MUSIC: Acari, the new choro factory
Year 12 - No.172 - April
THEY CALL THIS A PARTY?
'HE ART OF PAYING THE BILL
SHORT STORY: DEAR COUSINS" BY KM AMARAL
RR RIO GRANDE DO SUL
111 COLOR DARK
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Brazil An African Legacy Rio de Janeiro, June 15 - 18 Bahia, June 18 - 27 Sao Luis, June 28 - July 1,2000
photoCiwillard taylor 2000
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BRAZZIL - APRIL 2000
Cover The Internet rushes along No one can stop the Internet's worldwide geometric growth and the same is true for Brazil, which in the month of March alone saw Internet users jump up an incredible 33 percent. The main reason behind this phenomenon is the start of several new free Internet services. The move was so powerful that even the largest paid Internet providers joined the bandwagon rushing with their own gratuitous services. A just-concluded study by Ibope (Instituto Brasileiro de Opiniao Publica e Estatisticaâ€”Brazilian Institute of Public Opinion and Statistics) shows that 30 percent of the population of Brazil's nine largest capitals have computers at home, work or school. Twelve percent ofthem are already regularly surfing the Internet. That translates to 4.5 million people or a projected universe of 8 million to 9 million Internet users in the whole country. Weren't it for the high cost of computers and the precariousness and prohibitive prices of telephone services in Brazil these numbers would be much greater. The way it is, Brazil already has the third largest population of Web surfers in the Americas, only behind the United States and Canada. RA/ As you might know, Brazzil is a very small operation: one person and some volunteers who help as and when they can. The magazine is coming out almost two months late and I'm sorry for that. I don't see me catching up soon, but rest assured that the content is fresh and you will get all the issues you've paid for. Thanks and all the best. R.M. Send mail to: P.O. Box 50536- Los Angeles, CA 90050-0536 Ads/Editorial: (323) 255-8062 Subscrip.: (323) 255-4953 Fax: (323) 257-3487 Brazzil on line: http://www.brazzil.com E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Publisher and Editor: Rodney Mello Assistant Editor: Leda Bittencourt Art&Design Director: Marina Yoshie (email@example.com) Entertainment Editors: Sam & Harriet Robbins Book Review: Bondo Wyszpolski Music Editor: Bruce Gilman Brazil Bureau Chief: Marta Alvim E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Cover krAylen Mello
Brazil 500 Indians sound off
Nation Men are living less
Brazil 500 Do you call this a party?
Impressions Brazil, how I see it
Ecology Rio's dead bay
Behavior The art of paying the food bill
Short Story "Queridas Primas" by Nilza Amaral
Travel Rio Grande do Sul, all for all
Opinion Poor Americanized Brazil
Book Review lracema by Jose de Alencar
Music When nationalism goes too far
Music A label for choros alone
Racism Blackness and nationalism
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BRAZZIL (ISSN 1091-868X) is published monthly by Brazzil -
2039 N. Ave. 52, Los Angeles, CA, 90042-1024.Periodicals Postage rate paid at Los Angeles, CA. Single copy sold for $2. One year subscription for 12 issues is $3 (three dollars) in the U.S., $15 in Canada and Mexico, and $18 in all other countries. No back issues sold. Allow 5 to 7 weeks to receive your first issue. You may quote from or reprint any of the contents with proper copyright credit. Editorial submissions are welcome. Include a SASE (self addressed and stamped envelope) if you want your material mailed back. Brazzil assumes no responsibility for any claims made by its advertisers. The Library of Congress ISSN: 1524-4997 POST MASTER : Send address changes to BRAllIL P.O. Box 50536 - Los Angeles, CA - 90050-0536
WWW. BRAZZIL - APRIL 2000
49 Cultural Pulse 51 Classifieds 52 That's Brazilian
illd and Spicy The latest Brazilian sex symbol is 92 years old. She is Dercy Goncalves who started her career as a vaudeville actress playing foul-mouthed naughty girls and has been playing variations of this character on stage, big screen and TV for some seven decades now. In June, the nonagenarian entertainer, who is considered by some acult figure, will be shown in magazine spreads across the country in Marilyn Mon-o-esque poses modeling a red bodice for women's underwear manufacturer Du Loren. Always the provocateur, the actress asked photographers----the picture session became a media showâ€”while photos were being taken: "Should I make APIDINHAS a whore-like face'?" After seeing the result of her efforts, she comitented: "That was beautiful. I am co-winced that I am still sexy." The actress said that she accepted the invitation to pose for the risque pies because she wanted to show that older women are also full of life: "I decided to expose myself not for the sake of showing off or for sex, but to n-ake the statement that life starts at 60. It is at this age that people feel free from any criticism. I had this change at age 80 when I stopped dating." And she added: "At my age I don't care about showing my underwear. The problem is showing my dentures, wig and artificial eyelashes. I had never made a work like this. I only accepted to make these pictures because they were in good taste, well produced." Du Loren is investing $170,000 in this ad campaign. The company has a mere 15 percent share of Brazil' s women's underwear market. Compared to previous ads from the firm this is very tame. In a previous ad campaign that became worldwide infamous, the company at the end of 1995 showed First Lady Hilary revealing more than a little ofher yellow panties during a visit to Brazil. Toe twopage magazine ad came with a message for Bill Clinton: "Mr. Presiden: of the United States of America: Your Excellency can't imagine what a Du Loren is capable of " At the bottom, in smaller letters, there was this caption: "A Du Loren's homage to one of this decade's most important women." In 1998, the Catholic Church became enraged and made a public appeal for a boycott of the lingerie manufacturer when another publicity piece from the company showed a young woman dressed in a lacy bra and panties being raped. The ad was accompanied by this caption: "Legalize abortion fast. I don't want to wait." Du Loren's owner himself, Roni Argal i, was the one who chose -Dercy as the new Du Lorer' girl. He met her when flying from Sao Paulo to Rio in February. Denise Areal, Du Loren's marketing director, has only praise for the actress: "She is the true woman of the centurT. She always had pioneer attitudes without forgetting the respect. She represents the woman that seduces and not the one that stays aw ating to be seduced." Dercy let it he kr own that she is ready to pcse in the nude. She is ta<ing offers right now.
BRAZIL 500th ANNIVERSARY CONGRATULATIONS TO YOU! This work is in honor of500Brazilians who were assassinated or disappeared in the course of 500 years of Brazilian political history. The list of names was created entirely based on sources from human rights movements and organizations. All of those selected were activists, who, in one way or another, were leaders in the struggle for a more just, humane, and equal Brazil. I did not judge these individuals by their political beliefs, but rather by the causes that led to their assassination or disappearance. By means of this project I do not mean to judge or simply revisit the history ofBrazil, but to shed light on the memory of those who were killed for their beliefs. As a human rights activist and a sociologist, I have always based my convictions on concrete facts and alternative approaches for my own life. I was never one to spend time philosophizing upon the capitalist spirit, but rather on those living spirits who are crushed daily in urban jungles like Rio de Janeiro. And furthermore, as a critical analyst, I do not think that it makes sense to celebrate 500 years of Brazilian history, but instead we should account for those who paid, with their own lives, to build the Brazilian nation. A still vivid example was the death of Galdino, an Indian, who was burned alive in Brasilia in 1997. His death confirms my belief that the Brazilian elite destroyed, in this act, our last opportunity to create a nation for all. Just as he died, over 4 million Indians also perished. Afro-Brazilians, who were once slaves, are still slaves today. Even if they do represent half of the Brazilian population, they have never been able to fully participate in the nation we call Brazil. If it were not for my conviction that the Brazilian elite is one ofthe most perverse and cynical in the contemporary world, it would give me tremendous pleasure to congratulate Brazil. But, as apolitical exile who cannot return freely to my own country, I ask myself, what are we really celebrating? The only thing I want to do at this moment is to pay respect to all of those who longed for a Brazil that belongs to the majority, that is, the excluded. These Brazilian citizens should be remembered as the fortress of this country, which is still so entirely void of ethics. I arn certain that if they were living today, they would be fighting against corruption, death squads, social and political apartheid, and massacres like the one carried out by the Brazilian State Police in 1993 in my own community, Vigario Geral. And to finish, let me ask: who would allow me to return freely to my country? The President? As lam not crazy and I have two precious daughters to care for, I would rather be in the US alive than be dead in Brazil. Brazil, in spite of your stupid elite, I LOVE YOU!!! Caio Ferraz Brazilian Sociologist Human Rights Activist Founder of the NGO House of Peace, Vigario Geral, Rio de Janeiro acferrazrdaol.com I.
6 BRAZZIL - APRIL 2000
Brazil 500 Cheers to the Killed
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It wasn't a flattering scene for Brazil while celebrating its 500 years. Far from it. There it was on TV all over the No Indians Allowed world the military police violently re pressing with tear gas and rubber bullets a peaceful march by some 2000 Brazilian Indians representing more than 200 different peoples and sympathizers with their cause, in Porto Seguro, state of Bahia. That on April 22, the same day Brazil was celebrating the arrival of the Portuguese to the land, 500 years ago and in the same area Pedro Alvares Cabral 's ships are believed to have arrived. In a dramatic picture published on the newspapers and on the Internet, a bare-chested Indian, wearing only swimming shorts, is seen lying down on the road trying to prevent the advance of the police that just walked over his body. The police action left dozens slightly injured. Several people including a Xukuru Kariri Indian, who had both legs burnt, had to be hospitalized. A meeting between the President and the Indian leadership, scheduled for Coroa Vermelha on April 22, never happened. President Fernando Henrique Cardoso accused the Indians of "throwing the President's invitation back in his face". The Indians backed out after considering that a meeting with Cardoso, on that symbolic date, could be misinterpreted. They did not want to be seen as supporting the celebrations they are against. Instead the Indian movement chose to prepare a document denouncing the government and the violence they were subjected to by the Bahia police. The Indian march should have been a moment of affirmati on ofthe Indian culture and their rights. As Man inha Xucuru, a Xucuru-Kariri leader, declared before the repressed demonstration, "We hope that, as a result of this process, the indigenous movement in Brazil will be consolidated. The March and Conference will be moments for reflection on these past 500 years, and they are useful to strengthen the ideals and struggles of indigenous peoples. Together we will be building paths to the future and writing the first chapter of a new history for our children and the generations to come". Here is the final document of the Conference of Indigenous People and Organizations of Brazil: We arrived in the Patax6 village of Coroa Vermelha, in the municipality of Santa Cruz de Cabralia, state of Bahia, CM April 17. On our way to the village, we have fulfilled the commitment to march on the trail of the great invasion of our territories, which has lasted 500 years. rzt1* We are more than 3,000 representatives of 140 indigenous peoples from all regions of Brazil. We have crossed lands, rivers, mountains, valleys and plains once inhabited by our ancestors. Filled with emotion, we saw the regions where indigenous peoples were once the masters of their own future for 40,000 years. Filled with emotion, we saw the regions were indigenous people were killed defending the land cut by bandeirantes (members of early colonial expeditions called bandeiras), adventurers, miners and, later on, by roads, farms, and businesspersons craving for lands, profit and power. We marched through these lands in remembrance of our struggle and pain to retake history in our own hands and once again point to a positive future for all indigenous people. Here at this Conference, we have analyzed Brazilian society in these 500 years during which it has thrived M our territories. More than ever, we have confirmed that this society, whose progress was based on the invasion of our territories and on the extermination of the people who once lived here, was built at the expense of slavery and of the exploitation of black and low income groups. It's an infamous and undignified history. The ones who have really shown dignity are those who have been persecuted and exploited during these five centuries. Rebellions, insurrections, political and social movements have also marked our history and have established a continuous line of resistance. For these reasons, we want to recover this remarkable past and project it into the future by joining black and popular movements and building a larger alliance: the Indigenous, Black and Popular Resistance, At Our main demands and proposals are the following: The main demands and proposals pointed out by indigenous peoples for the Brazilian State are the following: 1. Assurance of the indigenous rights provided for in the Federal Constitution: a. Demarcation and official confirmation of the hounds of all indigenous lands by the year 2000; b. Revocation of Decree n. 1,775/96; c. Assurance and protection of all indigenous areas; . Return of all territories claimed by different indigenous peoples throughout Brazil; e. Expansion of the bounds of areas that are not large enough for indigenous families to live and grow; f. Removal of invaders from all demarcated areas, payment of damages for and recovery of all degraded areas and rivers, such as, for example, the Mr) Francisco river; g. Recognition of peoples that made a resurgence and of their territories; h. Protection against encroachments upon the territories of isolated peoples, i. Dissolution of municipalities illegally established within indigenous areas; j. Respect for the right to exclusive enjoyment of the natural resources contained in indigenous areas, paying special attention to biopiracy; k. Interruption of the building of power plants, waterways, railroads, highways, and gas pipelines under way and indemnification for damages caused by projects that have been implemented already; BRAZZIL - APRIL 2000
Allocation of funds to agricultural projects, among others, for indigenous communities, so as to ensure their pendent subsistence. â€ž Immediate approval of Convention 169 of the International Labor Organization (ILO); Passage of the Statute of Indigenous Peoples being reviewed by the National Congress, approved by indigenous peoples and organizations (Bill 2,057/91); 3. The end of discrimination, removal by force of indigenous people from their lands, massacres, threats against indigenous leaders, violence and impunity in any form. Immediate investigation of all crimes committed against indigenous people in the last 20 years and punishment o the guilty ones. We demand respect for our culture, traditions, languages, and for the religions of the different indigenous peoples of Brazil, 4. Punishment of the persons responsible for the criminal sterilization o indigenous women the discretion of the community; 5. Recognition of the true history of this country and its inclusion in the curriculum of schools, taking into account the thousands of years during which indigenous populations have lived in this 6. Restructuring and empowerment of the official indigenous gency and measures to link it to the Office of the President of the epublic through a Secretariat for Indigenous Affairs, whose secretares would only be appointed after the organizations concerned are heard; 7. Election of the president of Funai by indigenous peoples from among names suggested by the different regions of Brazil; 8. Education has to be placed at the service of the indigenous struggle and should be aimed at strengthening our culture; 9. Assured access of indigenous students to federal universities ithout any competitive university entrance examination; 10. Reform, expansion and construction of indigenous schools and provson ii of education at all levels to indigenous communities, with measures to ensure the training of indigenous teachers and the provision of a professionalizing secondary education; 11. Inspection of the application of funds ear-marked for indi enous schools by an Indigenous Council to be set up; 12. Indigenous education and health care should be placed under the responsibility ofthe federal administration. We reject all attempts to promote state-level administration of the school system or its municipalization; 13. Enforcement of the Arouca Law, which provides for the establishment of a health care subsystem for indigenous people; 14. Empowerment and expansion of the participation of indigen ous c mmunities and leaders in decision-making processes related to the definition of public policies for indigenous people. In particular, the Special Indigenous Sanitary Districts should have full autonomy in their deliberations; 15. The health care system should take into account and respect the culture of indigenous people. Traditional approaches to health care should be prized and strengthened; 16. Specific quality training for teachers, health agents and other indigenous profeutona nousâ€˘communities; 17, Formulation of a specific policy for eachregion of Brazil with broad participation of indigenous people and of all segments of society, based on the existing knowledge and projects; 18. Better means to prevent the military and civil police from entering in, eas Without the permission of indigenous leaders; 19, Annulment ofjudicial actions against the demarcation of lands traditionally oc, upied by indigenous people; We, indigenous people of Brazil, have gone a long way to rebuild oir territories and ommunities. By firmly taking this history into our own collective hands, we are sure that we will break away from a sad past and will confidently move ahead toward a brighter future. Despite the weightof the old history written by the dominant classes of this country though their culture, political and economic practices and State institutions, we have launched our war cry and set the cornerstone for the beginning of a new history, the great history of the "Other 500 years". Our indigenous struggle is a tribute to the many heroes who have died in war during these five centuries. Our struggle is for our children and grandchildren, so that they can be free people in a free land. oroa Vermelha, Bahia, 21April 2000.
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Thanks in great part to globalization and the entrance of Brazil into the freetraders club, tens of thousands of foreigners, most of them executives, have descended into the country to work for companies back home. These are people who know the stay in Brazil will only be a passage, a brief interlude before getting a promotion or flying to the next country. Right now there are 30,000 Americans in this situation, besides 35,000 Germans, 12,000 French, 3000 Canadians, 150,000 Spaniards plus thousands more from all over the world. It's believed that in the last two years at least 28,000 new foreigners arrived to work for multinationals. The Labor Ministry informs that these workers stay from one to three years in the country. Weekly newsmagazine Veja (circulation 1,500,000) has published a short piece on the subject recently interviewing some of these executives and their wives, who seem to be ones who get more involved with peculiarities of Brazilian life while their husbands mostly spend their time at the protected environment of their jobs. Most of these people will never learn much about their host country. Only 10 percent of them are able to communicate in the country's language, the Portuguese. Among the most visible new "colonies" is the American one in the northern state ofBahia where Ford is building a new assembly plant. The large influx of Spaniards to So Paulo has to do with the presence in the country of Telefonica, a Spanish company with massive interests in telecommunications in Brazil. The Renault factory on the other hand brought scores of Frenchmen and women to the southern state of Parana. Veja talks about the phases these executives go through. At the start they get excited about the weather and the distance a little dollar can go in the country. For many women it is the first time they can afford what would be a luxury in their home country: a maid. In a second phase, starting in the second month, uneasiness or even despair begins to creep in. They feel they would never be able to live and cannot understand how people survive and thrive in what they see as unmistakable chaos amid rampant corruption, ever present misery and violence, and unmanageable traffic. To make life a little easier, these executives and their spouses join one of the several clubs and associations that cater to them. Places like the Clube Internacional das Mulheres de Executivos (International Club for Women of Executives) in Curitiba, capital of Parana state. For most foreigners it's very hard to make Brazilian friends and many first contacts go nowhere fast. As Celina Sampaio, the Brazilian who leads the American Society, a club for American executives: "in the beginning Brazilians invite foreigners to visit them, go out with them, but by and large this does not last long." nt,v
Life liviD less
Due to an increase in violent death victimizing youngsters and children, men in Brazil, according to the latest data from the IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatisticaâ€”Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) have lost three years in their life expectancy. This information is revealed in the 1999 Social Indicators Synthesis. While life expectancy is 68.1 years for the population in general, women should expect to live 72.1 years compared to the 64.3 years for men. The good news is that life expectancy has increased for six years since 1980 when Brazilians were expected to live 62 years. But such results have also to do with where Brazilians live. While southern Brazilians can expect to live up to 70.6 percent, those : 40 born in the Northeast shouldn't expect more than 65.1. Even here there is some good news when we know that the gap between North and South used to be larger in the past. The IBGE study reveals that in 1998 around 70 percent ofthe deaths ofyoungsters aged 15 to 19 were not natural. In the Midwest, 49.3 percent of the kids who died between the ages of 5 and 9 had violent death. In the state of Roraima the percentage of kids who suffered violent death was 54.5 percent, the highest rate in the country for children 5 to 9 years old. The rate of demographic increase has stabilized around 1.3 percent, the same it was in 1997, with projections that this rate will continually fall to 1.1 percent in 2010 and then 0.8 percent in 2020. The fecundity rate (there are now 2.4 children per woman nationwide) has declined dramatically from the 60s and 70s when every Brazilian woman had an average of six kids. The numbers also show that the more educated the woman the less children she has. The lowest fecundity rate was registered in Rio; where there is in average 1.9 kids for every mother. After decades dealing with the challenges of educating and offering jobs to its youth, Brazil will more and more will face the problem of the growing number ofelderly. While there are 13.2 million people over the age of60 today (7.8 percent ofthe population), this contingent should grow to 30 million by 2025, according to IBGE's projections. Finding jobs will continue to be a challenge in 2025, instead of 104.5 million people looking for jobs, Brazil will have 138 million searching. Just getting a job would not be enough for those who are trying to find a place to work today. That is because 30 million who have a job are making less than the monthly minimum wage, which is $84 today. The average income for the upper 10 percent of workers today (7.6 million Brazilians) is $1378.40 percent workers on the bottom level make an average of $70 a month. The color factor is also more than evident in income distribution. Twelve percent of families whose head ofhousehold is white survive with halfofthe monthly minimum wage per capita. In families headed by blacks there are 30.4 percent ofthem that have to live on the same amount. The IBGE data also reveal that the illiteracy rate for whites (8.8 percent) in Brazil is almost three timeslarger for blacks (21.5 percent). According to Sergio Besserman Vianna, IBGE's president," The inequality is apparent in any aspect that we observe: income, region, sex, race. Several social indicators improve but the inequality does not decrease. This is a constant trait of the Brazilian society, which is not the result of the present circumstances but of 500 years of an unjust history." Among the positive data revealed by the new IBGE report is the fact that 94.7 percent of children between the ages of 7 and 14 are in schools today. This does not hide the fact that 30.5 percent of Brazilians who are 15 or older are functionally illiterate, incapable ofunderstanding simple forms or medicine information, as an example. ,
10 BRAZZIL - APRIL 2000
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When my grandfather was born in 1919 in Santos, a small beach town in the state of Sao Paulo, the technology people used was simple. At that time, less than 10 percent of homes had access to phone lines. Electricity was the privilege of a few people due to its high cost. Radio and television were slowly introduced to the masses. The postal services would be the best option to keep people in touch despite its slowness. Who would guess that, less than a century later, the world would become a global village, with millions of people communicating, meeting, doing business and shopping on the Internet? Certainly not grandpa! It all started in the late 60s when the United States Department of Defense (DOD) created a computer network—the ARPANET—that allowed people to communicate with each other from different locations. The United States DOD developed the Internet so that communications could still exist in the event of a nuclear disaster. By using existing phone lines, the system could send letters and memos electronically (e-mail). The service was initially used for posting information on computer bulletin boards, which were sites that listed information about particular topics, such as health issues, computer programs or employment services. The Internet was mainly used in universities and government research labs in the early stages. The Net has now reached its commercial stage, which was a result of an effort by the National Science Foundation to innovate the system with high-speed communication equipment that linked computer centers throughout the United States. But it was only after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in the end of the 1980s that the military project came to an end. Today, the use of the Internet goes beyond the military and national interest: people from all over the world are going online not only to get in touch with each other via e-mail, but also to shop, invest, research, chat, interact with other mass media, and even do business. Its electronic form is substituting the traditional "snail" mail. It's a way to save time and money whether one is simply replacing it for a long-distance or international phone call or doing business. The Internet in Brazil
Internet access, it only allowed access to archives and electronic mail. It was only in 1991 that an international line was connected to FAPESP. This development allowed access to educational and research institutions as well as to nonprofit and governmental organizations. Brazil could now participate in debates, access national and international supercomputers from other countries, and transfer archives and software. Since then, the speed of communication through the Internet between FAPESP and Fermilab increased from a very slow 4800 kilobytes per second to the present 2 megabytes per second. During the following year, the IBASE (Instituto Brasileiro de Analises Sociais e Economicas—Brazilian Institute for Social and Economic Analyses) based in Rio de Janeiro and the APC (Associacao para o Progresso das ComunicacOes—Association for the Progress of Communications) signed an agreement to give space to non-governmental organizations in Brazil on the World Wide Web. The agreement was altered in 1992 due to the creation of the RNP (Rede Nacional de Pesquisa— Research National Network) by the Brazilian Department of Science and Technology. Now, RNP's coordinator Tadao Takahashi organized the access to the "information highway" creating a main branch of access to the Web and establishing it in many capitals and operating the Internet throughout the country. In May of 1995, the Department of Communications and the Department of Science and Technology in Brazil published a decree creating private-access providers and, thus, allowing the commercial operation of the Internet in Brazil. According to statistics from daily newspaper 0 Estado de S. Paulo, an average of 250 thousand Internet servers were operating in Brazil in 1999, many of those were connected to hundreds of institutions. The number ofaddresses has been drastically increasing every month. From January of 1996 to August of 1997, 37,000 new Brazilian addresses appeared on the Internet. The Brazilian Internet explosion was so fast that in only five years the Brazilians online outnumbered Mexican Internet users. By 1999, Brazil had the third highest number of Internet users in the Americas, only losing to the United States and Canada. Over 3 million Brazilians were connected to the Web through various access providers in 1999. "This expansion is responsible for the creation ofjobs in all regions of the country, including the North and Northeast aras," said National Secretary of Informatics, Ivan Moura, to 0 Estado de S. Paulo. The creation ofjobs by the Internet comes pretty handy in a country that has a high unemployment rate due to an economic recession that has been, again, haunting Brazil in the last year. The high demand for professionals in the technological, administrative and communication area generates a huge disparity in the market and, consequently, raise the salaries offered. This phenomenon is also responsible for a 'variable wage', where promising Internet companies are more often offering bonuses and stocks as additional pay. The Internet has already created more than 300,000 jobs. Not much considering the size of the Brazilian market, but this number should double, according to experts, every six months in the next year and a half.
1988 marked the beginning of the Internet in Brazil. Together, the FAPESP (Fundacao de Amparo aPesquisa no Estado de Sao Paulo—Foundation for the Support of Research in the State of Sao Paulo) and the Secretaria Estadual de Ciencia e Tecnologia (State Secretariat of Science and Technology) were the Brazilian pioneers in seeking access to the Web. Scientists from FAPESP emphasized the need to use the Internet to keep in touch with other scientific institutions abroad. Professor Oscar Sala, FAPESP' s counselor at the time, started contacting the Physics and High Energy Laboratory in Chicago (Fermilab) to establish a connection between Brazil and the rest of the world. Flavio Fava de Moraes, then scientific director of FAPESP, approved the project, and a Free for All year later, the service was officially implemented. In its first year, FAPESP utilized Bitnet (Because It' Brazilians entered the year 2000 with much easier and free s Time to Network). Although Bitnet offered large access to the Internet. During the third week of January, four 12
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providers (Zaz, Superll.net, NetGratuita and iG) started offering free access to the Web. During the first 15 days of activity, the two largest Internet providersâ€”iG and NetGratuita (a company from the UOL, Universo Online, Brazil's largest Internet group)â€”together registered more than 1.5 million subscriptions, being 1.25 million from the sao Paulo metropolitan area. However, the paid competition has doubts about the fast development of a better infrastructure regarding phone services to meet such demand. UOL, BOL (Brazil Online), and NetGratuita have already experienced problems with slowness. Also, both paid and free providers have a common problem to face: the number of Internet users in Brazil is still relatively small, and its expansion depends solely on the drop in the prices of PCs and telephone services. Many people may be asking themselves how these freeaccess providers intend to make any money. As in the United States they are betting that they will sell enough electronic advertisements, also known as banners, but in the meantime they will be operating in the red. The cost of advertising on the Internet is extremely low. A brand name Web page is more valuable than an extraordinary number of subscribers or visitors to the site. The main concerns of advertisers are the size of their market that an ad can reach and the targeting ofthe site to their particular market. The bigger and betterestablished providers are the ones that can target and tailor the sites to meet the needs of advertisers. Smaller Internet providers may have revenue close to zero. So, the quality of the public accessing a homepage definitely exerts influence over advertisers. They want to make sure the ads target an audience that has an interest in their product or service on their favorite Web page. Piracy Online But the problems in Brazil also came along with growth of the Internet... Despite the positive aspects brought by the Net like greater job offer, faster communication and great research tool for example, it didn't take very long until the negative aspects of the Internet caught up with its success. The problem resides in the vulnerability of the information kept in the computers. The action of digital pirates, also known as hackers, is becoming an issue that makes many Brazilians think twice before shopping online. Many people recently had their credit card number stolen after buying CDs at CD Universe, and many were forced to cancel and exchange their credit cards. Most companies doing business on the Web negotiate insurance for all security breaches, but some insurance companies' will not cover damages resulting from failure in the security systems. The favorite Brazilian targets of digital pirates are the defense systems and banking services. These attacks happen more often than the Brazilian authorities want to acknowledge, with an average of 100 to 150 invasions a day according to financial consultants. "Only at Bradesco, the biggest private bank in the
country, there' s an estimated 70 frustrated cyber attacks every day," say Darlene Menconi from isto Emagazine, "but companie , especially banks, are always denying that theses attac s represent a serious fault in their security systems an credibility," says Menconi. To address his problem, the Norton Internet Security 2000 was r eased in Brazil at the end of March. This security progr released by Symantec was defmed as a"bodyguard", d it is supposed to save and protect data such as credit ard numbers, banking information, and other personal chives. The Intern Security 2000 enables the Web site user to avoid attack y hackers with the Norton AntiVirus program. Other tools ake it easier to preserve privacy by controlling the ap â€˘ earance of cookies (data used by Internet sites to identify users), publicity banners and other "popup windows" that appear while one surfs the Net. The program also works as an electronic sitter, restricting the access of kids to adult sites, sites with improper content, chat rooms and other areas according to the parents' needs. Women and the Internet Many ne spapers and magazines in Brazil are offering supplem ants with information about the Internet so the public c keep up with the technology. Women encompass the stest growing public Isurfing the Web. Data from Mode Media show that women account for 44 percent of Br ilian Internet users, and that motivates the creation of h mepages that appeal to this particular public. There a three major sites aimed at women and women's is ues: Toque Feminino (Feminine Touch), Meu Corpo It's My Body), and Ela (She). Toque F minino offers interviews, recipes, and articles on fas ion, family, beauty and health; MeuCorpo, a Johnson Johnson site, is aimed at teenage girls, helping the to understand the transformations that occur in the bodies until they reach adulthood; and Ela targets mod rn women between 18 and 35 years of age with its co ent on fashion and economy. As with ost sites dedicated to women, be la.com.br also offers ervices and information on health, beauty, profession, ashion, and culinary. But the director wants to make su e his page reaches as wide an audience as possible b targeting women from 16 to 50 years old. Other s es of great interest for the female public are those rega ding motherhood, especially for first-time moms. Firs time mothers-to-be are using the Internet to - ease the fe of inexperience. Some sites offer real instruction anuals, with electronic pages that allow 13
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'41 1 n mothers to follow every step of the pregnancy. Pediatrician Marcus Renato de Carvalho talked about his own Web page (aleitamento.med.br), which emphasizes the importance ofbreast-feeding during the baby's first six months. Other more complex issues such as breast-feeding of twins and adopted children are discussed on this site as well. Guiadobebe.com.br (the baby's guide) offers necessary orientation concerning the pregnancy with the first child, from the moment of conception to the first signs of laboring. Guia do Bebe' answers the most common concerns to mothers regarding their children. Issues like hiccups, sneezes, stuffed nose, and cramps all common symptoms in the first months of the babies life that disappear with time are analyzed. Parents can also send cards to announce the birth of their baby from this site and interact with real doctors that are there to assist with any questions and concerns. Other sites like babysite.com.br and febre.com.br (fever) have also had a very enthusiastic reception by the public. Baby site offers personalized vaccination cards, and parents can be reached via e-mail so they don't miss their children's upcoming immunizations. Sponsored by a fever-reducing medicine, febre.com.br teaches that a fever is usually ok and how to recognize when it puts the child's health at risk. Shopping on Line Because most women are also in charge of shopping for their household, they are the ones spending more reais online as well. They are buying books, toys, CDs and, lately, even their groceries on the Internet. Online shoppers however are not having first-class service when shopping during special occasions such as Christmas, Mothers' Day, and Children's Day. The volume of orders increases at those times of the year, and the consumer may not get the merchandise delivered on time. Using credit cards when shopping on line continue to be a problem. According to Procon (an agency that works for the protection of the Brazilian consumer), that's not the safest way to pay for you purchase. They recommend that the Brazilian Internet shopper use a personal check to pay for the purchase at the time of the delivery. Besides women, another section of the population that is increasingly taking advantage of the Net are those 50 years of age or older. An average of 550,000 Internet users are in this age range. To reach this market segment, maisde50.com.br (translated as "Over 50s") started in February 1999, being the first site aimed at this particular population. This site presents articles on tourism, leisure, health, fashion, behavior, and interviews with personalities in this age group. Interactive links such as chat rooms are also featured on the site, giving this more mature population a chance to exchange experiences, participate in sweepstakes, and even find a date! I better buy a PC for grandpa and tell him all about it so he can get plugged in too! A Place for Education
Picture the students ranging from 1st grade to high school seniors in today's Internet world. Imagine the creativity required for giving excuses about their low grades or incompletion of assignments, when the Internet gives them no excuse. The Internet is the newest tool that aids students in having their questions regarding lectures, readings and homework answered. And that's also true in Brazil. Klickeducacao.com.br has over 30 teachers working on duty. They are specialized in eight disciplinesâ€”Portuguese, Mathematics, History, Geography, Physics, Chemistry, Biology and English. There's no cost for consultation with those teachers and the site also offers other relevant information to students at any age (parents, teachers, principals and school counselors). It features 30,000 illustrations and images, interactive exercises, more than six thousand links, and access to online classes. The Web site creators designedthis site to show students how to use the computer intelligently. Its design is to motivate students to do research on the Web and use their database. Escolavirtual.com.br (Virtual School) is another Brazilian educational option on the Web. Created by Tema Informatica, a company specialized in technological solutions for the educational market, the site is more restricted in regard to access. Students, parents, and instructors must be linked to any one of the 29 schools in Rio de Janeiro that are Tema customers. Tema director, Jose Carlos Lourenco Rego, says that Escola Virtual will present virtual courses such as Web designing and Excel. The courses will not be free, but registered students will have free e-mail accounts within the site. Escola Virtual came to replace long distance education such as the traditional telecourse, and the site promises to be a revolution in education online. In Brazil as around the world people are realizing what a powerful tool the Internet can be. Besides being a rich source of information, a fast way to communicate with the world, facilitating business, giving the opportunity to go shopping without leaving the house, and being a form of entertainment, the net can also be means to public service. That's exactly what Anderson and Roseane Miranda from So Jose dos Campos are doing. The couple created censura.com.br (meaning censorship), the first private site in the country to fight pedophilia in the Internet. It has already caught 13 Brazilian sites that were using the Web to sexually exploit children. They plan to broaden their campaign, and the goal is to get more supervision and support from Internet users and authorities. With an average of 30 denunciations a day, Roseanne says the reports are coming from all around the country. They started a campaign against child pornography on the World Wide Web that has, so far, received 17,000 visitors and over2000 reports against pedophilia. The Mirandas selected and checked the information before forwarding it to the Federal Police. Roseane, who is an attorney, has already asked public agencies to help in the fight against pedophilia on the Web but was never very successful. Her husband, Anderson, a computer science specialist, investigates sites that supposedly contain such material. He told Isto E magazine that he has been able to identify the authors, the origin of the material, and other information that can be used to punish the criminals. Once the site is identified, the Mirandas send a message to the author(s) making sure
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the legal consequences of such practice are very clear, in atentative to convince the author(s) to remove the page form the Web. For every six approaches there is one positive response and during the course of three months, the Mirandas saw 50 sites of this kind disappearing form the Web. With no more than four hours of daily work, the Mirandas also created the seal Amigo da Crianca (Friend of the Children) as a way to stimulate companies that use the Internet for business purposes in participating in the action for the defense and rights of the children. And as of March 2000, 300 companies had already agreed to use the symbol of the campaign in their own homepages. Internet Tourist When vacation time is right around the corner, Brazilians want to do just that: take it easier, have fun, or go traveling. With that in mind, Decolar.com.br (meaning "taking off') suggest alternatives to visitors of their site. Users choose any place in the world, and the site will suggest several travel options. The site also helps with hotel reservations, flights, and ground transportation. It also has packages that include travel and lodging, giving important tips for those who don't know the bad aspects of a long trip like jet lag and indisposition that a cruise may cause. If the vacationer, lives in Sao Paulo and money limits the options of getting out of town, LevaEu.com.br takes people to interesting places close to the capital. LevaEu (which means "take me") presents great interactive opportunities for users. Here they can post or find tips about beautiful places they have been or want to go. Those more adventurous can get great help from WebVenture (Webventure.com.br). The site presents guides and hints to adventurous trips inside and outside the country. Information regarding the necessary gear for each trip is discussed. The user can choose among trekking, off-road, rafting, biking, mountaineering, and activities that will put him or her close to mother nature. And speaking of Mother Nature, to get a little closer to a natural environment, the best and most complete site on ecoturismo (ecological tourism) is Cia. Nacional de Ecoturismo. Other related links, like CampoBase (campobase.com.br) give the opportunity to the Internet user to shop around for lodging prices, camping sites, and even places for radical sports like mountain climbing, rafting and scuba-diving. While packing for a vacation, Brazilians always end up running into stuff in their closets that they no longer use. Besides taking up space, it could be useful to someone else. Because garage sales are not part of the Brazilian culture, now people can exchange their stuff through the Web by just logging on to trocaqui.com.br (exchange here). People can place classifieds and check about exchanging their stuff. The objects are divided in 19 categories (from CDs to magazines, antiques, animals, and even cars) and are posted on the site for 15 days. All the services are free and to use them, the user just needs to get registered at the site. If fmding a car is the goal and the user lives in the Metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, the solution is to visit credicarro.com.br, from the company Financial Servicos Financeiros. Through this site, the shopper can finance and lease brand
new or used veh •cies. The site has both national and imported vehicle . All the bureaucratic process involving the purchase f a car can be dealt with online. The company will al be in charge of researching the conditions and taxe offered by banks to best suit the customers' fmancia expectations. Since its off ial birth in Brazil in 1988, the Internet has been transfo ing the way Brazilians shop, do business, communic e, inform, educate ,and deal with public issues. Having a 1 this information on the Web—things concerning edu tion, information, shopping, tourism, medicine, publi •services and even problems with hackers and criminal is a very positive thing for Brazil. It puts its people touch with their own social problems and perspective as well as with the rest of the world, opens their pers ectives about life, and broadens their perceptions. However, t e cost of personal computers and the phone system in razil are still the main barriers preventing that more • eople can have access to the Internet. While they don t become more affordable, surfing the Web will conti ue to be a privilege of a minority. For more in ormation on the subject, please refer to the following s urces: Camp ell, Richard. MediaandCulture: An In• troduction to ass Communication (St. Martin s Press, New York, 1998). Esta o de Sao Paulo, (http:// • www.oestado. om.br) • Isto magazine (http://www.istoe.com.br) Jorn do Brazil (http://www.jb.com.br) Glob Online (http://www.oglobo.com.br) Daniela Rose is a graduated communications student from the University of Utah. She was born in Santos (SP) and moved to the United States four and a half years ago. She is a freelance writer and is curre tly living in Park City, Utah. You can get in touch with the author at email@example.com
15 BRAZZIL - APRIL 2000
1111;11:141111111111111J1i I am doing research on a documentary on the gap between the rich and the poor, particularly in Brazil. The programme is being made for broadcast on BBC World as part of a series called "Life", which is an examination of the impact of globalization on life at the beginning of the 21st century. It is a 'think piece", containing interviews with various "experts" (both for and against the eradication of poverty) interspersed with human stories. I wonder if you could put me in touch with people in Brazil (we'll be in Sao Paulo and Rio) who could help me to understand the situation there. or who would be good interview subjects. The director (Steve Bradshaw) is thinking of interviewing a very wealthy person (I'm thinking of Roberto Marinho), and then the poorest of the poor in the favelas. Any advice or suggestions would be most welcome! Thank you. Sian Buckley London, England
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As a member of the ever-expanding underground movement of Brazil nuts in the US I always look forward to the next issue of Brazzil. Just today received the latest issue. As a photographer and a writer who is obsessed with Brazil I find your magazine informative as well as a source for creative inspiration. I have been traveling to Brazil regularly for the last 16 years. I was there on three separate occasions last year alone, on one trip I spent a couple of months working on a Brazilian film production. I have been married to a Brasileiro for seven years now and we have a home in NY as well as Sao Paulo. I am writing a script with/for a very respected Brazilian filmmaker. Of course it's about an estrangeiro in Brazil. As I said Brazzil has been more than helpful as a source of facts and material. But alas, as I went to insert the March issue into my small though growing library of small black and white magazines, I did a count and realized I didn't receive all the issues since I subscribed. I'm missing (and I do mean I'm missingâ€”saudade) the September and January issues. I know I could read them on line but if it's possible to get these issues to fill the void in my library it would be much appreciated. In the meantime, keep up the good work. John Clifford New York, NY ' I ' I am a Brazilian communications student in Pennsylvania who every month checks the Brazzil magazine. Every month you bring articles that are interesting and sometimes they make me mad. I have read on the latest issue the article "The American Nightmare" about adopted kids from Brazil who are being deported from the United States. I was outraged by this calamity and by the absurd trick the INS is playing on these kids. I believe this situation must not be ignored or hushed by American authorities. This deserves a gigantic coverage by the media. I am not aware of how the Brazilian media is handling the case, or if they even know about it, but lam ready as a student and as a free lance writer for different magazines and college papers to bring forth such a story. Fernando Oliveira Slippery Rock, Pennsylvania The Americans want to keep Elian but deport Herbert and Silva? Do they realize that these "Brazilian" youngsters were taken to America by Americans? I think that what the American immigration is doing is very wrong. The youngsters escaped from the frying pan into the fire C. M. Via Internet 16
years now) and we picked up the issue of Brazzilafter she took me to a Brazilian restaurant in Hollywood. She's trying to teach me all about this Brazilian stuff, so she makes me read all these different articles. Since I don't speak Portuguese, thank God your article was in English. LOL. Anyway, I just wanted to write and tell you how much I enjoyed your article. I certainly hope to get down to Brazil some day because I hear you can kiss girls on the street for no reason other than you're attracted to them. Now that really sounds like fun. Ken Los Angeles, California 1111111111111M
I am a teacher at a small school in Canada. We teach our children about Brazil when they are in grade 8. They find it fascinating and we learn a lot over the course of the year. Unfortunately my school has no videos to show them. My school does not have a lot of money to spend and I am trying to find some place that has videos that are I hope you will be able to answer a question for me. very inexpensive or preferable free. The videos do not Some time ago I saw an article in an American magazine, need to be new, they can be used or older, but I just would Civil War Times, about an organization in Brazil or a group like to be able to show the children video of the beautiful of people called "Os Confederados". Our local newspaper, country and culture. If you have or are aware of any place The Herald-Sun also carried an article about this group, or person that would have what I am looking for please let including photographs. These people are the descendants me know. Akus Jason Smith of Confederate veterans who emigrated to Brazil after the Edmonton, Canada American Civil War ended. firstname.lastname@example.org To preserve their Southern heritage and the English language they began holding an annual festival a few years ago, I think in a place called Americana. The festival It was great to see the article you published on the is always held in November. I am very anxious to contact Fila Brasileiro. It is a valuable information for those who are someone from this organization. I have relatives who interested in the breed. Please announce in your next fought for the Confederacy and am involved with Civil War issue that on November 11/12 the Fila Brasileiro Associareenactments. I would be most grateful if you would re- tion is promoting the FBA Fall Circuit bringing knowledgespond to this message and, if possible, put me in touch with able Brazilian judges from Brazil to judge the Filas in the someone from the organization. Billy Bob's Texas Arena, in Fort Worth, Texas, an indoors Fred Hawkins arena with 1,200 seats. Durham, North Carolina This is the greatest Fila event of the world! Over 60 frederick.hawkins@worldneLatt net Filas enter in the ring to be judged. Saturday morning at " 8:00 a.m. there is the Temperament Test and Sunday at My congratulations go your way. I just finished reading an excerpt of Brazzil and found it to be educating and noon the beautiful Black Filas Parade. Anyone not being wonderful. My question is, does your magazine or has able to attend the circuit may ask for videos to the FBA at Brazzil ever published articles relating to epilepsy or alco- 5029 CR 605 Burleson, TX 76028, phone 817- 4-47 3868. Clelia Kruel holism? And what about pediatric and geriatric AIDS? I ask Via Internet these questions because we as a universe of people should be aware of these conditions and diseases. I am 39 I am an internatiJnai concerts producer based in years old and have had epilepsy for 35 years. Nikolas Torres Boston. I am putting together a 10-city worldwide tour Via Internet celebrating Brazil 500 years. A historic event from Boston to Rio (the fun has just begun). I need to know who is Philip, I read your article entitled "Lessons in Revelry" interested in getting involved. There will be great financial in the March 2000 issue of Brazzil. I must tell you, I really opportunities for every one involved. PCL International is enjoyed it. The wonderful touches of humor you included looking for Brazilian producers with network in Brazil and and the rest of your story gave me a feeling of just how America to participate. crazy Carnaval really is. I just started dating a Brazilian girl Patric Lacroix in Los Angeles (she's been living here in the States for five Allston, Massachusetts FOR MORELLITaRSSEtND ENTIRE
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BRAZZIL - APRIL 2000
Way back when the planning began more than a year ago, accused of Winging loads of dogma to the campaign, and not it was going to be a festive occasion. The general idea was a enough concrete proposals. Fair criticism, which Lula acknowlcelebration of Brazil's 500th birthday, its "birth" as a nation edged after much arm-twisting from the media: close to elecbeing the arrival ofPortuguese explorers on the coast ofpresent tion day, he told reporters the opposition had "no obligation" day Bahia state, on April 22nd, 1500. But from several quarters to come up with concrete proposals because they were not in came valid reminders: perhaps the 500-year mark would be a power—propbsals he said, would be made after they were time for more reflection than partying, more thought and analy- elected. Predictably, Cardoso was again re-elected with a firstsis about what worked out and what didn't. round victory. More consideration for what still needs to happen if the Since 1998, there's often been the impression that some in "country of the future" is ever to become the the Left are truly attempting to nation of today. Points well taken: more reflecfind a new, more practical aption did ensue, in the media and throughout proach, and at last kiss off"Quansociety. But in the end Brazil got neither the party to pior, melhor". Unfortunately, nor a full intellectual exercise. Instead, it got a there have been even more nuhighly incompetent reaction by the government merous occasions when the Left to predictable protests, fuelled by an irresistible can't seem to resist trying to cash desire by opponents and opportunists to cash in in on circumstances, showing it on the big event. In the end, it was the protestors really has not gotten any closer to who got what they wanted, sad to say, at the that new approach. This was quite expense of the vast majority of Brazilians, who visible through much of 1999, in don't see things their way. the aftermath of the devaluation By now, Brazzil readers around the world of the Brazilian currency on the may have seen a short TV news clip of protestheels of the Asian and then the ing landless peasants and native Brazilian IndiRussian crisis. While the governans scuffling with military police, who prevented ment attempted to keep things in their protest march from reaching Porto Seguro, control, the Left organized marthe town that now stands where the Portuguese ches and demonstrations, includfirst came ashore. In many parts ofthe world, that ing the so-called "March of 100clip may well have been the only news item thousand" on Brasilia, which fell shown that had to do with Brazil's 500th birthfar short of its ambitious title. day. A superficiality that's likely to leave viewThere were more and more ers with the impression that protests were the land invasions by the MST, the order of the day—repressed, of course, in auorganized landless peasants thoritarian fashion. Points for the extreme Left, movement, as well as numerous, always looking for a way to mess up Brazil's often violent protest acts not reimage abroad, in a never too clearly explained lated with land reform, supposIt's important to note that by and tactic that seems more appropriate for shooting edly the MST's priority. And a one's own foot than reaching practical objec- large, Brazilians weren't exactly new slogan was introduced: tives. "Fora FHC", or out with presienthralled by their nation's 500th dent Cardoso, an ill-explained For years, the Left has been branded with an impromptu slogan in Brazil: "Quanto pior, proposal—if it could indeed be melhor", loosely translated in the title of this birthday. To say Brazilians described as such—which, when article: the worse things are, the better they are. celebrated would be an taken literally, would involve When Brazil returned to civilian rule in 1985 institutional breakdown. How following a 21-year military regime, the out- overstatement—observed pretty else do you remove an elected lawed Left returned to political life. Naturally, well describes what happened on president without good reason? there was a lot to say, as they were the most By the final quarter of 1999, targeted by the repressive outgoing regime. And April 22nd and the days leading the Left realized it was all for most of what they had to say was negative—a naught. Brazil didn't have a great stark contrast to the prevalent discourse during up to it. year, but all things considered, it the military years, when Brazilians were often led was no disaster—certainly nothto believe their country was steps away from ing remotely close to what the becoming the world's next superpower. In that ADHEMAR ALTIERI Left insinuated all along. The end context, the phrase actually made sense: to make result was another whack on the political headway, the Left's chosen strategy was Left's credibility. The most to hammer away at how bad things were. In most •prominent left-wing voices in cases their points were valid, but their tone and Brazil went silent for a few persistence made the Left easy to describe as card-carrying, ' months, in an obvious retreat following yet another tactical flop. exaggerating "negativists". Then, along came "Descobrimento' , the approaching 500th The Left would not seriously review that approach until the anniversary of the so-called discovery of Brazil by the Portuelection of Fernando Henrique Cardoso in 1994. Their candi- guese. Another opportunity not to be missed... date, Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva of the Workers' Party (PT), It's important to note that by and large, Brazilians weren't campaigned against the recently-introduced Real Plan, calling exactly enthralled by their nation's 500th birthday. To say it a sham, nothing more than a short-term ploy designed to elect Brazilians celebrated would be an overstatement—observed Cardoso, and end like so many other economic adjustment pretty well describes what happened on April 22nd and the days plans—in the dustbin ofhistory. Cardoso romped to a first-round leading up to it. As one long-time foreign resident of sao Paulo victory, and the Real Plan's results, ups and downs notwithstand- put it, "this was no World Cup Final". Instead of attending mostly ing, are still around—six years later, the balance is positive. small, isolated "500 Years' events scattered throughout the The negative take had flopped miserably, and finally led part country, Brazilians were far more likely to be seen on the beach, of the Left to search for a new approach—one they have yet to enjoying the long weekend which got under way on Thursday identify and agree on. The 1998 campaign saw Lula and the PT because of Easter—most got the day off work on Good Friday.
The Worse the Better
BRAZZIL -APRIL 2000
* Weeks before he date, the Landless Peasants Movement Exceptions were a free outdoor concert in Brasilia with several pop stars performing live, thus the big turnout, and the marquee (MST), which work in tandem with left-wing political parties, event in Porto Segura on Saturday the 22nd, attended by Presi- intensified its land invasions throughout Brazil, adding to the dents Fernando Henrique Cardoso and his Portuguese counter- list invasions of public buildings, including the INCRA (Land part, Jorge Sampaio. The latter was the desired focal point of Reform Institute) ffices in Salvador, state capital of Bahia, where the main 50 Year event was scheduled to take place. most organized protests. There are numerous plausible explanations for this appar- Some 450 MST me bers kept INCRA employees hostage and ent lack of interest. First, Brazil is no longer essentially Portu- later released them but remained in command of the building, guese, so the former "motherland" is only seen as such by a demanding a me ting with Land Reform Minister Raul minority of Brazilians. The last century saw inflows of immi- Jungmarm. He refused to m et them until they vacated the building. This grants from various parts of the world, which dramatically changed the makeup, look and feel of Brazil. Western and has become typical fMST actions. To put it in perspective: the Eastern Europeans, Asians, Jews and Arabs, and the largest• Justice Ministry h s just received a report outlining unlawful ent employees by MST members: since Japanese community outside Japan, are integral parts oftoday' s captivity of gave Brazil—all intertwined with the original Portuguese, Afro- January of 1999,5 0 officials have been held hostage innumerBrazilians and their traditions brought in with slavery, and native ous separate incidents. Tough to understand how an organization that bases its laims on the respect for human rights can Indians. A true melting pot, Brazil has developed pretty much its own defend this. culture, which includes aspects from all newcomers, but has a * Mid April, MST members invaded the way of its own—to a point where it ia State Security Secretariat, the state gov1 1....1.• now heavily influences Portugal, es. Coast* hooripm . . Warm i ent office in charge of security and policMoor i r....P..1. pecially through television, while emetralloto . our j i 01100.1% in , and thrashed the building, including nulittle if anything of current Portum wir.••=, .114emalbekeima rous vehicles in its parking lot. Television guese culture finds its way into BraModlealtilles i r—-^r• —• fo tage captured MST leaders taking active Olnillemboollodslodielbasillellomoolmsdalp6;2%mtalsolaillil. ' zil. Another explanation would be rt in the destruction. Following this, The that Brazilians realize their nation 13 orkers' Party (PT) announced in its website I isn't a "finished product"—there's th tit was not supportive ofMST-led invasions much to be done, including many lifla dos 11,1 am"condin!Im !taros is .ctajti! o i public buildings, nor of its most radical leadwrongs to be corrected: against the e . Likewise, the National Confederation of Indians, blacks, and more broadly, icultural Workers (CONTAG), often an MST abre guara contra the excluded. Not the best party ST ally, declared that the landless movement material. o pvemo em todo o Pais h d "reached the limit", and announced it The government seemed to read uld also keep its distance. the national mood accurately, and did not go overboard with 500 Year * Indian chiefs representing some 140 nacelebrations. The event in Porto ns throughout Brazil met near Porto Seguro Seguro was pretty well it—again, an what they described as an "anticelebration". observance more than a celebration. strongly worded document was released, The media got it right as well: there scribing Brazil's history as "infamous and were special programs on television, dignified", and listing 20 demands from the 500 Year issues and pullout sections deral government, including land demarcain major papers and magazines, but ons, removal of invaders, and compensation nothing beyond the expected, or in r environmental damage to Indian lands— any way exaggerated or overdone. In rimarily by gold prospectors who pollute rivfact, whatever celebratory mood s by using mercury to separate gold from silt. existed changed dramatically in the ZOE: 11 valid demands, except for the direct inpast two or three months, as much olvernent in creating the document by CIMI, mare questioning took place. Indian e Indigenist Missionary Council, a left-wing issues were very prominent, with ector of the Catholic Church. The irony here their status examined and re-examis that historical y, the church in Brazil was notorious for not ined in numerous media specials and open events. The status of blacks in Brazil became a topic of heated supporting Indi causes, and always siding with the ruler of discussion—they were introduced as slaves in the 1600s, freed the day against I dians. From that Indian meeting, an Apri122nd in the late 1800s, and 'continue to occupy the bottom rungs of march congreg ting several protesting organizations began the social ladder. Even environmental consequences got plenty towards Porto S guro, and was blocked by a large contingent of discussion space, although it's a bit childish to blame explor- of Bahia state 'Mary Police—this is the conflict that made it ers from five centuries ago, or settlers from two or three cen- on worldwide levision. turies back, for not displaying today's levels of awareness and * In various ities, the MST and members of the less promiconcern about preserving biodiversities. Still, judging from the amplitude and intensity of the pro- nent urban ver on of the movement, the MTST (Homeless tests organized to converge on the 500th birthday, one could Workers' Move ent), promoted numerous violent acts, in some easily conclude Brazil was partying blindly and ignoring the cases using Mo otov cocktails, often attempting to destroy a many issues that surround its first five centuries of nationhood. number of 500 ear "countdown clocks" installed nationwide The protestors' message seemed to be thatno level of observance by TV Globo, razil's largest television network. The clocks or positive recognition of the date would be appropriate—many were created b Globo's multi-award winning graphic artist were quoted as saying "there is nothing to celebrate", which Hans Donner, d attacking them might only serve as a general comes off like a totally unacceptable imposition, a "my way or protest against ast positions by the network, traditionally antino way" stance that Brazil's Left, so victimized by authoritar- left. In the 500 ear context, there was no discernible reason ian regimes in the past, should be smart enough to steer clear for destroying e clocks, except as a violent response to the 500 of, but apparently isn't. Here's how they went about driving Year observan e they symbolize. home their 500 Year message: MAWR
jornal da tarde
19 BRAZZIL - APRIL 2000
From all this, two conclusions: the government certainly always be the worst. Voters will take note, as they've done played into the situation, by ordering heavy police contingents consistently, and keep the Left, once again, on the sidelines. to keep demonstrators out of Porto Seguro on April 22nd. The There's just no more time to waste diving to the bottom of MST and other groups planning demonstrations had been makthe pit, to then look for ways to rise back to the top—which ing their intentions crystal clear for several days, perhaps weeks. is, in no uncertain terms, what the Brazilian left wing insists Ordering a blockade was almost like guaranteeing there would on asking Brazilians to do. be a clash, although it's difficult to say whether more dialogue might have prevented violence, given the declared intentions of Adhemar Altieri is a veteran with major news outlets in the protestors—many actually promised or implied violence on Brazil, Canada and the United States. He holds a Master's the big date. President Cardoso actually engaged protestors in a Degree in Journalism from Northwestern University in verbal media battle, but retreated in his Discovery day speech, Evanston, Illinois, and spent ten years with CBS News in which he accepted as valid the reasons behind protests by reporting from Canada and Brazil. Altieri is a member of Indians, blacks and the excluded. the Virtual Intelligence Community, formed by The The way things turned out is also a direct consequence of the Greenfield Consulting Group to identify future trends for federal government's incredible tolerance when it comes to the Latin America. He is also the editor of InfoBrazil (http:// endless list of illegal acts committed routinely by MST miliwww.infobrazil.com ), an English-language weekly e-zine tants—acts which are then exploited at the political level by leftwith analysis and opinions on Brazilian politics and wing parties. It is, indeed, a tandem: the MST does the field work, economy. You can reach the author at and the PT and other less prominent parties on the Left take firstname.lastname@example.org advantage of it on the political arena. Brasilia has allowed this to grow to a point where it will now have extreme difficulty enforcing the rule of law. The MST has long ago moved away from its priority—land reform, to take on a broader political stance, often using violence to reach its goals. Why this is tolerated has yet to be properly explained by Brasilia, especially since it does little to promote its own accomplishBEST SERVICE + BEST RATES ment when it comes to land reform: AIR - IATA 01-1-9279-012 some 300 thousand families settled OCEAN- FMC 3853 since Cardoso's first election, more than all previous Brazilian governments put together. Finally, it is disappointing to see the same old methods and approach TO ANY AIRPORT IN BRAZIL firmly entrenched in Brazil's left wing, and particularly in the Workers' Party. Worse, the PT leadership is talking out of both sides of its mouth—it says it is not supportive of the violence promoted by the FULL CONTAINER & DIRECT CONSOLIDATIONS MST in the past few days, but then... WITHOUT TRANSLOADING IN MIAMI some of its most prominent leaders, including party president and Sao Paulo congressman Jose Dirceu, were present when those marchers clashed with police in Bahia. So which is it? For, against, or just another "opportunity" to take advantage of? None of this is to say the Brazilian government requires no criticism or makes no mistakes—any regular Brazzil reader knows how we feel about this government's performance, which falls short on numerous items. Which is why expecting the Left to play a more prominent role in the political arena is only natural. They will not accomplish the prominence they ought to have until they shed the idea that they must continue to play to the lowest common denominator. Things remaining as they are, the PT will continue to spin its wheels come election time—hoping for the best, which in their case will
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Brazi1101 Question: "Is Brazil all its cracked up to be?" Answer: "Perhaps. I came here with very few expectations and so far I haven't been disappointed. The only way to answer this question is to come and see it for yourself. It would be a pleasure and privilege to discuss this matter further with you whilst sipping a cold drink in the beach." PHILIP BLAZDELL Dear Mr. Blazdell, I read your article on Bahia in Brazzil magazine. I enjoyed it very much. I've never been to Brazil. One of my oldest friends however wrote the Lonely Planet Guidebook to Brazil, perhaps you've read it? His name is Andrew Draffen. He and I went to school together in Australia and he later married a Brazilian woman and lived for a time in Rio. I've read so much about Brazil, Rio, the history, culture, society of the place. I often listen to samba and forr6 on CD. I suppose I have a rather simplistic question. Is Brazil all it's cracked up to be? From just reading about it you get contradictory and slightly bewildering impressions. On the one hand many portray the country as a kind of paradise of the human spirit—where the zest for life is greater than anywhere else, the people more open and joyful, the women more beautiful and amorous, the pleasures of life keener. Reading about the crime and poverty and political strife in Brazil however, you get the impression of a kind of hell on earth. Where does the reality lie and what is Brazil really like? As I said I've never been there but I desperately want to go one day. My wife refuses to go as she saw a news documentary about homeless children being systematically murdered in the streets ofBrazilian cities. She refuses to set foot in a country that treats its children in such a manner. How can I argue with something like that? Rio for example also sounds like a violent and dangerous city. What are your thoughts? David Holt in Missouri, USA
BRAZZIL - APRIL 2000
After a night of thinking and chatting I feel a little bit more able to give an answer to you. If you don't mind I will save your letter for future articles in Brazzil—I feel it is so important. Before I give you my answer I think its important to say that I really only know the Northeast of Brazil well. The country is so big that it's quite hard for me to travel as much as I like. lam told by many people that the variation between here (which is poor) and the South (which is richer) is remarkable—I am happy to believe this as I notice a considerable difference when I got to the next state. I also would ask you to take my thoughts into consideration that I have just spent the last 18 months in Japan, which I hated. Brazil was always my dream, and as I have written somewhere I consider myself quite an adventurous person, so perhaps it makes it easier for me to live and work here. I agree with your sentiments exactly, about the huge contrasts the media and books give of Brazil. To a certain extent I am as responsible for this myth as the next man, though the Lonely Planet book is brilliant and impartial it is still necessary to gloss over certain aspects to sell the book. For example, if I was to write about the day-to-day frustrations I have here—like meetings never happening, never getting paid, have to bribe people for a phone line, etc, the editor of Brazzil would throw his hands up in the air and wonder what I am thinking about. I try to write about the positive aspects of this place, which I feel there are many of. My intention is that people will get a little bit of the flavour of Brazil from my articles—I always try to hint at some of the problems here, but perhaps that gets lost in my gushing about a beach or a place. Perhaps this creates the urban myth that Brazil is the most exciting, sensual place in the world. It reminds me of the sign I used to see at Osaka airport in Japan, which read: 'Our country finer, our heritage greater and our people kinder—Welcome to Japan'. Every country wants to extend this myth of being fantastic. I traveled for some time in Malawi, which extols itself as the warm heart of Africa, only to find myself hassled and frustrated at every move. I even find myself idolizing London now after 20 years of complaining bitterly about it. Perhaps, and this is only my opinion, Brazil seems so exotic purely because it is largely unknown by the average European or North American. My own personal experience is that very few of my friends know anything aboutthe country. For example, I have been asked if there are cars in Brazil, ifwe all live in the jungle or ifthere are such things as supermarkets. I would be the last person to say Brazil is a paradise—though certain situations and places come close and am the first to admit that the country has some 21
serious problems. For example, here in Fortaleza we have a thriving child sex tourism industry, which to me is almost so horrific I can't even begin to rationalize it. But, and I say this with the hope of an optimist, I don't believe that the situation is so dire that we must give up hope. Undoubtedly the place can be dangerous, just last night a colleague was the victim of an attempted carjacking close to the university. But a closer look at the situation shows a different story. She was in a notoriously bad area, late at night in a brand new car. Its just like the Japanese minister I was with once in a pub in London who took out a wad of 50 pound notes and wondered why everyone stopped and stared. Opportunist crime is always a problem when there is a disparity between the rich and the poor. I had a similar experience in Mexico City not so long ago. My point is this, if you are aware and do not take risks then Fortaleza (I can't be sure about other cities) is safe. There are enough honest people to keep you out of the bad areas in Salvador nearly everyone stopped us on the street to warn us from one area. So far I have been in no threatening situations and feel reasonably comfortable. However, I believe Rio may be different, nearly everyone I know here warned me about going to Rio alone for Carnaval, but on the positive side my boss told me if I wanted to see Rio, which he suggested was essential for me, he would willingly take me and show me around. Perhaps this is the true paradise of Brazil, the fact that often people have so little to give and give so willingly. I am interested in your wife's views and can sympathize with them. This started me to think about where I have been recently. Just a scan through my passport gave me this list—and with some thought a reason not to go there. China—terrible human rights record—the dieing rooms Japan—Rape of Nanking Soviet Union—Human rights issues England—terrible colonial past France—testing of nuclear weapons in the South Pacific In the end I gave up when the only country I felt I could safely visit was Canada. My point is that every country has some skeletons in the cupboard, and through my travels I have come
not to accept these but to have a more compassionate view of life. I do not endorse the horrors, real or otherwise, which Jam sure a few sick people perform in Brazil, or anywhere else in the world, but through my work as an educator I try to offer a solution. That of education. Brazil does not need moral or economic sanctions, it needs a firm hand and compassion—for that reason alone I believe that you really must come and see this place for yourself. I will willingly introduce your wife to some excellent schools here run for homeless children which are simply fantastic. Our department gives generously and we take a real pride in our children we have helped. To answer you question, is Brazil what its cracked up to be, I have to be honest and say.. perhaps. I came here with very few expectations and so far I haven't been disappointed. I find the people incredibly warm and hospitable—for example my landlord who let me live rent free for two months to allow me to settle in and the countryside generally attractive. The only way to answer this question is to come and see it for yourself. It would be a pleasure and privilege to discus this matter further with you whilst sipping a cold drink in the beach. I hope that some day you take me up on this offer, but in the meantime, these thoughts are mine, and quite possibly mine alone, please let me know ifthis helps to resolve your problems and if I can clarify any matters further. Kindest regards and thanks for opening my mind a little! Philip The author grew up in London and left at the earliest opportunity for a glittering career in Asia. After failing miserably to adapt his Japanese colleagues to an English sense of humour he took off for sunnier climes. He currently lives, and is rumoured, works in the NE of Brazil. He has traveled extensively, mostly using other people's money—of which he is absurdly proud. He is a regular contributor to this, and other esteemed travel magazines. He is always happy to receive letters from readers and will personally reply to all. He may be contacted at email@example.com
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22 BRAZZIL - APRIL 2000
Bay Wash Rio was one o the first cities in the world to have a water supply ystem, and the fifth to have a sewer treatment pl nt. With the enormous influx of inhabitants i the last half century, however, the sewer networ has collapsed. ELIZA BONNER
From my of ice window a huge expanse of unnaturally brown water shi mers deceptively, brilliantly, in the Rio sunshine. It is Guan ara Bay, the once pristine body of water where the Portuguese anded 500 years ago amid teeming herds of whales and dolp i ins. The whales disappeared in the 1700's and the dolphins in e 1960's, and the Bay, once riotous with its variety of man e life, is now a deadened ecosystem, a toxic dumping groun s sullied by centuries of human carelessness and predation. From a dista ce, the Guanabara basin is still an area of stunning natural be ty, its 4,000 km' of water ringed by beaches, vegetation and e buildings of Rio. While preservation of the Bay has never een high on Brazil's agenda, severe environmental degrada ion has become acute over the last 50 years due to uncontrolled deforestation, illegal squatting on margins of lakes and river , discharge of untreated sewer and improper disposal of ind strial, hospital and residential solid waste. Rio was one of the first cities in the world to have a water supply system, and the fifth to have a sewer treatment plant. With the enorm pus influx of inhabitants in the last half century, the sewer network has finally collapsed. The results of this failure include polluted soil, surface water, the underground water table, and other major bodies of water, including the Lagoa Rodrigo de Freitas and the ocean. Besides the environmental destruction, an obvious effect of this contamination is the spread of disease, including intestinal parasites, infectious hepatitis, typhoid fever and dengue. CEDAE, the state-owned water and sewerage company, estimates that 477 tons of pollution discharge daily into the Bay, of which 400 tons is raw sewage runoff, primarily from the twenty-seven surrounding shantytowns. Only 60-70 tons of sewer are treated. Industrial waste lags behind at 64 tons, and domestic and other trash comprise the remainder. Solid waste numbers present another startling reality. One Brazilian produces approximately 0.5 to 1.0 kg ofwaste per day, with a typical 5-person household producing 910 to 1825 kg yearly. The cq of Rio de Janeiro produces, every two months, the equivalent of one Maracand stadium full of garbage. The quantity of tr sh not collected and thrown into the nearest waterway ofte causes blockages and subsequent flooding and mudslides, soiie of which are catastrophic. Although 5% of Brazilians live in urban centers, only 25% have access to sewer and waste systems. Trash collection and sewer treatment in the slums is a priority, but project execution is difficult due to the dangerous nature of these drug-plagued communities, their propensity to flood, limited vehicle access, and lack of interest in environmental preservation. Despite lower indices, industrial pollution is far from benign. Between 1995 and 1997, the Bay experienced 99 ecologiBFtAZZIL - APRIL 2000
cal accidents, including chemical and oil spills. Of the 6,000 industries in the basin, dominated by chemical, metallurgy and oil, a mere 49 of them produce 80% of the industrial refuse. Reports state that one refinery alone produces 20% of the industrial pollution. Although a slew ofwordy environmental laws exist, enforcement is lax, and some areas remain untouched. For example, Brazilian law does not require industries to have waste minimization programs; consequently sanitation dumps are inadequately maintained and are still the final destination for most collected waste, including hazardous substances. Despite high levels of technology, only recently have industries considered incorporating environmental management strategies into their operations, mainly because they realized that prevention is more cost-effective than attempted monitoring of pollution, subsequent environmental degradation and fines imposed on the destruction wrought. Only in 1981 did FEEMA, the federal environmental licensing and monitoring agency, begin registering industrial activities that generate hazardous waste. In 1994, Rio resolved to take one of its most drastic pollution problems in hand. Thus was conceived the PDBG Programa de Despoluicdo da Baia de Guanabara, or the Guanabara Bay Clean Up Program. At that time, the Interamerican Development Bank (IDB), Japan Bank (previously the OECF) and the State Government of Rio signed a financing agreement that would provide $793 million, later increased to $1 billion, to fund the first of two phases of the Program. The PDBG's general objectives are to clean up the Bay and the surrounding basin, simultaneously improving the quality of life of its 7.7 million residents. Six subprojects within the PDBG have been underway for six years in an attempt to reach those lofty goals. These six ambitious and necessary projects sadly highlight the deplorable state of Rio's infrastructure. The first and undoubtedly most urgent issue is the raw sewer runoff, to be tamped following construction of sewer treatment plants and collectors, and a network that will connect these plants to the most heavily populated areas around the Bay. Given the urgency of reducing sewage pollutants, 80% of Phase I funds were directed towards basic sanitation projects. Separate but connected are the second and third subprojects, which will expand potable water supplies through additional pumping stations and distribution tanks, and improve solid waste collection and disposal. In the effort to correct centuries of no control over urban waste, trash collection will increase, solid waste transfer stations, incinerators and recycling plants will be rehabilitated, and trash collection and disposal procedures will be intensified. The remaining three subprojects include canal and river drainage with projects to prevent habitual flooding, digital mapping, environmental programs to control industrial contamination, and environmental education for the population living around the Bay. Three major activities are planned to reduce industrial waste. First is identification ofthe various types ofresiduals generated by industries. Next planned are measures to impose controls on the generators, transporters and receivers of industrial waste. Finally, a program to recycle 40% of the industrial waste will be developed. Educational training was factored into the project cost as one of the IDB' s funding requirements. It was found that residents saw projects happening in their neighborhoods and did not understand the purpose. When polled, some people (principally those with only a grade school education) thought the quality of the water was fine. As with sewer, the majority of the residential trash is generated by the surroundingfave/as. Recycling 24
is an unknown activity, and most people do not understand the ecological, social or sanitary importance of not throwing trash into the nearest gutter or river. Even when trash collection programs exist, it is difficult or impossible for garbage trucks to getup narrow streets built without engineering specifications. In some places there are no streets at all. Finally, the slums in Rio have a deserved dangerous reputation, and many people, including city workers, refuse to enter unfamiliar marginal communities for fear of being shot. Five hundred public school professors have been trained to teach their students about the PDBG. Also planned is dissemination of information about the PDBG through the media, and by means of artistic/cultural and sports events involving the populations affected by the Program. The original completion date of Phase I projects financed by the IDB was March 1999, recently extended to March 2001. The termination date ofJuly 2003 for projects funded by Japan Bank remains unchanged. Construction of four new sewage collection and treatment plants, and reforms in four others, were planned for Phase I. To date, two are on-line, while the remaining six are scheduled to become operational at various points throughout the year. The 1080 km extension of the sewer network is approximately 35% complete. Negotiations for financing Phase H are underway, with requirements estimated at approximately $1.6 billion. Japan Bank will not participate in funding Phase II, citing plans to dedicate more funds to Asia and less-developed areas such as the northeast of Brazil. The IDB, although it has expressed frustration at the inefficiency and slowness of "typical Brazilian bureaucracy", signed a Letter of Intent with the Government and is evaluating Phase II projects, largely extensions ofthe work done in Phase I. Additionally, in 1999 CEDAE signed an agreement with the US Trade & Development Agency to develop a project to handle the 413 tons of sludge that will remain after daily treatment of the raw sewage. While Phase I was essentially a basic sanitation program, Phase II has a $100 million environmental component, which revolves around replanting of mangroves and monitoring of water quality. This effort is even more urgent after January's oil spill, as virtually 100% ofthe remaining mangroves, already reduced by half over the last 30 years, were destroyed. The mangroves are top priority for the environmental groups due to the fact that they are fundamental to the continuation o f life, including human, in and around the Bay. Mangroves are hatcheries and nurseries for countless species of insects, crustaceans, fish and birds. Without this beginning of life there can be no continuation, and humans are already being severely affected by the fall-off in numbers of fish and decreasing biodiversity. General consensus is that another 15 years of work, investment and education will be required before Guanabara Bay will be considered clean. Inhabitants of Rio believe the PDBG a necessary effort, but the construction delays and funding issues leave them unconvinced of its success. Additionally, after the oil spill there is more to clean up now than there was six years ago. Officially, the Government touts the Program's marginal achievements. Unofficially, it is commonly held that more drastic measures must be taken. It seems that a vital missing component is the realization that it is everyone's responsibility to clean up the Bay, not just the government's, the environmental groups' or the marginal communities that live on the water's edge. Eliza Bonner is an American living in Rio de Janeiro. She can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org BRAZZIL - APRIL 2000
The Art of Money The next act is the presentation of the new, amended bill. It is still not polite to pay at this stage as the bill still bares no relation to the meal. PHILIP BLAZDELL
the rich tapestry of life here in Brazil. I have to confess that I love Brazil. Often, when things are going wrong such as people don't turn up for meetings that I have been struggling to organise for weeks, customs at sao Paulo impound another consignment of my scientific apparatus or the transformer blows up at work leaving us without electricity for four days, and no one seems to care,! wonder why on earth I am still here and ponder that perhaps! should really consider finding a job in an easier country. And then, often when I am at my lowest point and in my blackest mood, I find myself in a restaurant, with tears rolling down my face, and I say a silent prayer of thanks to the Gods of travel and opportunity for letting me experience the little known art of the Brazilian conta. Let me explain. It was soon after my arrival that! noticed that my meals were costing three times the amount stated on the menu and my severely limited funds were running dryer quicker than last time I let my girlfriend loose with my credit card in Hong Kong. What on earth is going on I wailed to my patient Brazilian friends. It's like this they told me: The conta (or bill) isn't actually the bill you are expected to pay, it's the first wild stab in the dark and in actuality should bear no relation to the meal you have just eatenâ€” which after five months here seems as reasonable as anything else. Never ever pay the first bill you receive or before you know what is happening word will spread around and restaurants will be calling you asking if you care to dine with them. In my experience, the better the restaurant the better the initial bill will be. Of course, when!say better, I use the word in the more philosophical this is going to be an amusing half an hour sense, and not in the degree of correctness sense. Rest assured no malice is intendedâ€”it's all part of BRAZZIL - APRIL 2000
Stage 2: The Negotiation. lihis is perhaps the most interesting part of the whole pantomime and can, on pecial occasions, surpass the meal in entertainment value. Each item has o be carefully checked against the menu, of which the waiter (who I am sur is always the innocent party in these games) will invariably have an out of date version, or one that is so folded and creased it was only probably legible s metime during the reign of Dom Pedro II. Do not be so bold as to ac ally have a list already prepared; it is a game of give and take. For example, e didn't eat the lobster, but we had the steak. Off comes the lobster and on g es the steak plus a side salad. At which point the waiter will almost always p int a finger at me and ask "are you positiveâ€” I am sure you had lobster. Or as that last week?". We carry on this delicate ballet. Ok, we didn't actually ha e the side salad, but I had a rather nice soup' So, now you come and te I me my salad is no good...' `No, honestly, it's very g d normally, I just didn't fancy it tonight' 'It's not too late now ... ' I once spent almost 90 mi utes on this stage, but as our large party actually had no idea what we had e ten or drunk and the fact that every Brazilian waiter has, by law, to spend a least 20 minutes of every hour playing with any small children in the pa ; I think this was wholly reasonable. Stage 3: The second atte pt. The next act is the presentation of the new, amended bill. It is still not po ite to pay at this stage as the bill still bares no relation to the meal. Besides, you have to enter into the spirit of things and the waiter will not be able to ccept the tip he was 'already worked into the bill in good spirit if you don' at least play along a bit. will always decide to order another desert Besides, someone in the p or the live music will start, in hich case the waiter will scurry off to add cover
charges on. One memorable night I protested at paying the excessive cover Stage 5: Payment. This is where Brazilian waitcharge for the five minutes ofterrible music that I had to endure. The waiter ers really come into their own. No matter how many told me that he wanted to waive the cover charge, as indeed the singer did ways you want to split the bill, and how many difsound like she was inflicting grievously body harm on a cat, but the man- ferent methods of payment you want to use, they agement would not be impressed by his generosity. never ever make a mistake at this stage. I have seen So instead, he sat down, pulled out his antique menu and worked out waiters wiz round a table of twenty people collecta totally new bill for us, including the cover charge, but using meals from ing credit cards, cheques, luncheon vouchers and the menu in such as way that after careful consideration and a few more even cash and not make a single mistake with returniterations we left paying exactly the same as we ing the right change. It's fantastic to watchâ€”try would have paid for our original food had we not splitting a bill three ways in London and see what the paid the cover charge. It was beautiful to behold. response is. You want to pay 2R$ by credit card, 4R$ Few times in my life have I had the opportunity to by cheque and the rest in used boot lacesâ€”of course watch genius at work, but surely this was it. sir. 2R$ from this account, 25R$ from the wife's and the rest from the numbered bank account in SwitzerStage 4: The utopian stage. Now you are getland. Of course sir. ting close. The bill is in the right ball park, the waiter For me, it's an art form in itselfand it never ceases is now on first name terms with everyone round the to make me laugh. Brazil may occasionally play the table, the management are beaming as their restaubeautiful game of football, but each and every night rant is packed with animated people and the punton the streets of Fortaleza a far more beautiful game ers all happily ensconced in the warm embrace of takes place, which as long as you remember the rules a dozen other tipsy friends. A kind of quasi-utopian and keep a sense of humour and perspective, is far state is reached where everyone is more or less content. During this stage more fun, far more accessible, and a whole lot more the waiter will have demonstrated his flair in crowd control, abstract math- rewarding. ematics and child care skills whilst the happy customers use the spare hour or so to put the world to rights, discuss the latest twists in the soaps, plan The author is currently living in Brazil and a coup d'etat at work and all the other things which were blotted out when believes that in Brazil things are just that little bit the invariably fantastic food arrived. Me, I just sit back in wonder. No one different from the rest of the world. For all its looses face, no one gets upset and regardless of how surreal the initial bill thoughts and sins, he believes Brazil is still a is, I know we will be back there next week to dance this dance again. beautiful place. He may be contacted at philipAdem.ufc.br
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Que dia e hoje? Quinta, Sexta. Afmal o que importa isso a Luisa? E hoje, e ela esti deitada na cama king-size, tamanho conveniente a urn casal do mesmo porte. Tern os olhos semi cerrados e pingos de suor escorrem pela testa vincada. Morde os labios e os fere. Limpa o sangue corn as costas da mao, espalhando-o pelo rosto. Treme. Levanta-se e anda pelo quarto desorientada e angustiada. Vai ate a janela, afasta a cortina, olha a paisagem, fecha a cortina, passa os dedos entre os fios do cabelo. Dirige-se àescrivaninha do juiz, abre a gaveta e retira dela o papel timbrado corn o selo da justica e o envelope. Comeca a escreyer, Ora de vez em quando para controlar o tremor. Le em voz alta o que escreve: — Queridas primas, acho que esse meu pedido causara surpresa uma vez que nosso contato pessoal tem sido muito restrito nesses Oltimos tempos mas lacos de sangue sao fortes. Sei que as lembrancas que tern de mim depois do meu casamento nao me sac) muito favoraveis, nao por minha culpa, voces sabem como 6 o juiz, desculpem, o meu marido. Para tremula nas palavras como é o juiz, corrige: como era o juiz. Acha que a carta esta concisa, fria, formal, exatamente como deve ser uma carta comercial. A falta que faz a convivencia...Rasga, joga os pedacos no cesto de lixo de madreperola, decide que tele fonard, melhor, nao precisara explicar muito.
The truth had neither suppressed the anguish nor put an end to the pity of herself. I will give everything I have for my freedom. These words come from the large portrait where he poses as Napoleon Bonaparte. Why would he have to go out arm in arm with that little whore, ridiculous, with his hair painted black, the two of them going down the spiral stairway as a couple of young sweethearts.
Fala sozinha, melhor, reflete em voz alta. You ter que ouvir coisas das duas, das minhas primas de infancia, dajuventude, do tempo das confidencias. Estou adivinhando as falas, nao disse que voce ia se dar mal corn esse sujeito metido a besta? You ligar, apesar de tudo 6 menos intim°. Preciso esconder as marcas, elas nao podem desconfiar de nada, you trancar o sotao. Sobe a BRAZZIL - APRIL 2000
pegajosa, desce a raciocinar, desco
escada em espiral, fecha a porta suavemente, evitando qualquer mid() e passa a chave, nem ela propria ouve o barulho da chave na fechadura, Alo, Clarice? Tudo bem corn voce? E, faz tempo. Fala apressadamente, nervosa, enrolando o fib do telefone, molhando os labios ressequidos. Gostaria que viessem passar os feriados...pois 6, falta de tempo...eles?, nao, nao estarao, cada um tern a sua vida, eu estou sozinha...nao, infelinnente, foi embora, acontece, os meninos tentaram ajudar, mas eu preferi ficar sozinha para pensar...foi urn choque, 6, paratodos, depois conto os detalhes...nao, tudo bem, para o jantar, lembrancas a todos. Luisa sai do quarto, vai ate a sala de jantar. Observa, como se au i estivesse entrando pela primeira vez. Murmura. Mudei de vida, a vida mudou, os mOveis da minha casa nao parecem meus, a brisa assobiando, tudo é tao grande, tdo fora de proporcao, sinto-me pequena nessa sala cheia de lembrancas, as vozes guardadas, palavras que esbarram nas paredes e voltarn como bumerangues, a hora em que o dia comeca a morrer e a noite a nascer —6 a pior hora. Esse esforco diario da passagem do claro para o escuro, esta me esgotando. De tao fraca, Luisa lido consegue alcancar obotao do interruptor, suarigidez lembra-the a morte e talvez tenha medo de que corn a claridade a verdade se revele. A verdade, o que é a verdade? Afasta a cortina, olha a ma. A garota continua rondando a casa, insistente. Por que me sinto assustada corn essa garota, por que ela ainda me assusta, tudo acabou... Escorrega pelasparedes como uma lesma o chao, e em posicao fetal aliperinanece. Tenta rir porque tudo comecou. Ouve vozes: voce nao 27
6 a primeira...voce ë chata, esta velha, seus cabelos estao ficando brancos, ralos... Luisa assusta-se. Esconde-se sob a grande almofada. Quem esti ai? E ele, suas palavras descobriram-me aqui, saem do seu canto predileto do sofa, atacam-me, ferem-me. Preciso ter forcas para rebater essas palavras. Segura uma almofada a guisa de escudo. As falas persistem. Voce perdeu a virilidade, nao mais meu marido. Essa voz é minha, é minha, vem da cozinha, vai para o quarto de casa, estou ouvindo, estou ficando louca, nao pode ser...Sou impotente corn voce, logic°, que homem iriaquerer esse corpo velho...Luisa cobre a cabeca corn a almofada, recusa-se a ouvir palavras Mc) crueis. As luzes acendem-se de repente, lembra-se das primas, meu deus, o convite para os feriados, sao elas! Acha que nAo agilentara outra noite de solidao corn os ecos assustadores. -id nem sabe se realmente as palavras andam pela casa, se estao na sua cabeca ou presas no sesta°. —0 que esta fazendo al no chao, Luisa? Clarice, antes mesmo do boa noite, como vai, exige respostas. a mais velha das primas, seu sorriso debochado parece sempre esbanjar felicidade, vai entrando e acendendo as lampadas. —Procuro um grampo...Foi a Unica resposta que Luisa achou assim de improviso. —Nessa escuridao? Clarice rebate sarcastica. Demoramos porque a estrada esta lotada, parece que todos tern uma prima para consolar. —Para visitar, Clarice, visitar, intervem Teresa. Teresa, a boa samaritana, a madre superiora, isto é, se fosse virgem. —Bern e ja que estamos aqui, o que faremos nesse sanatoria desculpe, nesse condom inio de luxo isolado e privativo. NA° 6 isso, Luis? Luis, chega mais pert°, abraca Teresa, um abraco frio, estende a mao, cumprimenta Clarice, por que nao tern coragem de abracala? —Como vac) voces? E todos la na casa? —Como esta voce, Luisa? A solidariedade embutida nas palavras. Teresa, Teresa! —Enfim, os homens sempre deixam as mulheres, tido é prima Luisa? No tom de voz a satisfacao de mostrar que jamais fora enganada, jamais tivera urn homem. —Pela morte ou pelo abandono. Foi por isso que voce nAo avisou a familia? Afinal se urn marido some... Luisa responde a Teresa ignorando os comentarios de Clarice. —Agora que voces chegaram, melhor, mas estou corn medo do que me possa acontecer. —0 passado é sempre perigoso, LAO é primas? E o futuro aterrador! Clarice, o advogado do diabo. Sente-se invadida, esta abrindo a guarda ao inimigo, quem podera saber o que as primas estardo pensando? Talvez tenham algum piano em mente. Por urn instante recua, e sem querer, desfaz O convite. —Talvez queiram voltar, nao é a hora certa, o que acham? A voz treme. —Lembre-se de que ha uma estrada a enfrentar e já escureceu....Lembra Teresa, a placida prima. —Reconheco que me precipitei, Mum hiato enorme de iddias entre nOs, todos esses anos, foi o medo, o medo que o mundo acabasse e me pegasse sozinha. Acho que estou correndona direcao errada e nao devo levar voces duas comigo, desabafa Luisa, sentindo-se desnuda diante dessas primas que nao mais recorthece. —Estou oca, sem vida..., murmura denunciando cansaco. — E mais desprotegida conosco do que se estivesse sozinha, isso? Teresa tenta amenizar. — Afinal Luisa, ele morreu, ndo morreu? Ou ssi se foi para sempre? Clarice exige respostas. Tao facil matar o marido, mesmo que alheio, por que ela insiste? 28
—Morreu, morreu, para mim pelo menos. Luisa quer dar forca as palavras, quer mesmo acreditar no que diz. Indiferente, Clarice dirige-se ao refrigerador. — Cuidado, aconselha Teresa, nap va lambiscar...Esse mau habit°, dirige-se a Luisa, é responsavel pelas gordurinhas aoredor dos quadris, heranca de familia, aperta entre os dedos o excesso de sua cintura. Clarice perscruta o interior da geladeira, vai ate a despensa, comida para urn ano, murmura entre dentes. Ri, urn riso enigmatic°. Luisa irrita-se corn aquele olhar, corn a sua risada, mas de repente descobre que elas estdo aui porque foram chamadas. Para fazer companhia no fim de semana prolongado, quando o ski° dos feriados proporciona reflexoes inconvenientes. Clarice continua na sua inspecao pela casa. Luisa a segue de pert°, insegura, sabe que ela quer descobrir pistas, indicios. Entra no quarto da empregada, acaricia a colcha acetinada, ajeita a cortina de babados...—Foi aqui nao foi, Luisa? Voce enfeitou muito esse quarto, mostrou outra vida a fulaninha... Afinal o quanto sabe Clarice alem do que contei? 0 que descobriu alem de que o juiz foi embora de casa corn a empregada domestica? Logo atras esta Teresa, o catalisador, suavizando as palavras de Clarice. —Parem corn isso, isso émasoquismo, you fazer urn belo café para reanimar. Sentada na cama de casal do quarto da empregada, no rosto a expressao de quern sabe de tudo, Clarice é o advogado de acusacao, a inquiridora, o bispo roxo da Inquisicao, pronto para queimar Luisa na fogueira. Teresa entra preocupada em nao deixar c air a bandeja, as xicaras, o acircar. 0 cheiro forte do café ameniza por instantes o ambiente pesado. —Venham, saborear esse cafe divino. Teresa age como se estivesse noutro cenario. Luisa nao consegue esconder o medo e a vergonha e tambem um pouco de raiva que esta comecando a acumular. Sabe que essa noite sera a lavacao de alma, percebe que deu a Clarice a oportunidade pela qual ela esperou a vida inteira. Subitamente as palavras somem interpondo entre elas urn silencio desagradavelque desgosta e irrita, uma raiva muda que as impede de falar, de contestar, de desabafar. Por urn momento as intrusas, cuja presenca contribuira para aumentar o desespero de Luisa, no momento maior que a sua dor, calam-se, tranc am-se em seus pensamentos. Mas Luisa quer continuar, é o momento da auto-flagelacao. Desconfia que convidou as queridas primas para isso, para que ambas sejam os algozes que a farao confessar. —Podem falar, sei que vao dizer que dei mais valor as aparencias. Por isso casei corn o juiz. 0 simbolo da verdade, da justica. Veja essa foto, diz pegando o porta retratos sobre a mesa, vejam essas imagens, dois filhos e o marido, ndo é o que a sociedade quer? Vivi corn as imagens, os primeiros anos de casamento, a felicidade, a renuncia a minha carreira de advogada, bastava um causidico, e teria que ser ele, nab é assim? Quern sempre renuncia? 0 orgulho pelo marido promotor, os diplomas de merit°, depois o juiz implacavel, a troca de conceitos por preconceitos, o mundo fechado no circulo BRAZZIL - APRIL 2000
sem saida. As frases voltam, elas estAo de novo pela sala, esbarrando nas paredes...voce foi burra, sempre a disposicdo dos filhos, enfiada nessas roupas de seda, voce nao sabe o que é o mundo. Nao so as frases, é a voz de Clarice. E dessa vez, eta tern uma testemunha, Teresa concordando timidamente corn a prima. —NAo sei, acho que Clarice dessa vez tern raid°, fala olhando para os pes, —odeio reconhecer mas é verdade. Verdade é tambem que o julgamento prossegue. Luisa sera julgadadentro de suacasapela prima que acha que o mundo é o foga() e o tanque de lavar roupas, o mundo das assexuadas. Mas elatambem sabe de coisas, tambern pode acusar. Sentadas a mesa de jacaranda da Bahia, tomando café nas xicaras filetadas a ouro, as tres mergulham por segundos em seus proprios pensamentos. De repente, como criancas surpresas, falam ao mesmo tempo. — Lembram-se do quartao da casa da vovO, das cenas de filmes, voce era a Diana Durbin... — LOgico, era a artista mais bon ita de epoca, Teresa, voce acha que elapoderia ser outra? A Joan Bennett, essa sobrava para mim... — Voce nao esquece, hein, Clarice?, Eu sou morena, ou pelo menos era, lembra-se que de tanta tintura no momento era bem loira, e voce é mais para o castanho... —0 mais comunzinho, ndo é? —E o baile dos portugueses de Coimbra, lembramse? Luisa voltou corn a bolsa cheia de pedacinhos da capa dos universitarios, tambem do jeito que chamou a atencOo naquele chafe de Portugal... —NAo me diga que voce esta corn raiva ate hoje, Clarice, voce nao dancou porque ndo quis, estava emburrada. — E olhem para nos agora. Duas solteironas e voce sozinha apesar da louca chique e dos talheres de prata. —Clarice! — Deixe, Teresa, vejo que Clarice ndo mudou nada. Luisa imagina se o que aconteceu teria acontecido se eland() houvesse voltado da viagem frustradanaquele dia...se ao menos ele tivesse morrido, se ela pudesse esquecer a expresso de felicidade em seu rosto quando eta o descobriu corn a garota nos bracos, se pudesse vencer a inveja que sentira da empregadinha, daquele corpo jovem e duro, por que eta era tdo jovem, por que seu corpo era tao belo sob o corpo flacido do marido, o juiz tao severo, o dono da verdade, que lido fora capaz de resistir a tentacAo, mas entOo, esse havia sido o seu pecado? Deixar de amar o corpo velho da esposa e entregar-se aquela menina? A desilusdo e o reconhecimento de que eta havia envelhecido, mas a raiva de presenciar a traicAo na sua casa...Ela o julgara e o condenara, sem dar-the o beneplacito da defesa. Tenta parar de pensar. As palavras mesmo nab ditas sdo perigosas. As primas jamais poderiam ter conhecimento da verdade, esse seriamais urn trunfo, faria um esforco para conservar a dignidade, a superioridade sobre as duas, nao daria o prazer da verdade a Clarice ou a Teresa, desconfiava desse desprendimento dessa prima que chegara como a pacificadora—afinal o tempo muda as pessoas. Teresa deveria estar julgando seu comportamento, procurando contradicOes em sua fala—por isso tinha que aparentar ser o que talvez nRo mais fosse. Levanta-se, vai ate o jardim. 0 ceu esta negro e as constelacties ainda estao la, as estrelas de primeira BRAZZIL - APRIL 2000
grandeza em primeiro plano. As outras, poeiras no espaco infinito. E au i no jardim as vo es presentes: —e voce hesitou em vir para como esse? E corn o ceu vieratambem cá, onde encontrariau o inferno e o demonic na figura da menina. 0 purgatOrio sera essa noite corn as primas. Teresa segue Luis , tenta desculpar Clarice, lembra a prima de como eta era rebel e na juventude, e reforca: devem ser os hormonios, o psiquia a disse que eta precisa de umas sesseles de analise. —Psiquiatra? Lu sa surpreende-se. —E, depois dahisferectomia, Clarice ficou angustiada, achando que nao era mais muliher, dizia que sentia falta do fitero, precisou de severa internacdo na clinica. Falta do casamenfo, do sexo, Clarice, a mulher das cavernas, precisa da gruta do lar, essa 6 a razdo da raiva que sente por mim, s6 poder ser. —Esta tudo bem Teresa, nab se aflija. Hora de dormir, hora de vigiar. E se Clarice resolver vasculhar a casa e se abrir o s6tao, vai descobrir o meu segredo. As vozes novamente,...fique, ijiinha querida, deixe essa jovenzinha ensinar a voce o que nao ap endeu nos seus cinqiienta anos... Clarice ainda ndo tern sono, quer conversar, voltar ao passado. —Voces se lembran) do que falavamos na juventude, —eu quero casar virgem, para os homens sexo é corn as rameiras, quanta besteira ouviamos do familia, olha esse decote, nao provoque os homens, evitar filho? E pecado...Lembram-se? NAo mexam nos orgaos sexuais, da paralisia nas maos...Clarice nao conversa, fala, fala como se suavidadependesse dessas palavras. Lembram-se das tias italianas, eram assim, como Teresa 6 agora, sera que passamos por tudo isso, ou for urn sonho? Luisa tambem d aneia. E eu, o que fizpelo mundo afora, alem de ver vitrines, e New York, Londres...Suspira cansada, estressada. —Ja e dia claro e assei outra noite acordadamesmo corn voces aqui. Luisa deixa tr sparecer ressentimento no torn de voz. Clarice já nao fala, ha uma especie de hostilidade entre elas, o peso da descoberta de ndo t r mais nada em comum a nAo ser o sangue italiano. Estdo solen s e silenciosas, naquele templo que é a grande e bela casa de pe di eito alto, ornada por esculturas requintadas, escolhidas a dedo p lo juiz, estatica, como a tees mulheres. La fora a vegetacao esta q ieta pela ausencia de vento e as folhas das samambaias pendu adas no teto do alpendre desenham arabescos nos vidros das jan las. Clarice e Teresa nao combinam corn o cenario, sao pecas e tranhas, realistas, cruas demais. A barriga de Teresa 6 grande, s pernas tern varizes grossas que as meias especiais ndo con eguem esconder—d assexuada. 0 rosto de Clarice e redondo, vermelhado, os dentes separados dao-lhe urn ar apatetado, o cab to e grosso, con) fibs grisalhos denunciando desleixo. Como sera que las me \teem? Apesar da cirurgia plastica que fiz tentando agrad o juiz, tambem envelheci, e perdi o meu futuro fao bem pla ej ado Tenta adivinhar o que Clarice esta pensando. Surpree de-se corn a sua voz. —Sabem, estou pensando naquele ano novo em que voce me convidou para temperar o pernil a italiana como a vovO fazia, na ceia em que pela primeira vez estive aqui nessa casa. Tenho vontade de pedir desculpas a Clarice. Ela sabia que fora convidada para fazer a comida, e eu percebi que eta estranhara a confiancadaquela empregadinha corn o dono da casa, ele chamando-a de nene, meio embriagado, nene traga mais vinho, limpe a mi ha boca, e enquanto mastigava corn aqueles dentes de rato, pe uenos e feios, eta via a nene limpar a sua cara vermelha... —Tenho quel e dizer, fala de repente Clarice, tenho que contar 29
a voce que percebi tudo naquele ano novo entre o seu marido e aquela safada que limpava a sua boca corn o guardanapo, como se ele fosse urn bebe, encostava os seios nele, na corn aquela senvergonhice das putas, como voce nao percebeu? Como voce conseguia sorrir para ele? Na certanao queria perder o seu castelo... —Clarice, grita Teresa, pare corn isso, afmal viemos aqui ajudar Luisa. —Luisa precisa de ajuda? Corn essa casa e todo o dinheiro que deve receber de pensao? Quem precisa de ajuda somo n6s. Nao era ela a rainha do clube, bastava ela chegar e todos os rapazes já estavam la fazendo serenata na janela da casa da voy6, e nos fazendo sombra, feito duas bobas, achando que era para nos que e les cantavam tambem. Quem precisa de ajuda é voce que é Ink solteira... —Pare Clarice, vai magoar Teresa, isso pertence ao passado, sao trinta anos... — Eu nunca liguei para essas bobagens, exalta-se Teresa. Depois, Clarice, somos tres velhas, o que importa isso agora, vamos tomar café da manha, dar uma volta ao ar fresco, arejar a cabeca. E de ixe o meu filho desconhecido fora disso, ja sofremos bastante. Apesar do sole da brisa suave, o dia parece atneagador. Apesar de nao tao ameacador quanto Clarice, esta abafado e sufocante. A prima irrita-se, sente aperto no coracao, respira fundo. Fala corn Teresa como se Luisa nao estivesse au. —Perdemos a viagem, Luisa nao confia mais nos prOprios parentes, vamos embora amanhapela 0 filho de Teresa. Dado em doacao assim que nascera. Filho do homem que seria o marido de Clarice. Onde estaria agora? Gostaria de saber de perguntar A Teresa, mas como ela mesmo dissera o que importa isso? Teresa e Clarice saem logo depois do cafe. Clarice parece extremamente infeliz, tao diferente de apenas um dia antes, o dia em que chegou. Teresa equilibrada novamente, pede desculpas pelas malcriacOes da prima, reforcando que tudo era por causa da cirurgia, muito remedio, logo ela estaria melhor, Luisa tambem estaria e voltariam, estariam todas mais alegres, sabe como é, tudo se arranj aria, afinal parente éparaessas horas. Tudo no condicional. Quer provar a si mesma que essa é a verdade. Luisa despede-se das duas, uma brisa leve acaricia seu rosto e balanca os cachos do brinco-de-princesa, roxos nessa epoca. Estou segura novamente, meu segredo esti lacrado...Acena o lenco branco e o carro desaparece na curva. No %fa° orevOlver continua sobre a escrivaninha do juiz. Luisa exam ina-o, o cao esta defeituoso, foi ele o culpado pela fatalidade. Luisa sente as maos mais frageis do que nunca, o tiro havia saido por acidente, aquele barulho de bala de canhao, acabara corn a felicidade e corn o suplicio. As palavras do quarto da empregada, voce nao sabe de nada sua velha, foram suplantadas pelo estrondo. A cena esta ante seus olhos, o tiro ecoa no ar, ve o espelho trincando, esfarelando, pedacos de imagens, as penas de ganso voando do travesseiro, a imagem da garota pulando a janela, fuja minha menina, ele caido, inconsciente, os olhos sem brilho, a felicidade se fora. A garota ainda voltara, forcara a porta, olhar apavorado, o grito morto na garganta, rodeara a casa, e fmalmente desaparecera. A verdade nao suprimira a angustia, nem anulara a pena de si mesma, dou tudo o que tenho pelaminha liberdade, essas palavras saem do retrato grande onde ele esta em pose de Napoleao Bonaparte. Por que e le teve que sair de bracos corn aquelaputinha, ridiculo, corn os cabelos tingidos de preto, os dois descendo a escada em espiral como um casal de noivos? E de repente voltand6, nene, espere-me no quarto, esqueci a locao, por que ele voltara, por que nao se fora e me deixara corn a boca amarga da muffler traida?Nao, agora se lembra, nao aconteceu no quarto, foi no sotao, ela havia subido atras dele implorando que ficasse, e quando ele virou o pescoco como urn boneco de mola corn aquele sorriso cinico, atirou, puxou o gatilho, corn a for-ca do amor ferido, da saudade. Foi e o levarapara a cama do sOtao onde As vezes ele dormia, quando
ficava ate tarde lendo os processos mais complicados. Quer ler esse? E de uma muffler que matou por amor, devo absolve-la? Deixa o revolver sobre a mesa, olha para ele au i em coma, a respiracao mansa, os olhos fechados, o soro pingando lentamente do frasco, lentamente. Coloca urn vidro grande, darn para uma semana, ate eu voltar. DA a partida, o carro comeca a descer a pequena ladeira em direcao a saida do condominio. Puxa o breque, volta, confere se fechou todas as janelas, sobe ate o sotao reve o juiz, seu marido semi morto, urn vegetal como ela, talvez um dia ele volte a si, nao you permanecer aqui, sozinha, corn os ecos, virei visita-lo, trocar o soro, os lencois, cuidar dele. Tranca a porta, entra no carronovamente e sai, deixa o sanatOrio, enfirn Clarice havia dito a palavra certa. Percebe a garota rondando a casa, sente medo, o que ela tern visto? Tern coragem de forcar a porta? Avisarei o guarda. Recebe a intimacao no pequeno hotel de veraneio, na hora do banho de so!. A claridade desaparece, as palavras negras no papel da justica escurecem o dia, sente arrepios, apesar do dia quente. Dizem que deve depor na delegacia_da cidade serrana onde mora. Na delegacia de policia, ve Clarice, o que ela faz aqui? Parece mais nervosa do que nunca, esfrega as maos, cruza e descruza as pernas, sentada no banco do fundo da sala. Teresa corre para ela: —Prima querida, desculpe, nao tinhamos a intencao, achei voce nervosa para ficar so, cortvenci Clarice a voltar, havia aquela garota forcando a porta, arrombamos, e al...Luisa, voce nao confiou em n6s...o juiz esta se recuperando no hospital, saiu do coma, vao abrir inquerito, estao falando em homicidio... Teresa, a madre superiora, a maldade, escondida sob a capa da santidade, revelou-se. —Se recuperando? Luisa pergunta atonita, achando que e um pesadelo. —B, ele vai se salvar, gracas a Deus, assim sua pena sera menor. Estamos com tanto remorso, nao deviamos ter voltado. Ela já me condenou, já deu a pena. Já nao ouve o que Teresa diz, sa encontra o olhar implacave 1 de Clarice, ainda sentada no fundo da delegacia. Percebenaquele olhar a des forra de quarenta anos de invej a, o prazer da vinganc a por jamais ter sido a preferida. —Vamos ter que ficar, seremos chamadas como testemunhas. 0 delegado ouviu o depoimento de Luisa, a verdade. Perguntou-lhe se ela tinha urn advogado. Sim, ela propria. Determinou que ela esperasse o julgamento confmada ao presidio das mulheres. Sem fianca. Os tres meses de espera pelo julgamento nao sao longos. Ao contrario, Luisa ocupa-se de sua defesa, usa o tempo disponivel para reflexao e acaba por descobrir que as duas; noites de cony iv enc ia corn as prim as expurgaram toda a infeccao da relacao de Odio entre elas soterrada desde a juventude Clarice tivera a sua vinganca. Sera que fora o suficiente para ela? E Teresa? 0 que esperava? Finalmente esti sentada no banco dos reus no tribunal. A sua defesa esta pronta, foi facil monta-la porque nao faltou em nenhum momento corn a verdade. Pensa que esta segura e que o juiz sera complacente. Seus filhos
BRAZZIL - APRIL 2000
dao-lhe forca. Vieram para assistir o julgamento e logo irdo para os seus destinos. Toda a sua seguranca entretanto cai por terra quando anunciam O nome do juiz: Dr Luis Otavio D'Avila. Impossivel! Ele estava quase morto! Entdo Teresa nao havia mentido, ele se recuperara! Sentiu alivio e emocdo. Afinal ela nao cometera crime algum. 0 processo de defesa que haviamontado de nada adiantaria. 0 crime era outro. A primeira testemunha é a garota. —Voce viu D. Luisa atirar? —Nao senhor. Eu ouvi, eles estavam no andar de cima. —Por que não chamou a policia? — Fiquei corn medo de ser presa. — Por que? — Eu estava roubando o marido de minha patroa. Agora Clarice depOe. Olha-me. Condena-me. Nao ha necessidade de tribunal para ela, ja decidiu ha muitos anos que sou culpada. — 0 que a senhora descobriu no sOtdo? —0 senhor juiz, quase morto. Tinha uma marca de bala no pescoco. —Chamou a policia imediatamente? —Ndo, chamamos a ambuldncia. A policia ndo iria resolver. Elas tido haviam chamado a policia! Nab queriam me prender. L6gico, sabiam que eu já estava penando. Quem chamou a policia? —0 hospital registrou a ocorrencia. Finalmente estou aqui nesse banco. No ouso encarar o juiz. Ele cometera o crime da traicao. Ele deveria estar sentado em meu lugar. No entanto é o julgador, o que vai decidir o meu destino. Como sou a minha propria advogada tenho que me defender. Transformei-me na minha primeira e unica cliente. Relato todo o acontecimento daquele dia. A emocdo é muito forte, declaro que
apesar de tudo e uma satisfacdo ve-lo vivo. — Por que a senhora ndo o levou para o hospital? —Achei que ele no teria chance de sobreviver. Quis ficar corn ele os Oltimos momentos de sua vida, como sempre estivemos juntos. — Como advogada sabia que estava cometendo o crime de omissao de socorro e que nao tinha o direito de decidir sobre a vida de seu marido? —Naquele momento eu era a esposa machucada, nab a advogada. Finalmente terminou o martirio. Durante todo o tempo ndo olhei para o juiz. Os tramites legais foram cumpridos. Ele daria a palavra final. Tres meses se passaram. Eu, Clarice e Teresa moramos juntas. Em minha casa. Cada uma de nOs teve a sua vinganca e estamos quites para recomecar a nossa velhice como comecamos a nossa infancia e juventude. Os quinhOes de sofi-imento foram sabiamente divididos. A sentenca do juiz livrou-me da prisdo, ao declarar-me inocente. Talvez tenha sido o preco que ele pediu para morar corn sua Nene. Teresa pode desabafar admitindo o seu filho bastardo. Clarice teve a chance de despejar seu oclio contra ela por haver roubado seu noivo e contra mim pela minha vida completa corn marido, filhos e riqueza. E eu, livrei-me do remorso. -Vejam, os brincos-de-princesa estdo florescendo! E Teresa, a boa samaritana. Chama-nos para apreciarmos o ciclo da natureza. The title ofthis short story inthe original is "Queridas Primas." Nilza Amaral is a Brazilian writer, author of 0 Florista and 0 Dia das Lobas, among others. She can be reached at email@example.com
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RIO GRANDE DO SUL Porto Alegre, gancho capital and Brazil's sixth-biggest city, lies on the eastern bank of the Rio Guaiba at the point where its waters empty into the huge Lagoa dos Patos. This modern city makes a living mostly from its freshwater port and from commerce. Originally settled by the Portuguese in 1755 to keep the Spanish out, Porto Alegre was never a center of colonial Brazil; it's mainly a product of the 20th century, which is when many of the German and Italian immigrants arrived here. Although most travelers just pass through Porto Alegre, it's an easy place in which to spend a few days. There are some interesting museums and impressive neoclassical buildings, as well as friendly gauchos (and their barbecued meatâ€”the city abounds in churrascarias). River Cruise Two boats do tourist cruises on the river, both passing many of the uninhabited islands in the river delta. The Cisne Branco leaves from the waterfront at the end of Rua Caldas Jonior, in the Centro. The ,Voiva do Cal leaves from in front of the Usina do Gasometro. A one-hour cruise costs $4.00 and the ones at sunset are popular. Timetables change frequently, so ask for details at one of the tourist information posts. For places to stay and eat, read the book
The three big resort towns on the north coast are Torres, Capao da Canoa and Tramandai. Torres, the furthest from Porto Alegre, is only three hours away by car. All three have medium-sized airports, luxury hotels and up-market nightlife. and they all fill up in summer with Porto Alegrenses, Uruguayans and Argentines. This is not a place to get away from it all. There are many campgrounds and cheaper hotels in the towns, but the flavor is much more of well-to-do weekend resorts than of fishing villages. Torres Torres is 205 km from Porto Alegre. It is well known for its fine beaches and the beautiful, basalt-rock formations along the coast. This is good country in which to walk and explore, and if you can get here early or late in the season, when the crowds have thinned out, it's especially worthwhile. There is also an ecological reserve, on the Ilha dos Lobos. Information There's a really good tourist office on the corner of Avenida Ballo do Rio Branco and Rua General Osorio. It publishes a list of hotels, including the cheapest ones. There area few ccimbios in town. Try Brasiltur, at Rua Corte Real 950. For travelers' cheques, there is a Banco do Brasil branch. Festival A big drawcard over the last few years has been the ballooning festival, held in the middle of April. Cap() da Canoa Getting There & Away This smaller resort, 140 km from International buses run from Porto Porto Alegre, lacks the glamour and Alegre to Montevideo ($27,13 hours), glitz of Torres. Its best-known beach is Buenos Aires ($52, 24 hours) and Praia de Atlantida, three km from town. AsunciOn ($36, 16 hours). Other buses The beach is big and broad, and there's service Foz do Iguacti ($25, 18 hours), an active windsurfing scene on the FlorianOpolis ($12, 7/2 hours), lagoons. Curitiba ($17, 11 hours), Sao Paulo Tramandai ($27, 18 hours) and Rio de Janeiro Only 120 km from Porto Alegre, ($37, 27 hours). Road conditions in Tramandai's permanent population of the state are generally excellent. Of all Brazil's coast, the some 15,000 swells to half a million in Getting Around January. On summer weekends, the stretch along the state of Rio Porto Alegre has a one-line metro beaches are the busiest in the state; that the locals call Trensurb. It has 15 they're good, though not as nice as Grande do Sul is the least stations, but the only ones of any use those around Torres. to the visitor are the central station by Festival distinguished, the least varied. the port (called EstacAo Mercado There is a good festival here in late Modelo), the rodoviaria (which is the The beaches are really one long June, the Festa de Sao Pedro, with a next stop) and the airport (three stops procession of boats on the sea. beach uninterrupted by further on). The metro runs from 5 am Chui to 11 pm. A ride costs $0.25. The small border town of Chui is geographical variations, wide about 225 km South of Rio Grande on LITORAL GAUCHO a good paved road. One side of the open, with little vegetation and The Litoral Gatitcho is a 500-km main street, Avenida Brasil, is Brazilstrip along the state of Rio Grande do occasional dunes. ian; the other side is the Uruguayan Sul from Torres (in the north) to town of Chuy. The Brazilian side is Chui (at the Uruguayan border). Of full ofUruguayans doing their monthly all Brazil's coast, this stretch is the least distinguished, the grocery shopping, buying car parts and taking care of their least varied. The beaches are really one long beach uninter- clothing needs for the next six months. The Uruguayan side rupted by geographical variations, wide open, with little is a good place to change money, buy cheap, duty-free Scotch vegetation and occasional dunes. The sea here is choppiei and whisky and post letters. the water less translucent than in Santa Catarina. Visas In winter, currents from the Antarctic bring cold, hard It's much better to get your Uruguayan visa in Porto winds to the coast. Bathing suits disappear, as do most people. Alegre than at the border at Chui, but it can be done here. You Most hotels shut down in March, and the summer beach won't need a medical examination, but you do have to wait season doesn't return until November at the earliest, with the overnight. The Uruguayan Consulate (65-1151), at Rua Venarrival of the northern winds. ezuela 311, is open from 9 am to 3 pm. Visas cost $20.
The Waves, the Flowers, the Missions
BRAZZIL -APRIL 2000
Getting There & Away The rodoviaria is at Rua Venezuela 247, and buses leave constantly for most cities in southern Brazil. You can buy tickets to Montevideo on the Uruguayan side of Avenida Brasil. Seven buses leave daily for Punta del Este and Montevideo, the first at 4 am and the last at midnight. All buses crossing the border into Uruguay stop at the Policia Federal post on Avenida Argentina, a couple of km from town. You must get off the bus here to get your Brazilian exit stamp. In Uruguay, the bus will stop again for the Uruguayan officials to check your Brazilian exit stamp. PELOTAS If they gave out awards for the most outrageous-looking bus station in Brazil, Pelotas would be a major contender in the 'Imaginative Uses of Concrete' category. Pelotas, 251 km south of Porto Alegre, was a major port in the 19th century for the export of dried beef, and home to a sizeable British community. The wealth generated is still reflected in the grand, neoclassical mansions around the main square, Praca General Â°sariÂ°. Today the town is an important industrial center. Much of its canned vegetables, fruits and sweets are exported. There's really no reason to stay in Pelotas, but if you're waiting at the rodoviciria for a bus connection and you have some time to spare, it's worth going into the center for a look. RIO GRANDE Once an important cattle center, Rio Grande lies near the mouth of the Lagoa dos Patos, Brazil's biggest lagoon. To the north, the coast along the lagoa is lightly inhabited. There's a poor dirt road along this stretch, which is connected with Rio Grande by a small ferry. While not a great draw card, this active port city is more interesting than Pelotas if you want to break your journey in this area. Information There's a tourist office at Rua Riachuelo 355, but it's rarely open in the low season. The only tourist brochure in town is available from any travel agency or big hotel, such as the Charrua. A good place to change money is at the Turisbel, a bar and gemstone shop at Rua Luiz Loma 407. Its English-speaking Greek owner will even change Australian dollars. For travelers' cheques, there is a Banco do Brasil branch. The post office is at Rua General Netto 115. Catedral de Sao Pedro The oldest church in the state, this cathedral was erected by the Portuguese colonists. In baroque style, it's classified as part of the Patrimonio HistOrico. Even if you don't usually look at churches, this is an interesting one. Museu Oceanografico This interesting museum on Avenida Perimetral, two km from the center, is the most complete of its type in Latin America. It has a large shell collection, and skeletons of whales and dolphins. It's open daily from 9 to 11 am and 2 to 5 pm. Other Museums The Museu da Cidade is in the old customs house, which Dom Pedro II ordered built on Rua Riachuelo. It's open on weekdays from 9:30 to 11:30 am and 2:30 to 5 pm and on Sunday from 2:30 to 5 pm. Across the road is the Museu do Departamento Estadual de Portos, Rios e Canais (DEPREC), which houses the machinery used during the construction of the large breakwater. It's open on weekdays from 8 to 11:30 am and 1:30 to 5:30 pm. Sao Jose do Norte Boats leave from the terminal at the waterfront every 40 BRAZ2IL - APRIL 2000
minutes and make the trip across the mouth of the Lagoa dos Patos to the fishing village of Sao Jose do Norte. This is a nice trip to do around sunset. The last boat back to Rio Grande leaves at 7 pm. The round trip costs $2. Getting There & Away The rodoviaria is about six blocks from the center, at Rua Vice Admiral Abreu 737. Buses connect Rio Grande with Uruguay and with all major cities in southern Brazil. AROUND RIO GRANDE Cassino Twenty-five km south of Rio Grande, reached by local bus from Praca Tamandare, Cassino is a D-grade beach resort popular in summer with Uruguayans and Argentines. If you like littered, windswept beaches, brown seawater and cars zipping up and down the beach, this is the place for you. SERRA GAI.JCHA North of Porto Alegre, you quickly begin to climb into the Serra Gancha. The ride is beautiful, as are the mountain towns of Gramado and Canela, 140 km from Porto Alegre. First settled by Germans (in 1824) and later by Italians (in the 1870s), the region is as close to the Alps as Brazil gets. It's known as the Regiao das Hortensias (Hydrangea Region). Both Gramado and Canela are popular resorts and are crowded with Porto Alegrenses in all seasons, but particularly when it's hottest in the big city. There are plenty of hotels and restaurants, especially in Gramado, and many have a German influence. Prices are high by Brazilian standards. Hikers abound in the mountains here. In winter there are occasional snowfalls and in spring the hills are blanketed with flowers. The best spot is the Parque Estadual do Caracol, reached by local bus from Canela, eight km away. Grams do This popular mountain resort is a favorite with well-to-do Argentines, Uruguayans, Paulistas and galic hos. It has lots of cozy restaurants, wellmanicured gardens and expensive, Swiss-style chalet/hotels. Information There's a useful Centro de Informacoes in the center of town, on Praca Major Nicoletti, which has maps, and information on most hotels and restaurants. It's open from 9 am to 9 pm. Parks Well-kept parks close to town include the Lago Negro, at Rua 25 de Julho 175, and the Parque Knorr, at the end of Rua Bela Vista. The Lago Negro park has pine trees and a small lake, while the Parque Knorr has lots of flowers and a good view of the spectacular Vale do Quilombo. There's also the Lago Joaquina Rita Bier, a lake surrounded by hydrangeas, at Rua Leopoldo Rosenfeldt. Festival Each June, Gramado hosts the Brazilian Film Festival. It's a big event, and attracts the jet set. For places to stay and places to eat, read the book. Canela "If you're scared of leopards, hate mosquitoes, but want to do some ecological tourism, come to Canela." (Canela tourist brochure) While not as up-market as Gramado, Canela is the best jumping-off point for some great hikes and bicycle rides in the area. There are cheaper hotels here than in Gramado, so budget travelers should make this their base. Information The tourist office (282-1287) in Praca Jac) Correa is helpful, offering a reasonable map that shows all the attrac33
tions. Staff speaks English, will assist with hotel bookings and can put you in touch with the outfits that arrange rafting trips and mountain-bike adventures. Parque Estadual do Caracol Eight km from Canela, the major attraction of this park is a spectacular 130-meter-high waterfall. You don't have to do any hiking to see it, as it's very close to the park entrance. On the road to the park, two km from the center of Canela is a 700year-old, 42-meter-tall araucciria pine. The park is open daily from 7:30 am to 6 pm. Entry is $0.40. A public bus to the park, marked 'Caracol Circular', leaves the rodoviaria at 8:15 am, noon and 5:30 pm. Ferradura A seven-km hike from just outside the park entrance brings you to Ferradura, a stunning 400-meter-deep horseshoe canyon formed by the Rio Santa Cruz. You can camp in here, but you have to bring everything with you. Parque das Sequoias This park at Rua Godofredo Raimundo 1747 was created in the 1940s by Curt Menz, a botanist who cultivated more than 70 different tree species with seeds from all over the world. This plantation occupies 10 hectares, and the rest of the park (25 hectares) is native forest. The park has lots of trails and a pousada. Morros Pelado, Queimado & DedAo These hills provide great views of the Vale do Quilombo, and on clear days you can see the coast. Reached via the road to the Parque das Sequdias, they're five, 5.5 and 6.5 km (respectively) from Canela. Castelinho / cs One of the oldest houses in the area, Castelinho, is on the road to the park. Now a pioneer museum, a German restaurant and a chocolate shop, Castelinho was built without using metal nails. Festival From 26 to 28 May, 80,000 pilgrims arrive in Canela to celebrate the Festa de Nossa Senhora de Caravaggio. A highlight of the festival is a six-km procession from the Igreja Matriz to the Parque do Saiqui. For places to stay and to eat, read the book. PARQUE NACIONAL DE APARADOS DA SERRA One of Brazil's natural wonders, this national park is Rio Grande do Sul's most magnificent area. It is 70 km north of Sao Francisco de Paula and 18 km from the town of Cambara do Sul. Things to See The park preserves one of the country's last araucciria forests, but the main attraction is the Canyon do Itaimbezinho, a fantastic narrow canyon with sheer 600 to 720-meter parallel escarpments. Two waterfalls drop into this deep incision in the earth, which was formed by the Rio Perdiz's rush to the sea. Another of the park's attractions is the Canyon da Fortaleza, a 30-km stretch of escarpment with 900-meter drops. You can see the coast from here. Nearby, on one of the walls of the canyon, is the Pedra do Segredo, a five-meter monolith with a very small base. It's 23 km from Cambara, but unfortunately in a different direction from Itaimbezinho. Getting There & Away If you can't afford the four-hour taxi ride from Cambara do Sul ($45), or to hire a car (or airplane) for a day, put on your walking shoes if you expect to see both Itaimbdzinho and Fortaleza. Hitching is lousy, and no public buses go to either canyon. The closest you can get is three km from Itaimbezinho, by taking the bus to Praia Grande and asking to be dropped at the park entrance. From the other entrance, on the road between Cambara and Tainhas, it's a 15-km walk to Itaimbezinho. To get to Fortaleza, you'll either have to walk 23 km or make a deal with Borges, the taxi driver, to take you there and back (around $25, but it's worth it). There are various ways to get to the park itself. One is to 34
come up from the coast via Praia Grande and get off the 'Cambara do Sul' bus at the park entrance. You could also come up from Torres and change buses at Tainhas, but if you miss the connection, there's nowhere to stay in Tainhas. Both these roads from the coast are spectacular. Another route is to come up from Sao Francisco de Paula and get off at the other entrance to the park. It's also possible to hike 20 km from Praia Grande into the canyon itself, but this is dangerous without a guide. People have been trapped in the canyon by flash flooding. If you're driving, follow the "Faixinal do Sul' signs from Praia Grande. JESUIT MISSIONS Soon after the discovery ofthe New World, the Portuguese and Spanish kings authorized Catholic orders to create missions to convert the natives into Catholic subjects of the crown and the state. The most successful of these orders were the Jesuits, who established a series of missions in a region, which spanned parts of Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina. In effect it was a nation within the colonies, a nation which, at its height in the 1720s, claimed 30 mission villages inhabited by over 150,000 Guarani Indians. Buenos Aires was merely a village at this time. Unlike those established elsewhere, these missions succeeded in introducing Western culture without destroying the Indian people, their culture or the Tupi-Guarani language. In 1608, Hernandarias, Governor of the Spanish province of Paraguay, ordered the local leader of the Jesuits, Fray Diego de Tones, to send missionaries to convert the infidels, and so in 1609, the first mission was founded. Preferring indoctrination by the Jesuits to serfdom on Spanish estates or slavery at the hands of the Portuguese, the Indians were rapidly recruited into a chain of missions. The missions covered a vast region of land that encompassed much of the present-day Brazilian states of Parana, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul as well as portions of Paraguay and northern Argentina. The Jesuit territory was too large to defend, and the Portuguese bandeirantes found the missionary settlements easy pickings for slave raids. Thousands of Indians were captured, reducing the 13 missions of Guayra (Brazilian territory) to two. Fear of the bandeirante slavers caused these two missions to be abandoned, and the Indians and Jesuits marched westward and founded San Ignacio Mini (1632), having lost many people in the rapids of the Parana. The missions north of Iguacu were decimated by attacks from hostile Indian tribes and were forced to relocate south. Between 1631 and 1638, activity was concentrated in 30 missions, which the missions Indians were able to defend. In one of the bloodiest fights, the battle of Mborord, the Indians beat back the slavers and secured their lands north of San Javier. The missions, under administration based in Candelaria, grew crops, raised cattle and prospered. They were miniature cities built around a central church, and included libraries, baptisteries, cemeteries and dormitories for the Indian converts and the priests. The missions became centers of culture and intellect as well as of religion. An odd mix of European baroque and native Guarani arts, music and painting developed. Indian scholars created a written form of Tupi-Guarani and, from 1704, published several works in Tupi-Guarani, using one of the earliest printing presses in South America. As the missions grew, the Jesuit nation became more independent of Rome and relations with the Vatican became strained. The nation within a nation became an embarrassment to the Iberian kings, and finally, in 1777, the Portuguese minister Marques de Pombal convinced Carlos III to expel the Jesuit priests from Spanish lands. Thus ended, in the opinion of many historians, a grand 160-year experiment in socialism, where wealth was equally divided and religion, intellect and the arts flourishedâ€”a utopian island of progress in an age of BRAZZIL -APRIL 2000
monarchies and institutionalized slavery. Administration of the mission villages passed into the hands of the colonial government. The communities continued until the early 1800s, when they were destroyed by revolutionary wars of independence, then abandoned. Today, there are 30 ruined Jesuit missions. Seven lie in Brazil ( in the western part of Rio Grande do Sul), eight are in the southern region of Itapud, Paraguay, and the remaining 15 are in Argentina. Of these 15 Argentine missions, 11 lie in the province ofMissiones, which hooks like a thumb between Paraguay and the Rio Parana, and Brazil and the Uruguay and Iguacu rivers. Brazilian Missions Sao Miguel das MissOes This mission, 58 km from Santo Angelo, is the most interesting of the Brazilian ones. Every evening at 8 pm, there's a sound and light show. Also nearby are the missions of Sao Joao Batista (on the way to sao Miguel) and Sao Lourenco das Missiies (10 km from Sao Joao Batista by dirt road). Paraguayan Missions The missions of Paraguay, long since abandoned, are only now being restored. The most important mission to see is Trinidad, 25 km from Encarnacion. The red-stone ruins are fascinating. If you have the time, see the missions of Santa Rosa, Santiago and Jesus. uOSS
Argentine Missions In Argentina don't miss San Ignacio Mini, 60 km from Posadas on Ruta Nacional 12. Of lesser stature is mission Santa Maria la Mayor, 111 km away from Posadas on Ruta 110, and mission Candelaria (now a national penitentiary), 25 km from Posadas on Ruta 12. It's possible to cut across the province of Missiones to San Javier (Ruta 4), crossing by ferry to Brazil at Puerto Xavier, or further south at Santo Tome, and taking a ferry across the Rio Uruguay to Sao Borja, Brazil. The border at Uruguaiana, 180 km south of Sao Borja, is more commonly used. Uruguaiana is 180 km from Sao Borja and 635 km
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from Porto Alegre. Buses operate to Buenos Aires, Santiago do Chile and Montevideo. The Argentine Consulate ((055) 412-1925) is at Rua Santana 2496, 2nd floor, while the Uruguayan Consulate ((055) 412-1514) is at Rua Duque de Caxi as 1606. Getting There & Away Use EncarnaciOn as a base for visiting the missions of Paraguay. Riza buses leave daily from Ciudad del Este for Encarnacion, 320 km south; from Asuncion, they depart daily for the 370-km journey to Encarnacion on Ruta 1. Either way, it's a pleasant ride through fertile rolling hills, a region where the locals (mostly of German descent) drink a variation of mate called terere. Getting Around This is the sort of traveling that's best done by car, but unfortunately, car-rental fees are high and driving a rental car over borders is difficult. It's possible to hire a taxi from any of the three base cities: Posadas, Encarnacion and Santo Angelo.
Excerpts from Brazil - A Travel Survival Kit 3rd edition, by Andrew Draffen, Chris McAsey, Leonardo Pinheiro,and Robyn Jones. For more information call Lonely Planet: (800) 275-8555. Copyright 1996 Lonely Planet Publications. Used by permission.
SETE RAZOES PARA VOCE ADQUIRIR 0 CATALOGO # 1 DAS SETE NACOESI ;.4 CUID 1) Lista de: advogados, medicos, publicacaes e todos as comercios & servicos da nossa comunidade as seu alcance 24 horas por dia, 7 dias por semana, 365 dias por arm, em 10 estados Norte Amencanos.
2) Estatisticas oficiais, informayoes comerciais, educacionais e sack,culturais sobre Angola, Brasii, Verde,Guine-Bissau, Cabo Mocambique, Portugal e Sao Tome e Principe em port/log.
3) Lista de universidades nos Estados Unidos corn Departamento de Lingua Portuguesa, contendo some, endereco. telefo e e fax.
4) Representacoes dip lomaticas e camaras de comer= internacionais da nossa comunidade, em noss s respectivos paises. 5) Informacties Uteis4;ibre cada um dos 52 estados e territorios Norte Americanos rem portugues e ingl ), incluindo: capital, ciima, populacao, turismo e etc... 6) Lista dos consulad s e embaixadas da nossa comunidade corn suas respectivas jurisdicaes em todos cs Estados Unidos. 7) Gala Internacional secao corn indice independente, destinado ao auxilio do intercambio comercial e social, entre a nossa comunidade e empresas estrangeiras.
OUR GUIDE 98-99 AIN/DA MELHORI COM PAPEL LUSTRADO MUI7'0 MALS INFORMAOES. VISITE-NOS NO www.ourguide.com PRECO ANUA Apena
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or custos de ens/s. Envie pedidos para: Diretorio de Lingua Portuguesa P O. BOX 5446, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33310-5446 - USA Tel: (305)374-0096/Fax: (800)300-1178, e-mail: nossoguia@ourguide coin 35
The Search for Intelligent life on Planet Brazil No one seems to be seriously considering cooperation across party lines on a grand scale for the good of the nation. What threat could be more serious than the general threats of economic and social instability to Brazilian society today?
PHILLIP WAGNER Before you cave into the urge to protest, I freely admit I could just as easily have written something on the search for intelligent life on planet USA, or even planet earth. But this is Brazzil magazine, not USA Today or World Book. And the title was very seriously considered and settled on; a culmination of four years deliberation leading up to the present time. I feel a mixture of amusement and despair as I watch Brazil, and Brazilians, tussle over the appropriateness of celebrating 500 years following Portuguese discovery. I certainly appreciate the fact that the arrival of Portuguese foreshadowed the beginning of an untimely and cruel demise for indigenous Brazilians. It also foreshadowed the holocaust of African "sugar slavery", although an apparently institutionalized denial of black heritage seems to preclude any possibility that this second issue will be so enthusiastically embraced. In any event, I'm principally opposed to this self-flagellation on grounds that it seems largely misdirected and counter productive. Why bother to pretend that celebrating the anniversary offends sensibilities when economics, not genocide, is at the root of Brazil's collective frustrations. Wasn't it lavish spending after all, on 500 years of Brazil projects that triggered the outcry? It seems to me that the plight of native Brazilians provided a context for the protests, but was not the actual catalyst for protesting. I personally feel that the Brazilian culture that evolved over these 500 years is worth celebrating. Hasn't the marriage of immigrant peoples, whether forced or voluntary, and tropical biomes produced a unique and wonderful offspring? Most Brazilians I know here in the United States feel saudades for home. Most Brazilians I know, here and in Brazil, share a genuine sense of intimacy for their food, their music and each other. These characteristics are attractive and compelling. The world will be diminished as Brazil becomes increasingly "Americanized". It depresses me to concede there are telltale signs suggesting that Brazilian culture has become diluted, or is it "polluted", by global corporate influences. When my Bahian fiancée, Danielle Valim, and I met recently in Rio we were both distressed to note the differences. Lunch schedules are increasingly being realigned to match up with American business practices. There are more dress shirts with ties in offices, fewer embraces and kisses as people greet one another in the street. I'm already feeling saudades for the Brazil I knew only four years ago. 36
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I agree with those who decry the waste of resources by severe, complex, 4ocial problems. It encourages personal Brazilian government officials, but I see a great need for responsibility and, vhen effectively recognized, becomes conBrazilians to recognize that they have something to be proud tagious. In other w rds, it plays on its own momentum —just of. "500 years", for me, is more a reminder that Brazilians and like judo. Brazilian culture have evolved over time to become what they Given the magnitude of Brazil's problems, I'm also troubled are today. I'm not suggesting that I too am not frustrated with that no one seem to be seriously considering cooperation the way things are in Brazil. I love Brazil, but criticize it. I across party lines n a grand scale for the good of the nation. criticize Brazil, but love it. But I want to separate the "state of' What threat, short f nuclear holocaust, could be more serious Brazil from Brazilians and Brazilian culture. than the general eats of economic and social instability to I'm as baffled by the current state of affairs in Brazil as I am Brazilian society t day? How bad does it have to get before by the controversy surrounding the 500-year celebrations. politicians conced that everyone working together is in their Brazilian politicians seem to view each other as "the enemy", own best interests? If society should collapse, then power and when the real enemy is the weight of strain on the fabric of wealth and prestig will probably be lost and/or redistributed. Brazilian society. I appreciate President Cardoso for stabiliz- Public officials ca best consolidate their own advantage by ing the Brazilian currency after years of runaway inflation. I assuring the future of Brazil itself. admire him for taking unpopular bold steps to denationalize And, lest! forg t, the general population bears responsibilindustry, and for cutting the real loose to fmd its own value. He ity too. In fact, th idea of personal responsibility seems so isn't perfect, but he's performed credibly under worse-than- foreign to most B lians that littering has become a national only-difficult circumstances. pastime. Carlinhos rown singing about the waters of Candeal I'm a great fan of the creative genius of Parana's governor symbolizes then d for people of every social class to realize Jaime Lerner, who refuses to be constrained by traditional that they're contri uting to their own problems. Politicians paradigms. I respect the way Lula, the leader of the PT (Partido can't be blamed f everything because, ultimately, they can dos Trabalhadores—Workers' Party) has adapted to a chang- only influence a s all portion of daily activity in Brazil. ing political landscape, and I'm impressed with his passion to Finally, I see emendous potential for common interest improve the lives of workers and the less fortunate. I'm even groups to pull tog ther and organize, but little indication that willing to give ACM (right-wing senator Antonio Carlos it will happen an line soon. I tried to encourage the idea by Magalhaes), in Bahia, a chance to prove that he's really getting Netcard, a Brazilian free virtual postcard website, to changed following the tragic death of his son. But, by and establish an entire y new category of offerings for programs large, I remain distressed because Brazil's challenges are so that are involved • "constructive social engagement", like the great that they can't be effectively addressed piecemeal by Afro Blocos of B •a. I reasoned that if these groups became individuals representing different political parties and (with aware of how m i y of them there were around Brazil they the exception of Cardoso) in different geographic regions. might feel encou ged to organize, and pool their collective A lot of Brazilians seem to dwell on the impact of corrup- weight to generat political influence. tion. Corruption is a fact of life. It's admittedly worse in Brazil The idea never aught hold, largely! think because Netcard than in other places, but Brazilians haven't "cornered the has been unable, o unwilling, to respond to additional requests market". Any student of American politics can point to an to add entries*; s the category never reached the "critical endless litany of scandal and subterfuge. Does anyone remem- mass" required to reate momentum. I'd also entertained the ber the senator who was dubbed the "Champagne campaigner"? idea that these pr grams might seize on an opportunity for He charged lobbyists large sums of money to have breakfast mass e-mailing t publicize themselves. But many of them with him, then stayed only in the fmest accommodations while have limited IT ( formation technology) resources, or are fighting the IT le g curve. Besides, who would the director on the campaign trail. A vice president was charged with accepting bribes while of a program pro iding instruction for homeless children be serving as a state governor. There's evidence to suggest that sending a virtual ostcard to when, as is often the case, that one of our most beloved presidents was catapulted into office individual is him br her) self all but living on the margins of by primary and general election victories in key states that society? I still 'believe that my original idea of groups pulling were "orchestrated" by organized crime. Another president Netcard is a good one, was forced to resign. And still another was reputed to have together through a clearinghouse regularly "strong armed" (or was it blackmailed?) congress- and compassionat IT literate individuals could be encouraged to send the e-car s to friends. Perhaps some of them would men, senators and other public officials to get his way. Many congressmen were involved in Abscam, the House even be inspired ro provide the funding, or other resources, Banking Scandal, the Savings and Loan Scandal and so on. required to bring ese programs "up to speed" with IT. I think Pork barrel politics, exorbitant contributions and the power of there's plenty of intelligent life on Planet Brazil, but if it well-funded lobbyists are frequently credited with unjustifi- doesn't do some ing soon it may be too late. The clock is able allocations of incredible sums of money, inexplicable ticking. decision-making and the fate of important legislation. What I find most perplexing about the current state of * http://ww .iei.net/—pwagner/gooddeeds/help.htm Brazil though, is the inability, to recognize natural opportuni- ("Como ajudar/h w to help"; a selection from Phillip's ties for improvement. Brazil is noted for its judo athletes. In "Trabalhos de Aj a ao Brasil" web-site at http://www.ieinet/ judo, an athlete relies on his, or her, ability to capitalize on the —Dwagner/goodd ds/index.html ) momentum of an opponent; to turn it against them. ThroughPhillip Wag er is a freelance photojournalist, a frequent out Brazil groups have organized to instill pride and selfdiscipline, promote education, and create opportunity within traveler to Brazil nd a contributor to many publications with credits that incl de stories on the Israeli-PLO peace accords, their communities. film and music i dustry activity and travel to Latin America. Nowhere is this as well institutionalized as among the Afro Visit his Pagina a Casa do Phillip do Brasil website at httn:// Blocos of Bahia. It seems to me a "no brainer" that there are tremendous advantages in publicizing and supporting these www.iei.net/—vw ner/brazilhome.htm . One of Phillip's goals is to pursue a po tgraduate degree in Latin American Studies programs. Provided politicians avoid creating bureaucracies focusing on B zil. You can e-mail him at email@example.com and allow the programs to govern themselves, helping people help themselves offers the most cost-effective way to address BRAZZIL -APRIL 2000
And that's not all it drips with. IILICEN A The story starts off w ith the bright Jost de Alencar plumage of an epic poem (or the parody of one), the prose so flowery that we may question whether it's advisable to continue. It must The story starts off with the bright plumage of have been a real challenge for translator Clifford Landers to try an epic poem (or the parody of one), the prose so and tone down the florid prose of flowery that we may question whether it's the original without, at the same time, sacrificing the exoticism advisable to continue. that gives the book its character, individuality, and appearance. Even so, there are many pasBONDO VVYSZPOLSKI sages, like this one, which may have readers rolling their eyes: "Brave Poti, gliding through the grass like the agile shrimp from which he has taken his name and his energy, Iracema, by Jose de Alencar, trans. by Clifford E. disappeared into the deep lake. The water issued no murmur Landers (Oxford University Press, 148 pp., $25) and closed its limpid waves over him." To say it sounds stilted is an understatement. Sometimes referred to as the James Fenimore Cooper of The Tabajara Indians' enemy are the coastal people, the Brazil, Jose de Alencar (1829-1877) had enjoyed quite a bit Pitiguaras, and in due course a skirmish ensues. The above of success with 0 Guarani (1857), well known even today Poti, in fact, is a Pitiguara—and also Martim's best friend. through the opera We'll also encounter a genuine 'noble based on it by Carlos r 9 savage,' Iracema's brother, as well as Gomes. Several years the warrior Irapua, who is jealous of Excerpt: later, in 1865, Alencar Iracema's love for Martim. wrote the second of While the novel romanticizes the his three-novel InOne morning Poti led Martim to the hunt. They walked love between Indian maiden and Poralong a sierra that rose beside the other, the Maranguab, its dian-themed cycle, tuguese explorer, it also tries to presister. The high summit is curved like the parrot's beak, and setting it in 16th censerve their individual dignity: In the because of this the warriors call it Aratanha. They climbed the tury Ceara.. Iracema case of Iracema, her giving of herself slope of the Guaifiba through which the waters descend to the is best described as an to the stranger is explained as a natural valley, and arrived at the stream inhabited by cavies. Indian romance and offering of bountiful nature. For his The sun was visible only at the parrot's beak when the Brazilian fantasy, alpart, Martim refrains from violating hunters descended from Pacatuba to the plain. In the distance though it is also to a the young girl—that is, until she tricks they saw Iracema, who had come to await them at the shore of large extent an allehim into taking leave of his senses. But the Porangaba lake. She walked toward them with the proud gory of colonialism. what a modern audience may most step of the heron that stroll, at water's edge: over her carioba A Portuguese exdecry is that Iracema becomes so docshe wore a girdle of cassava flowers, a symbol of fecundity. plorer named Martim ile, meek, subservient, and, well, just A necklace of the same flowers encircled her neck and (based on the real-life plain domestic once she hooks up with adorned her firm, quivering breasts. exploits of Martim Martim. She took her husband's hand and placed it against her lap: Soares Moreno) is At the end, one may suspect that "Your blood already lives in Iracema's bosom. She will be the wounded by the Alencar was trying a little too hard to mother of your child." Tabajara Indian fashion a national epic. The author's "Child, you say?" exclaimed the Christian joyously. Maiden Iracema, who notes at the end of the book, which He kneeled and, encircling her with his arms, kissed his then takes him to her perhaps were impressive 135 years ago, wife's fertile bosom. father, Araquem, in today seem mostly irrelevant and disWhen he rose, Poti spoke: "The happiness of the youth is whose hut he convatracting. What readers may fmd is that his wife and his friend; the first brings joy, the second gives lesces. Iracema, the commentaries preceding and folstrength. The warrior without a wife is like a tree without whose name in Gualowing Iracema are more interesting leaves or flowers: never will it see fruit. The warrior without rani means 'lips of than the story itself. For example, a friend is like the solitary tree that the wind lashes in the honey,' is also an anaNaomi Lindstrom has written a highly middle of the plain: its fruit never ripens. The happiness of the gram of America, and readable foreword that puts Alencar man is his offspring, which are born of him and are his pride; thus we can assert that and his work in context for us. Also each warrior that springs from his veins is one more bough that not only is she nature included at the back of the novel is raises his name to the clouds, like the topmost part of the cedar. personified, but that Alencar's "Letter to Dr. Jaguaribe," in Beloved of Tupa is the warrior who has a wife, a friend, and the prose-poem itself which the novelist seems to have anmany children; he has nothing more to desire but a death with depicts the penetraticipated our skepticism from well over glory."... tion of the New World a century in advance. He defends his Martim bathed in the river's waters and strolled along the by the Old. choice ofphrases and images, and does beach to dry his body in the wind and sun. Beside him went Among her own a good job of it. He refers to Iracema as Iracema, picking up the yellow ambergris cast up by the sea. people, Iracema is an an experiment—and as an exhibit. Each night his wife would perfume her body and the white independent spirit Many of his modern readers may hammock so that the warrior's love might take delight in it. with the grace of a simply refer to it as a historical curiosbutterfly, but things I. .1 ity. change quickly after
she falls in love with the Christian (as Martim is often referred). If Machado de Assis seems on occasion overly Eurocentric, Alencar falls off the other end of the boat: his unabashedly romantic tale drips with Indian words. 38
Bondo Wyszpolski also heads up the arts and entertainment section of the Easy Reader, a weekly newspaper based in the South Bay of southern California. He can be reached at bwyszpolski(&,earthlink.net BRAZZIL - APRIL 2000
Pride and Prejudice From the late 1950s on, bossa nova's success didn't spread out by chance or without prejudice againSt it. Only by a strike of luck no bossa nova lamb has been utterly shattered or sacrificed yet. DARIO BORIM JR The nationalist approach to art in periph al countries, like Brazil, has the legitimate role of recognizing national talents which c be neglected by biased critics that prefer anything foreign to anything local. One's by for one's nation also instills the zest to seek knowledge and understanding of historical d cultural nuances which, perhaps, only a fellow poet, painter or songwriter may be able to c pture and translate in color, light and music. Exacerbated nationalism, however, may fos er passionate attitudes that besmirch the historiography and critical analyses of different cultures. A case of such misinterpretation occurs, for example, when people think of bossa n va as mere imitation of cool jazz, rather than profound innovation to the evolutionary trends o samba and Brazilian pop music in general. In fact, that vicious form of nationalism em ges even among renown authors, such as historian Jose Ramos Tinhordo. On 15 February his article on Joao Gilberto's most recent release, Joao Voz e ViolĂŁo, publishedby Vejamag me n on 19 January 2000, receives laudatory comments from Folha de Silo Paulo columnist riano Suassuna, one of the exponents of Brazil's dramaturgy of all times. It may seem rather mysterious how Tinhordo an author of eighteen books on Brazilian popular music, manages to spend approximately 0 years of his career saying just about the same things on samba and bossa nova. Since 196 , when his first articles appeared, Tinhordo has been sketching genealogical lines of Brazil an music through doubtful and indelicate metaphors. Mlisica popular: um tema em debate reedited by Editora 34 in 1997) aggregates such writings. "The daughter of secret amorous adventures with North-American musicâ€” which is undeniably its motherâ€”bossa nova today, argues the historian, goes through the same drama of so many Copacabana children, the Rio istrict where it was born: "it does not know who its father is" (Mtisica popular 25). Even though "A Apia e os urubus," the article i Veja, rightfully associates bossa nova with significant social and political events brought abou by the Americanization of western cultures, . particularly strong in Brazil during the adminisI tion of industrious Juscelino Kubitscheck (1956-1961), Tinhordo comments on national art without contemplating any factors beyond context. With his typical bombastic style, the h storian applies his favorite rhetorical and ideological tricks that deny the compositional and ontextual complexities of nearly all artistic historical developments. Despite the ideological options of ul ra-nationalists, music and culture in general regenerate and develop within, withou , or throughout national, ethnic and socioeconomic boundaries. A remarkable e planation of such phenomena is achieved through an anthropological approach e ployed by Hermano Vianna in 0 misterio do samba. Originally published by Jorge Z har in 1997, from which it is quoted below, Vianna's work is a recent release by T e University of North Carolina Press (The Mystery of Samba, 1999). For Vianna, samba neither constitu es the repository of Brazil's "true musical roots," as Tinhordo sustains through the ears, nor is it a national icon simply invented by the political policies of Getulio V as' populist dictatorship in the 1930s and 1940s. Samba as national music is, ost of all, the greatest consequence of a centuries-old process of cultural ingling among several sectors of Brazilian society and of their thirst for s ols of national identity. The anthropologist calls our attention to the aspect of invention within any tradition, and the element of fabrication in the history of samba. Unlike Tinhordo, Vianna warns us about the fact that the status of samba as the "national music of Brazil" 4vas capable of"degrading" all other rhythms and styles of the country to the 1 sser condition of "regionalist music" (111). Samba carioca (Rio-style samba) arose as national rhythm under the confluence of a variety of phenomena cable "cultural mediation" among social groups, as well as under regional and in ernational music influences. 'Samba composer Noel Ros , for instance, was white and middle-class. BRA7_ZIL - APRIL 2000
However, this carioca poet of Vila Isabel became one of the most active participants in the historical developments that defined and fixed "authentic" samba side by side with a great many black composers, such as Ismael Silva, the founder of Brazil's alleged first samba school, Deixa Falar (Vianna, 121). In reality, artistic borrowings have always crossed and will most likely continue to cross the imaginary borders of all purists' minds. It is noteworthy how the rhythm of lundu, a derivation from the beat and drumming style of certain African slaves, played an immense role in the development of samba carioca while being influenced by polka, which French musicians had first brought to Brazil in 1844 (Vianna, 49). In light of so many cases of overriding influences in the history of Brazil's music and dance, the author of 0 misterio do samba contends that "every attempt to establish what is truly African or European in our 'popular' dances of today is worthless" (38). After all, does it make sense to defend the status of an African-rooted music style as "purely" Brazilian art? Samba had already acquired various forms at the hands of Bahians in Bahia before other Bahians came to Rio in late nineteenth-century and gave an enormous contribution to the evolution of samba carioca in the first decades of the twentiethcentury (Vianna, 112-113). Samba influences have emanated from Brazil to the world as well. For critics like Jairo Severiano and Zuza Homem de Melo, the authors of A cancel° no tempo (Editora 34, 1998), samba's internationally acclaimed offspring, bossa nova, has left not only significant and indelible influences in international music. It has helped orient the evolution of Brazilian music toward the style of socially aware songs hegemonically labeled MPB, the acronym for Brazilian popular music, as if other styles from Brazil were not MPB (15). With all its wealth of sophisticated poetry, tones, arrangements, chords, harmonies and voice postures, bossa nova once meant radical innovation in a market not yet marked by deep aesthetic concerns, and its consequences have paid in spades. Through the art of Marisa Monte, Milton Nascimento, Caetano Veloso, and Gilberto Gil, MPB has been second to bossa nova in terms of commercial success and dissemination of influences abroad. It is equally important to observe that bossa nova emerged when there was an acute drop in interest in various types of samba, most of which described anguishing love stories. Furthermore, bossa nova presented an alternative to enchanting rhythms naively regarded by Tinhorao as bourgeois deterioration of samba. Examples of such downfall is Tinhordo's view of Pixinguinha as a "semi-erudite" pioneer of stereotypical orchestrations, which bestowed upon samba "an entire series of influences alien to Brazilian culture, those of NorthAmerican music, through jazz-bands" (Mftsica popular, 20). For Tinhorao, the grand style of the 1940s and 1950s known as samba-cancel° is nothing but music that failed under the overwhelming "influence of Gershwin" (AlUsica popular, 59). The commercial success of samba-cawdo - and other "illegitimate children of samba" had been so astounding that part of the public had grown tired of it toward the end of the 1950s. Therefore, bossa nova came to take the market of new generations and also establish a minimalist alternative to the exaggerated tone of romantic gloom that had overcome the lyrics of samba-cancel° and various types of music coming 40
from abroad, such as rumbas, boleros, and other Latin styles. From the late 1950s on, bossa nova's success didn't spread out by chance or, indeed, without prejudice against it. Having mixed a good dose of samba and jazz Laurindo Almeida enchanted American and European audiences devoid of xenophobia, but he remains basically unknown in Brazil. To a certain extent a precursor of bossa nova, Laurindo Almeida won one of his Grammy Awards in the category of jazz— against huge talents like Cole Porter, Miles Davis, and Charlie Parker. Perhaps he remains but a shadow in Brazil because he "corroded" our samba under the auspices of foreign interests. It is pitiful, but ultra-nationalists' biases are adopted not only by populist figures speaking in the name of the nation, but also by elitist consumers and commentators, whose power to dismiss cultural mediation is exemplified by Carmen Miranda's apotheosis and tragedy. Our first samba ambassador to the United States and the world never recuperated from the quiet but unseemly attack with which cariocahigh society impinged upon her self-esteem during a special performance at Urca Cassino in 1940. Her audience did not applaud her at all, song after song, and then she collapsed on stage. By a strike of luck no bossa nova lamb has been utterly shattered or sacrificed yet. The success of bossa nova in today's Brazil is proven by a continuous flow of new CDs, such as those of Leila Pinheiro and Gal Costa, and by the existence of various fan clubs and bars solely dedicated to a kind of music that has never died south or north of the equator. Also corroborating this notion is the fact that bossa nova opponents also live on. They keep alive a tradition of cultural critics that debase anything that is not "pure," such as Suassuna and Tinhordo, even if every new edition of Masica popular foretells (with pride) and celebrates (without insight) the death of a refined music distinguished by its subtle samba beat. Personal preferences apart, long live the music admired worldwide not simply because of an exponent like Joao Gilberto (the only "eagle of Zeus"), but also because of other immortal geniuses, such as Vinicius de Moraes, Baden Powell, and maestro Antonio Carlos Jobim, the "vultures of bossa nova," according to Tinhorao (Aguia, 136-137). The critic would only need to call Jobim a "detestable quack of the popular baton" in order to deserve Suassuna's eulogy a little further. For the dramatist, all the bossa nova musicians do is "to corrupt and vulgarize the popular music of Brazil under the pretense of renovating it" (2). While giving credit and thanks to authoritative voices that challenge nationalist prejudices, let us agree with Hermano Vianna: "We can only denounce something as 'fake' when the 'real Brazilian' category exists" (111). Have we already gotten it? Is it really possible to achieve it? It has been a century since the century marked by nationalist frenzy and naiveté was over. One doubt remains: how far can the obsession with a nation's cultural virginity go? Dario Borim Jr., a professor at Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, state of Minas Gerais, is a Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota—Twin Cities and has been a professor of Brazilian literature at the University of California, Los Angeles. Borim's articles on literary and cultural issues at large have appeared in a variety of journals and books from Brazil, USA and France. You can contact him at firstname.lastname@example.org BRAZZIL -APRIL 2000
1111°3 INC. The uniquely Brazilian musical genre known as choro is the big star of new label Acari Records. DANIELLA THOMPSON
zo3 3,1t) _ Ak3 S Mauricio Carrilho, Luciana Rabello, and Joao Carlos Carino 11111 110
BRAZZIL • APRIL 2000
Mauricio Carrilho's living room contains an uncommon piece of furniture: a large metal file cabinet crammed with choro scores. A zealous champion of all that's authentic in Brazilian music, Mauricio, along with his wife Anna, has spent years accumulating a database of instrumental works and their composers. Although Brazil's popular music is known for its richness, the visitor is startled to find that the Carrilhos have identified more than 1,300 composers born before 1900. Their database lists around 5,000 titles of choro and its close relatives polka, schottisch, quadrille, waltz, and maxixe— all composed approximately between 1870 and 1920. Because choro is essentially a carioca style, Mauricio and Anna tried to limit their research to music created in Rio de Janeiro. Paucity of biographical information has led them to include music from Pernambuco and Bahia in the northeast, Para in the north, Goias in the central west, and other states where this urban genre took hold. The music scores come from public institutions (e.g., the National Library or Centro Cultural Banco do Brasil) and from individual collectors, who contributed some rare documents, among them Pixinguinha's father's music notebook. The trove in the file cabinet is a minable resource for a record label specializing in choro. And such a label now exists. Not surprisingly, this label, Acari Records, counts Mauricio Carrilho among its three owners. The others are Luciana Rabello and Joao Carlos Carino. The partners need no introduction in samba and choro circles. The first two are known worldwide as virtuosos of their respective instruments— Luciana on the cavaquinho, Mauricio on the guitar (he is also one of Brazil's foremost arrangers). Carino is an attorney who has dedicated himself to authentic Brazilian music, producing remarkable records (e.g., Elizeth Cardoso's Ary Amoroso) and radio programs. All three got their start working with some of the most legendary names in Brazilian music, and their careers, begun in the midseventies, have been associated with projects of the highest caliber. Projects of high caliber hardly ever arrive on a silver platter. Commercial record labels have never regarded choro as' a bankable proposition, although in their day, Jacob do Bandolim and Waldir Azevedo used to register healthy record sales. With little or no media support, musicians are left to fend for themselves, even when they're of the first rung, like Carrilho and Rabello. Having long nurtured a dream of independence, the Acari trio finally embarked on its own course, building a studio with outstanding acoustics in a 41
northern Rio suburb that gave the enterprise its name (a Tupi word, acari stands for a fresh-water fish that is beneficial to the environment). In this studio they began recording choro albums. This spring, Acari Records released its first three discs—the solo debuts of Luciana Rabello, veteran flutist (and Mauricio's father) Alvaro Carrilho, and young flutist Leonardo Miranda. Distinguished by excellence—of music, playing, and production—these discs have been the object of unreserved praise in the Brazilian press. Acari is selling its products on the Internet at www.acari.com.br. The web site is proving to be an instant hit, with close to 50,000 visits in its first month online. Several more discs are already recorded (see feature box), and Acari is venturing into music publishing as well, with plans to release sheet music of its recorded compositions in ChoroBook editions that will include interviews, biographical information, and photos.
A master of the cavaquinho dazzles Luciana Rabello's first solo disc is an album of rare beauty and a splendid showcase for her instrument. The great cavaquinho player debuts here as composer, producer, and arranger, accompanied by a group of old friends, the cream of the profession: Mauricio Carrilho on 6- and 7string guitars, Joao Lyra on 6-string guitar, Cristovao Bastos on piano, and Celsinho Silva and his father Jorginho on percussion. The disc opens with "De Bern Corn a Vida," a lively choro dedicated by Luciana to the bandolinista Pedro Amorim and reflecting his infectious joie de vivre. "Velhos Choroes" is a slower composition saluting the great choro musicians of old times, especially Luciana' s master, the legendary cavaquinista Canhoto. "Pitangueira," a contemplative choro co-authored with Cristovao Bastos and among the first in their 20-year partnership, is followed by the lovely slow waltz "Morena" by Bastos, written especially for Luciana (she is the morena of the title) and arranged for cavaquinho and piano. "No Balanco da Luciana," a choro in the classic style by Avena de Castro, was dedicated to the artist in 1976, when she was just beginning to play the cavaquinho. In her arrangement, Luciana adhered to Avena's original harmony. "Manga Rosa" was another gift from a master, the great cavaquinista Jonas Pereira da Silva (who improvised the title when he saw the young artist return from the beach sunburned). Again, Luciana' s harmony reflects the way Jonas used to play. "Ca Entre Nos," a precocious composition by Luciana and her late brother, legendary guitarist Raphael Rabello, was written when they were in their early teens and bears witness to the long hours the pair used to spend playing along with the masters' discs. A less typical piece is "Valsa do Trovador" by Luciana, Bastos, and Paulo Cesar Pinheiro, who contributed lyrics absent from this beautiful recording of cavaquinho and 7-string guitar. "Flor de Sapucaia," coauthored with Bastos, was created at Luciana's birthday party under the benevolent gaze of maestro Radames Gnattali and is arranged for conjunto regional and piano. The piano reappears with the cavaquinho in "Flor de Jacaranda," a composition of extraordinary beauty and lyricism. The disc concludes with "Queixa Antiga"—the only previously recorded composition—and with another early gift, "Beliscando o Cavaquinho," a choro with a tinge offorro presented to Luciana in 1977 by Sergio Regis, a student of 42
Jaime Florence—the great Meira.. Brazzll—Luciana, your family has produced several outstanding musicians in your generation alone. Can you tell us something about your family history? Luciana Rabello—I was born to a family from the northeast of Brazil, descendents of Spaniards, Dutch, Germans, Portuguese, Indians, and Negroes. A typical Brazilian family [laughs]. On the paternal side, most of the family members were dedicated to pharmaceutical science, commerce, and industry. There were some lawyers and few musicians. My grandfather was one of those few: a bohemian guitarist. His name was Flaviano Lins Rabello, and I didn't know him. On the maternal side, the family was full of repentistas (popular minstrels) and musicians. Otacilio Baptista is the most famous repentista in the family. There are many others. My grandfather, Jose de Queiroz Baptista, was a music teacher, guitarist, and chord' o[choro musician]. We lived in the same house, and he was my first teacher, as is the tradition in the family—we learn at home. All the Baptistas were self-taught, as am I. They were well-read, spoke a number of languages, but usually didn't have much academic study. As a child I heard a lot of choro, a lot of northeastern folklore, a lot of samba, and a lot of classical music. I began to learn guitar at the age of six, and studied classic piano for five years. My brother Raphael always played guitar. Our maternal grandfather taught the first notes to all the grandchildren who were interested. We grew up with choro but had no friends of our own age who liked this kind of music. Choro was something for old people, and we were considered some kind of ETs [laughs]. Brazzil—Y ou and your brother began performing in public at a very early age. Luciana Rabello—This was in 1975, when Raphael was twelve and I was fourteen. We had come to know the recently formed conjunto Gab o Preto, became friends, and started to frequent the rodas de choro at the house of Afonso Machado, bandolinista and leader of the group. I played guitar—this was before I began to play cavaquinho. Raphael met Deo Rian, bandolim player of Epoca de Ouro, who was impressed with him and arranged for him to become the student of Meira, the great master of the guitar, who played in the regional of Canhoto and was Baden Powell's teacher. In addition to studying with Meira, my brother and I spent hours playing with choro discs, imitating and learning from the masters, above all those of the conjuntos of Canhoto and Jacob do Bandolim. Brazzil—Around that time you formed the conjunto Os Carioquinhas. Luciana Rabello—We were obsessed with the idea of forming a conjunto. We met Paulinho do Bandolim, Theo (6-string guitar), and Mario (pandeiro). What was missing was the cavaquinho. Raphael, without the slightest ceremony, asked that I abandon the guitar and play cavaquinho so that we could form the group, because there was nobody else. The great decision of a visionary [laughs]. So the group was formed in 1975 and began to receive invitations to various musical get-togethers, where we met all our choro idols: Dino Sete Cordas, Canhoto, Altamiro Carrilho, Waldir Azevedo, Abel Ferreira. They were all very kind and "adopted" us, surrounding us with much affection and advice. Many were touched to see us play, because choro was really old people's music, and it looked BRAZZIL - APRIL 2000
as if it would end with them. At Meira's house, Raphael met Mauricio Carrilho, another student of the master. Inevitably, they became close, and Mauricio joined the conjunto, replacing Theo. We met the clarinetist Celso Cruz and Celsinho [ Silva] do Pandeiro, who joined us as well. In a roda de choro we got to know Lygia Santos, daughter of the legendary Donga, who directed us to our first professional work. The group didn't have a name. Lygia was very enthusiastic and cried every time she heard us—we didn't quite understand why. Lygia worked for an official cultural organ of the city of Rio de Janeiro and took us to her boss, Comandante Martinho, who was also impressed with aqueles meninos [those kids] and decided to give us work. It was in 1976, and I remember our rushing to get our professional musicians' cards. Our first show was at the quadra [rehearsal hall] of the Mansueira samba school, where we were on the same bill with Epoca de Ouro, Waldir Azevedo, Copinha, and Quinteto Villa-Lobos. We were named by Comandante Martinho: Os Carioquinhas. From then on, we received various invitations from record companies. All wanted to exploit the image of the "child prodigies," but not one of them was interested in choro. They wanted us to record rock in choro rhythm, imagine! We ended up recording for Som Livre, as theirs was the best proposal. We succeeded in recording the repertoire we wanted, and the label promised us good publicity through Globo TV, which of course didn't happen. In the recording studio we met the maestro Radames Gnattali, who liked us a lot and told us to study harmony. He was very impressed with Raphael, as everybody was. Brazzil—Os Carioquinhas was followed by Camerata Carioca. Luciana Rabello—We were getting a lot of work, but we fought a lot—after all, we were normal adolescents, or almost normal [laughs]. In 1978, the fights spelled the end of the conjunto. Joel Nascimento, who knew of this, invited us to play the suite Retratos for bandolim and orchestra by Radames Gnattali, which he had commissioned Radames to adapt for bandolim and a small conjunto at Raphael's suggestion. Radames wrote the new version but said that it wouldn't work. He didn't believe that a conjunto de choro would count. Joel took the core players of Os Carioquinhas, and we began to rehearse the suite, which we presented to the maestro at his birthday party, on 27 January 1979. Radames loved it and decided to write other arrangements for the group, saying that he himself would play in that formation. Herminio Bello de Carvalho was present at the party and organized what he saw happening before his eyes. This is how Camerata Carioca was born. Baptized and propelled forward by Herminio, the group had its first public performance in August 1979 in a beautiful show called Tributo a Jacob, that was also recorded in a studio. Brazzil—Y ou left Camerata Carioca not long after that. Luciana Rabello—I was part of the first formation of Camerata Carioca, the one that emerged from Os Carioquinhas—with Raphael, Mauricio, and Celsinho, plus Joel and Jodo Pedro Borges (6-string guitar; another guitar was needed to execute Radames' arrangements). I left for various reasons, together with my brother and Celsinho Silva. I needed to pursue my own path, and that's what! did. I worked with many singers and also as a soloist in some projects. I played in the studio recordings (and sometimes BRAZZIL -APRIL 2000
in shows) of Elizeth Cardoso, Paulinho da Viola, Francis Hime, Chico Buarque, Martinho da Vila, Baden Powell, Toquinho, Copinha, Abel Ferreira, and a dozen other artists. In 1981 and '82 I traveled to Europe on two tours of three months each. There were many proposals—in Brazil and in Europe—to record a solo disc, but I accepted none. They always wanted me to record the obvious: "Brasileirinho," "Tico-Tico no Fuba," "Doce de Coco," etc. I preferred to follow another route, that years later became Acari. The record companies were interested in exploiting the fact that a woman was playing cavaquinho; they wanted to give my work an almost sensual focus. I always found this ridiculous and rejected some financially tempting offers. In 1985 I married Paulo Cesar Pinheiro, with whom I have two children, Ana and Julio. Brazzil—When did you begin to compose? Luciana Rabello—I was already composing at the age of thirteen but only mustered the courage to show my compositions when I was sixteen or seventeen. I gained more confidence much later. The first compositions are forgotten now. Brazzil—Y ou've composed a lot with Cristovao Bastos. How did your partnership begin? Luciana Rabello—I came to know Cristovao more than twenty years ago, in 1978/79. He was playing with Paulinho da Viola, and we recorded together several times. In 1979/80, we worked on a Cristina Buarque disc and then in her show with Elton Medeiros, at Teatro Clara Nunes in Rio. Cristovao didn't have a piano at home and used to arrive at the theatre very early in order to study and play. He asked that I come early too, so we could take advantage of the piano. Cristovao came to my house a lot, and we became old friends very quickly. I also didn't have a piano, and he played guitar when he came to my house. We didn't have to talk much to communicate or to play. Since then, every time he'd need a cavaquinho in his arrangements, he'd call me. He still does. Raphael, [sister] Amelia, and I lived together, and in our house, music ruled. We played and listened to music almost the whole time. We laughed a lot, all the time. I don't know why, because our financial difficulties were serious. But the atmosphere was full of life. All our friends liked to visit our house. I remember Luizao Maia, Wilson das Neves, Guinga (he came only for a while). But Cristovao was present more than the others. He didn't need to call ahead. In '81, after Raphael married, Amelia and I moved to a smaller apartment, and he continued coming. We drank herbal tea made from boldo (a medicinal plant used to cure liver and digestive ailments) rather than alcohol (strange...). The good humor was contagious. Mostly we played. I don't know how to explain the process of music making, but it was always very easy. One only had to begin playing, and the ideas appeared—sometimes his, sometimes mine. Our first composition was "Queixa Antiga," which is in the disc. Cristovao had the first part ready for years, but the second part wouldn't come. He showed me what he had, and the second part came out all at once, complete. We became excited and made more. The others were mixed—all the parts were our joint work, as in a conversation. Until today it's a pleasure to play with Cristovao. It's the same sinyony I have with Mauricio Carrilho and had with my brother Raphael. Amelia and Cristovao fell in love and married in '95.
Their son Miguel is our godson. They're no longer married but continue to be friends. Cristovao and I no longer have time to pass whole afternoons playing, unfortunately. But whenever we meet, the syntony reappears. If only we had more time... Brazzil—Who were the musicians who influenced you most? Luciana Rabello—In my instrument, the chief influences were the masters Canhoto (who appointed me his successor) and Jonas Pereira da Silva, cavaquinho of Epoca de Ouro and Jacob do Bandolim's favorite. I spent countless hours playing along with their recordings, until I managed to play like them. We all begin by imitating those we admire, and later we trace our own path. Thank goodness, I knew how to select my models [laughs]. Even better was hearing this from Canhoto himself. He said, "Girl, you're the one who imitates me best!" Many tried to imitate Canhoto, which is to be expected with a master who created a whole school of accompaniment cavaquinho. The same thing happened (or is still happening) with Dino [Sete Cordas], Meira, Jorginho do Pandeiro, Jacob do Bandolim, and several other sacred monsters who became the reference points for their instruments. But Canhoto was not selfreferential; he admired and respected cavaquinistas whose styles were different from his. In my case, he was happy to have me learn from him. Now I understand how he felt; I'm beginning to feel the same way. It's crucial to see continuity in the work to which we've dedicated our lives. Jonas blessed me in a different way: we were close friends, and he dedicated to me the delicious choro "Manga Rosa," which I recorded in my new disc. As far as general influences go, there were many. The Brazilians include Ataulfo Alves, Geraldo Pereira, Luiz Gonzaga, Jackson do Pandeiro, Jacob do Bandolim, Pixinguinha, Noel Rosa, Tom Jobim, Francis Hime, Elizeth Cardoso, Vadico, Moacir Santos, CustOdio Mesquita, Cartola, Nelson Cavaquinho, Villa-Lobos, Ernesto Nazareth, Canhoto da Paraiba, Radames Gnattali, Paulinho da Viola, and Clementina de Jesus. Bossa nova made no impression in my life: it emerged in the late '50s, and I was born in 1961. I never liked bossa nova. To this day it says nothing to me. I prefer the sources [laughs]. Among non-Brazilians I count Astor Piazzolla, SegOvia, Gershwin, Bill Evans, Billie Holiday. Among classical composers: Chopin, Brahms, Bach. Brazzil—How did the Acari idea emerge? Luciana Rabello—It followed our idea of building a studio. Once it was ready, Mauricio and I, who were the major investors in the studio, wondered what we were going to do with the discs recorded there. The record companies continue to have no interest in this type of material, but we know there's a good public for choro. We decided to take a bigger step and created Acari Records. Brazzil—W hat do you think is the future of choro? Luciana Rabello—I don't think. I do.
Luciana Rabello (CD; 2000) Acari Records AR3 Audio samples: http://www.acari.com.br/luciana ft 1 .htm 01. De Bern Corn a Vida (Luciana Rabello) BRAZZIL -APRIL 2000
2. Velhos Chor6es (Luciana Rabe11o) 3. Pitangueira (Luciana Rabello/Cristovao Bastos) 4. Morena (Cristovao Bastos) 5. No Balanco da Luciana (Avena de Castro) 6. Manga Rosa (Jonas Pereira da Silva) 7. Ca Entre Nos (Luciana RabeIto/Raphael Rabe11o) 8. Valsa do Trovador (Luciana Rabello/Cristovao Bastos/Paulo Cesar Pinheiro) 9. Flor de Sapucaia (Luciana Rabello/Cristovao Bastos) 10. Flor de Jacaranda (Luciana Rabello/Cristovao Bastos/ Luis Moura) 11. Queixa Antiga (Luciana Rabello/ Cristovao Bastos/ Paulo Cesar Pinheiro) 12. Beliscando o Cavaquinho (Sergio Regis)
A veteran flutist's first album For almost thirty years, Alvaro Carrilho 's first priority was supporting his family. Only after retirement was he able to resume the flute playing of his youth. In this disc, his first, Alvaro plays his early and late compositions— choros, waltzes, and sambas—with a conjunto regional made up of Mauric io Carrilho, Luciana Rabello, Jorginho & Celsinho Silva, and Joao Lyra. Among the illustrious guests are brother Altamiro and his flute, clarinetist Paulo Sergio Santos, and bandolinistas Joel Nascimento and Pedro Amorim (the latter playing pandeiro). As composer, Carrilho adheres to the classic molds of choro, although his delightful tunes are clearly contemporary in style, with flavors varying from the lyrical to the lighthearted. In the former category, the choro "Na Sombra da Caramboleira" (In the Shade of the Carambola Tree), the waltz "Zelia," and the samba "Sem Perdao" stand out for their beauty. We've asked Alvaro Carrilho to talk about his life. Here's his story: Alvaro Carrilho—My family is from Santo Antonio de Padua, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. In provincial towns, large families like mine are common. My father was Octacilio Goncalves Carrilho and my mother Lyra de Aquino Carrilho. They had eight children: Marina (1918), Ondina (1920), Carlos Augusto (1922), Altamiro (1924), Leda (1927), myself (1930), Jose Luiz (1932), and Renato (1935). My father was a dental surgeon who liked to help the needy and didn't charge these people for dental services. Sometimes he received payment in kind, like rice, beans, chickens, etc. For that reason, my mother and sisters had to augment the household income with crochet work, embroidery, and sewing. Considering these difficulties, my childhood was joyful and full of affection, but also full of restrictions when it came to expensive clothes, toys, and such. In compensation, we used our creativity in making our own toys, which were admired by the neighborhood kids. In those days, the musical hits were presented in radio programs with the singers Orlando Silva, Carlos Galhardo, Silvio Caldas, etc., but there were also programs of instrumental music: choro, maxixe, tango, fox, polka, and BIVUZIL-APML2000
waltzes. As we h d no radio, which was rare, we heard the programs on ou neighbor's radio. That's where I got interested in inst umental music. In our town t ere was a musical band founded by my maternal grandfat er, Carlos Manso de Aquino, who had such a passion for musi that he named his first-born daughter Lyra. The band was call d Lyra de Orion and played in the bandstand of the square whe e the town's families used to gather, listen, and applaud. Afte the death of my grandfather, the direction passed to my eld st uncle, Messias. My mother's four other brothers were also n the band: Dario played tenor sax; Homero, tuba; Rodolfo, clar et; and Raul, trumpet. My brother Altamiro, still a boy, played military drum in this band, from 1938 until we moved to Sao oncalo in 1941. My eldest brother Carlos was in the army th n, and with the money he earned, he bought a bamboo flute for Altamiro. Later, when Altamiro was already working, he bought himselfan ebony flute, and the bamboo flute was abandoned. That's when I appropriated it and began to play. In 1943 we moved to Rio de Janeiro, living in the borough of Bonsucesso. In Rio, Altamiro worked in a pharmacy at the city center and studied music at night. Then he formed his first conjunto regional. In Bonsucesso I was already playing my little flute. Across from our house lived Wellington [Santos], who played guitar. I liked to hear him play. One day I dared take my flute over so we could play togeth r. He liked it, and we formed a conjunto. Playing with us in is band were Baden Powell (just beginning to study guitar wit Meira), Manoel da Conceicao, and Paulo Nunes. We playe at Radio Guanabara in the Programa do Guni [children's p ogram], where we accompanied the singers Claudette Soares and Helen de Lima, still girls. My first composition was 1948, a choro that had coine out of my sessions with Wel ington. In 1949 I beg n my military service in the Air Force in Rio, and six mon hs later I was transferred to Barbacena, Minas Gerais. In his town I met Mr. Roldao, who played banjo, soloed ve well, and had a regional. He invited me to participate in a oda de choro with the bamboo flute, and I started to play i this conjunto whenever I could. In 1950 I composed a cho o that I called "Chorando em Barbacena" [recorded on then w disc]. In 19511 completed my military service and ret rned to Rio. I began to work in a pharmaceutical I boratory, and there was no time left to play the flute. On May 1956 I married Zelia Lana, and we lived in Copacab a. On 26 April 1957 Mauricio was born, followed by Cesa on 13 October 1958. We moved to Penha in 1965, and two ears later Mauricio began to study guitar with Meira. I w s no longer playing. In 1971 Altamiro invited Mauricio o play with him—just flute and guitar— in a program on TV Globo. With the fee he received, Mauricio invited e to buy myself a "real flute." We bought the instrument I h d been dreaming of since my childhood, but even with this reat gift I had no time to practice, and the flute was kept in. In 1978 Mauricio made his first trip to Japan and broug t me two presents: another flute and a 45
piccolo, both brand new. With presents like these, I made an effort to find some free time to practice. In 19811 retired and found more time for the flute, always egged on by Mauricio. So I began to play in bars, theatres, plazas, relatives' houses, etc. At present, we have a group of good musicians: Indio do Cavaquinho, Valter 7 Cordas, Cactila on guitar, Valdir Mandarino on pandeiro, and I on flute. The high point of my trajectory has been the recording of this CD with my compositions and some partnerships with Altamiro, Carlinhos, Gerson Mesquita, and Wellington Santos. This recording was made under Mauricio's direction and with his help. I had a lot of encouragement from friends, Altamiro's musicians, and above all from my sons.
Alvaro Carrilho (CD; 2000) Acari Records AR1 Audio samples: http://www.acari.com.br/ Alvaro2e.htm 1. Na sombra da Caramboleira (Alvaro Carrilho; 1972) 2. Brincando Com os Netos (Alvaro Carrilho/Wellington Santos;1947) 3. Tangerina (Altamiro Carrilho/Alvaro Carrilho; 1975) 4. Choro Torto (Alvaro Carrilho; 1998) 5. Chorando em Barbacena (Alvaro Carrilho;1950) 6. Sentimento Carioca (Alvaro Carrilho/ Mauricio Carrilho;, 1995) 7. Inaugurando (Alvaro Carrilho;1993) 8. Zelia (Alvaro Carrilho; 1998) 9. Plangentes ViolOes (Alvaro Carrilho/ Wellington Santos;1947) 10. Marimbondo (Altamiro Carrilho/ Alvaro Carrilho; 1942) 11. Ranchinho Abandonado (Alvaro Carrilho/Gerson Mesquita; 1952) 12. Sem Perdao (Alvaro Carrilho,1956) 13. Noite Festiva (Alvaro Carrilho/ Altamiro Carrilho/Carlos Carrilho;1947)
A young flutist's tribute to the father of choro In the Acari lineup, Leonardo Miranda Plays Joaquim Callado stands out both for the youth of its principal musician and for the age of the compositions, all written by Joaquim Antonio da Silva Callado Junior (1848-1888), a remarkable flutist considered the first major choro musician and the one who gave the genre its name. All of Callado's choros cariocas were composed for flute, guitar, and cavaquinho, and this is how they are presented in this disc—the first dedicated to Callado's work—with Luciana Rabello accompanying on cavaquinho, Joao Lyra on guitar, and Mauricio Carrilho on 7-string guitar. 46
Brazzil—There are at least three well-known musicians in your family. How far back does this musical tradition go? . .. , I come from a family of musicians My greatMauricio CarnIlim-grandfather founded a bin' in Santo Antonio de Padua, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. This happened at the beginning of the 20th century. In this band played five of hii sons: Raul trumpet & trombone; Rodolfo, et & sop 0 clarinet; Dario:saxophones; Homero, tuba. and sias c mlan who played sopranoclarinet and conducted the band for more ye lyars. My grandinother studied piano andthad eight children, of th wr om 600n mytmcle(Alitmiro Carrilho) and my father (Alvaro Carrilho) followed the family's "mice tradition and play flute. t have been a lot of music ir your childhood. Mauricio Carrilho—My childhood was wonderful. Lots of football t and lots of music, My ther o anized children's football teams and Ti+ rodas de choro. My brother, Cesar Carrilho, is very good with the ball. He got to play with the razdtan team at the first indoor football world championship Budapest, Hungary I was a rather violent defender and . did better in music. 8Taaii—There
Brazzil—What minim didyou hear as a chill? Mauricio Carrillin—I heard basically Brazilian music. Choro (Altamiro's discs), samba (I heard a lot of the sffiger Roberto Silva), some classical music, ad so 'Jazz. a al Brazzil—With theOute tradition in your family, why did you ielityc thaerrgiu thita o,_o r? n choose torp four years old, I w time, when 1 before strolling with my unde stopped ore a shop window that • Altamiro me , we a ed dispinayetu d m °and i iftI wheBrIazzil_ guit,ar. Altana. liked guitar, and I said yes. asked five, he gave me a guitar that I still cherish e matt . . How oldwerw
.when You began to play, ' and who
first guitar lesson was in December 1966.: taught yoruic?toCarrilli was u—My f. mo [Horondino Silva, aka Dino Sete. I was nine. My first teacher cordasl. I studied with him for a year. Then I went to studythweithm M useieira; I consider my great master. With him, in addition to learning the instrument, I was able to gain a more found vision . received great life lessons from Meira. Brazzil—We heardiLuciana's view of Os Carioquinhas. What's yours? Mauricio Carrilho-In 1976, at the Sovaco de Cobra [the Cobra's Annpitl—a bar in Penha that used to be a meeting point for all the chordes of Rio de Janeiro—I met Raphael and Luciana Rabello. When we played together for the first time, it seemed as if we'd known each other for years. Raphael was 14, Luciana 16, and 119. Raphael said, "I play like Dino, my sister like Canhoto, and you like Meira. We're going to form the best regional of our generation." I found that boy's prophecy very amusing, but it ended up happening. I entered Os Carioquinhas and abandoned medical school. We recorded our disc the following year, and I became a professional musician through Raphael and Luciana Rabello. Brazzil—Tell us about your experiences with Cam erata Carioca. Mauricio Carrilho—The core players of Os Carioquinhas were invited by Joel Nascimento—who was already considered at the time the most important bandohnista in Brazil—to form a group and play the BRAZZIL -APRIL 2000
suite Retratos by Radames Gnattali. The musicians were: Raphael, Luciana, Celsinho (pandeiro), and I. Joel also invited Luiz Otavio, guitarist of the group Gabo Preto. Herminio Bello de Carvalho, who heard us play informally at Radames' birthday party, put together the show Tr ibuto a Jacob do Bandolim. In this show I played for the first time with Radames, on 11 August 1979, in Curitiba. After this debut tour, Herminio baptized us Camerata Carioca. The group recorded three albums, changed formation more than once, but had an important role in creating a chamber language for the traditional formation of the regional. Brazzil—Y ou do a great deal of arranging and you also compose. When did you begin these activities? Mauricio Carrilho—In 1978 I began to work with Nara Lean. We became friends, and she surprised me with an invitation to divide the arrangements of her disc with Roberto Menescal. Menescal was an eminent arranger of the bossa nova movement, and I had never written an arrangement in my life. Nara insisted, with an unbeatable argument: "Every arranger begins by making his first arrangement one day." Her confidence finally took hold, and I started arranging. As a composer I began earlier, at the age of five. I composed the first part of a maxixe that Altarniro completed and recorded with his small band in 1967. Later, studying with Meira, I began to compose with greater frequency, but without any pretension. When I began to work as a musician, I put aside the habit of composing, except on very rare occasions. In 1989 I met the poet Paulo Cesar Pinheiro, of whom I have long been a fan, and he demanded that I return to composing. We became partners in more than 40 songs. I owe Paulinho Pinheiro this return to composing. Now it's part of my daily life. Brazzil—What are your major musical • influences? Mauricio Carrilho—In Brazilian music: Radames, Villa-Lobos, Pixinguinha, Nazareth, Meira, Ary Barroso, and Baden Powell. I also adore Bach, Piazzolla, and Duke Ellington. At the same time, I find these lists unjust; we often forget people who were fundamental in our education. However, I can guarantee that my education is essentially linked to the music of Brazil. Brazzil—W hat kinds of music do you listen to now? Mauricio Carrilho Choro, samba, classical music, jazz, tango, flamenco, and other genres that are rarely found on Brazilian radio and TV. Brazzil—How did the Acari idea begin? Mauricio Ca rrilho—It's not an idea but necessity. a Choro has been in existence for almost 140 years and never had erecord company to treat it with the proper care. At some point, someone had to take the attitude we've taken. There are more than 15,000 unrecorded compositions. It was no longer possible to wait for the marketing executives of the great recording industry. Brazzil—What do you think is the future of choro? Mauricio Carrilho—Choro has survived epidemics, plagues, two world wars, military coups, disregard from all Brazilian governments, and neglect by record companies. It's resisting the ravages of the dumbingdown process imposed by the globalization of cultural rubbish, and it will continue to resist everything. Its development is permanent and independent of externally imposed values. Choro has its own parameters. The person who knows it intimately isn't impressed with puerile avant-gardes and doesn't feel pressured by a supposed necessity to adapt it to the fashionable sound. Choro definitely isn't music for beginners. BRAZZIL - APRIL 2000
At a time when the middle and upper classes of Rio de Janeiro performed European music while the lower classes— principally black— played percussive music of African origins, the mulatto allado fused the European and the African into a uniquely Brazilian musical form. According to Leonardo Miranda, Callado's music is at the root of all that has been characterized as Brazilian music from that time until now. Most of the composer's work was lost, with just 70 scores remaining, among them Callado's only well-known composition, "Flor Amorosa" (not included in this disc). Brazzii—Leonardo, how did choro and the flute enter your life? Leonardo Miranda—During my childhood in the provinces, I heard very little music at home. Although I'm the grandson, great-grandson and great-greatgrandson of musicians (all played wind instruments in various bands in Minas Gerais), my parents were relatively out of this scene. Brazilian music, choro, entered my life through the discovery, among my father's old records, of two discs, one of Noel Rosa, the other of Pixinguinha, both from an old series sold at newspaper stands. I still remember listening hundreds of times to Noel's "Ultimo Desejo" with Aracy de Almeida and being enchanted with the flute that punctuated that samba—a flute I now know to have been Benedito Lacerda's. But that's not how the flute arrived in my life. At the age of 13, I asked to be allowed to study music, and for lack of choice in the provinces, I began to study piano, to which I dedicated myself for four years— a s udy interrupted when I came to Rio de Ja eiro. Here, after about a year, a disc ca led Flauta no Choro fell into my hands. T t was the definitive impact for me: I ha to learn that! I bugged my parents un ii I got a flute, a Yamaha student's m del, and I began to study with my first te cher, Decio Carrascosa, a flutist/ sa ophonist and specialist in Andian instruments. For a little over a year I learned from him the rudiments of the flute. Brazzil—W here does the choro come in Leonardo Miranda—Feeling the ne d for more specific apprenticeship, I 47
changed teachers and went to study with the choreioDirceu Leitte, who for three years taught me much of the style, in addition to putting me in contact with various musicians of the genre. Finally, I went to study at PrO-Arte, with professor Carlos Alberto Rodrigues, who gave me the technical groundwork and the discipline that were fundamental for increasing the clarity in my playing. Brazzil—How did you become interested in Joaquim Callado? Leonardo Miranda—My interest in Callado, and also in the other pioneers of choro, came naturally from the beginning: the old repertoire seemed to me marvelous, different, original, and inexplicably unexplored. From the beginning of my apprenticeship in choro I've tried to learn more of the style of the period and its repertoire. Brazzil—How did the idea for the disc come about? Leonardo Miranda— The idea of the disc also came ready-made from the beginning. Why was the work of the author of the first choro, "Flor Amorosa," unknown? I was curious and looked for as many scores and as much information about Callado as I could find. Mauricio Carrilho has encouraged me ever since he first heard me play an unknown polka by Callado. With his incentive, I went after more material, wanting to have a general vision of Callado's work. The rest is history, just listen to the disc...
Leonardo Miranda Toca Joaquim Callado (CD; 2000) Acari Records AR2 Audio samples: hap:// www.acari.com.br/ leonardo ftl e.htm All compositions by Joaquim Antonio da Silva Callado Jr. 1. Improviso (polka) 2. Conceicdo (polka) 3. Manuelita Suite (quadrille) 48
In the Acari pipeline Mauricio Carrilho Mauricio's compositions arranged for various formations such as banda, regional, and chamber ensemble. Instruments include clarinet, saxophone, flugelhorn, trumpet, tuba, flute, piccolo, violin, cello, cavaquinho, guitars, bass, and percussion. Pedro Amorim plays his own compositions for tenor guitar with conj unto regional accompaniment. Indio do Cavaquinho plays his own compositions of traditional choro with conjunto regional accompaniment. Canhoto da Paraiba Home recordings of Canhoto playing his compositions at Avena de e house. with Avena. Pautinho da Viola & Raphael Rabello as audience. K**, Quartet of Tired Malandros Nai 'or A zevedo "Proveta," Pedro Amorfrn, Mauricio Carrilhoo& &Jorginho do Pancle play choros by Mauricio and Pedro and other composers in improvised sessions. Altamiro Carrilho plays his unpublished compositions with a conjunto regional made up of Mauricio Carrilho, Luciana Rabello, Jorginho & Celsinho Silva, and JoAo Lyra.
4. Rosinha (polka) 5. Ultimo Suspiro (polka) 6. Saturnino Suite (quadrille) 7. A Sedutora (polka) 8. Puladora (polka) 9. Pagodeira Suite (quadrille) 10. Querida por Todos (polka) 11. Dengosa (polka) 12. Salome (polka) 13. Souzinha Suite (quadrille) 14. Florinda (polka)
Daniella Thompson is a writer and preservationist living in Northern California. She can be reached at daniv(iDdps.net.
BRAZZIL - APRIL 2000
RIO Alice Array& do Espelho (Alice Through the Looking Glass)—Based on Lewis Carroll story, the staging uses tricks like a moving ceiling that forces people to lower the head, so the spectator can feel a little like Alice must have felt. Directed by Paulo de Moraes with Cia. Armazem de Teatro. Fundicao Progresso. Um Certo Olhar (A Certain Glance)— Poems from Fernando Pessoa and Federico Lorca trace the itinerary of a man from cradle to old age. Raul Cortez, accompanied by two musicians does it all: interprets, sings, and tap dances. Directed by Jose Possi Neto. Teatro das Artes. Ventriloquist—An amusing and critical take on modern society and the difficulty of being original. Internet, futurology, fashion, and drugs are some of the target of writer and director Gerald Thomas. Movie director Cacd Diegues participates with his voice in off. Espaco Cultural Sergio Porto Os Monalogos da Vagina (The Vagina's Monologues)—Comedy. Written by Eve Ensler, directed by Miguel Falabella, with Zeze Polessa, Claudia Rodrigues, and Vera Setta. Based in 200 interviews made in 200 different countries by American Ensler, deals with sexuality and problems with dealing with it from a woman's perspective.
SAO PAULO Fragmentos Troianos (Trojan Fragments)—A comparison between the old Greek wars and World War II and the Holocaust. Written and directed by Antunes Filho, with the young actors of Antunes's Centro de Pesquisas Teatrais. 0 Acidente (The Accident)—Despite the routine a couple ends up finding new virtues in each other, which makes them go on with their relationship. Written by Bosco Brasil, directed by Ariela Goldman, with Denise Weinberg and Geraldo de Barros. Basement of Centro Cultural Sao Paulo. BRAZZIL -APRIL 2000
0 Zelador (The Janitor)—The Har Id Pinter story about the impossibility of co munication between two men. Directed y Michel Bercov itch, with Selton Mel 10, Marcos Oliveira, and Leonardo Medeir s. Teatro Alfa (llamas Luas (Last Moons)—While wa ting to be taken to a rest home, a 70-ye .rold man talks to the ghost of his wife, w o died 30 years ago. Written by Furio Bordo directed by Jorge Takla, with Anton o Fagundes, Mara Carvalho and Petron o Gontijo. Filhos do Brasil (Brazil's Children Comedy. Written by Andrea Bassitt a d Regina Galdino, directed by Regi a Galdino, with Andrea Bassitt and Debor Serretiello. Show examines Indi n children's games as well as kids' stone A Vaca Metafisica (The Metaphysic 1 Cow)—Comedy. Written by Marcilio •e Moraes, directed by Leonardo Cortez, wi Glaucia Libertini, Henrique Pesso Claudia Tordatto and Leonardo Corte The presence of a cow in a middle-cla s home makes life a little easier for a coupl who cares for the animal. Boca de Ouro (Golden Mouth)—Nelso Rodrigues's classic tragedy written in 195 Title comes from main character who rea firms his leadership as animal's game bos by pulling all his teeth and adopting golden denture. Directed by legendary di rector Jose Celso Martinez Correa, wit Marcelo Drummond and Silvia Prado Teatro Oficina.
Just-released American movies: Waking the Dead (Amor Major Que a Vida) Tea with Mussolini (Chti corn Mussolini), Any Given Sunday (Um Domingo Qua! quer), Hanging Up (Linhas Cruzadas), Bes Laid Plans (Pianos Quase Perfeitos), Dow to You (Louco por Voce), Man on Th Moon (0 Mundo de Andy), The Legend o 1900 (A Lenda do Pianista do Mar), Agnes Browne (Agnes Browne: 0 Despertar de Uma Vida), Gladiator (Gladiador), Flawless (Ninguem E Perfeito), Anywhere But Here (Em Qualquer Outro Lugar), Play It to the Bone (Por uma Boa Briga) Cronicamente Inviavel (Chronically Unfeasible)—In a SAo Paulo restaurant five characters bare their own souls, clash and reconcile. By Sergio Bianchi, with Cecil Third, Betty Gofman, Daniel Dantas, Dan Stulbach, Dira Paes, and Umberto Magnani. Bossa Nova— Brazil/2000—Based on, Sergio Sant'Anna's book A Senhorita Simpson (Miss Simpson), this romantic comedy tells the story of an American who teaches English in Rio and who falls in love with two of her students. By Bruno Barreto, with Amy Irving and Antonio Fagundes. Castelo Rd-Tim-Bum-0 Filme (Rd-TimBum Castle, the Film)—Brazil/1999— Based on a successful educational TV show of same name. Directed by Cao Hamburger, with Diego Kozievitch, Sergio Mamberti, Rosi Campos, Marieta Severo, and Mateus Nachtergaele. Asterix & ()Mix contre Cesar (Asterix e Obelix contra Cesar)--France/Germany/ Italy/1999—The village where Asterix and
Obelix live, which is controlled by Rome, rebels against the payment of taxes. Directed by Claude Zidi, with Christian Clavier, Gerard Depardieu, and Roberto Benigni. Hans Staden —Brazil/1999—The adventures of German explorer Hans Staden, who in 1554 almost became Indian lunch. Narrated in German, spoken in Tupi. Directed by Luiz Alberto Pereira with Carlos Evelyn. Sound track by Marlui Miranda.
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ESOTERICISM 1 - A Arte da Felicidade, Dalai Lama. Martins Fontes, R$ 32,50 2 - Enquanto o Amor Ndo Vent, Iyanla Vanzanti. GMT, R$ 24 3 - Aborrecente Ndo, Sou Adolescente, Vera Lticia M. Carvalho. Petit, R$ 13 4 - Um Dia Minha Alma Se Abriu por Inteiro, Iyanla Vanzanti. Sextante, R$ 24 5 - Quando Chega e Hora, Zibia Gasparetto. Vida e Consciencia. R$ 22 According to 0 Globo, http:// www.oglobo.com.br 49
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to the slave in the southern United States. Stanley Elkins followed with a similar study that developed Tannenbaum's thesis, arguing that slavery in the U.S. was a result of rampant capitalism while in Latin America the presence of the Church and laws of manumission did not allow the slave to be reduced to the status of commodity. This line of thinking served to enhance Brazilian nationalist writers who claimed that the uniqueness of the Brazilian racial experience engendered a Brazilian 'cosmic race', based on the construction of the 'Casa Grande'. Many others, such as Seymour Drecher, have argued the contrary. In his article, 'Brazilian Abolition in Corporate Perspective', Drecher points to various local factors that made Brazilian slavery not milder, but more distinct from American slavery. Meanwhile, Robert Brent Toplin in his The Abolition ofSlavery in Brazil and in Freedom and Prejudice documented the abolitionist movement, implying that abolition in Brazil was rushed through by often violent means in order to avoid social revolution, or anything similar to what occurred in Haiti. Arthur F. Crownin follows Toplin's lead, explaining that emancipation liberated blacks in name only. As evidence, he states that today blacks still occupy the bottom ofthe socioeconomic scale. The debate will undoubtedly continue and involve many scholars who are not listed above. Luckily, Stuart B. Schwartz provides a comprehensive assessment of the literature in the first chapter of Slaves, Peasants, and Rebels: Reconsidering Brazilian Slavery (1992). The period from 1888-1945 has not received the same amount of attention as the nineteenth century. The seminal work to date on race relations and national identity in this era is undoubtedly Florestan Fernandes' The Negro in Brazilian Society. Florestan Fernandes has written a plethora of articles and books on race and national culture. Fernandes, however, dealt specifically with the status of blacks in Sao Paulo. Numerous scholars follow in Fernandes footsteps looking at racial relations from a socio-historical perspective. Carl Degler's Neither Black nor White briefly looked into color consciousness in his work on race relations. Degler concludes that whites dilute their prejudice, but as blacks educate themselves and become more stable economically, prejudices will manifest themselves as in the United States. Abdias do Nascimento goes one step further in his 0 Genocidio do Negro Brasileiro that chronicles the cultural and physical genocide of blacks in Brazil. Finally, Cleivis Moura's Brasil: As Raizes do Protesto Negro has contributed to the historiography by looking at the black movement in Sao Paulo from 1930-1970. Other studies have reinterpreted the ideas ofGilberto Freyre and Tannenbaum using modern social science techniques. In Democracia racial: ideologia e realidade, Thales de Azevedo has gathered a series of views on racial democracy in Portuguese that has yet to be translated. Alberto Guerreiro Ramos makes a poignant attack on the myths of nationhood by looking at the differences between facts and myths about race relations in Brazil. Other studies have shown the complex relationship between race, class, and regional perceptions. Robert Toplin, for example, has looked at racial relations in the context of Brazil's boom in development, while Charles Wagley has looked at race relations in the backlands. A handful of studies have looked at the role of intellectuals and the connection of their ideas to the politics and events of their respective eras. Intellectuals and their forging of national identity is the focus of a superb collection of essays edited by Richard Graham. Thomas Skidmore investigates racial attitudes and social policy in Brazil from 1870-1940, and Bolivar Lamounier has looked at the political implications of whitening and the co-optation of lower classes by national ideals that stymied the successful mobilization of black consciousness movements as well as any form of non-white solidarity. A decade earlier, Edison de Sousa Carneiro studied the inclusion of blacks as part of national culture in his acclaimed essay 'La nacionalizaciOn del negro en el Brasil'.
In the 1950s, Era Bell Thompson's popular piece posited one of the more important questions and problems of cooptation and absorption of cultural minorities in 'Does Amalgamation Work in Brazil?' This question was one of the main focuses of several good essays and literary texts. Many have attempted to articulate the contribution of history and literature to national image and identity. Among the more salient are Antonio Candido's 'Literature and the Rise of Brazilian National Identity', and Wilson Martins' The Modernist Idea. Martins' work is the best historical study of modernist influence in Brazilian history during the period 1910-1950, although John N ist has also produced an excellent appraisal of the modernists in their quest for a nationalist aesthetic. David T. Haberly has also published a work that looks at racial identity, mixture, and ethnic diversity as depicted in Brazilian literature. Joao Cruz Costa and Emilia Viotti da Costa have produced the most decisive works that analyze intellectual thought and political myths in modern Brazil. Cruz Costa's work represents one of the few studies which has provided an evolution of ideas in Brazil to date. He provides a thorough analysis of the influences of European philosophy on Brazilian thinking and the adaptation of some of those ideas to Brazilian reality. In the Hegelian tradition, Cruz Costa discusses the constant dialectic between the idea or desire and the material reality. Emilia Viotti da Costa's The Brazilian Empire: Myth and Histories provides another historical analysis of Brazilian social history. It deals extensively with ideas in Brazil from liberalism onto the 1930s nationalist ideology. In chapter nine, she looks closely at the myth of racial democracy as an idea, and attempts to explain how ideas are both products of their time as well as reflections of the people that espouse them. She provides a refreshing reappraisal of race relations in the twentieth century from a philosophical perspective taking into consideration evolving social relations. More recently, scholars such as George Reid Andrews, Blacks and Whites in Sdo Paulo, Brazil, 1888-1988(1991), and Michael George Hanchard, Orpheus and Power: The Movimento Negro of Rio de Janeiro and Selo Paulo, Brazil, 1945-1988 (1994) have explored black political organizations in the postabolition era. Kim Butler's recent Freedoms Given Freedoms Won: Afro-Brazilians in Post Abolition Selo Paulo and Salvador (1998) is an important contribution to the study of black political and social life. Butler provides an array of insightful information on black social, cultural and political activities, while carefully placing them into the broader national contexts. Still, information on the role of race in the construction of Brazilian national identity remains an understudied field of inquiry. No work to date has examined how Brazilian nationalism in the 1920s and 1930s succeeded in forging and institutionalizing a dominant national identity based on cultural intermixing, but with a clear aversion to 'blackness'. Nor have scholars paid enough attention to the nascent media, particularly the developments in print journalism, radio and the record industry that allowed these forums to be exploited in the forging of Brazilian national identity. In many ways, Brazil is both typically a Latin American country with its transference of Iberian culture and its reliance on indigenous and African labor, and unique in its struggle for independence while depending almost exclusively on Africans and peoples of African descent for its economy. It is often said that after Nigeria, Brazil has more people of African descent than any other country in the world. After Tokyo, Brazil's industrial city of Sao Paulo is home to more Japanese than any other place in the world. There is also a sizable German, Italian and Jewish population in Southern Brazil. Yet as a rule, even today, Brazilians remain more nationally conscious than racially so. As in other areas of Latin America, ethnic nationalism, although growing in some areas such as Uruguay, has never matched the fervor of patriotic nationalism. No discussion of race and national identity in modern Brazil is possible,
BRAZZIL - APRIL 2000
however, without first examining the historical construction of Latin American nations in general and the Brazilian nation in particular. The importation of African slaves to Brazil began as a measure to supply a much needed labor force. In 1559, a triangular trade route began between Brazil, Portugal, and Africa. The impetus for the slave trade was the commencement of a way of life that privileged the Portuguese colonizers. As Colin MacLachlan has indicated, the plantation system based on African slavery began the ideal model for the Portuguese's American colony. The slave population in Brazil in 1798 was estimated at over a million and a half, and before 1850 another million and a half would reach Brazilian shores. In multiracial or multiethnic societies such as the American nations, national identity is necessarily a product of the racial or ethnic tensions that have developed overtime. In the United States, for example, dual categorization of racial identity ensured that race and class were closely related. The colonial class structure engendered a caste system in so far as the white colonizers, by virtue of their race, were inherently of a higher status. People of African descent, regardless of economic considerations, occupied an inferior social status. The dominant national identity in such a system was synonymous with one's social class. Although whiteness did not always indicate privilege, blackness signified the lack of it. In most Latin American societies a similar social structure emerged, although official recognition of miscegenation blurred the dual relationship of power. The first stage of colonization excluded the participation of European women, therefore European men took native women and later African women as sexual partners. Henceforth began a widespread process of miscegenation, creating a new people of mixed racial heritage. As history would have it, a large population of mulattos and mestizos emerged as a distinct social category, but still inferior to the white. Naturally, these distinctions varies from region to region and in some cases from town to town. Given the historical autonomy of Brazilian captaincies, which later developed into states, for example, strong state identities emerged overtime. Nonetheless, the general distinctions between the conquerors and the oppressed in Latin American colonial societies paralleled other European frameworks of empire. This European framework where difference was treated as inferior assured European settlers of superior positions in societies. Thus, Europeans born on the peninsular, (renois in the case of the Portuguese, peninsulares for the Spanish) were socially superior to Europeans born in the Americas, (Creoles in Spanish America, mazombos in Brazil). Indians and Africans occupied the lowest level of the social hierarchy, and the mixed population facilitated ethnic fluidity. The emerging class system in Latin America was incompatible with the Iberian categorization of race. Theoretically, Africans and Indians or those who were tainted with their bloods were not considered gente boa (good people). However, many Spaniards and Portuguese raised their mestizo or mulato children as white. In turn, the society at large considered them such, affording them privileges based on their class status. Other mestizos and mulatos not recognized by their fathers lived and were raised by their African and indigenous mothers and attained the consciousness of the lower classes. Thus patriarchy established a male-determined pattern of power and privilege in society which served as a model for the construction of the national family, that is the nation. By the end of the eighteenth century, European Enlightenment had produced a new philosophy of liberalism which
BRAZZIL - APRIL 2000
called for the equality, liberty and fraternity ofmen. These were the supposed tenet of the French Revolution of 1789 which would have a direc impact on Latin America. But liberty was shaped in terms of anti-colonial discourse. Equality referred to equal standing o Creoles with peninsulares. Only in Haiti, a colony that was overwhelmingly black did abolition of slavery and indepe dence go hand in hand. In other regions, independence prec ded abolition in some cases by twenty to thirty years, and in t e case of Brazil almost seventy! Nonetheless, the promise o bolition helped Latin American independence leaders attai the support of their slaves. With the except on of Haiti, the wars of independence were detrimental to most blacks in Latin America. Blacks and mulattos, slave and fre , participated disproportionately in these fights, and hundred died for a Creole cause. Mulattos such as Jose Antonio Pae were instrumental in Sim6n Bolivar's struggles in northe South America. The expression 'damned if you do, damned you don't' surely applied to blacks and mulattos in the wars f independence, since despite the fact that they gave their live for the nationalist cause, they were often looked upon suspic ously. The `Temor del Negro/Temor do Negro' or 'The Fe of the Black' lingered as Creoles and Mazombos dreaded he possibility that blacks would somehow take over the count as they did in Haiti. It takes no stretch of the imagination to ee that this fear could only result in the marginalization of â€˘ lacks from future national economic and political possibilitie Prior to the nin teenth century, national consciousness, where it existed, wa an upper class luxury. Latin Americans from the upper clas es derived their identity from their class positions, in part reflecting racial overtones. Although Spaniards strongly identified with regions in Spain, in Latin America they also identified with a central metropolis symbolized by the monarchy. The major obstacle to economic and political dominance of the Latin American upper classes, were the European peninsulares who controlled trade and commerce and reinforced the distinction between peninsular and Creole. National consciousness was predicated on racist beliefs that European dominance was justified by natural law, and thus excluded other nonwhite racial groups from their discussions of regional identity. Even after the wars of independence, in which many non-whites participated, when Latin American writers wrote of the Mexican or Brazilian nation, they essentially meant Creole Mexico or Luso-Brazil. Their writings dominated due to access to he means of communication of the time (especially newspap rs). Indians and Blacks as well as the lower class mestizos ere absent from this formulation. This should come as no su irise considering the fact that only in the latter part of the twe tieth century are we beginning to hear diverse ethnic voices, ven in the United States where access to capital far outstrips L tin American possibilities. Aversion to 'black ess' has been fundamental to all American nations which h ye attempted to promote a 'modern' image, as if 'modern' eant eliminating history. In the absence of a concerted social d political program that would guarantee black citizens' rig ts, Latin American leaders have traditionally carved out a p ace for blacks in its static formulations of national culture an history. At the same time, many states pursued immigration p â€˘ licies, discrimination and other mechanisms which have suc eded in marginalizing blacks from any opportunities of powe . In this regard, black pride movements
such as negritude, which began with French Caribbean and African writers in Paris in the 1930s, were important antinationalist revolutions of the twentieth century which brought the question of race to center stage. Black intellectuals exposed Western societies' aversion to blackness, and their dismissal of black culture to the West, a world that was their own. While no strong negritude movement has ever emerged in Spanish or Portuguese-speaking Latin America, the black contribution to the modern nation formation is undeniable. Unfortunately, official avoidance of discussion of that contribution is equally so.
Independence, Race and Nationh od SimOn Bolivar (1783-1830), the South American independence revolutionary hero, was like most Creoles of his day, intensely skeptical of the ability of the masses to partake fully in the new United States of South America that he envisioned. Disdain for the masses became a general of his stature regardless of his political persuasion, as did a racist ethos which pervaded Latin America since the time of Columbus, and which held Africans and Indians in considerably low esteem. Still, at the turn of the nineteenth century, Africans, Indians, and their offspring constituted a majority of the population of the Americas. Add to that the growing numbers of mulattos, mestizos and other castas, Creole men such as Bolivar were an absolute minority. Still, with history, morality, and liberalism on his side, Bolivar, armed with both pen and sword, galvanized the masses to create a unified front against Spanish oppression, tyranny, and the rape of American soil. Independence! Bolivar was initially reluctant to include blacks in his campaign against the Spanish, but prejudice gave way to political expediency. Among the former African slaves who participated in the independence wars were Lieutenant Leonardo Infante, the mulatto general Jose Laurencio Silva, and the black Colombian admiral and popular personality, Jose Prudencio Padilla, hero of the Colombian Navy, who saw battle in Venezuela. Padilla served as a vivid reminder of the price of independent thought. He was eventually executed in 1828, supposedly for attempting to murder Bolivar. Padilla is only one story among many. Blacks, of course, participated in the campaigns of San Martin in the Rio de la Plata region, and in the struggles of Mexico and Central America. In Uruguay the famous 'Black Battalion' gave their support to the Uruguayan independence. During the Cisplatine War, 1825-1829, AfroUruguayans such as Dionisio Oribe and Joaquin Artigas showed valor, as had many others in the creation of the Banda Oriental del Uruguay, the youngest South American republic. After independence, the race question centered mostly on slavery and its role in the modern nation, not on the welfare of blacks. As the nation-states defined their geopolitical territories, national consolidation and order became of primordial importance. Within this context, the post-colonial elites wanted to ensure that their nations possessed the appropriate labor to guarantee the proper functioning of their economies. Bolivar' s Creole identity served him well, for despite his privileged position he was able to claim solidarity with his 'American' brothers, both slave and free. The common enemyâ€”Spainâ€”had provided a cause around which he galvanized the support of the popular masses for whom he had a genuine sympathy although his social background would not allow him to regard any of them as his equal. The masses had proven loyal in the attack on French colonialism in Saint Dominique, and Bolivar counted on them to fill the ranks of his armies. Bolivar employed the language of unity like a politician who is about to run for office despite the anti-black feelings that
he and his class harbored. To fight colonialism, Creoles planted the seeds of nationalism which espoused the creation of American nations. While nationalism urged identification with (if not adoration of) the community of people we call nation, seeing that identification as fundamental to its political, economic, or cultural survival, strictly speaking, the wars of independence were not nationalist wars. Men like Bolivar were interested in the creation of states, political units, that would have responsibility for the laws of the land. The rhetoric of an incipient nationalism was at best romantic praise of some abstract notion of patria. Creoles did not dream of a multiethnic nation of citizens; rather their larger goals of freedom from Spain had no vision aimed at resolving racial disparities. The nineteenth century seemed like a Pirandello play: 'Creole Nationalists in Search of Latin American Nations'. Indeed as Edward Said has argued, nationalism which accompanies decolonization passes through two stages: resistance against an outsider and secondly, ideological resistance when efforts are made to reconstitute a shattered community, to save or restore the sense and fact of community against all pressures. Resistance against the Portuguese metropolis in Brazil was not as torrid as in the Spanish-American cases. Brazil's road to independence represents one of the many Latin American anomalies in the formation of the modern Brazilian nationstate. The famed Joaquim Jose da Silva Xavier, popularly known as Tiradentes, launched the Inconfidencia Mineira, an attack against the Portuguese colonial government in late 1788. The Portuguese thwarted this effort, however, executing Tiradentes in 1792. The War of the Tailors, an eighteenth-century revolt by soldiers, sharecroppers, and mulatto artisans who espoused the abolition of all existing governmental structures including slavery compounded their fears. Nonetheless, it created a conservative backlash resulting in the capture and death of the leaders of the revolt, and the precarious slaves saw no amelioration in their condition. Slave protests, riots, rebellions and growing philosophical opposition to slavery accelerated the process of abolition, and the eventual signing of the Leaurea, or the Golden Law in 1888. Despite anti-Portuguese attitudes and the emerging abolitionist movement, the socioeconomic system remained unchanged. Moreover, the absence of a national university and the limited Catholic authority in Brazil (since the Jesuits had been expelled in 1759) meant that no other authority could challenge the elite's world view. With the French Revolution, one year after the independence cries of Tiradentes, news of the abolition of slavery by the French reached slaves' ears. The 1791 success of the Haitian Revolution led by blacks and mulattos against the white aristocracy also shook Brazil. Although the threat was closer to Cuban shores, Brazilian elites suffered from the 'Fear of the Nevi'. Events in Brazil compounded their fears. The liberal ideas which in western Europe meant the struggle against absolutism and the Power of the Church, as well as against any obstacles to free trade and material progress, were also adopted by Latin American elites of the nineteenth century. The supporters of liberalism in Brazil were traditionally those agricultural lords connected with the import-export economy, who supported slavery as well as progress, which they saw as closely linked. Though many pushed for more autonomy, compared to other Latin American nations, the Brazilian independence movement was weak. This text was excerpted iroira the first chapter of Avoiding the Dark by Darien J. Davis, Ashgate, 1999, 260 pp.
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O From Spanish to Portuguese. 2 cassettes (2 hr.), 91-p. text, $45. Latin American Spanish (FSI): O Basic Spanish Vol. 1. 12 cassettes (17 hr.), 464 text, $185. O Workbook for Spanish Vol. 1. 128-p., $7.95 O Intermediate Spanish Vol. 2. 8 cassettes (12 hr.), 614-p. text, and manual, $165. O Workbook for Spanish Vol. 2. 201-p., $14.95 O Spanish Advanced Level Part A, 12 cassettes (13 hr.), 614-p. text, $185. •
Spanish Advanced Level Part B, 12 cassettes (13 hr.), 472-p. text, $185.
To order by phone, please call toll-free 1-800-243-1234
Brazilian Portuguese (FS!) 0 Basic Portuguese Vol. 1.
(19 hr.), 783-p. text, $225.
0 Intermediate Portuguese Vol. 2. 18 cassettes (16 hr.), 618-page text, $225. The Foreign Service Institute's language courses are unconditionally guaranteed. Try it for three weeks. If you're not convinced it's the fastest, easiest, most painless way to learn a language, return it and we'll refund every penny you paid. Order today!
Credit-card orders call toll-free 1-800-243-1234, fax toll-free 1-888-453-4329, e-mail: info@ audioforum.com, or mail check or money order. Call or write for our free 52-page Whole World Language Catalog offering courses in 101 languages. Our 28th year.
aLJDIoaRum® THE LANGUAGE SOURCE Suite P931, 96 Broad St., Guilford, CT 06437
SPANISH ttes T i010 Br IS 529-5.00
FRENCH 30 C33s0eit0s - Tnple B30s3 5295 00
GEFMAN (j,.-1-,•:selto • T•ir, Bonus $255.00
ITALIAN CastMlOs Tr•pie Bons,„ 5295.00
JAPANESE 30 C.,,ettr, • Jr
MANDARIN CHINESE 30 Ca0settes T`IPIO Bon0, 5295.00
RUSSIAN '30 CasstAt05 - Ti ple E30003 $295.00
BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE 30 Cas30tles • 1Thpl• ,30013, $295.00
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