? Choy ia, nao em torrente, mas chuva fina, enjoada, melancolica, new refresca o ar, nem a alma, pensou o homem enquanto acendia urn cigarro, o motorista pigarreou, jogou o cigarro aceso pela janela, na-o quero briga hoje, fechou a janela, o vento sul enviava chuva para dentro do carro, o ar ficou pesado, comecou a suar, afrouxou a gravata, o rosto enrugado, a pele empapucada debaixo dos olhos, os pelos brancos da barba por fazer o faziam parecer mais velho de que era, saira do hotel de terceira apressado, a deixara la, sera que ainda estci deitada, jci se vestiu? Nao fora encontro agradavel, olhou pela janela, as luzes da cidade se refletiam no asfalto molhado, os letreiros luminosos agrediam a vista, nirro devia ter obedecido, que besteira, chegara aqui depois de cansativa viagem, se registrara no Hotel Presidente como sempre, nem subira ao quarto, da portaria telefonara para a mulher...o que foi?...me encontra no 007 daqui uma hora...desligou, ele nao era homem que se preocupava, nem perdia tempo em decifrar os rompantes das mulheres, nem se perturbava corn as coisas por vir, no ligava para o futuro, o presente para ele no existia, cada fracao de segundo já urn passado, e passado ek tinha demais, 60 anos de passado. .0 motorista do taxi de vez em quando o olhava, ele fingia no reparar, concentrou-se no ruido dos pneus sobre o asfalto molhado, diabo de mulher, pra que se meteu a contar pro marido? Sua's aventuras amorosas nunca cram tranqiiilas, ele entrava fundo demais, aceitava a paixao delas, te amo, voce me ama? centenas de vezes, repeticao monotona, anos seguidos sempre a mesma pergunta em bocas BRAZZIL - SEPTEMBER 2000
diferentes, sua re posta um sorriso, urn grunhido, elas aceitavam aquilo como "s , te amo", odiava cenas de aline, odiava todos os pend ricalhos do amor, excecao feita ao sexo, maravilhoso de tar corn mu/her apaixonada, dificil era se livrar, um froux ii, nao resistia ao choro delas, eram elas que...— doutor, chegam is — falou o taxista, o carro reduziu a marcha e parou em frent ao luminoso, Bar Centauro, o homem saltou do carro corn c rta dificuldade. Uma vez de pe vacilou urn pouco, era alto, inda mantinha porte atletico apesar de ligeira curvatura dos o bros, usava corn elegancia tem° bem talhado que já vira dias elhores, debrucou-se em direcao àjanela do motorista, — fiq e corn o troco — Deus lhe pague! sorriu, amava ouvir ess s tres palavras, embora nao acreditasse nelas. 0 taxi partiu, u grande silencio caiu sobre a ma deserta. Ele acendeu urn cig o, tragou corn prazer e entrou. 0 ar frio o f z estremecer, a vista demorou a se acostumar, urn conhecido lle indicara o bar, "é legal, tern muffler servindo", ek no estava atras de mulher, no por enquanto, quena relaxar, urn copo cheio na mao, esticar bem as pemas, tentar esquecer, olhou ao seu redor, nao havia muitas mesas ocupadas, escolheu uma, 'A se dirigir para la, a garconete se aproximou, — aquela corn q banco forrado, pode ser?— a moca sorriu, a seguiu, era esbeifta, bem proporcionada, a minisaia the assentava bem, esperou e e sentar-se, entregou o cardapio, — nao you jantar, me traga irn uisque corn soda, sem gelo...um momento! — colocou na nâo dela uma nota, — nao pre...— o gesto dele interrompeu a frnulher, — Deus, lhe pague!— ele sorriu, a garconete se afbstou, bela mu/her, encostou-se no respaldo forrado, esticoU as pemas, acendeu outro cigarro, a sua frente quatro homens falando alto, gesticulando, ouviu palayroes e risadas, pensou mudar de lugar, desistiu, — belo traseiro! — gritou urn deles, a garconete sorriu, nao se desviou da mao que a apalpou, continuou sorrindo, sorrindo voltou e serviu a bebida dele. —Obrigado falou o homem — no precisa sorrir pra mim. 0 rosto dela se fechou. — Espera! — falou ele de novo — nao quis te aborrecer...o dono daqui te obriga a isso? e precisa aceitar as grosserias deles? 0 olhou es antada: — Nao obri a, mas... —Se no p rde o emprego, é isso? —Nunca di em de verdade, mas...e preciso da gorj eta. —Pra mim oce no precisa se humilhar. Sorriu enc ulada. —Ei, belel ha! Mais umarodada! —gritou urn dos beberr'Oes. Eta ia se af star, ele a segurou e colocou uma nota na mao dela. —Mas... —Diga De s lhe pague! S6 isso! A mulher o olhou, ele olhou de volta, por instantes reinou silencio no recinto, e quase bela, talvez... —Nao quer... A patina da mar) dele erguida a fez parar. — Deus the pague! Ele colocoi a mao no copo. —Ei! Vern cá, menina! A garconet virou-se e caminhou ate a mesa dos quatro, ek fixou o olhar eks. — Ei, coro ! TA corn tesao?— gritou um dos quatro. Ele contin ou na mesma posicao. — Deixa el . Tern que respeitar a velha guarda, manja sO, paleto e grava a. Urn charme! — falou outro. Ele apanh u urn cigarro, o bateu na mesa... —TA vend , ninguem mais faz isso corn o cigarro. 29
fi ...colocou o cigarro na boca... —Nao quer corner esse rabo? ...a mulher sorria enquanto era apalpada, ele acendeu o cigarro... —Porra, ja te falei, respeite o coroa, faz tempo que nao vejo um cara da antiga. — E brocha, isso sim! ...apanhou o copo e deu um gole, sorriu, tragou no cigarro, da antiga, brocha? Se reagisse iria se machucar, nao valia o esforco, fazia tempos que nao brigava mais, sentia-se culpado quando machucava alguem, deprimido ao ser ferido, criara uma couraca intransponivel as provocacOes, bebeu do copo corn pressa, goles profundos, acendeu mais urn cigarro, que merda, por que contou a ele? repetira varias vezes, de repente: — querovoce, me leva! A resposta dele fora silencio, percebera sombra de desafio e tristeza no rosto dela, comovido a puxara para si, e a beijara corn toda a ternura, por momentos fomos felizes como no inicio...o inicio, fazia urn ano, tiveram poucos encontros, se quando a servico ele vinha para ca, o desejo a distancia urn afrodisfaco insuperavel, para os dois, se extenuavam na cama dos moteis... —Outro? A garconete se aproximara sem ele perceber, o olhava corn desprezo, ele permaneceu sem responder. — Sim ou nao? 0 homem sorriu: —Desapontada? Queria briga? —Esquece. 0 que vai ser? Ele parecia retletir: —Acompanha os fregueses depois do expediente? Indecisa, abriu e fechou a boca duas, tress vezes seguidas, corn tom desafiador falou: —Voce quer? Manteve-se calado. —Sao 300! —Razoavel. Os patrOes te obrigam? A mulher o desafiou corn o olhar: —Mao, isso é por minha conta...como acha que pago a prestacao do meu carro, o aluguel, os vestidos? Tenho direito a vida... — Ta certo. Nao é da minha conta. Desculpe...me traga o mesmo. Eta afastou-se, minutos depois voltou corn a bebida e a colocou na mesa. — Desculpe mais uma vez. A mulher afastou-se sem responder. ...sentirei saudades, era o que ele repetira sem cessar em silencio enquanto lacava a gravata, pelo espelho vigiava a mulher deitada e ainda despida, quero voce, me leva! repetira ela depois do Ultimo gemido, olhara seu rosto no espelho, o que fazia au, corn uma mulher trinta anos mais jovem e nua?para ir embora preciso resolver urn problema, a pele da mulher tinha uma suave luz uniforme, "voce é urn velho safado" na voz dela desdem, o rosto no espelho sorrira, comecou a zanga, a tatica nunca falhara, acabara de fazer o nO da gravata, e caminhara em direcao a cadeira, apanhara o paleto, "ele sabe de tudo, vai acabar corn voce," ameacas de toda especie ja ouvira antes, fazia parte, acabara de se vestir, saira sem se despedir, antes de fechar a porta escutara: " filho da puta!", nao respondera, afastara-se quase que na ponta dos pes, como urn ladrao,filho da puta mesmo... A garconete o serviu cinco vezes em seguida, todas as vezes recebia uma gorjeta, todas as vezes falou "Deus lhe pague!", Deus, neio sou fl/ho da puta, repetia entre cada gole, Deus, nao... 30
0 ambiente esvaziara-se aos poucos, a mesa corn os quatro beberrOes por Ultimo, ele levantou-se, pagou na caixa, a garconete sum ira. Saiu. Andou duas quadras. Em frente ao hotel de terceira parou. No releogio de pulso olhou as horas. Sentiu frio, levantou a gola do paleto. Esperou. Os cinco safram, a mulher na e gesticulava. Os quatro se afastaram rindo, cambaleando. Aproximou-se dela. —Vern! falou corn calma. Eta nao parecia surpresa. — Eu sabia, todos voces são iguais. Porcos! Estou cansada. Ele colocou tres notas na mao dela. —Vamos! Sinalizou o taxi. Ela sentou-se iia cama, olhar cansado, corpo curvado, imagem da desolacdo, ele tirou o paleto, o colocou na cadeira e a olhou, sem dizer palavra, colocou a mao no bolso, retirou umas notas, as colocou no cobo da mulher. —Mas... — Pode se despir — falou o homem ao abrir o armario. — Toma! Entregou-lhe uma camiseta: — E pra voce. —Mas... Aproximou-se, acariciou a cabeca dela: —Desta vez vai dormir numa boa cama...eu durmo na poltrona. Descanse! Eta pegou na mao dele: — Me ajude a tirar a roupa. Quero que durma comigo. — Como é seu nome?...nao, nao diga... A mulher deixou cair a mao dele. —Ellen, nao sou filho... Eta deitou-se, abracou o travesseiro. — Estou tdo cansada... Fechou os olhos. Murmurou: —Deus the pague!
To Be or... To go back is always bad, the way through the mind's door is painful, he would need to live twenty, thirty more years to find out who he was, why was he here in this precise moment. 0 ronco do motor irritava seus ouvidos, o veiculo balancava corn violencia, as costas dele doiam, o pessoal da oficina nunca obedecia, ponham menos pressao nos pneus, ele recomendava, nada feito, em obra o que mais ouvia era sim, senhor, ainda nao descobrira se era bun-ice, teimosia ou indisciplina, mas isso agora pouco importava, sim, senhor, sim, senhor, era o que queria ouvir daqui instantes, Deus faca eles obedecerem, rezava...
-0 que, Doutor? ...sim, senhor, sin, senhor, ele balbuciara... 0 frio que entrava pelas frestas da casa de made ira o fez estremecer, detestava o frio. De 1)6 olhou para ela, fizera um viagem de 20 horas para me encontrar, um bocado de chao do Rio ate a beira do rio Iguacu, acariciou seus cabelos, percebeu ligeiro sorriso no rosto, como posso retribuir tamanho amor, como pude abandonar os meninos, a brisa e o mar, a estetica urbana do meu Rio, como...sabia que esses momentos sombrios nao o largariam pelo resto do dia, no haveria maneira de livrar-se deles. A zoeira das perfiiratrizes o trouxeram a realidade, vestiu a calca jeans, camisa e japona, calcou as botas surradas, elas o acompanhavam ha anos, o capacete tambem, o tipo de vida que levava o fez supersticioso. Ultima olhada nela, fechou a porta corn cuidado, entrou no fusca, acionou o motor, as grelhas pousadasna cerca levantararn voo e sumiram no meio dos pinheiros, o céu azul, muito azul, de sprovido de cortina poluidoramachucou-lhe a vista, colocou o Ray Ban, o ar puro penetrou nos pulmoes, tossiu, acendeu urn cigarro, o estomago doeu, pegou o rumo da cantina, uma data se projetou em sua mente, 12 de abril, o rio estaria na sua cota mais baixa, a segunda fase do desvio a ser executada, ele, o poder absoluto, faria acontecer, ele, o poder maxim°, comandava cinco mil operarios, ele, o magico, dispunha de milhOes de Mares em equipamento, ele...as mans se crisparam no volante, a respiracao ofegante o fez jogar o cigarro pela janela, naquele preciso instante a sensacao de felicidade o envolveu corn irresistivel docura. — Quase chegando, doutor. As palavras do motorista o irritaram, já fizera cem, mil vezes esse caminho, duas, tres vezes por dia, uma etemidade, da residencia ao canteiro da obra, ao longe a visao noturna assustadora, dezenas de luzes piscando atraves da bruma do vale, bruma, poeira? nao dava para distinguir, o martelar das perfuratrizes penetrava nos ouvidos, o ronco entrecortado dos scrapers e tratores completava a harmonia, corn certeza foram nesses sons que Schonberg se inspirou ao compor suas dissona.ntes sinfonias, ou talvez Thelonious os usou nas suas pecas jazzisticas, comecou a rir, diletante das artes, o pessoal zombava, nao me incomodo, ate gosto, a todo moment° ele citava escritores, compositores, diretores de cinema, era o modo que dispunha para espantar a reclusao... — Que foi, doutor? Respondeu amavel: — Loucura da minha mente, qualquer dia te digo. Como explicar que deixara para tits centenas de CDs, estantes cheias de livros, dezenas de videos e isolar-se neste fun de mundo? no saberia como, para alguem entender teria que desvendar seu passado, o passado estava longe, enterrado num pais balcanico, na heranca biblica iniciada corn o exodo do Egito, oculto no peso atavico irremovivel, escondido na sabedoria do Torah, meu pai, meu pai, voce no me libertou, imp& a sua autoridade, o dilema na minha alma de engenheiro errante e de meus reais anseios ainda perdura, me pergunto se nao cometi tolice ao te obedecer, a hipocondria que atola meu ser C insuportavel, me sinto acabadomeu sistema nervoso nao foi feito para essa quantidade de afeccOes deprimentes, pouco 13RAZZ1L - SEPTEMBER 2000
esteticas, me p co em mim inesmo, tateio atras de mim mesmo, urn cao tras de seu proprio rabo.... — Doutor, co o vai acabar essa bagunca? Sentiu secur na boca, depois de dezenas de cigarros perdera o palad , seus dentes se atritavam ao pó de pedra misturado a sa iva, a estrutura da barragem despontava ameacadora de ntro da rocha escavada, o ritmo incansavel da concretagem, o som metalico dos vibradores, o vaivem dos scrapers vindo a jazida, os tratores empurrando blocos de pedra, tudo puls va ao redor, do fundo do canal de fuga sentiase todo poderos i, tinha certeza, 12 de fibril, 12 de abril... —Doutor! 0 encarrega o interrompeu o devaneio. —Os meg a fuzilaram um dos nossos no acampamento. Tremia den o da japona, o frio, o medo, a incerteza, o fizeram febril, s a existencia eterno desafio, nao desafiou seu pai e agora voc quer se redimir, repetia sem cessar uma voz interior, infanti dade, voce 6 maluco, quer atos hereicos, um possuido pela s drome auto-afirrnacao... —Doutor, e amos quase chegando. As fuzes d acampamento surgiram a frente, o vidro embacado toma a fantasmagoric a a visa°, estremeceu, o gulag esta proximo, h mens sem futuro e corn passado duvidoso aui residem amontoados em quartos corn beliches, sem lazer, s m muffler, homens que pegam no pesado, _ salario inimo como recompensa, no entanto sao coracao da obra, os entendia mas nada fizera para mudar status quo, seguia as regras, eu tambern luto pela so revivencia, Deus meu, qual era o mai da • embria ues, abebida 6 refilgio, anest6sico do desespero, gidia do nirvana, Deus, Deus, onde esti Vossa visa° . . mrsenc rdia, mataram uma das suas ovelhas... —D utor, olha o fogo, tocaram fogo. 0 te ente da milicia o recebeu cones, senta doutor, perm ceu de pe, o relato verbal fora sucinto, o elemen o no obedeceu ordem de parar, avancou ameac.. oramente em direcao ao praca, este no teve altema iiva e atirou, infelinriente oca.sionou a morte do elemen o, mas, tenente um embriagado? seria facil subjug -1o, doutor, temos que impor a ordem, despediuse seco, conse ira promessa da milfcia permanecer no quartel nas proximas 4 horas, confronto tinha que ser evitado. A caminho ete atravessou o porta°, parou no patio, saltou, Sete 'Aguas, baixinho especie de mascote o puxou pela manga, douto socorro, via sangue escorrer pela face, olhou ao redor, rosto amedrontados o fitavam, doutor, eles bateram era nos, nos do mindo, nos que tavam no chuveiro, na casinha, em todos, tods vidros estilhacados, portas arrombadas, um vaso de louca partido, a luz moma dos postes envolta em fumaca confu dia as sombras, levem os feridos para o hospital eapaguem ofo o, ordenou, nao ouviu o sim senhor, aproximouse do destac ento, mosquetes em posicao de tiro, o tenente a frente arma e punho. arruaca, doutor, rece... — Fize Quis volt ao passado, mas qual deles? tinha tantos, voltar a dolce vita d English school, ao verao na Cote d'Azur, no tempos do b bardeio da Luftwaffe sobre Londres, ao pecaminoso user de Copacabana, voltar as polpudas per diem do pai, a. perdidas amizades do clube de remo, ao exflio imposto no interior de Minas, mas so a lembranca da falencia Ilia o perseguia, voltar 6 sempre ruim, o material da 31
caminho atraves da porta da mente é doloroso, teria que viver mais vinte, trinta anos para que pudesse saber quem era, porque se encontrava aqui nesse preciso momento, o mundo que cresci era melhor do que esse em que vivo hoje... —...bemos ordem, tivemos que controlar a situacao. Sentiu medo, viu os operarios aglomerados ao redor, formara-se urn ringue, rostos nao mais amedrontados, apenas curiosos, alguns sorriam, o verdadeiro inimigo sou eu, candangos e milicianos, a classe inferior, os oprimidos, represento o patrao, responsavel pelas suas vidas miseraveis, alcapao do destino, o mono nada significa para eles, nascem corn a morte, vivem corn a morte, já mataram, ja enterraram filhos, irmaos, pais atingidos pelo desleixo da sociedade, ele acendeu urn cigarro, queria ganhar tempo, queria irk) estar aqui, os outros tinham razao... 0 jantar farto servido por garcom de fibre nao apetecia, ela sentada ao seu lado, conversava animada corn os outros dois, diretor e assistente ream chegados do Rio, quesapato elegante a senhora ca/ca, veio visitar seu marido? ele merece, seu futuro esta garantido, a praxima viajem a senhora fara corn o nosso jatinho, traga tambem urn dos filhos, ncio, nclo, é prom essa, o que acha da nossaresidencia? verdade, é luxuosa mas temos que agradar o pessoal do governo, alias, deve dar um puxiio de ore/ha no seu marido, ele depenou a todos no p oquer, sim sei, sabemos que ele e competitivo, concordamos, tern que ser para enfrentar... ele odiava essa conversa fütil, nao a recriminava, fazia o seu papel, jamais conseguira disfarcar o desagrado no seu rosto, já lhe disseram inumeras vezes, cara, ye se se manca, tua cara agride...tentara debater o incidente da tarde, desconversaram, isso acontece, neio esquenta, obra é assim, coisas da vida... 0 homem irrompeu na sala: — Doutor, invadiram o acampamento, tao sentando o pon-ete em todos, doutor... Ele levantou-se, apanhou o capacete, vestiu a japona. — Leva arma — escutou. —Me acompanham? Cabecas se abaixaram. Ela o olhava corn carinho, o rosto dela parecia dizer, nao tenha medo, estou ao seu lado, voce é homem, meu homem, o filme passou pela mente dele, via-se corn ela na praia onde sempre passavam nas suas folgas, estavam deitados na areia, suas faces encostadas ardiam uma na outra, o contato o enchia de um desejo como jamais sentira...amava aquela mulher, corn uma ansia devoradora de posse, sentiu-se envolvido pelo odor de seu corpo, mexeu seus labios em silencio, urn beijo sem o tocar dos labios... —Doutor... ...duas tragadas no cigarrojogou-o no char), pisou em cima corn a bota. —0 combinado, tenente? Os gro‘ssos bigodes desafiavam. — Viraram urn carro. — Nao me parece que agiu de modo inteligente. Sentiu logo que nao usara as palavras adequadas. — Me desculpe o palpite — falou sem firmeza — talvez meu pessoal exagerou. A sua posicao, sabia, enfraquecera, sentiu seu rosto tenso, esfogueado, a roda de homens aumentava, o olhar dos candangos mais incomodo que a arma apontada, ele o perdedor, o bobo da corte, merecia estar nesse fim de mundo, pai, pai, veja o que fez, isso e ser engenheiro? judeu nob foi talhado para ser John 32
Wayne, Gary Cooper, e meia noite, nclo meio dia, High Noon estci longe, droga, isso é hora para pensar em filme? olhou por cima dos ombros do homem a sua frente, um pelotao de vinte meganhas em fila dupla, cassetete numa mao, mosquete na outra, rostos indecifraveis na sombra dos capacetes, nao tinha dirvida, obedeceriam cegamente qualquer ordem, sera° analfabetos? corn certeza, de onde sao? irmaos de origem e da ignorancia em confronto, ele o intelectual regredindo a primata, de que te serve todo esse saber? viu-se estendido no chao, sombras em volta, cochichos, nao quero padre, liar... o som seco do engatilhar o assustou. — Tenente, guarde sua arma. Ouviu tosses, ouviu risadas, o homem a sua frente parecia divertir-se, colocou a mao sobre a arma apontada, por favor tenente, o suor escorregou da nuca dentro da camisa, isso nab e jogo de poquer, seu idiota, nem urn romance de Paul Auster, la you eu corn essa mania, sua mente invocou Deus e Demonio, os ruidos longinquos da obra nao sao trombetas dos santos alados, desista, ninguem liga para essa baboseira, sentiu-se urn tolo, ele apertou os dedos, a mao armada cedeu, virou o rosto, deu tempo aq tenente para guardar o revolver, —Tenente, maii urn favor, manda seu pessoal baixar os mosquetes. 0 cerco dos homens cada vez mais proximo o sufocava, odor de suor e cachaca entrou pelas suas narinas, sentiu ansias de vomit°. —Tenente, obrigado. Agora de ordem de me ia volta volver. Pes se arrastaram sobre pedriscos, odor de suor e cachaca mais prOximo. —Tenente, o pessoal td cercando. Sim senhor, sim senhor, voz solitdria, depois mais outras, todos em coro, teve vontade de gritar: parem! parem! nao agridam! mas permaneceu calado, imOvel, sabia que a exclamacao coral nao passava de deboche jocoso dirigido a ele, sorriu, ainda you levar a melhor, olhou o relegio, duas da madrugada, ainda faltavam cinco horas para mudanca de turno, escutou a ord m dada pelo tenente, viu a tropa retirarse em silencio pel4 corredor humano aberto no meio dos operarios, esperou o'filtimo meganha sumir na noite, colocou um cigarro entre os labios, apagou a chama do isqueiro, chamou urn dos encanegados: —Junta o pessoal! —Sim senhor. —Todos pra revelzar o turno da noite! — Mas, doutor, se me permite... 0 movimento da maid dele calou o operdrio. —Todos! —Sim senhor! Sorriu, jogou o cigarro aceso no chao, o apagou corn a bota. Sim, senhor! In thekoriginal these short stories are entitled respectively "Os Pombos," "Uisque corn Soda," and "Ser ou..." Iosif Landau, 76, was born in Bucharest, Romania, in 1924. He moved to Brazil in 1941 and four years later became a Brazilian citizen. Landau is married and has three children and eight grandchildren. Graduated in engineering in 1949 he has worked throughout the country building roads, railroads and hydroelectric. He is now settled in Rio. After retiring in 1992 he started to write, publishing several novels and poetry. He loves movies, jazz and violin concerts. You can contact him at email@example.com BRAZZIL - SEPTEMBER 2000
Sena 2000 g noon -9 p.m.
ay! r WESTERN! I 11-1661Al nyi I l D ch143ra°-:i,1-„:0,, Long Beallti p,,r'c` ii Presents: Dtazilion Meet A
Special Guest 4: from Rio: Zequinho do Cavaco From Caprichosos & Unidos do Mundo!
& Independence Day Celebration I
SambaLd Samba School, m Super Sonic Samba Soho Lula Afro Brazil Band , Banda Gaya Forre5 for All
Ian cocAc to Moyle Star S.: Re"
stba Cultural & Art Booths!
OnferedeayB, hours Brazil/an zilian of Entertain BIG me t One samba parade! Sponsored in part by:
catnaval rs—csates •
(Don't have a costume? We have costumes for sale and for rent!)
Call us to participate: (562) 437-22 / 1
EDGARD() QUINTA11ILLA, Esq ATTORNEY AT LAW/ABOGADO/ADVOGADO MEMBER, STATE BAR OF CALIFORNIA
(818) 986-1295 e- rn I ci I amv
p la el I_ n et
IMMIGRATION MATTERS BUSINESS VISAS DEPORTATION DEFENSE DIVORCES SAN FERNANDO VALLEY, CALIFORNIA BRAZZIL - SEPTEMBER 2000
Pepino/Sao Conrado After the Sheraton there is no beach along the coast for a few km until Pepino beach in So Conrado. You can also take Avenida Niemeyer to the tunnel leading to Ban-a da Tijuca. Pepino is a beautiful beach, less crowded than Ipanema. It's where the hang-gliders hang out when they're not hanging up there. Along the beach are two big resort hotels, the Hotel InterContinental and Hotel Nacional. Behind them, nestled into the hillside, is Brazil's biggest favekt, Rocinha. Bus No 546, 547 or , 557 goes to Pepino, Don' t take valuables, as these buses are frequent targets ofrobbers. Mere is also an executive bus (No 2016 'Sao' Barra da Tijuca, MaraConrado') that goes cana, Pao de Act:mar, along Copacabana and Corcovado, Cristo ReIpanema beaches to Pepino. dentor, Parque Nacional Praia Barra da Tijuca da Tijuca. AU the names The next beach out is Barra. It's 121an long,• that made Rio a worldwith clean, green water. class destination. The first few km are filled with bars and seafood restaurants (peixe frito is recommended). Further out there are only barracas (food and drink stalls) on the beach. It's calm on weekdays, and crazy on hot summer weekends. Barra's population has doubled in the last 10 years and it's currently the most fashionable place to live in Rio. There are more than a hundred closed condominiums, and the area is now known as the California Carioca. Further Out The beaches further south— Prainha, Grumari, Marambaia—are very beautiful and worth exploring but not easily accessible by public transport. They only get busy on weekends when bus lines swell. All have barracas. Prainha, the next beach past Ban-a, is one of the best surfing beaches in Rio. Grumari is arguably the prettiest beach near the city, and there is a restaurant on the beach where the crabs are good. To reach these beaches by car you can turn off the RioSantos road, BR-101, at Barra and follow the beach road. If it's a busy weekend, go a few km further and turn left at Estrada Bemvindo Novais, at Recreio dos Bandeirantes or Estrada Vereador. Maracana This stadium, Brazil's temple of soccer and a colossus among colosseums, easily accommodates over 100,000 people and on occasion—the World Cup Game of 1950 or Pele's last game—has squeezed in close to 200,000 crazed fans (although it's difficult to see how). If you like sports. if you want to understand Brazil, or if you just want an intense, quasi-psychedelic experience, then by all means go see a game offutebol, preferably a championship game or
The Maio Dishes
one between rivals Flamengo (Fla) and Fluminense (Flu). Brazilian soccer is periaps the most imaginative and exciting in the world. Comp!ementing the action on the field, the s _ands are filled with far atical fans who cheer their team on in all sorts of ways: clanting, singing and shouting; waving banners and streamers in team colors; pounding huge samba drums; exploding firecrackers, Roman candles and smoke bombs (in team colors); launching incendiary balloons; throwing toilet paper, beer and even dead chickens—possibly macumba ir spired. The scene, in short, is sheer lunacy. Chviously, you have to be very careful if you go to Maracana. Don't wear a watch or jewelry. Don't bring more money than you need for tickets, transport and refreshments. The big question is how to get to and from the game safely. The big games are held on Sunday at 5 pm year-round. Tour]st buses leave from major hotels at 2.30 pm (they often run a bit late) for 5 pm Sunday games. They cost about $25, whic a is a ripoff, but it's the safest and easiest way to get to the g ime. They drop you off and pick you up right in front of the gate and escort you to lower-level seats. Unfortunately this is not the best perspective for watching the game, but it is thesafest because of the cn erhead covering which protects you from descending objectE (like cups full of bodily fluids). However you get to the stadium, it's a good idea to buy these lower-level seats, called cadeira, instead of the upperlevel nleachers, called arquibancada. The price is $8, unless it's a championship game, when it's more. The metro is closed on Sunday, and taking a bus or cab can he a hassle, Getting to the stadium isn't too difficult: catch a bus marked 'Maraca-la' (from the zona sul, No 434, 464 or 455; from Centro, No 238 or 239) and leave a couple of hours before game time. Returning to your hotel by bus is often a drag. The buses are flooded with passengers and thieves set to work on the trapped passengers. Taking a cab is a possible alternative, but they can be hard to flag down; the be st strategy is to walk away from the stadium a bit. Surprisingly, driving a car to the stadium is pretty easy. You should leave a couple of hours before kick-off and, for easy departure, park away from the stadium. The traffic isn't all that bad and if you arrive early you can watch the preliminary games. Po de Acucar (Sugar Loaf) Sugar Loaf, God's gift to the picture-postcard industry, is dazzling. Two cable cars lift you 1300 meters above Rio and the Baia de Guanabara. From here, Rio is undoubtedly the most beautiful city in the world. There are many good times to make the ascent, but sunset on a clear day is the most spectacular. As day becomes night and the city lights start to sparkle down below, the sensation is BRAZZIL - SEPTEMBER 2000
b the summit of Pico da Tijuca (1012 met ) elightful. , tit if you can, avoid Everyone must go to Su The bean of the forest is the Alto da Boa Vista with ia going from about 10 . .to 11 am and 2 to 3 pin when most several waterfalls (including the 35-met Cascatinh Taunay), peaks and restaurants. It's a beauteitful spot. You tourist buses are arriving. The two-stage cable cars (295-8244) leave about every can get maps at the entrance. The entire park closes at sunset and is mthe 30 minutes from Praea General Tiburcio at Praia Vermelha ff uheavily in Urca. They operate daily from 8 am to 10 pm and cost $8. policed. Kids have been known to wander get lost On top of the lower hill there's a restaurant/theatre. The in the forest—it's that big. It's best to go by car, but if you Beija Flor samba school puts on a show on Monday from 9 can't, catch a No 221 233 or 234 bus. The best route by car is to take Rua Jardim I3otanico tw pm to 1 am. Less touristy shows are the Friday and Saturday Carioca nights. They have some excellent musicians; check blocks past the botanical garden (heading away from Giveac. Turn left on Rua Lopes Quintas and then follow the Tijuca the local papers for listings. To get to Sugar Loaf take a bus marked 'Urea' from or Corcovado signs for two quick left turns until you reach Centro and Flamengo (No 107); from the zona sul, take No the back of the botanical garden, where you go right. Then reast an 500, 511 or 512. The open airbus that runs along the follow the signs for a quick fascent into thedfoth el:as Ipanema and Copacabana beaches also goes to Sugar Loaf. the vista Chinesa (get out or a view) and dot Imperador. Go right when you seem to come out of the Corcovado & Cristo Redentor Corcovado (Hunchback) is the mcamtain and Cristo forest on the mai road and you'll see the stone columns to Redentor (Christ the Redeemer) is the statue. The mountain the entrance of Alto da Boa Vista on your left in a couple rises straight up from the city to 709 meters. The statue, with of km. You can also drive up to Alto da Boa Vista by heading its welcoming outstretched arms, stands another 30 meters high and weighs, over 1000 tons (a popular song talks about out to Sao Conrad° and 'turning right up the hill at the how the Cristo Should have his arms closed against his chest Parque Nacional da Tijuca signs. Jardim Both nieo because for most who come to Rio the city is harsha Open daily from 83 unwelcoming). in ogowas ar en ie gomdj tpAp p egotef n'nth ea0ecrsh tvozi.ece3fi np anl The statue was originally conceived as a national monu- 1first • :planted by order f0 "the 808. etarThere e are odve ants on 141 ent to celebrate Brazil's 100 years of independence from • _ e e4, Quiet srer5ene-on weekdays, the botanical ' Portugal. The 100 years came and went in 1922 without the hns with families and m gu arsdieehonf weekends. money to start construction, but in 193 thek.statue was garden The mwblossoms enissom s, planted when the first opened completed by French sculptor Paul Landows 1, thanks to Pa section with the lake containing the huge and the Amazonas some financial assistance from the Vatican.. highlights. It's I Corcovado lies within the Parque Nacional da .Tijuca. VitOria R ' water lilies, are some of the If You can get there by car or by taxi, but the -best way is to go not bad ei .1iena to take insect repellent. up in the cog train—sit on the right-hand side going up or takeThe, garden is on Rua Jardim Botitnco 920. To get there tra, No 170. ere the view. The round trip costs $11 and leaves from Rua a 'Jardim Botanico' bus: from Centro, ' from Cosme Velho 513 (Cosine Velho). You can get a taxi there the zona sul, No 571 , 572, ort5h94 After the garden walk, go a:few blocks own Rua or a bus marked 'Rua Cosme Velho'—a No 184 or 180 us from lfaces from Centro, a is.lo 583 from Largo Machado, Copacabana Jardim b d at Rua visco dt1'otanico, awayfor an excellent light lunch with n e da Graca 5 and Ipanema, or a No 584 from Leblon. During the high season, the trains, which only leave assortment of salads and good desserts at outdoor tables. Parque Lage 1 every 30 Minutes, can be slowgoing. Corcovado, and the ' lico at Rua dJiim istB aofetaw b Icks down from the Jardim Botai train, are open from 8 am to 6.30 pm. Needless to say, the is is nic 414, th' . a beautiful park at the base of Jar ' view from up top is spectacular. Parq ue Nacional da Tijuca. There are gardens, little lakes Santa Teresa Bondinho The bondinho (little tram) goes over the old aqueduct to and a mansion, which now houses the Institut° de Belas anta Teresa from Avenida Repnblica do Chile and Senador Artes—there are often art shows and sometimes perforDantas in Centro. Santa Teresa is a beautiful neighborhood mances there. It's a tranquil place, with no sports allowed of cobbled streets, hills and old homes. Fayelas down the and a favorite of families with small children. It's open hillsides have made this a high-crime area. Young thieves from 8 am to 5 30 pm. Take a `Jardim Bofanico' bus. Parque do Flamengo jump on and off the tram very quickly. Go, but don't take Flamengo is a park with loads of fields and a bay for valuables. Public transport stops at midnight, so you'll need .. activities and sports. There are three rnuseums—Museu n car if you are going anywhere after that time There's a small Museu do Bonde at the central tram Carmen Miranda, Museu dos Mortos da Segunda Guerra station with a history of Rio's tramways since 1865 for Mundial and Museu de Arte Modem a. Inside the park, ' r whY People choose to hang along the bay, the Barracuda Rio restaurant (265-4641) is onde buffs. You may wonde am evenwhen there are spare seats. It's a great spot for bay and people watching. There's a deck onto the side of the tram and tables outside where you can drink or eat, and inside because they don't have to pay. you can get a more substantial meal. It's also open for Rua Murtiriho. Museu Chacara do Ceti-(224-8991),, , :IsTobre, 345 Santa Teresa, has a good collection of art and dinner. To get th re take buses marked 'Via Parque do antiques. Flamengo': froth Centro, No 125 or 132, and from the zona Parks & Gardens Parque NaCi011ai da Tijuca sul, No 413 or 55Parque cis*. Cataetunba Tijuca is all that's left of the tropical jungle that once With hghi se buildings on both sides, Catacumba is on surrounded Rio de Janeiro. In 15 minutes you can go from of Copacabana to the 120-sq-km tropical the Morro dos gabritos, which rises from the Lagoa Rodrigo l of the concrete Parque Nacional da Tijuca. A more rapid and de Freitas. It was the site of afavela, which was destroyed jungle contrast is hard to imagine. The forest is exuberant to make the park. A shaded park for walkers only, it's a green, with beautiful trees, creeks and waterfalls, mountain- good place to escape the heat and see some excellent Otts terrain and high peaks. Candornblistas leave offerings outdoor sculptures. At the top of the hill there is a great the roadside, families have picnics, and serious hikers view. Catacurnba also has free Sunday afternoon concerts •
BFtAZZIL - SEPTEMBER 2000
during the summer in its outdoor amphitheatre featuring some of Rio's best musicians. Check the Sunday newspaper for details. Parque da Cidade Up in the hills of Gavea this park is also calm and cool, and popular with families. Open daily from 8 am to 5.30 pm, the Museu da Cidade is in the park grounds. Parque do Catete The grounds of the old presidential paiace are now the Parque do Catete. a quiet refuge from the city; the park as monkeys hanging from the giant trees. Quinta da Boa Vista Rio's main park and museum of natural history makes a great Sunday outing. and if you want to make a day out of it, the zoo, Nordeste Fair and Maracana soccer stadium are all nearby. The park is open daily from 8 am To 7 pm. Museums Museu Nacional This museum and its grand imperial entrance are still stately and imposing, and the view from the balcony to the royal palms is majestic. However, the graFfitied buildings and unkempt grounds have suffered since the fall of the monarchy. The park is large and busy, and, because it's on the north side of the city, you'll see a good cross-section of Cariocas. The museum is open Tuesday to Sunday from 10 am to 5 pm, and admission is about $1 (free on Thursday). There are many interesting exhibits: dinosaur fossi s, saber-toothed tiger skeletons, beautiful pieces of pre-Columbian ceramics from the littoral and planalto of Peru, a huge meteorite, hundreds of stuffed birds, mammals and fish, gory displays of tropical diseases and exhibits on the pecples of Brazil, The last of these are the most interesting. Rubber-gatherers and Indians ofthe Amazon, lace workers andjangadeiro fisherfolk of the Northeast, candomblista.s. of Bahia, gauchos of Rio Grande do Sul and vaqueiros (cowboys) of the sertao are all given their due. What's interesting about these exhibits is that, with a little bit of effort and a lot of traveling, you can see all of these peoples in the flesh. The Indian exhibit is particularly goodâ€”better than that of the FUNAI Museu do Indio. The museum is at the Quinta da Boa Vista. To get there from Centro take the metro to Sao CristOvao or bus No 472 or 474; from the zona so/ take bus No 472 or 474 as well. Museu Nacional de Belas Artes At Avenida Rio Branco 199 is Rio's premier fine-art museum (240-0160). There are over 800 original paintings and sculptures in the collection. The most important gallery is the Galeria de Arte Brasileira, with 20th-century classics such as Candido Portinari's Cafe. There ate also galleries with foreign art (not terribly good) and contemporary exInbits. The museum is open Tuesday to Friday from 10 am to 5.30 pm; and Saturday. Sunday and holidays from 3 to 6 pm. Photography is prohibited. Take any of the city-bound buses and get off near Avenida Rio Branco, or take the metro to Carioca station. Museu Historico Nacional Restored in 1985, this former colonial arsenal (2205829) is filled with historic relics and interesting displays, one of the best being the re-creation of a colonial pharmacy. The uilding is near the bay at Praca Marechal Ancora. 35
Museu Folciorico Edson Carneiro The small Edson Carneiro museum should not be missedâ€”especially if you're staying nearby in the Catete/ Flamengo area. It has excellent displays of folk art probabl y Brazil's richest artistic tradition a folklore library, anc a small crafts store with some wonderful crafts, books anC folk records at very cheap prices. The museum is next to the grounds of the Palacio do Catete. The address is Rua do Catete 181, Catete, and it's open Tuesday to Friday from 11 am to 6 pm, and Saturday, Sunday and hol days from 3 to 6 pm. Museu da Republica & Palacio do Catete The Museu ca Republica and the Palacio do Catete have been wonderfully restored. Built between 1858 and 1866 and easily distinguished by the bronze eagles on the eaves, the palace was occupied by the president of Brazil from 1856 until 1954, when Gettilio Vargas killed himself here. His bedroom, where it took place, is on display. The museum, which occupies the palace, has a good collection of art and artifacts from the republican period. It's open Tuesday to Friday from noon to 5 pm. Admission costs $0.50. Museu do Indio At Rua das Palmeiras 55, Botafogo, the Museu do Indio (286-8799) has a good library with over 25,000 titles, a map and photo collection and a quiet garden. The Indian exhibits in the Museu Nazional at the Quinta da Boa Vista are better. Museu H Stern The headquarters of the famous jeweler H Stem, at Rua Viszonde de Piraja 490, contains a museum. You may find the 12-minute guided jewelry tour interesting if you're in the neighborhood. With a coupon you can get a free cab ride to and from the store and anywhere in the zona suL Museu Carnen Miranda The small Carmen Miranda Museum in Parque do Flamengo is across the street from Avenida Rui Barbosa 560 and is open Tuesday to Friday from II am to 5 pm, and Saturday and Sunday from 1 to 5 pm. Carmen, of course, was Hollywood's Brazilian bombshell, although she was actually born in Portugal. She made it to Hollywood in the 1440s and has become a cult figure in Rio. During Carnaval hundreds of men dress up as Carmen Miranda look-alikes. The museum is filled with Carmen memorabilia and paraphernalia, including costumes, T-shirts, posters, postcards, records and a small exhibit. Museu Villa-Lobos This museum is in a century-old building and is dedicated to the memory of Heitor VillaLobos. This great Brazilian composer, regarded as the father of modem Brazilian music, was the first to combine folkloric themes with classic forms. As well as personal items, there's also an.; extensive sound archive. At Rua Sorocaba 200 in Botafogo, it's open from Monday to Friday from 10 am to 5.30 pm. Museu de Arte Moderna ,Nt the northern end of Parque do Flamengo, looking a bit like an airport hangar, is the Modern Art Museum. Constru:Thon began in 1954, but for much of the past few years all that one has been able to see of the museum are its grounds, designed by Brazil's most famous landscape arch itect. Burle Marx (who landscaped Brasilia). The museum was devastated by a fire in 1978 which consumed 90% of its collection. The museum has worked harc to rebuild its collection, and today it's the most important center of contemporary art in Rio, with a permanent display of over 4000 works by Brazilian artists. Museu Naval e Oceanografico This museum chronicles the history of the Brazilian navy from the 16:h century to the present. It's close to Prac BRAZZIL - SEPTEMBER 2000
15 de Novembro and is open every day from noon to 4.45 pm. Museu Naval In 13auru. behind the Modern Art Museum, the Naval Museum is open Tuesday to Friday from 11.30 am to 5.30 pm, Saturday and Sunday from 9 am to 5.30 pin. It documents the Brazilian navy's role in WW II and has ship models. Museu HistOrico e Diplomatieo Housed in the restored Itamaraty Palace, which was home to Brazil's presidents from 1889 until 1897. the museum has an impressive collection of art and antiques. Located at Rua Marechal Floriano 196 (a short walk from Presidente Vargas metro station), the museum has guided tours on Monday, Wednesday and Friday from Ito 4 pm. To guarantee a tour in English or French, call the palace on . (253-7961). SambOdromo & Museu do Carnaval Designed by Oscar Niemeyer and completed in 1984, the Sambagome also houses the Museu do Carnaval. It contains lots of material relating to the history of Rio's samba schools. It's open Tuesday to Sunday from 11 am to 5 pm. Enter through Rua Frei Caneca. Empty sambadromes are like empty stadiums - there's not a lot happening. Museu Chacara do Ceti Located at Rua Murtinho Nobre 93, Santa Teresa, this is a delightful museum that occupies part of the old mansion of wealthy industrialist and arts patron Raym undo Ottoni de Castro Maya. It contains art and antiques from his private collection, which he bequeathed to the nation, including works by Monet, Vlaminck, Portinari and Picasso to name a few. The house is surrounded by beautiful gardens and has
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a great view of Guanabara Bay. It's open from Wednesday to Saturday from noon to 5 pm and on Sunday and holidays from 1 to 5 pm. Entry is $4, free on Sunday. To get there, take the No 206 or 214 bus from the Menezes Cortes bus terminal in the Centro to the Curvelo' stop. You can take the tram, but don't carry valuables. Museu Hist6rico do Exercito e Forte de Copacabana Built in 1914, the fort preserves its original characteristics, with walls up to 12 meters thick and fortified with Krupp cannons. The museum displays weapons, but one of the best reasons to visit is the fantastic view of Copacabana. The fort is open from Tuesday to Sunday betvveen 10 am and 4 pm. Entry is free. 477: Museu Casa do Ponta! Owned by Frenchman Jacques Van de Beuque, this impressive collection of over 4,500 pieces is one of the best folk-art exhibitions in Brazil. Works are grouped according to themes, including music, Carnaval, religion and folklore. The museum is located just past Barra at the Estrada do Pontal 3295. It's open on weekends from 2 to 5.30 pm Excerpts from Brazil - A Travel Survival Kit 3rd edition, by Andrew Draffen, Chris McAsey, Leonardo Pinheiro, and Robyn Jones. For more information call Lonely Planet: (800) 275-8555. Copyright 1996 Lonely Planet Publications. Used by permission.
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A Manaus No Doe Talks About Manaus is much more than just a jumping off point for eco-tours and fishing expeditions. The capital of the state of Amazonas is a vibrant, exciting city filled with warm, happy, friendly, fun-loving people that make extending your stay before or after your Amazon trip worthwhile. It even deserves a trip of its own. MICHAEL BRYANT
Manaus is the little known (even amongst Brazilians) capital city of the Brazilian state of Amazonas. Sure a lot of people have heard of it, but the bulk of its tourist trade is stopovers for people going on Amazon jungle eco-tours, headed to some ofthe many jungle lodges or going on a fishing trip in the Amazon basin. While the Amazon Rain Forest offers some fantastic ecotourism, jungle lodges and unbeatable sport fishing for species such as tucunare (peacock bass), I believe Manaus deserves more attention than an overnight stop on the way to these experiences. For a fraction of what you spend on the eco-tour or fishing trip, you can extend you time in Manaus and have an enjoyable experience. The reason for its relative anonymity is its isolation. Unreachable by road a good part of the year (rainy season) from the southern part of Brazil, Manaus is relatively expensive for Brazilians to visit. Airfare from Rio de Janeiro or Sao Paulo is often as high or higher than airfare from Miami. The newly completed (more or less) Pan American Highway that links Manaus with Caracas, Venezuela, passes through long stretches of wilderness and its main river crossings are via small wooden bridges or ferries. The Pan-Am is not paved all of the way and thus rainy season may find sections nearly impassable. Manaus, itself, is a city of around 1,500,000 people situated about 300 kilometers south of the equator and the largest city (in fact the only large city) in the huge state of Amazonas. It is located on the Rio Negro about 18 kilometers from its junction with the Rio Solimeoes (which Peruvians call the Amazon) where together they form the Amazon River. The "Encontro das Aguas" (Meeting of the Waters) is a popular sight because the two rivers are so different in character and composition, they flow side by side without mixing for several kilometers. Manaus was the center of settlement for the "Rubber Barons" near the end of the 19th century and several examples of beautiful architecture of that period exist. The most notable of these is the Amazon Theatre, which is a gold-domed opera 38
BRAZZIL - SEPTEMBER 2000
house built in 1896 (check out www.internext.com.br/demasi/ for pictures and info in English or Portuguese). Some other examples of turn-of-the-century architecture include the Palace of Justice (1900) and the Rio Negro Palace (1900-1910). The local market on the riverfront (built in 1883) is worth seeing, as are the Bosque das Ciencias and several of the local museums. However, those are just the typical tourist sites that can be visited. More general pictures and info on the attractions of the city and region can be found at the site mentioned above or zfnet.com/manaus, www.viverde.com.br or www.manaustur.com.br/paginal.htmL all in Portuguese only. Hotel accommodations, from very reasonable to expensive luxury hotels, can be found at the sites as well. A word of caution though, motels (throughout Brazil) should not be confused with hotels. Motels are places, often quite luxurious, that you can rent by the hour for an amorous tryst. To really enjoy Manaus, you need to step outside of the typical tourist mode and experience the spirit of the people and possibly a "festa" (festival or party) or three. Outside of Carnaval, which is a big festival throughout Brazil (not just Rio) just before the start of the Catholic Lenten season, Boi Bumba is the region's largest and most famous festival. Boi is a style of music and dance that celebrates the history of the people of the region. The natives of the region call it a festival of folklore. Boi Bumba takes place on the 28th, 29th and 30th of June on the island of Parintins (a I hr I 5min flight or 26 hr boat ride from Manaus) and is a competition by two groups (or Corrals) from Manaus of Boi dancers, singers and bands. Each night the two groups, Garantido and Caprichoso, present a pageant of sight and sound that is unlike anything outside of the region. Judges decide a winner after the completion of the third night of the festival. It is a major influence on and of the region and everyone in Manaus is either a Garantido or a Caprichoso. The Boi Bumba festival of Parintins is about 80 years old, but a newer festival of Boi has begun where the people of Manaus (and visitors) don't have to make the exodus to Parintins. Boi Manaus takes place in October at the sambodromo in Manaus and is a lesser-known younger sister to the boi of Parintins. But you don't have to be in Manaus only during these times to experience the Boi. Garantido (Friday night) and Caprichoso (Saturday night) both hold weekly practice sessions at the sambOdromo for about three months before the Parintins festival. Admission to the sessions is less than US$5.00. In addition, the amphitheater at Ponta Negra often has a free presentation of Boi Bumba music and dance (or other regional music) on Sunday afternoons throughout the year. For more information on Boi Bumba, check out www.raizesdeumpovo.art.br or parintins.com, both in English and Portuguese. Besides Carnaval and Boi Burnt* there are many lesser festas throughout the year. Brazilians will celebrate at the drop of a hat. Or you may want to experience the festa that accompanies a futebol (soccer) match. Manaus has a league of 8 professional futebol teams and two major stadiums. To understand how much Brazilians celebratefutebol, a short story is in order. When we were living in Venezuela, my wife got news from Manaus of a tragedy on the Amazon River. It seems a group of people had chartered a riverboat (Mississippi River gambler style) for a weekend outing and an impromptufutebol game broke out on the large flat roof of the boat. Fans of each side lined the sides of the roof to prevent the ball from going overboard and to cheer on their team. One side scored a goal and the magnitude of the celebration on the one BRAZZIL - SEPTEMBER 2000
side of the boa caused it to capsize drowning more than 30 people. While sad tale, it accurately illustrates the festa atmosphere that accompanies the game in Brazil. Brazil may not always (tho gh often they do) have the best team on the field in internat onal matches, but their fans always have the most fun. You hotel staff can advise you of any smaller festivals that m not be well publicized, or the schedule of any games of the lo al futebol teams while you are in Manaus. There is als a relatively active nightlife in Manaus apart from the organi ed festivals. Local bars and nightclubs often have major Br ilian stars as headliners, as well as Manaus being the home of the group Carrapicho, the group who recorded the international hit Tic Tic Tac (or to hear it "tchiki tchiki tchac"). The Hawaii Club on the Estrada Ponta Negra is one of the hottest spots in town on the weekends, especially Sunday nights. Tukanu's Bar on Avenida do Turismo is another popular spot. Deus Me Livre on Estrada Torquato Tapajos is a ho spot for forro music and dancing, which is similar to Cajui Zydeco music with forro dancing equaied to a livelier, hotteil lambada. All of the cliibs seem to have a "motel" right next door (or at least very clPse by) if you are so inclined and get lucky. Based on the amount of flirting that an old graybeard like me experiences, even with my wife accompanying me, from lovely young Brazilian girls on an average night out in one of these clubs, the chances of "getting lucky" are good, if that is your wish. However, no matter what your inclination, the festa atmosphere and spirit of the region, accompanied by some good music and dancing is a certain bet on the Manaus nightlife circuit. A more relaxed, but equally enjoyable, festa is spending a Sunday afternoon at Ponta Negra. I regularly go to the barracas (small stalls) all Ponta Negra along the beach (during dry season, during r iny season the beach disappears under water) on a Sunday afternoon for some regional food and a few cold beers with friends. It is an excellent spot for meeting people, or just people watching. I regularly make new "friends" there. After a few hours at the barracas, I amble over to the amphitheater, here at 4:00 PM almost every Sunday there is a free show of usic and dance. Quite often this show is Boi Bumba music d dance, but interspersed throughout the year with MPB (M sica Popular Brasileira), samba, forro and others. By the t me the show winds down about 6:00 or 7:00 PM, I am read to go home and call the weekend enjoyably over. That is, u less a trip to Hawaii Club is in the works. Although I ave only scratched the surface of what can be experienced in d around Manaus, I hope that I have given you the idea tha Manaus is much more than just a jumping off point for eco-t urs and fishing expeditions. Manaus is a vibrant, excitin city filled with warm, happy, friendly, funloving people at make extending your stay before or after your Amazon tr p worthwhile. I think it even deserves a trip of its own, even if you don't plan an Amazon tour. I don't think you will regret e time spent at all. In fact, you may find, like me, that you d â€˘ n't want to leave the "heart and soul" of the Amazon. The author is American expatriate living in Manaus, Brazil. Twenty plus years of travel throughout the world in the oil industry has given him an appreciation of other places, cultures and peoples of which Brazil and Brazilians are at the top of his list. The author enjoys travel, outdoor activities, photography, music, nature and sports. He can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org 39
Astral Convergence Even before the Northeastern stars come out, Brazilian Nites' most electrifying display is forecast. BRUCE GILMAN
Sometimes two musicians unite with such stunning results that listeners feel the artists have been sharing the same stage and relating to each other musically since childhood. This is the case with Geraldo Azevedo and Elba Ramalho, two outstanding individual talents and influential leaders of Northeastern music who have earned the admiration of not only the public and the press but also of their peers. The high degree of musical artistry and love that is always present in their shows and recordings together is the result not only of their long friendship but also of a mutual admiration for each other as artists, a respect that has come about by virtue of working together for decades. Their pairing this month of September in Los Angeles is not merely dynamic but inevitable. Azevedo, one of the most original guitar players and composers in Brazilian music, is easily recognizable by his lyrical and passionate writing, his impressionistic guitar harmonies and dense voicings, and his long, carefully pondered melodic lines. Ramalho's intensity makes Azevedo seem almost serene by contrast. Her hyperactivity on stage is legendary. These two complementary musical personalities share a razor-sharp sense of timing and perform with fire and sinew. Each is inventive, enhancing the other with unparalleled shows of unity. Combining the magnetism of two brilliant artists who are able to create, on the spot, any mood they choose, leaves small wonder why Azevedo and Ramalho have maintained their position of musical preeminence over the years and why the producer of the two shows in Los Angeles has engaged Snow Creek Music to record Ao Vivo em Los Angeles (Live in Los Angeles), a CD that will be a tribute to the talent of two musicians who are deeply attuned to each other. The show's repertoire, an exquisite blending of African, Indian, Caribbean, and Northeastern Brazilian melodies and richly layered polyrhythms, promises a listening experience at once entrancing, primal, and exploratory. Although their band includes extraordinary Brazilian musicians like Toninho Ferragutti, known for his work with Marisa Monte and the Orquestra Popular de Camara, and although there will be special guests like Dori Caymmi and exWeather Report percussionist Alex Acuna, the third luminary at the weekend performance will be the venue itself. On September 16 and 17, 2000, Los Angeles will be fortunate to host the poetry, balance, enthusiasm, and romance of Geraldo Azevedo and Elba Ramalho at the John Anson Ford Amphitheatre, unquestionably the West Coast's most intimate outdoor venue. :4 Listeners will be afforded an opportunity to commemorate 40
BRAZZIL -SEPTEMBER 2000
a star-crossed musical encounter between artists who display an exquisite alertness to each other's ideas and in which electrifying moments of mutual sensitivity and anticipation are sure to abound. Without a doubt, the wealth of Northeastern Brazilian music is alive and about to converge on California. I spoke with Azevedo and Ramalho about Northeast music, their backgrounds, and the upcoming show in Los Angeles via a three-way conference call linking Rio, Los Angeles, and Berlin. Brazzil—In the last five years there has been a strong resurgence of Northeastern music with artists like Lenine, Mestre Ambrosio, and Chico Science. Can you comment on this? Azevedo—There is a new theme in Brazil with artists like Lenine who are rescuing Brazilian culture, in the sense of reviving it. This is something the marketplace never allowed space for. These new artists are synchronized with the times and are bringing our music a new appreciation. The Brazilian public accepts this new generation, establishing it as a turning point in Brazilian music. I'm very happy this has been happening and that Brazil has finally reclaimed the Northeast. I'm flattered that these Northeastern artists and composers you mentioned find similarities in our work and reflect our influence. This new wave of young artists is rescuing music that was sleeping or buried for decades, but which is now highly valued by people of all ages throughout Brazil. Ramalho—We have always been a very musical country with many musical dimensions. But we have also been a divided country, one that had been closed-minded about the Northeast. The South, Rio de Janeiro and SA() Paulo, had been closed with regard to the Northeast. Music of the Northeast was considered second-class music, music for the peasants. It was never the kind of music presented in shows in the South. And although everything that happened musically in the South would come to the Northeast, nothing went South. Sure, some programs were occasionally heard on the radio, but seldom was there any space on TV for Northeastern music. It was considered music for illiterates, poor people, not people who were making money. Even though it has enormous strength, Northeastern music had always been shadowed by bossa nova and its American influence, which was recognized all over the world. But forro, quadrilha, and coco had been going strong, long before bossa nova, and there was always great support inside our Northeastern culture for the music's unique richness of harmony, rhythm, and backbone. We had a stigma, but now the music of Luiz Gonzaga, Jackson do Pandeiro, Ze Ramalho, Alceu Valenca, and Geraldo Azevedo is spreading and being applauded. Brazzil—W hat brought this about? Ramalho—In the last five years, Brazil discovered Brazil. After the arrival of Lenine, Chico Science, and Chico Cesar— who all came with a stronger musical language, which added and established a certain equilibrium with the South—taboos were broken and barriers knocked down. These artists arrived at the moment Brazil was open and ready to set aside its long prejudice against Northeastern music, and this was opportune for the Northeast. You could see wealthy Brazilians, musicians, and journalists who put off plans to vacation in the Bahamas or Rome to come to the Northeast. Brazilians all of BRAZZIL - SEPTEMBER 2000
a sudden wante to explore our "new" culture. Now there is an explosion in Br zil that wasn't created by the media, but by the young people a d the university students, future professionals. Forro is a sprea •ing sensation in Brazil. And we can blame the university stud nts who discoveredforro. Because afterward, the walls came own. Now the Northeast is definitely a unified region within razil. Brazzil—E ba, your recordings always have a fabulous collection of ortheastern songwriters—Lenine, Chico Cesar, Joao d Vale, Jackson do Pandeiro, Alceu Valenca, Geraldo Azev do, Ze Ramalho. Which new Brazilian artists do you fin most interesting? Ramalh I believe that Lenine is the pinnacle. I should have spoken a out Lenine and recorded his music from the beginning of y career. He has humor, culture, and intelligence. And the way he relates to sound and understands stage space is bringi g him the tremendous success he deserves. Lenine is an i • ortant poet and a great revelation who works with terrific p .1 ers. I have always been connected to him through our c • mon poetic language, which speaks to my heart, my rom .1 tic side. But I also like Chico Cesar. His last CD, Mama Mu di, will be a landmark in the new generation's poetry. He is st 11 a little timid because he is just beginning his career, but his lent radiates. The Northeast's new music has been centered around Pernambuco and groups like Nacao Zumbi and Mu do Livre, and I believe Pernambuco will give us many more ew talents who are perfecting and presenting traditional mus c. Brazzil—H w do you choose which tunes to record? What criteria o you use? Ramalh Rhythm and emotion. My musical language is the Northeaste language, and good rhythm speaks to my heart. Someti es a song may not have great rhythm or noteworthy lyrics, ut I'll include it because is has a beautiful melody that I c n exploit and embellish. Brazzil— here do you see Northeastern music going next? Ramalh Brazil is an extremely rich country musically, a fountain, an • from that fountain will come a deluge. The source is inexh ustible. The Northeast has so much to give, and there are still s many things to be discovered. I don't know exactly, but I elieve Northeastern music is going to gain a much wider an more definite place in the international marketplace. Azevedo— or a long time I've felt forro would gain universal acce • tance, the way samba spread all over the country. And ow I see something similar happening with forro. I believe that forro will have the same sweep as samba and be welcom • by all Brazilians. It is festive music that will be welcome an where in the world. According to the legend, the term fort-6 eveloped in the early 1900's when the English railroad engin ers promoted weekend parties to celebrate the first railroad • the interior of Pernambuco. Supposedly, a placard gave n tice that the party was "for all," a phrase that Brazilian railr ad workers pronounced "forro." The idea that the pronunciat on of forro is evolving back into "for all" delights me. Brazzil— re you seeing this in audiences outside Bra41
I recorded my first album.
zil? Ramalho--Today, there is a wider panorama, like an open Japanese fan. The more regional you are, the more universal you become. As you know, I'm in Europe now on a twenty-day tour, and our season here has been brilliant. We shine everywhere we perform because we are showing many people a new dimension in Brazilian music. I present not only coco and quadrilha but also our Afro-Caribbean influences, and above all, our poetry. What I'm showing is not only Carnaval in Pernambuco, but the general happiness of Brazilian Carnaval translated through my energy, my happiness, and through the diversity of Northeastern styles. And this has inspired both the public and the press to find out more about the Northeast. Brazzll—Geraldo, what was your path to becoming a professional musician? Azevedo—I was born in a musical moment. My mother sang for the community, school, and church parties. And my father, my brothers, all my relatives played guitar. It happened in a very spontaneous way. People simply played guitar and sang, naturally without professional aspirations. Because in the Northeast, there is a tradition—kids learn how to play. When I was an adolescent, bossa nova arrived. Petrolina is on the bank of the Sao Francisco River close to Juazeiro where Joao Gilberto was born. I met Joao Gilberto when I was an adolescent, and he influenced me greatly, prompting me to approach the guitar more seriously and opening my eyes to becoming a professional musician. Through bossa nova, I discovered jazz. Jobim was a very important influence as were artists like Chico Buarque, Gilberto Gil, and Caetano Veloso, who helped me find my way, my identity. But bossa nova also made me look closely at my origins and the older generation musicians, like Luiz Gonzaga, Jackson do Pandeiro, and Dorival Caymmi who were very important for my musical development as a composer. In the early sixties, I went to Recife to study, and that's where I met Nana Vasconcelos and entered the real musical world. From there, I went to Rio de Janeiro to work with Eliana Pittman who showcased my songs. Once in Rio, I started writing more personal compositions with Geraldo Vandre and working with Alceu Valenca with whom 42
Brazzi/—After Geraldo Vandre went into exile, you were arrested and imprisoned. What effect did that experience have on your musical aspirations? Azevedo—Let me tell you one thing. In December 1968, the military regime had decreed Ato Institucional No. 5 (Institutional Act No. 5, or AI-5), which allowed no arbitrary freedom. There were arrests without cause. The hands of the dictator held all power. Many Brazilians were violated, and I was just one among many. There was a powerful censorship, a persecution of musicians who wrote lyrics with any kind of political strain. The dictator put a lot of pressure on composers like Gil, Caetano, and Chico Buarque. They were forced to leave the country. When I was working with Geraldo Vandre, I composed one of the songs that had been censored, and although it didn't disturb me, I was arrested and jailed twice. But my problems weren't any more or less than what everyone else in Brazil was experiencing. The dictatorship was reflected everywhere in everything. Contrary to the dictator's coercion, music was the one thing that gave me the strength to rise above the oppression and violence that was all around me. It helped me to believe in myself, in humanity, and in the beautiful things in life. The horrible things that were happening never completely crushed me. Today I thank God we are free from the dictatorship. It is over, and I am here bringing music to Brazil and to the world. Brazzil—Wasn't Alceu Valenca influential in getting you started after your release from prison? Azevedo—Exactly. I was arrested in 1969, Brazil's most difficult period, and after my release I was in a state of depression. Then in 1972, Alceu came to Rio from Pernambuco looking for me, fired with a new enthusiasm. We started a song writing partnership and through it, my energy was restored. And as I mentioned, we recorded our first record together as a duo. He was a great partner and I'm eternally grateful. We have developed independent careers, but have always been connected to each other, so much so that in 1996 we recorded 0 Grande Encontro together with Elba and Ze Ramalho. Brazzil—Elba, can you tell me about your musical background? Ramalho—Well, my father was an orchestral musician, and I grew up hearing him playing in the streets and in religious festivals, the religious and the profane. I heard a lot of jazz because he listened to jazz all the time. His instrument was the clarinet, but he also played sax and guitar very well. I remember the sax hanging on the wall in our house. These are all very strong memories and very clear in my mind. Now he's 82 years old and doesn't play any more, but I'm still savoring his influence. When I was fourteen, I started playing drums in an all-girl rock band, called As Brasas (The Cinders), and by sixteen, I had moved to Rio de Janeiro and was playing guitar in small bars. So I have a musical background that embraces Northeastern traditional music, rock, bossa nova, and jazz. Brazzil—I'm wondering if your father passed on not only his love for music but also for theater. Ramalho—It is true. My father loved music and cinema, and he guided my theatrical as well as my musical development. When I was young and living in Conceicao de Pianco, I BFtAZZIL - SEPTEMBER 2000
was very free and had a close relationship with the land. But when my family moved to Campina Grande and my father became the owner of the cinema, I quickly developed a craving to act. From a very early age, I helped him operate the machines in the projection booth. So even in the small cities of Paraiba, through my father, I was able to experience art. The film Cinema Paradiso has a lot to do with my life. After I moved to Rio, I joined a theater group, eventually receiving critical attention in a work by Chico Buarque and Rui Guerra called Opera do Malandro. Drama gives me strength to interpret music. Today the actress comes on stage before the singer. Brazzil—Some of the cover photos of your CD's like Ledo do Norte, Baioque, and Fogo na Mistura are genuinely sexy, whereas the cover art on Solar is almost Hindustani or Buddhist. Is the artwork on the new CD a reflection of changes in your philosophy? Ramalho—I have always been a spiritual person. I have had a Buddhist initiation, I'm a Kardecista (a follower of Allan Kardec), I attend the Church of Spiritism in Brazil, and I'm a vegetarian and have practiced yoga and meditation for over fifteen years. So my health and my spirit are well-balanced. These are all elements that bring me to more and more music, and this is the aura I strive to present. My beliefs are ecumenical, not sectarian or dogmatic. I pursue concepts that give me a broader understanding of God. My searching began with my occidental Christianity, but developed through my reading about Hindu culture and the Bhagavad-Gita. The Orient has always fascinated me. I consider myself a divine worker from God, and I'm trying to function as an instrument of a new consciousness that combines the Christian and the cosmic. As a performer, I try to project these principles of peace and light, this joy. This is my inspiration for the new millennium. J am an eternal child. Brazzil—I understand that the Brazilian press gave you a very hard time about leaving your husband for a younger man. Would you comment on this? Ramalho—I'm an artist, a very exposed public person. I never hide myself behind walls. My husband and I have been married for four years. And yes, he is younger than I am, and he is very handsome. I also had a son with a famous actor who was younger than me. And since then, the press has propagated the story that Elba is always falling in love with younger men. This isn't necessarily so because I've also had relationships with men my own age. It isn't anybody's business, but the press loves to shine bright lights on me. Brazzil—Geraldo, in the mid-eighties you participated in some exceptional musical encounters with Elomar, Xangai, and Vital Farias. Do you feel the Cantoria recordings laid the foundation for the Grande Encontro sessions? Geraldo—Cantoria I was recorded in 1984 in Salvador with the sole aim of helping four singers. But it was so successful that we went on tour and recorded Cantoria 2 in 1985 in Belo Horizonte, Goiania, and Brasilia. These shows were historical live recordings, the first digital live recordings made in Brazil. We never imagined that the Cantoria projects would be so important, and I never imagined fate would hand me another project like them. One project leads to another. Cantoria 1 and 2 were indeed great encounters that launched other great encounters. BRAZZIL - SEPTEMBER 2000
Brazzi1-0 Grande Encontro with Ze Ramalho and Alceu Valenca nd 0 Grande Encontro 2 with both of you and Ze are ess ntial recordings for any serious collector. Are you antici ating another Grande Encontro? Ramalh Grande Encontro was a recording that commemorated our iendship. We have all been close friends for many, many ye s. Without any expectations, the four of us decided to com together to celebrate our friendship on stage and preserve th event with this recording. 0 Grande Encontro was an enormo success, selling more than one million copies and giving a gr at stimulus to Northeastern music. 0 Grande Encontro 2 sold five hundred thousand. The two projects were so successful at now we are going to record 0 Grande Encontro 3 wi Geraldo, Ze, Zeca Baleiro, Chico Cesar, and Dominguinhos. Surely this will be another outstanding opportunity for the outh to look favorably upon Northeastern music. Brazzil—H w about a Grande Encontro in Los Angeles? Azeved reat encounters are celebrations of friendship on stage. Elba a d l are very close and are always participating in each other's s ows and recordings. My relationship with her may be even s onger than my relationship with the others, even Alceu. Me ting on stage in Los Angeles comes as a result of this relation hip, and we'll be bringing a small group of essential musi ans that can synthesize what we do in the Grande Encon o shows in Brazil, like the great sanfoneiro Toninho Ferra utti and Cesal Michilles who played sax and flute on my mo t recent CD. Ramalh eraldo has always been my musical support. I learn a lot fro him, so our meeting on stage in Los Angeles will truly be an ther great encounter. We have so many things in common: ou deep friendship, open minds, a broad musical background. e are Northeastern, but we both love samba, rock, bossa no a, salsa, merengue, Afro-Caribbean music. I see all of this his work, so singing with him is effortless. Working toge er is always spectacular. Brazzil— ith Elba's current itinerary will there be 43
enough time to rehearse for both projects? Azevedo--It is lamentable that Elba is traveling so much outside Brazil. We're going to meet here (Rio) a few days before the show. I am preparing things here, but truly without her, it's going to be difficult. Everything is going to be rushed. She is going to arrive just in time for us to record 0 Grande Encontro 3 before we leave for the United States. Everything is going to be done in a rush... part of life.
beautiful that I like and that benefits others.
Brazzil—W hat about the tune "Berekekr? Azevedo--"Berekeke" is a mixture of many pieces that I've written. It's a very eclectic tune that embraces influences that were important in the formation of the Brazilian people, like those the Northeast received from the Moors and the Portuguese and those influences that I've talked about—bossa nova, the music of Luiz Gonzaga and Jackson do •• • Pandeiro. "Berekeke" is also a form of music that brings together Web sites of interest the primitive African and indigenous Brazilian elements that Gerald° Azevedo Home Page we've absorbed. I've heard these httP•./Avww• geraldoazevedo.com.br different forms my whole life,
•• • • • •
Brazzil—Elba, will you have any time to relax before Los Angeles? Ramalho—I'm in Berlin now and I have a five-day festival here. I stay until Sunday then travel to Portugal on Monday, then back to Germany for another three shows. After those shows, we go to Verona, Italy, then back to Brazil on the and because I'm a creative perElba Ranialho Official Web Site 21st. 0 Grande Encontro 3 will be taped son, I like to fuse influences, and littp://www.elbaramalho.cont br live on the fourth and fifth of September, • make my own contribution. It's so I have to organize my schedule care• funny that you mention Brazilian Nites Productions fully because I also have to finish two • "Berekeke" because I've rerehttp://www.braziliannites.corn recordings that I'm producing in Brazil. corded it on my new CD. • One is an homage to the Virgin Mary • • • • • ••••• • with songs from many different composBrazzil—When are you goers that will be released on my own alternative label, and the ing to publish a book of your tunes with lyrics and chord other is the debut CD of a Brazilian artist who is living in New changes? York. I'll have to run 20 hours a day until I leave for Los Azevedo—When the telephone rang for our interview, I Angeles! As soon as I arrive from Europe, I have parallel was at the computer writing out my songs for a book I will rehearsals for 0 Grande Encontro 3 and to polish material for be publishing, and I'm going back to the computer when we Los Angeles. finish our conversation. Right now I've got about forty tunes transcribed, but I want to publish the book with eighty, more Brazzi/—Geraldo, you started the independent Geracao or less. The moment I get home, I start writing out my songs, label in the early nineties. Why? but I don't have much time at home because I travel a lot. Azevedo—I was having great difficulty identifying with When I'm in Brazil, I don't stop. Every weekend I have to the big record companies whose selection process did not travel, so the project has been postponed again and again. include the kind of music that is such an integral part of my life. I'm writing slowly, in my leisure moments. The book should The major companies wanted me to write a style of music that be in the stores by the end ofthe year or maybe the beginning the market was absorbing—popular music, and this generated of the next. difficulty in negotiating with them. I write my own compositions, in my own style. My feelings are not connected to a Brazzil—Elba, do you think that Southern California particular popular phase. The music that the large record is ready for the hyper-energy of Northeastern Brazilian companies are consuming has a very short life span; it is music? ephemeral. I have no interest in or commitment to that kind of Ra malho—I think so! It's going to be great. Los Angeles music. My commitment is to the music I love and is connected is a hot place, and there will be lots of Brazilians in the to my cultural background, which, for me, has a timeless audience. My tour in Germany was sold out. In Berlin, I quality. That's why I initiated an independent label to release drove the Germans into a state of delirium for over two my work. I have released five recordings on the Geracao label; hours. I know how to communicate, to put on a show with my however, I still use the major companies as a vehicle for the voice, with my joy, with my happiness, with my energy. Los distribution of my work. I never severed my ties with them and Angeles is a great place to receive my energy. have a very good working relationship with BMG. My new CD, which by the way will be released in Brazil on the Brazzi/—Geraldo, Elba, thank you for the interview. Geracao/Snow Creek label just as I arrive in Los Angeles, will Geraldo—Thank you for your patience. I know you've be distributed by BMG. I'm not sure who the distributor in the had to fish for my answers, and I thank you for your warmth United States is going to be. and the extra work that you're doing. Ramalho—You were marvelous. Thank you for your Brazzi/—Geraldo, I've always felt that your composi- caring, affectionate way. I'm very happy to be coming to Los tions were melodically inspired, harmonically truthful, Angeles, and everyone can be sure I am going to give them and rhythmically authentic fusions. Can you comment on my best, my music, and my joy. this? Azevedo—I love life and the beautiful gift that God gave * Many thanks to Patricia Ledo of Brazilian Nites Prous. My music is connected to human feelings, to feelings for ductions for her invaluable technical support. our land and our relationship with nature. Love is present in almost all of my songs. Mine is the music of peace and of the Bruce Gilman, music editor for Brazzil, received his soul. And the truth is that I don't write the songs. I am the Masters degree in music from California Institute of the antenna and the songs come to me. I was given a talent for Arts. He leads the Brazilian jazz ensemble Axe and plays bringing something of beauty to humanity, and I'm only cuica for escola de samba MILA. You can reach him accomplishing a mission. It is gratifying to do something through his e-mail: email@example.com
BRAZZIL - SEPTEMBER 2000
Selected Discography for Elba Ramalho:
Ave de Prata Capim do Vale Elba Alegria Coractio Brasileiro Fogo na Mistura Do Jeito que a Gente Gosta Remexer Personalidade Elba Fruto Popular Brasileira Ao Vivo Felicidade Urgente Encanto Devora-me Paisagem Ledo do Norte 0 Grande Encontro 0 Grande Encontro 2 Baioque Flor da Paraiba Solar
Selected Discography for Geraldo Azevedo: Title Label Aleeu Valeno & Geraldo Azevedo Copacabana Geraldo Azevedo Som Livre Bicho de Sete CabecasCBS Asas da America / Ariola Asas da America 2 Ariola Inclinacijes Musicals Ariola For All Para Todos Ariola Cantoria I Kuarup Tempo Tempero Barclay A Luz do Solo PolyGram De Outra Maneira Geracao (Originally on RCA) Eterno Presente RCA Cantoria Kuarup Personalkiade Verve Bossa Tropical RCA Berekelce Geragao Ao Vivo Geracao Futuramerica Geragao 0 Grande Encontro BMG 0 Grande Encontro 2 BMG Rakes e Frutos BMG
Ariola Ariola PolyGram Poly6rarn PolyGram Verve PolyGram PolyGram PolyGram PolyGram PolyGram PolyGram PolyGram PolyGram BMG BMG BMG BMG BMG BMG
1985 1986 1987 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1995 1996 1996 1997 1997 1998 1999
Date 1972 1976 1979 1979 1980 1981 1982 1984 1985 1985
1986 1988 1988 1988 1989 1991 1994 1996 1996 1997 1998
J Dona da Minha Cabeea Geraldo Azevedo/Fausto Nibo Dona da minha cabega Ela vem como urn carnaval E toda paixao recomeca Ela e bonita, é demais Nao ha urn porto seguro Futuro tambem nao ha Mas faz tanta diferenga Quando ela &riga, danga Eu digo e ela nao acredita Ela é bonita demais Eu digo e ela nao acredita Ela é bonita, ë bonita Dona da minha cabega Quero tanto Ihe ver chegar Quero saciar minha sede MilhOes de vezes, milhOes de vezes Na forga dessa beleza E que eu sinto firmeza e paz Por isso nunca desaparega Nunca me esquega, no te esquego jamais Eu digo e ela nao acredita Ela é bonita demais Eu digo e ela no acredita Ela é bonita, e bonita BRAML-SEPTEMBER2000
Owner of My Mind
The owner of m Comes as a Ca All the passion r She is beautiful,
mind val sumes oo beautiful
There is no safe arbor Or future But it's so differ nt When she dance, dances I tell her and she doesn't believe She is so beautif I tell her and she doesn't believe She is beautiful, eautiful Owner of my mi d I long to see her I want to quench my thirst Again and again In the force of th t beauty I feel stability an peace Never disappear Never forget me, I can't ever forget you I tell her and she oesn't believe She is so beautif I tell her and she oesn't believe She is beautiful, eautiful 45
Novena Novena Geraldo Azevedo/ Marcus Vinicius Nas horas de Deus amem Padre, Filho, Espirito Santo Essa é a primeira cantiga Que nessa casa eu canto
Nine hours of God, amen. Father, Son, Holy Ghost This is the first song I sing in this house
Sei que sao nove dias nove penas Enquanto a espera aumenta 0 mundo se faz esquecido Na terra dos homens De luzes coloridas
I know there are nine days, only nine While the waiting increases The world is forgotten In the land of man Of colored lights
Enquanto a familia reza novena As noticias que montam cavalos ligeiros Vao tomando todo o mundo E na casa no tar Esquecidos ficam todos longe de saber 0 que foi que aconteceu E aui ninquem percebeu Tanta pedra de amor cair Tanta gente se partir No azul dessa incrivel dor Enquanto a familia reza alguem Segue a novena No abismo de preces repetidas No sossego de uma agonia sem fun Enquanto a familia reza novena Nove dias se passam marcados Sem tempo sem nada e sem fim No meio do mundo, do medo E de mim despedacado em tanto verso Entao de oracOes a sala se faz E la fora se esquece a paz Uma bomba explodiu por la Sobre os olhos de meu bem E assim me mata tambem Enquanto a novena chega ao fun Bandas bandeiras Benditos passando pela vida E a novena se perde esquecida De nOs Nas horas de Deus amem Padre, Filho, Espirito Santo Essa é a primeira cantiga Que nessa casa eu canto
Chorando e Cantando Crying and Singing Geraldo Azevedo/Fausto Nibo Quando fevereiro chegar Saudade jã nao math a gente A chama continua No ar 0 fogo vai deixar semente A gente ri, a gente chora Ai, ai, ai, ai, a gente chora Fazendo a noite parecer urn dia Faz mais Depois faz acordar cantando Pra fazer acontecer Verdades e mentiras Faz crer Faz desacreditar de tudo E depois Depois amor 43, 6, 6,
While the family prays News arrives like swift horses That will swallow the whole Ninguem, ninguem world Vera o que eu sonhei In the house, in the home So voce, meu amor Forgotten, far from Ninguem vera knowing 0 sonho que eu sonhei What happened And none realize Urn sorriso quando acordar So many falling stones of love Pintado pelo sot nascente So many people leaving Eu you te procurar In the blue of this incredible Na luz pain De cada olhar mais diferente While the family prays for Tua chama me ilumina someone Me faz The novena follows Virar urn astro incandescente In the abyss of repeated 0 teu amor faz cometer loucura prayers Faz mais In the tranquility of agony Depois faz acordar chorando without end Pra fazer e acontecer Verdades e mentiras While the family Faz crer prays Faz desacreditar de tudo Nine days go by marked E depois Without time, with nothing, Depois do amor, amor, 6, without end Amid the world, the fear And me, in so many pieces of verse When prayers are being made Outside peace is forgotten And the bombs explode Above the eyes of my love And in this way also killing me When the novena comes to its end Flags and banners Blessed people passing through life And we forget the novena
Longing will not kill us When February arrives The flame continues In the air The fire will leave a seed People laugh, people cry Ah, ah, ah, ah, we cry Making night seem like day And more After we wake up singing To make it happen Truth and lies , Believing and Disbelieving everything And after After comes love oh, oh, oh, oh Nobody, nobody Will see what I dream Only you, my love Nobody will see The dream that I dream I awake with a smile Painted by the sunrise I am going to look for you In the light Your every glance Illuminating me Creating an incandescent star Your love performing a madness And more After we wake up crying To make and to happen Truth and lies Believing and disbelieving everything And after Afterward love oh, oh
In the hours of God, amen. Father, Son, Holy Ghost This is the first song I sing in this house
BRAZZIL - SEPTEMBER 2000
week and comes back announcing she w ts to become an actress. Written by Bened o Ruy Barbosa, directed by Jose Wilker, w John Herbert, Marilene Barbosa, and Dalt n Mello. Teatro Imprensa. Ventriloquist-An amusing and criti al take on modern society and the difficu of being original. Internet, futurology, fas ion, and drugs are some of the target s f writer and director Gerald Thomas. Mo director CacaiDiegues participates with is voice in off. Teatro sao Pedro. Mais Perto (Closer)-Comedy. Fo r people getting together, falling in lo , having sex, and betraying each other. Wr tten by Patrick Marber, directed by Hect r Babenco, with Renata Sorrah, Jose May r, Marco Ricca and Guta Stresser. Beckettiana # 3-Two texts by Irish pla wright Samuel Becket. In the first, diffe ent voices talk about the life of an old m In the second, an old man talks about h anxieties and loneliness. Interpreted Becket expert Linneu Dias and directed Rubens Rusche, another Becket expe Centro Cultural Sao Paulo.
RIO Veldrio a Brasileira (Wake Brazilian Style)-Comedy-After winning the big prize in the lottery three friends decide do enjoy their lives. Written by Aziz Bajur, directed by Golb Carvalho, with the Grupo Teatral Batrdquios Imperiais. Deu a Louca em Cinderela - Um Conto ao Avesso (Cinderella Went Crazy - A Short Story in the Wrong Side)-Comedy-An erotic satire to the famous fairy tale. Written by Zoraya Andrade, directed by Jorge Paes, with Luciana Sena and Diego Caputto. Amigo Oculto (Secret Friend)-Comedy. A family gathering to celebrate Christmas becomes a big mess. Written by Augusto Boal, directed by Marilia Peru, with Fafy Siqueira and Fraanoise Forton. Teatro do Sesi. Louca Turbulencia (Crazy Turbulence)After being fired from the radio station she worked for, a radio hostess decides to air some dirty linen about the people she worked with. Teatro Dulcina Tuti-Drama-An examination of the role of black in Brazilian society. Written Ubirajara Fidalgo, directed by Cyrano Rosalem, with Dalny Dias Cesar and Deo Garcez. Teatro de Arena Elza Osborne
STIO PAULO Um Padre a Italiana (A Priest, Italian Style)-Comedy---An ambitious young priest whose goal is to become pope gets involved in strange and threatening happenings while waiting for the bishop's visit. Written by Pedro Mario Herrero, directed by Camila Raffanti, with Guilherme Uzeda and Camila Raffanti, Tanto Faz (It Doesn't Matter)-DramaAdapted from Reinaldo Moraes's book of same name. Ricardo gets a scholarship to study in Paris, but instead of studying he dedicates himself to drugs, women and loafing. Socorro, Mamde Foi Emboral (Help, Mom's Gone Away!)-Comedy. Typical Jewish mother abandons the house for one BRAZZIL - SEPTEMBER 2000
ooks best sellers FICTION 1. Harry Potter e a pedra filosofal, J.K.Rowling. Rocco, R$ 22 2. Ofensas pessoa is, Scott Turrow. Record, R$ 30 3. Ramses (vol 1), o filho da luz, Christian Jacq. Bertrand, R$ 33 4. Fim de caso, Graham Greene. Record, R$ 15 5. A casa dos budas ditosos, Joao Ubaldo Ribeiro. Objetiva, R$ 19 6. Os cem melhores contos do seculo, org. italo Moriconi. Objetiva, R$ 49 7. Bridget Jones no limite da razao, Helen Fielding. Record, R$ 28 8. A pedra da luz, vol 2: A mulher sabia, Christian Jacq. Bertrand, R$ 38 9. 0 conselheiro come, Joao Ribeiro. Nova Fronteira, R$ 19 10. Um Deus em ruinas, Leon Uris. Record, R$ 39
NONFICTION Just-released American movies: Up at the Villa (Uma Paixdo em Florenga, , Just the Ticket (Meu Adorcivel Sonhador,, Return to Me (Feitigo do Coracdo), X-Me (X-Men), Return to Me (Feitico â€˘ Corageio), Gone in 60 Seconds (6 Segundos), Superstar (Superstar - Despe ca uma Estrela), The Misadventures Margareth (Nem Todas as Mulheres Sir9 Iguais), The Patriot (0 Patriota), Pokemo7 2 - The Movie 2000 (Polcemon - 0 Filme 2000),Final Destination (Premonicdoi, The Road to El Dorado (0 Caminho par El Dorado), Dinosaur (Dinossauro,, Scream 3 (PanicÂ° 3), Mission Impossible 2 (Missdo Impossivel 2), Keeping the Faith (Tenha Fe), Gladiator (Gladi,ador), Gat axy Quest (Herois Fora de Orbita), Th? Big Kahuna (A Chave do Sucesso), My so far (Tempo da Inocencia), Boonie Hunt (Comedia Romlintica). Eu, Tu, Eles (I, You, They)-Brazil/ 2000-Drama. Based on the real story of Darlene, a northeastern woman who live in the same house with her husband and two lovers. Directed by Andrucha Waddington, with Regina Case, Lima Duarte and Stank) Garcia. Estorvo (Hurdle)-Brazil/1999-Drama. Running away to nowhere a man meets threatening characters in an unknown world. Adapted from the book by Chico Buarque de Holanda. Directed by Ruy Guerra, with Jorge Perugorria, Bianca Byington, Leonor Arocha, Tonico Oliveira Xando Grana and Susana Ribeiro. Cronicamente Invidvel (Chronically Unfeasible)-In a Sdo Paulo restaurant five characters bare their own souls, clash ana reconcile. By Sergio Bianchi, with Ceci. Third, Betty Gofman, Daniel Dantas, Dan Stulbach, DiraPaes, and Umberto Magnani. Hunter's Moon (0 Dia da Caga)-Brazili 1999-Nando finds out he has been betrayed after being forced to return to drug trafficking, something he had abandoned. Directed by Alberto Grana, with Marcelo Antony, Barbara Schulz, Jonas Bloch, and Felipe Camargo.
1. A arte da felicidade, Dalai lama. Martins Fontes, R$ 32,50 2.0 livro de ouro da mitologia, Thomas Bulfinch. Ediouro, R$ 29 3. Morcegos negros, Lucas Figueredo. Record, R$ 28 4. 0 papa de Hitler, John Cornwell. Imago, R$ 40 5. Mar sem fim, Amyr Klink. Cia.das Letras, R$ 26,50 6. A viagem do descobrimento, Eduardo Bueno. Objetiva, R$ 18 7. Uma etica para o novo milenio, Dalai Lama. Sextante, R$ 24 8. Enquanto o amor nao vem, Iyanla Vanzant. Sextante, R$ 24 9. A histeria das inquisicOes, Francisco Bethencourt. Companhia das Letras, R$ 39,50 10. As melhores piadas do Planeta e da Casseta tambem, vol 3, Casseta e Planeta. Objetiva, R$ 18
BUSINESS B ECONOMY 1. Ah, se eu soubesse, Richard Edict-, R$ 30,50 2. Marketing para o seculo XXI, Philip Kotler, R$ 34 3. Diferenciar ou morrer, Jack Trouf, R$28 4. Gestao de sonhos, riscos e oportunidades, Sergio Almeida, R$ 19,90 5. NIAo faca tempestade em copo d'agua, Richard Carlson, R$ 23,50 6. Administracao de marketing, Philip Kotler, R$ 50 7. Como aprimorar as vendas, Robert Heller, R$ 14,90 8. Como administrar o tempo, Folha de S.Paulo, R$ 14,90 9.101 segredos para ser um profissional na area, Nancy Stern, R$ 17 10. Futurize sua empresa, David Siegel, R$ 32 According to Jornal do Brasil, http://www.j b.com.br 47
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An arbitrary look at that nebulous musical form known as Brazilian jazz. DANIELLA THOMPSON What is Brazilian jazz? To some, it represents the contamination of Brazilian music by U.S. imperialist culture. To others, it is a source of pride as a native genre that conquered the world. Brazilians have long been leery ofU.S. intervention in their country's politics and economics, and this outlook has led in some cases to cultural mistrust as well. As early as 1922, when Pixinguinha and his Oito Batutas returned from their trip to Paris, they were attacked for having polluted their chsoro with jazz Augusto Maltose arrangements. These attacks Luiz Sobral didn't stop jazz from becoming all the rage in Brazil during the '20s, and soon many an orchestra and conjunto had no choice but to heed the trend and call themselves jazz bands. During the '30s, '40s, and '50s, big orchestral arrangements inspired by American popular music became standard in Brazilian song recordings. Then came bossa nova, inspired in part by the West Coast cool jazz movement, and all hell broke loose. Some Brazilian criticsâ€”notably Jose Ramos Tinhordoâ€”are still ranting against bossa nova for having allegedly succumbed to foreign influence. At the height of the bossa nova fad, even one of its major figures, Carlos Lyra, lamented the adulteration that samba was suffering in a tune that quickly became a classic, "Influencia do Jazz" (see lyrics). This critical song comes with a note of unintended irony, as its opening melody is too close for comfort to the American standard "Moonlight in Vermont." Despite the occasional brouhaha, jazz continues as a legitimate Brazilian expression that has sprouted numerous sub-genres ranging across the musical spectrum from the classic acoustic piano/bass/drums formula of Zimbo Trio to the electric/electronic mixes of Azymuth. This article is by no means a comprehensive survey of current Brazilian jazz. Rather, it is a selective look at a few of its interesting expressions around the globe.
Triade--a modern take on the classic jazz trio Triade is an accomplished acoustic trio whose mission is to seek new ways in which to promulgate the tradition of piano jazz trios in the line of Bill Evans and Keith Jarrett, as well as that of acclaimed bossa nova piano trios such as Zimbo Trio
and Famba Trio. Triade, however, uses no piano. Its melodic instrument is the guitar, in 6and 12-string variations. In its musical style, Triade follows the Brazilian evolutionary process defined by Hermeto Pascoal and Egberto Gismontl. The ECM sound, evolved by artists who record on the German label (Gismonti and Jarrett among them), is a strong reference for Triade's sonority and timbre. Improvisation also plays an important role in the group's music. Estatlished in 1991, Triade is made up of Dalmo C. Mota (6- and 12-string guitars, berimbaus, and voice), Augusto Manoso (contrabass), and Luiz Sobral (drums). Dalmo C. Mota studied guitar with Aloysio Neves, classical guitar with Leo Soares, and improvisation with Nelson Faria. His guitar style evokes improvisational piano playing. Dalmo has al ;o researched alternative techniques for playing the beranbau. which is transformed in his hands into an unexpectedly lyrical voice. Augusto Mattoso began as a guitarist but soon became the disciple of illustrious contrabassist Paulo Russo. He has played with the Rio Jazz Orchestra, Brasil Barroco Coro e Orquestra, Dario Galante, Pascoal Meirelles, and Guilherme Dias Gomes. His major bass influence is Eddie Gomez. Luiz Sobral began as a percussionist in 1977 with the choro group Rio Antigo before switching to drums. His eclectic career includes work with such diverse artists as sambista Jorge Aragdo, romantic singers Marisa Gata Mansa and Tania Alves, soul/funk diva Sandra de SĂĄ, and reed player Dirceu Leitte. Sobral's drumming role models are Robertinho Silva and Jack DeJohnette. Triade's eponymous first CD (independent) showcases Dalmo's compositorial abilities (all but two of the compositions are of his authoi ship), as well as the group's inventiveness in improvising. The disc opens with "Janeiro," a samba composed in January. inspired by the energy and activity of Rio de Janeiro durin z this summer month. Next comes the suite "Reinvencdo do Homem" (Reinvention of Man), whose three movements, says the composer, "trace the process of change through whi :11 the human race is passing in this moment of crisis ano worldwide imbalance." `Urgencia de Ivludanca' (Urgency of Change) is the lively first movement,
followed by the introspective `Voz Interior' (Interior Voice) and the totally improvised 'Supernal° do Ego e Unidade corn o Todo' (Overcoming the Ego and Uniting with the Whole). In this third movement, the music rises to a chaotic climax, followed by a serene resolution. "ha" is a slow bossa nova reverie composed by Augusto and inspired by a beautiful woman. "Mono Velho," composed by Milton Nascimento and previously recorded by Ells Regina, receives here a faster pace and alternation of speeds that enhance the tune's descriptive character. "Berimbaus" is a four-movement suite with a closed structure, turning around rhythmic-melodic cells played on tuned berimbaus, with Dalmo using alternative techniques such as double notes, pisadas (pressing the berimbau string while hitting it), and harmonics. It begins with `Introducao,' a light counterpoint between berimbau and bass, followed by 'Daiwa,' an accelerated movement based on the play of rhythmic cells executed by berimbau and drums, with rhythmic vocal interventions and melodies laid over by the bowed contrabass. The third movement, 'Cadenza,' explores various berimbau-playing techniques augmented by melodic vocalese that at times harks back to Jobim's "Chovendo na Roseira." The closing movement, 'Coral e Melodia,' begins with choral harmony executed by bowed contrabasses and two berimbaus and continues with a sung lyrical melody on top of the bass/ berimbau harmony. The bass takes center stage executing the theme in "Pra Tudo Dar Certo" (For Everything to Turn Out Right), a rapid samba in which the individual solos give way to intense mutual exchange among instruments. The penultimate track is "E a Lua no Ceti" (And the Moon in the Sky), beginning with a slow impressionistic guitar part whose melody is repeated in counterpoint, then reiterated faster and more rhythmically. The disc closes with "Mal ambo," inspired by Afro-Latin rhythms and featuring a spirited drum solo.
Aloysio Neves—exploring the boundaries between composition and free music Aloysio Neves is a multi-instrumentalist who plays acoustic and electric guitars, saxophone, piano, and drums. He's also a composer, arranger, conductor, teacher, and bandleader. His hybrid classical/popular education included guitar studies with Iron Lima (ConservatOrio Villa Lobos in Manaus), Leo Soares (Seminarios de Musica PM-Arte), and Turibio Santos (Uni-Rio), as well as theory with Bohumil Med (Curso Internacional de Ferias da Pr6-Arte) and electric guitar with the American Joe Diorio. As guitarist, he's been a member of Orquestra de ViolOes do Rio de Janeiro, Quarteto Carioca de ViolOes, Aloysio Neves Trio, and Duo Flavio Goulart/Aloysio Neves. Neves is the conductor and music director of the Orquestra Brasileira de Guitarras, founded in 1986 and a pioneer in the use of electric guitars in a polyphonic orchestral setting. Pursuing the ideal of Free Music, the orchestra has sought to rethink, recreate, and synthesize major 20th-century movements as diverse as atonalism, neoclassicism, modalism, 12-tone and serial music, various manifestations ofjazz (including the ECM sound), MPB, Hermeto Pascoal's and Egberto Gismonti's music. The orchestra's second CD, Anialgama (independent), featuring the band's
original comp sitions, was aw • I ed five stars by Br il's foremost jazz c tic, Jose Domingos ffaelli, and is s otlighted on he MP3.com web ite (see link under • ntacts & Informati n). A thinker as much as he is a usician, Aloysio Neves ex ilores the antagonism be een predetermined co position and spontaneous music in I a CD titled dr (Audio- r maker FW 77Y1 2), recorded by a trio omprising Neves on electric & acousitc guitars and alto sax, Andre Sa tos on acoustic bass, nd Don Camilo on percus ion. The first track gets rigIt to the point: "Quibe Cm corn Macarronade. (Raw Kibe & Macaroni), whose humorous title implies an Arab-Italian mix, is a serious composition spotlighting a Gismontian guitar executing variations with a strong flamenco tinge. In "Afinacao" (Tuning), the electric guitar is employed in free omposition, liberated from the constraints of marking time nd conventional melody. "Entrevista" (Interview) is a spo en dialogue about the making of music, alternating betwe n earnestness and humor. A long dialogue between sax and strings and sax and percussion follows in "Olhos do Corn- I" (The Heart's Eyes), which the composer characterizes as aving a Jarrett groove and mixing Arab forms with a touc of Stravinsky. Another piece incorporating speech is "A F la de Thelonius Monk," which samples the great jazz master introducing his composition "Panonica." On the followin track, instead of Monk's tune, we get Aloysio Neves'" ariantes do Sol"—a melodious excursion into Glauco Vel quez and Villa-Lobos territory, complete with cello-like so orities. From there it's back to post-Eric Dolphy free musi ,juxtaposing atonal elements, clusters, and jazz phrases with irtuosic formal and cadenzal reiterations. The disc conclud with the jazz ballad "Adeus," composed on the occasion of Dexter Gordon's death and transmuting his style to that of E M in the 1970s, where, according to the composer, the ro antic lyricism of ja77 is still compatible with the contemp rary. •
Cec lo Frony—Eclectic jazz wit bluesy electric guitar Cecelo Froni, on of a classical pianist turned physician, began to play ac stic guitar at a young age. At fifteen he began classical stu • ies with Jodacil Damasceno. Disturbed by audience member talking during his performances, he discovered that an el ctric guitar was louder than the crowd's chat. He was deept, affected by Alvin Lee of Ten Years After and spent intermi able days playing along with the discs of his idols Jimi He • ix, Carlos Santana, Eric Clapton, Andy Powell of Wishb ne Ash, and Ritchie Blacicmore of Deep
Purple. His formal studies— theory, harmony, and guitar— continued at the PrO-Arte in his hometown, TeresOpolis. He also studied communications. While still a student, he began his professional career as nightclub pianist, although he'd never taken piano lessons. Inspired by Jack Kerouac, Cecelo went on the road—first in southern Brazil, then in Europe, where he lost the fear of being exclusively a musician. Upon his return to Brazil, he began playing with Tavito, who at the time had a successful song called "Rua Ramalhete" (Trio Esperanca's recording is probably the best known). They recorded jingles and commercial soundtracks, an activity which Cecelo considers to have been his real school and which he continues until today. "Making jingles, I learned how to make boleros, sambas, chorinhos, toadas, forros—genres that had nothing to do with my original education, based as it was on rock and blues guitar," he says. He also accompanied Fagner, Baby Consuelo, and Sa.& Guarabira. More recently, he opened for Carlos Santana in Sao Paulo. These days, his favorite jazz musicians are John Scofield, Wes Montgomery, Pat Metheny, Pat Martino, Robin Ford, Joshua Redman, Donal Harrison, Nicolas Payton, and the trio Medeski Martin and Wood. Among Brazilian musicians, he's listened closely to Wilson Simonal, Joao Donato, Banda Black Rio, and Pixinguinha. Cecelo is currently recording his second CD, Carioca Samblues, which will synthesize his various fonts of inspiration. His first disc, Cecelo Frony Trio (Pardal Records PAR 99), was constructed around the concept of a metro ride in a large cosmopolitan city comprising different ethnic communities. Each track on the CD is named after an imaginary station representing a different musical style, although all are informed by Cecelo's bluesy electric guitar, which often pays homage to his idols. At 140th St. Station— a tribute to Harlem— there's the funky "Black Cabeleira," with vocal references to seminal black musicians from the U.S. and Brazil. The Port au Prince Station features the hypnotic vocal refrain "Me don't like Papa Doc," inspired by Chuck Berry's "Havana Moon." In the Louisiana Station, Cecelo presents "Baton Rouge," a suitably southern tune that was born
out of a crab fishing expedition. From the Southern Station, we're taken on "Picayune Drive," a trip from New Orleans to Memphis. At the "Go Go" Station we encounter"Thank'sco"— a tribute to John Scofield—while "Devadip" honors Carlos Santana. In the Baja Station we find "El Matador," with salsa rhythm and Spanish vocals punctuating the guitar improvisation. Cecelo composed all the tunes but two. The exceptions are the Mumbai Station's "Norwegian Wood" (Lennon/ McCartney), replete with sitar-like 12-string guitar, and the Carioca Station's "Samba do Aviao" (Tom Jobim), an interesting vocal/instrumental treatment with a tip of the hat to Menescal & Boscoli's "Rio" and Ze Keti's "A Voz do Morro." "The disc was recorded without thought of perfection, although I find the instrumental execution very good," says Cecelo. "The atmosphere for me was much more important. Almost all the tunes were recorded with the band playing together, including the guitar solos. Later I added some guitar playbacks and called some guests, like MCI Carvalho, who plays piano in "Picayune Drive," which we wrote together, and Firmino, who added some percussion." The other two members of the Cecelo Frony Trio are bassist Augusto Mattoso (of Triade), who represents the academic side, and drummer Marcelinho da Costa, who comes from the pop world (he's played with Lulu Santos, Celso Blues Boy, and Paulinho Moska). Cecelo recalls, "The first time I called Marcelinho to rehearse this material, he said: 'Cecelo 's gone crazy; everybody's going to fall asleep during this show.' Nothing of the sort. Already in the first show we had to give two encores." Toca de Lamare Trio—melodic piano jazz with trumpet The Toca de Lamare Trio was founded fifteen years ago at the instigation of bassist Luizao Maia, who sensed a special affinity among Toca de Lamare (piano), Wagner Dias (bass), and Clauton Sales (drums and trumpet). The group's brand of music is a fusion of classic jazz with Brazilian elements such as samba, bossa nova, and nordestino idioms, reflecting the members' diverse backgrounds. Toca de Lamare studied music at the Berklee College of Music in Boston and has played in clubs in Tokyo, San Francisco, Mexico City, and Rio de Janeiro. He's accompanied vocalists such as Tim Maia, Luiz Melodia, and Marina Lima. Wagner Dias is self-taught and comes from the samba world. He's a member of Luiz Melodia's band and has played and recorded with Joao Bosco, Beth Carvalho, Ivan Lins, and Jorge Benj or. His compositions were recorded by Leny Andrade and Emilio Santiago. Like Wagner, drummer/trumpeter Clauton Sales is an autodidact and a Luiz Melodia sideman. Born in Recife, he used to play in Gonzaguinha's and Geraldo Azevedo's bands. The trio's CD, Camalecio (independent), is devoted to original compositions by Toca de Lamare and Wagner Dias—all instrumental with the exception of"Bebado(Wagner Dias/Marcio Resende), a song that perfectly describes the Brazilian condition (see lyrics). Originally recorded by Leny Andrade, it is masterfully executed here by Luiz Melodia, with beautiful saxophone im-
BRAZZIL- SEPTEMBER 2000
provisations by Vidor Santiago. "Bebado" is easily the most memorable tune on the album, but there's more to keep the listener interested. Toca de Lamare's five tunes all TOCA. Ct.AMON E WAGNER possess strong melodic lines and easy rhythms, including the serene "Mira," a dialogue between piano and trumpet; "Contente," featuring Nando Chagas on acoustic guitar; "Olha Al," with Nando's electric guitar; "Dimmer," with Paulinho Trompete's flugelhorn in the lead; and "Badlion," in which Clauton's trumpet states the theme while Raul Mascarenhas' saxophone improvises around it. Wagner Dias' instrumental compositions are equally catchy. "Equin6cio," "Pagode Moderno," and "Chega Amor" all feature fine electric guitar—the first and third by Ricardo Silveira, the second by Nando Chagas. Throughout, and in addition to stepping in with solid trumpet interventions, Clauton Sales provides a tight rhythmic backbone that makes the listener wonder how he manages to juggle trumpet and drums during the trio's live shows.
Marcelo Paganini & Paulo Levi— Brazilian techno-jazz in Paris Marcelo Paganini is a multi-instrumentalist and composer born in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, and living in Paris. He studied theory at the Conservatorio de Belo Horizonte, musicology (abandoned in the second year) at the Sorbonne, and musical computer technology at Ircam. He's been programming synthesizers for the past 15 years and is a self-taught player of acoustic, electric, and synthesized guitars, bass, keyboards, harmonica, drums, cavaquinho (he has a special 5-string model), as well as singing. A musician open to all styles, Paganini's experience includes playing in a symphony orchestra, leading a funk/rock band, and arranging an eclectic array of compositions. He records in his home studio, where technology is an indispensable element in most productions. The disc Paulo Levi & Marcelo Paganini (independent) is the result of the composer's having met a talented and compatible saxophonist. Born in Belem, Para, Paulo Levi plays soprano, alto, and tenor sax, as well as transverse flute. According to Paganini, Levi is a "tropical Coltrane of the year 2000." Levi lives in New York and often plays in Asia, particularly in Hong Kong and Japan. Says Paganini of their joint effort, "Paulo Levi understood my music perfectly and navigates easily in the universe I created, tracing a path that is uniquely his." Paulo Levi & Marcelo Paganini opens with "Isabel," the instrumental version of a song for which Marcio Borges (a member of Milton Nascimento's clube da esquina) wrote lyrics in French. It's a tribute to Paganini's "black mother," Dona Isabel, who died two months after the composer's move to Paris. This beautiful ballad is arranged for improvised alto sax accompanied by keyboard. Paganini composed the second tune, "Central Park," in the U.S. when he became ac-
BRAZZIL - SEPTEMBER 2000
quainted with" ew York City in gen •ral and Tiberio Na .cimento in particul This exploratio of the boundaries I etween contempo music, improvi •ation, and Brazil 'an music may be, cording to Pagan ni, the Brazilian ans er to Charles Iv - s' "Central Park in Dark." Joining evi's sax and Pag ini's acoustic guitar is George McIntosh's flute, representin the wind—symbol of nature and magic— that blows thro h the park and refreshes the streets of Manhattan befor returning to the park. "Chantal" is a bossa nova Paganini de icated to his future wife, arranged for sax, pandeiro, and gu tar. "Trindade" is a showcase for electric guitar, sax, and b s, featuring labyrinthine harmonies. The composer recalls, "When French bassist Jean-Marc Jafet saw the sheet music, e said, 'I've never seen a chord grill like that.' He recorde the music on the first take. His improv has a rare intensity. I bought a sampler so I could add the best drumming possib e. Peter Erskine's CD Living Drums was perfect." Paganin composed "To Be Away" as an exercise in harmony while s dying at the Sorbonne, following for once the rules that he' always shunned as a composer. Here he plays midi drums, lectric bass, keyboards, and electric guitar in an improvisatio al dialogue with the saxophone. "Mariam" is dedicated to a F ench flutist who used to play in a Brazilian band. Jean-Marc afet again provided a bass solo, while the rhythm bass is p ayed by Paganini. Levi's sax was overdubbed years late . The arrangement functions like a clock: during the elabor tion of the theme, the instruments play melodic and h onic phrases that are independent of each other. "Oriental" as inspired by a phone conversation with Marcio Borges. e idea was to write a melody of seven notes on top of a 6/8 m asure. All the phrases of the theme have seven notes. Levi iverlaid several tracks of soprano and alto sax. "Natasha" is another of Paganini's platonic loves, a French photograp er. It was written in Marseille under the influence of the se the old port, and a piano bar with a certain band. As in "Trin ade," Paganini cut, pasted, and synchronized Peter Erskin 's drums, using equipment available at the time. He calls it hi doctoral thesis in sampling and sequencing. He believes th 's is the track that sounds most live on the disc. The track con ains the only (improvised) keyboard solo on the CD. The dis concludes with "Maraca Tu," a swinging number with inter .ting measure changes: 3/4 is followed by a maracatu in 4/4 d an uncommon 15/16 during the bridge. Paulo Levi, playin tenor sax, "flies like a humming bird on op of all these ch ges, as if it were the easiest thing in the world," says the c mposer. "We recorded this music in less han four hours, in uding the hour he came in and the hour he eft. He'd never he d the music before."
Kim on Plaut—An American pia 1st with bossa brasileira Kimson Plaut i .n't the first American musician to play
Brazilian music, but he's one of the select few who play it as if they were Brazilian. A prolonged residence in Brazil contributed to his profound knowledge—not just of music, but of Brazilian culture, history, and the Portuguese language. Possessing a BA in composition from Yale and an MA in ethnomusicology from the University of Washington, Kimson researched the musical traditions of the Xav ante people in Mato Grosso before returning to Brazil, where he lived for over a decade, immersing himself in the music and the culture, performing in a wide variety of musical settings, recording, touring extensively, and heading his own jazz groups in Recife, Sao Paulo, and Rio de Janeiro. Since his return to New York a decade ago, Kimson has toured regularly in Europe, Asia, South America, Australia, Canada, and the Caribbean, as well as throughout the U.S. In addition to being the pianist for Johnny Almendra and Los Jovenes del Barrio, Kimson has performed and recorded with Brazilian vocalists Astrud Gilberto, Bebel Gilberto, Pery Ribeiro, Ana Caram, and Gabriela Anders; the Latin jazz groups of Patato Valdes, Luis Bonilla, and Ray Vega; and American artists such as Blood, Sweat & Tears and Joan Osborne. He has also recently arranged a symphonic suite for the late Tito Puente and performed on Broadway in Paul Simon's musical The Capeman. Kimson's handsomely produced solo CD Ubatuba (LPC Music LPC 01/96) displays his compositorial and arranging acumen alongside many inspired performances by a cast of illustrious guests. The opening track, "Lacraia," is a piano, saxophone (Steve Sacks, Aaron Heick), trombone (David Sacks), guitar (Romero Lubambo), and percussion (Café) tour de force inspired by the styles of two fine pianists— Cidinho Teixeira and Michel Camilo. The rhythm alternates between partido alto and straight-ahead samba. "Ubatuba" is the name of the composer's favorite beach town on the Sao Paulo coast, a place that he says forever transformed his life. Performed by piano, guitar (Paul Meyers), and percussion, the tune is a mellow bossa nova, with "more than a hint of Antonio Carlos Jobim, who sadly passed away while we were finishing up the recording," recalls Kimson. "Mercado Modelo" is a baitio in a style reminiscent of Dori Caymmi or Edu Lobo. It begins and ends with Café playing the berimbau,
in homage to the capoeiristas who gather outside the Mercado Modelo in Salvador. Steve Sacks plays flute, and Kimson adds both piano and the de rigueur accordion, backed by typical nordestino clip-clop percussion. The coda was inspired by Hermeto Pascoal & Quarteto Novo. Kimson calls the next track, "Rice and Beans" (Feijao com Arroz), "my attempt at writing a chorinho. It was the most involved piece we recorded, some five pages long. Paquito [D'Rivera, who plays clarinet] came early to the studio, ran through it three or four times while the engineer was setting up, and proceeded to nail it completely. A brilliant musician." Rice and beans being the most basic dish in the Brazilian diet, the title refers to the typical everyday Brazilian atmosphere of the track, with Romero's 7-string guitar and cavaquinho adding that downhome flavor. "Camburi" was named after another beach town in Sao Paulo State, known for its surfing. "Back twenty years ago, it could only be reached by a gravel road through mountains and jungle. Steve Sacks wrote this dreamy arrangement for four alto flutes and his brother David on trombone," says the composer. Romero appears again on guitar. "Porto de Galinhas" is the oldest tune on the record, named after a beach in the northeastern state of Pernambuco, where the composer "camped under the palms and watched the full moon rise out of the sea. But the rhythms here—ijeza [the music of Bahian afoxe Carnaval blocks], baieio, and samba—span the coast from Ceara to Rio." Augmenting the piano and percussion are flute (Steve Sacks) and soprano sax (Andy Middleton). "Luquillo," the newest tune on the record, falls into the Latin jazz category. Tells Kimson, "The trumpet solo was played by one of the great old Latin session players, Puchi Boulong, and the percussion was recorded by my colleague Johnny Almendra. The whistling at the end is the sound of the coqui—the little tree frog which symbolizes the island ofPuerto Rico." Kimson, Puchi, and Johnny are joined by Lewis Kahn and David Chamberlain, both on trombone. "Considerando" is the lone
Triade:triadeadomain.cont.br Aloysio Neves: obgAinfolink.corn.br Orqtiestra Brasileira de Guitarras: http://www.infolink.contbr/obg/home.htra http://www.rrip3.comiartistspotlight/fa/9 23 99.html CeceloFrony: ceceloAopenlink.com.br Toca de Lainare Trio: rnauro-afonsoAuol.com hr Marcelo Paganini: httu://www.orbftal .fr/paganini/ index. html paganiniQorbital.fr Wonsan Plant: http://www.m akajproductions.com/k im son Kplautaaol.com Elephant Records: http://elephantrecords.com vartanAelepahntrecords.com /1-800-700-8498 Malandro Records: htua://www.brazilianiazz.com
BRAZZIL- SE.PTe MBER 2000
vocal track, sung by the First Lady of Brazilian Jazz, Leny Andrade. Recalls Kimson, "When we approached Leny about recording, she suggested three or four tunes, and we chose this 4 beautiful samba-caw& by Edu Lobo and Capinam. Like • Paquito, Leny was totally professional and a joy to work with in the studio. With few words, she communicated to the bass player and drummer exactly how she wanted them to back her up. She then had a cafezinho, smoked a cigarette, hawked up some phlegm, and laid the song down in two takes. We were in awe." Ubatuba ends on an upbeat note with "Samba Queens," described by the composer as a jam tune based ("very loosely!") on the changes of "Chega de Saud ade."'
Joio Donato Trio's Amazonas—the pope of Brazilian jazz returns to his roots Joao Donato needs no introduction. He is probably the single greatest name in Brazilian ja77. A cult figure for many decades, in recent years Donato reemerged in full force. Since 1995 he's released a fistful of memorable recordings, including Coisas Taro Simples (EMI/ World Pacific) and five CDs on Lumiar Discos, including Café corn Pao, the Jobim tribute S6 Danco Samba, and the 3-volume Songbook Joao Donato (reviewed in the December 1999 issue of Brazzil). With his new disc Amazonas (Elephant Records ER-203), Donato returns to the piano-trio formation that marked the debut of his solo recording career in the early '60s. In those days, his sidemen were Tiao Neto (bass) and Milton Banana (drums). This trio accompanied Joao Gilberto at Viareggio (Italy) in 1963 and recorded the legendary LPs A Bossa Muito Moderna de Donato e Seu Trio and Muito a Vontade (both available on cheaply produced CD reissues with the distinct look of pirate knockoffs). On Amazonas, Donato is joined by two equally accomplished sidemen: Jorge Helder, who's one of Rio's most sought-after studio bassists, and veteran bossa nova drummer Claudio Slon, whose own Leviev-Slon Quartet can be heard on the CD Jive Sambas and who also plays in Aloisio Aguiar Trio's To Jobim With Love (both CDs were released on Elephant's sister label Vartan Ja77). Like every Donato album, Amazonas is a delight. Here the pianist treats us to eighteen of his compositions—some previously recorded by him and (in their lettered versions) by the likes of Joao Gilberto, Gal Costa, Chico Buarque, )bie DORM Emilio Santiago, Joao Bosco, and Rosa Trio Passos; others less known. Yet this album is far from being a rehash of old material. The new interpretations are quite different from what we've come to know as the Donato style. Since his youth, Donato has been a rapid-fire pianist. Here he chooses to take it easy. Never have we heard Donato so relaxed. A perfect example is "Mentiras," in which the pianist glides airily over the keys in a trance-like reverie. Compared to the "Sambolero" inA Bossa Muito Moderna, the new recording is slow and mild. But that isn't to say that
Donato has lost hi edge; he's still capable of picking up the tempo when nec sary, as in the classic "A RA," but the playing is sparer an ever, and the spaces between the notes are more pronoun ed. Beyond the familiar melodies await lesser known ch ers sporting beguiling titles like "Glass Beads," "Sugar C e Breeze" (quoting the famous cha-chachci "Esperanza"), d "Like Nanai" (Nanai, Elizeth Cardoso's guitarist and a me ber of the vocal group Namorados da Lua, was responsible fo Donato's coming to the U.S. in 1959; he came for four wee s and stayed 12 years). Helder and Slon enhance the mello atmosphere by gently weaving a subdued rhythmic carpet u der the piano. While the disc' music, playing, and sound reproduction are all exemplary the Amazonas package graphics leave much to be desire . This great artist deserved far better.
Tutty More O'S Forcas d'Alma—where jazz and razil are inseparable Bahian drumm r Tutty Moreno is most often seen and heard accompanyi g his wife, singer/composer Joyce. However, he has carved ut a separate career as a jazz musician in predominantly ins rumental settings. In 1996 he joined reedman Teco Car oso (another fixture in Joyce's band), pianist Mozar Terr and bassist Sizao Machado in creating Quarteto Livre. Thi quartet released the CD Pra Que Mentir? (Lumiar Discos), which they dressed MPB standards by monstros sagrados ikeNoel Rosa, Tom Jobim, Joyce, Moacir Santos, and Ze da ilda in jazz clothing, as well as featuring several original co positions by Mozar Terra. Tutty's most re ent release is Forcas d 'Alma (Forces of the Soul) from Mal dro Records (MAL 71013). On this disc. he joins soulful fo ces with bassist Rodolfo Stroeter (the engine behind Pau rasil, artistic director of Orquestra Jazz Sinfonica of Sao P ulo State, a busy producer, and another Joyce bandmember , young pianist Andre Mehmari (winner of the prestigious remio Visa for Instrumental MPB and responsible for thi disc's string arrangements), and ace saxophone/clarinet layer Nailor "Proveta" Azevedo. As in Pra Que Mentir? th repertoire of Forcas d 'Alma consists— this time entirely f tunes composed by the lions of MPB, with a special place f honor given to another baiano, Doriva! Caymmi, who's rep esented with four classics: "A Lenda do Abaete"; "So Louc ", "Joao Valentao"; and "A Vizinha do Lado." Joyce vocali es with the band in "Baracumbara" and "Poi-9as d'Alma"— oth composed by her. Of the remaining four pieces, two ("Alegria de Viver" and "Imagem") were written by Luiz Eca, ne ("Samba Novo") by Durval Ferreira, and one ("Sanfona") by Egberto Gismonti. The chief interest here lies not so muc in listening to these well-known tunes but in hearing them s expertly transformed into new crea Sons at the hands of Tutty and his bril iant cohorts.
Nilson Matta & Hendrik Meurkens' Enc ntros—An uncommon bass & harmoni a duet
There's nothing like a harmonica to convey saudades, so it's not surprising that this instrument appears time and again in Brazilian music. Contrabass and harmonica are not a run-of-the mill combination, and when the instrumentalists who wield them are Nilson Matta and Hendrik Meurkens (who also plays vibraphone and marimba), the results are nothing less than dazzling. In their CD Encontros (Meetings), released this summer by Malandro Records (MAL 71015), the pair regales us with their individual compositions, augmented by two standards by Tom Jobim and one by Hermeto Pascoal. Joining this meeting of the minds are superb pianist Helio Alves and drummer Duduka da Fonseca. Special guests include monster guitarist Romero Lubambo (like Duduka, he's Nilson's partner in Trio da Paz), pianist Dado Moroni, percussionist Café, and vocalist Mancha Adnet (a longtime member of Jobim's band). Meurkens contributed four compositions: the lyrically evocative bossa nova "Summer in San Francisco"; the lively choro "Chorinho No. 2"; the jazz ballad -Junity"; and the tone poem turned bossa nova "Prague in March," in which he demonstrates his mastery of the vibraphone. Nilson Matta weighs in with he jazz samba "Baden," dedicated to the great guitarist and incorporating a Bach prelude; the bossa nova "Rosa-, he ecological statement within a jazz ballad "Forests (Let Them Be Free)-; and another bossa nova, "This is for Luisa" (previously recorded by Trio da Paz). Both the arrangements and Maucha Adnet's singing rescue Tom and Vinicius' war horses "Amor em Paz" and "Chega de Saudade" from the obvious. Hermeto Pascoal's baitio "0 Ovo" closes the disc on a chaotically virtuosic note. Daniella Thompson is a writer and preservationist living in Northern California. She can be reached at daniv*ips.net.
Drunk (translation; Kinason Plant
• 136bado Dnalt„ bebedor From drinking so much pain, he's a drinker. Be tanto b a d Brasileim s eiro, um sofredor Brazil iani ack-of-all-trades, a sufferer •Pagador, troco 6 dot, Payer, and the change is pain, Tanta dot, men senhor So much pain, good LorcP Contra a dot, Against the pain, r garra deem lutador He must have the str en o a filitèr oencara a barra e sai'f• Who fearlessly enters the ring and comes out Qüe sem, vencedor victorious, P gador o dor, chutador, Grabbing, throwing, kicking, sangrador bleeding =Aber Transform the pain into a song for a woman, • Faz da dot cancio pra Diz qtte amor 6 tuna coisa boa Tell her love is a good thing Vein dar mais Darya a luta de amanhtt Help replenish strength for tomorrow's struggle que essa dot so traz= For this pain only brings more, Roupapra lavar Clothes to wash 13olso pra encher Pockets to fill a ar Bills to pay emtasP1111) Millions of mouths to silence ilhbes de bacas pdraa ncaog dte Cowardiy bullets in thbeoin Tiros covarcles no escuro dir b.k..°f nigh Sorrateira bomba traicoeira:.. Cunning treacherous Roupapra lavar Clothes to wash Bolso pra encher Pockets to fill = Contas pra pawn Bills to Pay milbaes de bocas pra cant-, Millions of mouths o silence Somentebebado Just a dtmlic. niacin do Jazz (Carlos Lyra) Pobre samba men Foi se misturando, semodernizando E se perdeu, E o rebol ado, cade NA* tem mals g mien code 0 tal gingado clue me)w co • • Coitado do men samba, mudou de inftuenciado men jazz Quase que moneu • E acabamorrendo, esti quase ntorrendo NAo percebeu Quéo samba balanca de em lado pro • outro 0 jazz 6diferente, pra frente e pra tris o samba melo motto, Ewe gteio torto kfluencia do jazz complican • No afro-ctiban Val tato vai ° V ' entv deseall ' se ortan ai, d° vai balancet l'ot) sanlba o pr011101TO Pede soeo Volta V nircu re ondenasteu F n LO ba corn frennites pradein rtnotas batofi er umamsam s Na seotsum e pfa tr \filar „Ira Vai „Ier selivrar Da4-i/ifiYtiencia doi azz
Influence of Jaz My poor samba It mixed and modernized itself And got lost And the sway, where is it? It's gone Where's that swing that does things to people? My poor samba changed suddenly Influence 00877" It almost died And is ending up dying almost dying Didn't notice That samba balances from side to side While jazz is different, front to back Andsamba, halfdead, turned halfcrooked Influence of j azz Afro-Cuban Is complicating, ruining Distorting ceaselessly Going, leaving, falling offbalance My poor samba Returns to the morro and asks for twin where it was born So as not to be samba with too m any poles Not to be a crooked samba front andback It'll have to turn around to fretslfdJ Of the influence ofjaz2
BRAZZIL- SEPTEMBER 2000 , ,
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