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PORTFOLIO Stage II Architecture Portfolio By Brandon Athol Few

16/17


STAGE II

Learning Summary Architecture stage 2 has proven to be a very steep learning curve but an incredibly positive experience. It has not been without its challenges but ultimately these have helped to develop and hone my skills and work attitude for the better. I think due to this I have found second year for the most part less stressful than first year. This year has increased my knowledge and ability in sketching, digital model making and representational work. This has helped to push and develop my work efficiency, design concepts and quality of final work, resulting in work that I can honestly say I have been proud of. As I continue to explore my architectural studies I have started to notice areas of my skill set that I am not improving or exploring to the fullest; I have not managed to read as many books on architecture this year (outside of the course) as I would have liked and hope that next year I can begin to investigate, read about and explore areas of architecture not covered by the course, broadening my knowledge further than the course syllabus. Since the first design project, Dwelling Plus, I have found my work rate and quality of work improving at a dramatic rate, inspiring me for third year. I found that in Exploring Experience I discovered techniques that sped up both my final outputs as well as my process work resulting in a scheme that was more complete than I managed with Dwelling Plus. I have developed a style that I enjoy and am comfortable working in but have continued noting ideas and styles that I would like to incorporate next year. This will further enhance my representational skills and show a broader experience within my design proposals.


Non-Design Modules

Design Modules

Contents

[NB.]

C

Charrette Week

P 2.1

Day in the Life of You

P2.2

Learning Process: Process + Reflection

12 - 16

P 2.3

At Home in the City

17 - 74

P2.4

Engineering Experience

75 - 78

P2.5

Exploring Experience

ARC2009

Architectural Technology 2.1

117 - 123

ARC2010

Environmental Design & Services 2.1

124 - 125

ARC2020

Dissertation Studies & Research Methods

ARC2024

About Cities, Cultures & Spaces

New work shown through presence of this symbol. Revised work shown through presence of this symbol.

1-6 7 - 11

79 - 116

126 127 - 129


Charrette Charrette Week this year was a hands-on start to the academic year. The group was led by Becky and Noor who had been working on the Chilli Studios project for part of their 5th year studies. The brief for the week was to design and produce a set of benches and tables using recycled materials for the community cafe based in Newcastle Upon-Tyne. “The principle philosophy behind our design derives from the Japanese art of Kintsugi - a technique with which a broken object is repaired using a lacquer mixed with gold, or other precious metals. The cracks become a testament to the objects history. This is heavily interlinked with the Philosophy of wabi-sabi; centred on the acceptance of transience and finding beauty in objects and things commonly deemed ‘imperfect’.” With this principle philosophy in mind we set out to create the furniture. Our principle material was wood up-cycled from palettes salvaged from a skip within the city. After breaking apart the palettes, removing nails and sanding down the wood we designed and built a set of beautiful, rustic and practically designed stools and benches. The week was a huge success with the finished products corresponding to the desired brief. The best part of this charrette week was the skills developed through the hands on approach with new materials that we rarely use within our studies.

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Chilli Bizarre is Chilli Studios new venture promoting Mental Health awareness and support. The QR link on the left takes you to the Chilli Studios website.

[Fig. 1]

[Fig. 2]

[Fig. 3]

[Fig. 1] Ground Floor Plan, originally at 1:50 on A3. [Fig. 2] Unfolded Internal Elevation. [Fig. 3] Concept perspective of the cafe entrance.

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[Fig. 4]

[Fig. 5]

[Fig. 6]

[Fig. 7]

[Fig. 4] Concept internal perspective [Fig. 5] Concept internal perspective. [Fig. 6] Components, materials and assembly of stools

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[Fig. 7] Components, materials and assembly of bench units


[Fig. 8]

[Fig. 9]

[Fig. 8] Chilli Studios Brief Mood Boards [Fig. 9] Responsive Mood Boards as Initial Design Tools

[Fig. 1 - 9] Work by Becky Wise and Noor Jan Mohammed.

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[Fig. 10] Trimming the rough edges of the wood ready for the tables and benches. [Fig. 11] Same as above.

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[Fig. 10]

[Fig. 11]

[Fig. 12]

[Fig. 13]

[Fig. 12] Constructed benches ready to be sanded down and varnished. [Fig. 13] Progress shot of the table tops being sanded down to be varnished


[Fig. 14]

[Fig. 14] Sanding the sides of the benches down to be varnished.

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P2.1 Day in the Life of You The “Day in the Life of You” project aimed to instil a deeper rational and responsibility within our designs. This was achieved through contemplating and investigating further into our personal patterns of everyday life to help us to design for the everyday person and not for ourselves or other architects. I found this exercise incredibly useful not only during the project but also throughout the year. The project was a piece of work to reflect upon throughout the course of the year and reminded me to think about the human rhythms and what decisions could make my design immerse into someone’s daily life without them noticing the difference consciously. For my Day in the Life of You project I focused on a personal daily ritual and rhythm that I follow almost religiously without realising daily. Architecture students spend a large majority of their time working, eating and sometimes even resting in the studio. This allowed me to reflect on my daily rituals in an environment that I spend the majority of my day working and socialising in.

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[Fig. 15]

“Ritual is important to us as human beings. It ties us to our traditions and our histories.” Miller Williams [Fig. 15] A photograph showing my desk during the final stages of a design project and the “ordered chaos” that has been created.

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Morning Arrival.

[Fig. 16]

“Sleepily I arrive into the studio, slightly woken by the cycle in and slightly damp from the light rain that so often is falling during this time of year. Slowly I plod into the studio as I rub my eyes and yawn contently, dumping my bag heavily on my chair I start the daily routine of unpacking my backpack. It’s weight is considerable, containing the key tools for my day ahead. The table is like a blank canvas laid in front of me. Each item has an order that it is taken out and a set place upon the desk in front of me. Bag unpacked the table is a neat stack of books, sketchbooks, stationary and a laptop. Tools unpacked I grab a container of coffee and my aptly named “studio mug” before trudging half asleep down to the Kofi Bar. This ritual and rhythm of arriving into the studio and unpacking before making a coffee is one that I do day in and day out with little to no thought. It is like the beating of a drum, consistent and monotonous. Without change.”

[Fig. 16] Plan view of my desk on arrival into the studio, backpack contents neatly set out and coffee made ready for the day ahead.

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Afternoon Meal.

[Fig. 17]

“As the day wears on and lunch time approaches the studio fills with more and more people. The neat desk that once lay set out in front of me has descended into an ‘ordered’ chaos of ideas and design concepts as well as scribbles and crumbled up pieces of paper scattered all over the desk and floor. The number of coffees consumed has steadily increased and there are neat rings of coffee from the bottom of my mug dotted around the desk like a strange animal paw print. Stomach rumbling I decide to take a break for lunch, leaning the chair back and placing my feet up on the desk where possible among the chaos. The number of people milling around the studio increases dramatically as people arrive back from town with food. The studio erupts into a smouldering pot of flavours and smells due to the vast quantity and differences in food wafts from table to table.”

[Fig. 17] Plan view of my desk at lunch time as the hustle and bustle around begins to increase. As creativity and progress continues so my desk plummets into chaos.

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Evening Snooze.

[Fig. 18]

“The evening draws near with the light fading early at this time of year. The chaos is tidied up and packed away ready for the cycle to repeat tomorrow. The number of people in the studio gradually begins to die down and people start to head home for the evening to try and relax and recuperate before the work starts back up again tomorrow morning. The chaos and mess is stripped back and replaced by neat piles and the table transforms from a messy canvas back to the blank white space it was on arrival that morning. Another long day finished and probably not as much achieved as I would have liked to. Home for a slight break before the chaos repeats itself again tomorrow.�

[Fig. 18] Plan view of my desk in the evening time as productivity has drawn to a halt and a power nap is required to achieve anything more today.

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P2.2 Process + Reflection This year I feel I have learnt a huge amount but there is still huge potential for improvement in many areas continuing into next year. I have thoroughly enjoyed stage 2 and the projects we have completed. Looking back to the start of this year I could not have imagined the improvements that my work would go through over the course of just 8 months. I have made mistakes and had downfalls but importantly have found that these have given me invaluable experience to learn from and help inform my later work. Looking forward to next year there are already skills that I have not managed to develop as thoroughly as others such as model making and loose drawing and I plan to resolve this next year.

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This year I have kept 2 “learning journals� to document my learning process and sketch out the random thoughts and ideas that come to mind throughout the year regarding both design and non-design modules. This method has been very successful for myself although I do wish I had used another method such as a blog and taking more photography throughout the year rather than leaving all the progress work to be collated at the end of the year for the portfolio. Next year I would like to improve on this and maintain another learning journal form alongside my notebook.

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My reliance and personal preference for digital modelling and hand drawing for my “sketch models” and “massing models” has proved quite effective this year although it has meant not worked on improving my physical model making ability much at all this year. This is one of my biggest regrets of my work this year and something I hope to rectify next year. I personally find working with sketches and digital models much easier and less time consuming but it has hindered my work due to not having a physical model to hold in my hand and use to my advantage in the crits

“Without reflection, we go blindly on our way, creating more unintended consequences, and failing to achieve anything useful.”

Margaret J. Wheatley

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P2.3 At Home in the City Basic idea of the ‘Diagoon’ houses is to conceive the house basically as one ver cally as well as horizontal- ly ar culated space which next to a central living area consists of a variety of sites, interpretable for di er- ent use according to everybody’s personal needs and preferences as far as enclosure is concerned. In this way it denies the persistent stereotype of the division in two or three separate oors where separate rooms are accessible from corridors. It also allows easy ad- apta on to changing family composi on in me. Ul mately the house as a whole could be one space or rather be divided into, say, four smaller independ- ent units sharing a communal centre with kitchen and bathroom whereas the roof terrace could be covered and transformed into s ll one more unit. The central living area is lit from the top where it opens up to the roof terrace and lets the sun in through the day independent of the orienta on of the house. These Diagoon houses represent the outstanding example of pu ng into prac ce our idea of polyva- lence, as a capacity or inbuilt suitability to generate per nent solu ons for each new situa on as it arises. If mul purpose means designing deliberately for pre- determined ends, polyvalence is the capacity (where nothing has been xed beforehand about how a form or space will respond to unspeci ed situa ons) to not just take up unforeseen applica ons but to actually incite them. Powered by knowledge about general human behaviour, polyvalence can an cipate the form of objects and spaces, thereby foreseeing the unforeseen. The first project of semester 1 was a study typology of a housing project located in Delft, Diagoon Housing. This typology would be a foundation to use towards our Leith 2026 neighbourhood proposal as well as our Dwelling Plus project that was to follow.

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Study Typology Booklet

NEWCASTLE UNIVERSITY. ARCHITECTURE, PLANNING & LANDSCAPE STAGE 2. 16/17. SEMESTER. 1. ARC2001

DIAGOON HOUSE STUDIO GROUP: C

Study Type Booklet

SEM. 1: P2.3 AT HOME IN THE CITY

2 P2.3.1

SITE PLAN

“The small group of houses currently being built in Delft, have to be regarded as a prototype from which to develop a variety of solutions.” Herman Hertzberger

The set of three images to the left show the site location and roof plans of the Diagoon Housing Scheme as seen from different heights above the site.

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BACKGROUND INFORMATION We were able to gain original sources from an occupant of diagoon houses, robert von der nahmer. Robert is an architect therefore has taken a key interest in the preservation of diagoon houses. we obtained original plans. sections and elevations as well as sketches and articles. he gave us an insight into how the houses have evolved and his personal view about the houses. Robert believes that the architectural qualities of the diagoon houses are the main attraction to them, their particular light/ mood and acoutsics make them special and robert believes “it is important to preserve this heritage for future generations, and to offer the opportunity to experience really good spacial qualities.”

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Movement For Modernism - “Rejecting ornament and embracing minimalism.” Modernism became the dominant global movement within architecture and design of the 20th Century. This new approach for the 20th century was associated with a more analytical approach to the function of a building and a very rational use of materials. The movement is typically

INSIDE OUTSIDE

associated with the early 1920’s to 1930’s but even in 1970 we can see the influence on Diagoon

ADAPTABILITY

Housing. The design for this housing scheme features a very minimalistic design featuring cubic forms of reinforced concrete blocks and assymetrical compositions. The building is typical with

SPACIOUSNESS

the modernism movement with the inclusion on a flat roof as well as large metal and glass frameworks. A lack of any type of ornament to the building and its mouldings only reinforces the style of architecture Herman Hertzberger was influenced by when designing the Diagoon Housing scheme.

THEMES

Inside Outside Herman Hertzberger’s Diagoon Housing is a concrete manifestation that envelopes a pre-fabricated steel core. The sculptural design of staggered floors is unique in the spatial experience that it provides. Both on the inside and outside, the use of grey, B2-blocks is characteristic of the build, as is the manipulation of light throughout the structure – its

FLEXIBILITY

transmittance can be regulated by the residents themselves, who control

HALF-PRODUCT

the ratio between glass and solid panels. The relationship between private and public space can also be determined by the users in various ways. This is partly due to the ability to choose on which side of the house one would want to live,

MOVEMENT FOR MODERNISM

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eat and sleep. Hertzberger believed the flexibility of these houses would break traditional thinking and living patterns, and combat the growing criticism about standardised social housing in the 1960s.

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SPATIAL CONFIGURATION HOW ARE SPACES FOR THE INDIVIDUAL ARRANGED WITHIN THE COLLECTIVE?

It is one area; you live diagonally, from living room to kitchen, from living room to bedroom. You call and you're there. That is the richness of this house that all areas merge into each other. It makes you feel always be together. In this house is just more to experience for everyone." (Quotation from a residents' survey conducted in 1975)

Did hertzberger’s plan for this community work? •

‘In practice it turned out the residents were less disposed at the on-going confrontation. Already a year after completion the two parts of the passageway between the two clusters were closed and assigned to the two adjacent houses because of the nuisance caused by rebellious youth.

On the entrance side appeared well soon separations in the form of hedges and flower containers. Soon fences and hedges separated the gardens from each other,

on the roof terraces partitions and man-sized walls were erected.’

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ECONOMIES HOW DO THE INHABITANTS OF THE DWELLING RELATE TO EACH OTHER?

How does this case study respond to the economic context in which it was created? •

funded by the foundation for experimental housing (s.e.w.)

houses were extremely expensive (3X more than the average price for a house in

Images from the interior of Diagoon Houses that show the open plan interconnected rooms.

1970), however houses still very popular - more buyers interested than houses available.

Family members can see, hear and talk with each other through diagonal lines - this idea of ‘diagonal’ living gives the Diagoonwoning its name.

HOW DO THE INHABITANTS RELATE TO THEIR NEIGHBOURS? •

all houses privately owned

5 buyers still inhabited by original buyers

the houses are currently valued between

Like the house itself, the outdoor spaces were meant to be ‘unfinished’ and so

completed by the residents.

390,000 and 485,000 euros depending on

‘This ‘street’ would accommodate, as a

the number of square meters.

semi-finished product, the ownership of the residents, and promote the ‘accidental’

price will develop in the future depending

meeting and interaction. On the opposite

on the requirements of the authorities

side only basic separations of concrete

regarding energy consumption as the

blocks were made between the gardens that

houses are not efficient,

could be completed by mutual agreement’ – - Hertzberger.

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SOCIAL CHARACTER Socially, it is difficult to predict how the reactions of people in the modern day will differ to those who rejected the idea back in the 1960s. In actuality, we are asking whether or not the opportunity to create and design your own space outweighs the appeal of convenience. We conducted a small survey to try and get a sense of the opinion of students, who make up approximately 25% of the population of Newcastle upon Tyne. Notably, the most frequent questions asked throughout my data collections were to do with money – a key factor as to why Diagoon housing would probably not flourish if built as an extension of Newcastle. Predominantly, students are famously poor, and are even willing to live in sub-standard conditions if it means paying less rent. Thus, the luxury of flexible accommodation was not popular due to its expense. In addition, though many of the students I questions were greatly attracted to the idea of ‘being able to design my own pad’, when it occurred to them that they would most likely only be living there for a year, and that they would have to take time out of their holidays/studies to design and build their houses, the appeal of convenience proved to be too enticing. 38 students I asked said they would prefer to move into a house that has already been built for them, as opposed to 11 who said they would prefer the flexible Diagoon housing.

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OUR CRITIQUE to conclude our survey

rachel: ‘Aesthetically, the external

Naturally, the survey proved we are creatures of convenience - though this is not a criticism of

appearance of the architecture fails to

humanity, but is simply a product of our circumstances. Students are generally limited by financial

excite. Though pleasing in monotone print,

factors; the elderly by their physical ability. Families – who the original Diagoon houses were

the concrete exterior does not suit the

designed for – often have young children, and are consequently limited by the fact that they

omniscience of the modern lens. The dark,

need to dedicate time to the care of said children (a possible reason as to why there was a ‘lack of

angular window frames seem incongruous

interest’ for the original designs).

in their surroundings – the tired facade does not do their modern appeal any justice. Nevertheless, I believe the interior of the dwellings holds a distinct uniqueness, and a beauty that far outweighs the failings of the exterior. The simplicity of the structure combined with the complexity of the design is delightful to perceive - in particular the stairwell. Though the overall appearance of the Diagoon houses could be considered detached from traditional Netherland architecture, I am reminded of 17th century Dutch housing, as in both cases, the stair core is the central circulation before reaching any of the main rooms. Ultimately, Herman Hertzberger’s Diagoon Housing is simultaneously a successful instance of influential architecture, and a failure of its original intention. Though this work has undoubtedly helped to shape the structuralist movement of the 1960s, it is arguable that it cannot be perceived as anything more than the ‘prototype’ of a much larger - and unaccomplished - fantasy.

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PLEASE SCAN AND WATCH OUR SHORT VIDEO

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elliot: ‘In my opinion the Diagoon houses could be improved by maintaining

brandon: ‘The concept behind Diagoon Housing of an “incomplete building” is one that really

the basic form and room layout but changing the materiality. There are a

excites me. The idea of being able to buy a house for you and your family which structurally

number of problems with the use of B2 concrete blocks: They make the

is built and safe yet still provides the freedom to design each room according to your own use

house look unfinished, they are all the same dull grey colour and there is no

and add and expand according to changing needs and situations sounds like an ideal situation.

insulation in the wall so the house is cold. I would modify this by putting a

Aiming to provide housing to families who would then form a community through the use of

brick slip cladding system over the existing walls. This will allow me to insert

private home space and public exterior gardens seems like an ideal way to connect groups of

a layer of insulate foam and the red of the bricks will

families together. However the houses were too small for families to actual use, causing many of

make the rooms feel warmer and more homely. For

the residents to be couples. The private/public space mix was a disaster as many people did not

much the same reasons I would also cover the floor

want to share garden space to the back of their property and therefore ended up putting make-

in larch and perhaps put a rug or two in. ‘

shift barricades into place such as fencing or potted plants. The architect put into place a set of building “models” for the residents to be able to pick and choose from pre-made floor plans to help ease the process of extending and room uses. This however ended up bring unsuccessful as the residents never ended up using these options that had been put into place and rather, opting to construct their own extensions. I think when we look at Walter’s Way, a self-build flat pack model for a housing scheme in London we can see a similar ethos to the design and concept behind the building scheme.

eloise: ‘whilst researching diagoon house i have mixed opinions to whether or not i like what the

However, Walter’s Way was incredibly successful in providing families with a home that was easily

architect has tried to achieve. the ideology of hertzberger to create a half-product is an ideal way

customisable as to their needs as well as any changing situation within their homes. The same

for those who are not fortunate enough to afford to design their own houses an opportunity to do

concept for private space within the home but shared garden space outside the home worked in

exactly this. as well as enablng people to be able to live how they want to, its a thoughtful way of

this situation and led to an incredibly rich community feel whilst the same concept failed within

designing. i like hertzbergers concept of ‘shared’ living and how he has designed the buildings in

Diagoon Housing.”

a way that people ‘accidentally’ interact with each other. unfortunately, his theory has not worked in reality due to modern day conformities, people are concerned about privacy, and one fears that this way of living intrudes exactly this. i am intrigued, however, by the idea of preserving this architecture as it is rare to come across in modern day living. the question of the perfect social housing continues...’

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MICROCOSM OF THE CITY Foundation for Experimental Housing (sew)

Could you read this case study as a microcosm of the city?

Foundation set up in 1968.

Group of dutch companies. A real estate

Herman Hertzberger’s Diagoon Housing

company, a construction company, joinery,

could be read as a microcosm of any city is

weaving mill, roof and wall manufacturer, steel/ aluminium producer. •

dubious. •

Foundation was set up as a guarantee fund

Due to a ‘lack of interest’, the initiallygrand plan to develop a residential area of

to bear the financial risks of experimental housing.

On a fundamental level, the notion that

324 Diagoon Houses never formulated, •

as a result, only eight houses were birthed. Hence, it is logical to assume that the housing could never work on a city-scale,

The foundation had no intention to initiate projects themselves, but to enable innovative

as it has failed once already.

designs and plans of architects and urban planners who would not take place otherwise, due to the higher building costs.’ •

The foundation only funded 2 projects: Diagoon and 70 houses in Middleburg.

Had no work from 1972 so disbanded in 1975.

Monogoonwoning, 1973 •

there were plans to build another, similar social housing estate on a larger scale, called ‘monogoon houses’, and they were due to be more affordable than diagoon.

however, the houses were never built as would have actually been more expensive than diagoon therefore the project fell

Physical Character In terms of its physical character, the root principle of ‘flexible’ housing allows for exploration and a certain sense of uniqueness. Nevertheless, with an increase of scaling comes a struggle for individuality. It is arguable that Hertzberger’s intent behind his flexible works was to, in fact, oppose conformity; yet should the Diagoon housing be formulated to the scale it was initially planned, the materials and the style of the housing itself would become a new conformity. As a consequence, the very idea Hertzberger set out to create would be contradicted.

through

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NEWCASTLE UNIVERSITY. ARCHITECTURE, PLANNING & LANDSCAPE STAGE 2. 16/17. SEMESTER. 1. ARC2001

STUDIO GROUP:c

Study Type Booklet

SEM. 1: P2.3 AT HOME IN THE CITY

23

2 P2.3.1


“The small group of houses currently being built in Delft, have to be regarded as a prototype from which to develop a variety of solutions.� Herman Hertzberger

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Leith 2026: A Neighbourhood Plan Following on from our study typology on Diagoon Housing we began a group project to produce a neighbourhood plan for an area of Leith, a district to the North of Edinburgh. Our studio programme was “Community - Adaptability” and so with this in mind we started our investigation into Leith and how we could work to promote a vibrant future for the port district.

“Grow the creative sector through more space provision and central networking hub.”

“Introduce new leisure facilities incuding novel sports to animate the area.”

“New iconic buildings and structures.”

[Fig. 19]

“Provision of live-work units to attract small and start-up buildings such as artist studios.” “Widen range of new residential developments to include lower density family housing to promote whole-life range and retain residents.” “Streetscape improved including Leith walk as a boulevard.”

[Fig. 20]

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“Museums and cultural buildings.”

“More tress, greening and landscaping.”

“Signed tourist trails.”

[Fig. 21]

“Encourage re-use/conversion of vacant buildings. Especially historic structures.”

“Encourage more events including festivals by identifying and promoting suitable venues.”

[Fig. 22]

[Fig. 19 - 22] “What do the residents of Leith want?” Quotes taken from a council study from December 2014 with site photography taken in Leith.

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Photography from the Leith Site Visit.

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CABLES WYND

growth + culture + celebration + art + food + film + community = ROOTS & ROUTES OF CABLES WYND SCHEME

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Late 1800s 1890s

Early 1900s

Historical Context

Late 1900s

1930s

1970s

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Cables Wynd was create in 1962 but before then it was a distillery. The construction of Cables Wynd created dramatically improved housing for the residents that first moved in as they had been living in slum like conditions prior to this. Sadly by the 1980’s the building was renowned for drug abuse and seen as a centre of a heroin epidemic within Leith...


Our proposal involved targeting the public green areas (shown in green) already existing within the neighbourhood and working to improve and increase the range of activities and quality of space provided for the residents within the neighbourhood. This involved creating a green area that continued from the park outside Cables Wynd and worked its way onto the roof of Cables Wynd to create a green public park that engulfs Cables Wynd. This solved the problem that the majority of Cables Wynd residents that with the ugly exterior of the building and the lack of green space for residents to enjoy around the neighbourhood.

n

Next we implemented a proposal of different markets and festivals being held in the neighbourhood. This was to draw visitors to the area and allow for resident artists to sell work and try attract families and creative practices to the area. Leith has become a social hub of different cultures and we planned to create film, music, food and artist festivals and market stalls throughout the year to showcase the wide range of cultures and people within Leith.

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Plans showing the changes made to the neighbourhood to increase green space and create community interactions and spaces.

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We identified the main transport routes to the neighbourhood and proposed local bus services and improved car and bike routes from the centre of Edinburgh to the neighbourhood especially during market times and festival periods to attract visitors from Edinburgh to Leith. Our scheme aimed to create a celebration and spectacle of Cables Wynd to improve public view and stop prejudice towards the area that has arisen due to the fame of Leith’s heroin epidemic.

n

We looked at the routes from the main roads to the neighbourhood and decided that the roads allowing access were too sheltered and allowed very little view towards Cables Wynd. We wanted to change this to allow for visitors to see through from the main access routes to the area to increase flow through the site and increase the number of visitors to the festivals and markets taking place within the area.

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Next we looked at the local economic buildings and spaces (shown in blue) and the community and social hubs (shown in red) in the local area. The scheme proposed was to use Cables Wynd as a system to merge both economic and community into one. With the rooftop park and cafe linking with the shops, cafes and creative practices in the ground floor of Cables Wynd. The scheme aimed to communicate with the other areas of the neighbourhood and create a link between Cables Wynd and the broader community of Leith. Drawing visitors and creating a celebration of all that is Cables Wynd creating a landmark acting as a social and economic hub for the area.

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[Fig. 23]

[Fig. 23] Concept image of Cables Wynd and its “roots & routes of Leith� sign celebrating the neighbourhood.

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[Fig. 24]

[Fig. 25]

[Fig. 24] Research into the different materiality and architecture of faรงades within the neighbourhood.

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[Fig. 25] Research into the different public and private boundaries present within the neighbourhood.


[Fig. 26]

[Fig. 26] Concept poster for a tour of the wall murals proposed for the neighbourhood.

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[Fig. 28]

[Fig. 27] People mapping: Cables Wynd. Excerpts from an interview with a family in the park opposite Cables Wynd.

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[Fig. 29]


[Fig. 27]

[Fig. 30]

[Fig. 31]

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[Fig. 32]

[Fig. 28 - 33] Concept posters for the festivals and markets to be held by “Roots & Routes of Cables Wynd� in the neighbourhood.

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[Fig. 33]


[Fig. 34]

[Fig. 35]

[Fig. 36]

[Fig. 34 - 36] Concept leaflets and fliers for the festivals and markets to be held by “Roots & Routes of Cables Wynd” in the neighbourhood.

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[Fig. 37]

[Fig. 37] Concept of Cables Wynd wall mural that would add colour and vibrancy to the building and bring visitors through walking tours.

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[Fig. 38]

[Fig. 39]

[Fig. 38] Concept image of the exterior of the winter garden located within the derelict row of terraces in front of Cables Wynd.

[Fig. 39] Concept image of the interior of the winter garden located within the derelict row of terraces in front of Cables Wynd.

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Photographs from the final symposium as well as process shots of model making.

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“The view of Edinburgh from the road before you enter Leith is quite enchanting; as Albert said, fairy-like and what you would imagine as a thing to dream of, or see in a picture.� Queen Victoria

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Apologia. Semester 1 revolved around the theme of “economy” and looking at architecture as not a single entity but as part of a variety of economies - the city, the town, the neighbourhood and the changing times and resources. The Leith 2026 proposal had a large influence towards my Dwelling Plus design as I designed my building within the context of our group proposal for the neighbourhood. My building was designed around the studio themes of sustainability, flexibility and community. The Mill Lane House was designed to be flexible, allowing all flats to start out identical and then internal walls to be rearranged and altered to suit the residents - whether it be an elderly couple or a young migrant couple and child that had recently moved to Leith. I looked to Japanese design concepts for their natural, simplistic and relatively low cost designs that would allow this flexibility within my building. The flats would be identical in materiality and contents but the experience and atmosphere would be created by the individuals living within, a celebration of the diversity of cultures and backgrounds within the Leith region. The building contained a cafe linked with a rooftop greenhouse to grow, clean and package fresh produce to be sold within the buildings cafe and the Cables Wynd rooftop cafe. This was influenced by the theme of sustainability and was implemented to create a community/resident owned business to positively impact the community as well as the local economy. Offices were located on the ground floor to allow a flexible space for management of the cafe and locally run creative workshops for local residents and their children as residents had complained about the lack of community schemes within the area. This was part of the “creating community” and so the scheme looked at a broad variety of residents within my building and floor arrangements to try and create connections not only from floor to floor but throughout the whole building.

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Dwelling Plus & Inhabit Leith 2026 allowed for an easy transition from a large scale design proposal involving a whole neighbourhood to the scale of a single building design. Dwelling Plus focused on not only the physical interventions of the housing scheme but also the social, economic and political impact that this housing scheme would have on the neighbourhood in which it is situated.

Edinburgh

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Map showing context of Leith in relation to Scotland as well as the UK.

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“Although it wasn’t until the 1770s that Leith Docks began to flourish, the origins of the port can be traced back to 1544, after a wooden pier was constructed during Lord Hertford’s invasion of Leith in the ‘war of the Rough Wooing’ - part of the Anglo-Scottish wars.” THE SCOTSMAN

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Map of Leith. 1:5000 scale.

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Precedent Studies.

House in Itami by Tato Architects. I used this design as a precedent study as I wanted to try and create a similar light and clean finish to the interior of my building and the design worked well in fitting the requirements of a home into a relatively small area.

London Terraces by Edgley Design and Spaced Out. This precedent was incredibly useful in incorporating multi purpose spaces into a house. The building contains a row of terraced houses and basement offices which was similar to my flats above the community cafe and multi-purpose office space on the ground floor.

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Kakko House by Yoshihiro Yamamoto. The Kakko House is a home in Japan that is only 3.4m wide. This precedent was used to inform the spacial qualities of my small flat sizes and the Japanese design concepts.

Transformed building in Mexico by Cadaval & Sola-Morales. Definitely the most influential precedent study towards my design this building was the inspiration for the central courtyard circulation up the building and the structure and material of the central circulation core of the building being concrete frame and reclaimed brick whilst the outer sections where the flats are located being clean pine wood and white washed walls.

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Wooden House by Suzuki Architects.

Encapsulating my concepts of flexibility and adaptability this precedent was the key reason for the Japanese design concepts being at the forefront of my design. The home in Tokyo is also a workspace and contains a hair salon and writing studio. The flexible design allows for sliding walls to be moved depending on the situation to create more private spaces for the residents but contains their work within the design itself. This inspired me to create my flats as a core layout and allow the walls to be moved according to the residents requirements. The materiality and experience within this building is something I also tried to create within my design, creating a clean and simple design that can be altered and personalised by the residents themselves.

Above: Images showing the Mill Lane Site within its context..

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Above: Creating community graphics for the housing scheme.

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JAPANESE DESIGN PRINCIPLES

KANSO: Simplicity or elimination of clutter. + Fukinsei: Asymmetry + Shizen: Naturalness + Yugen: Subtlety + Datsuzoku: Break from routine + Seijaku: Stillness and tranquillity + Shibui: Beautiful by being understated

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Initial floor plan layouts for the building

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Floor plan process work

Initial facade design concept

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Floor plan process work

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Design concept diagram showing the central core for circulation and the outer two cores flexible flat designs.


Basement Floor Plan.

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a. Utilities Room for Residents b. Bike Storage for Residents c. Community Cinema d. Storage for Kitchen e. Dumb Waiter f. Kitchen for Mill Lane Cafe & Grocers Co.

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Ground Floor Plan.

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a. Mill Lane Cafe & Grocers Co. b. Bin Storage c. Multipurpose office space for volunteers living within the building. Also used to community programs such as art classes for young people within the community. d. Serving area for Cafe

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First Floor Plan.

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First Floor Plan. i. Flat Entrance for Young Volunteer Couple ii. Flat Entrance for Elderly Volunteer Couple

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Second Floor Plan: iii. Flat entrance for Migrant Couple with pregnant Wife. a. Bedroom b. Living Space c. Bathroom iv. Flat Entrance for Family of 4 and Grandma d. Bedroom e. Bedroom f. Bathroom

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Third Floor Plan.

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Third Floor Plan: v. Flat Entrance for Family of 4. a. Bedroom b. Kids Play Area c. Bedroom d. Bathroom vi. Top Entrance for Family of 4 and Grandma. e. Bathroom f. Living Area g. Bedroom

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Fourth Floor Plan: vii. Top Entrance for Family of 4 a. Living Area b. Bathroom viii. Flat Entrance for Migrant Couple c. Bathroom d. Living Area e. Bedroom

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Rooftop Plan: a. Greenhouse b. Communal Gardens for Residents c. Food Processing Building d. Storage for Tools

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Structural Diagram showing the floor construction and central circulation route.

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Basement


Concrete Frame Diagram

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South Elevation. Originally at 1:100 scale.

South Elevation of Mill Lane House within the site context.

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View from Cable Wynd of the South facing facade of the Mill Lane House design.


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A view from inside the rooftop greenhouse garden with tomato plants ripe and ready for picking.


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View from within a flat looking out into the shared internal courtyard circulation space of the Mill Lane House design.


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Atmospheric collage of the community cafe on the ground floor of Mill Lane House.


P2.4 Engineering Experience Charrette Week 2016 was a hands on way to start second year studies. The group was led by Becky and Noor who had been working on the Chilli Studios project for part of their 5th year studies. The brief for the week was to design and produce a set of benches and tables using recycled materials for the community cafe based in Newcastle Upon-Tyne. “The principle philosophy behind our design derives from the Japanese art of Kintsugi - a technique with which a broken object is repaired using a lacquer mixed with gold, or other precious metals. The cracks become a testament to the objects history. This is heavily interlinked with the Philosophy of wabi-sabi; centred on the acceptance of transience and finding beauty in objects and things commonly deemed ‘imperfect’.” Through this principle philosophy we used wooden palettes as our base material to recycle into beautiful, rustic and practically designed furniture. The week was a huge success with the finished products fitting the desired brief as well as leaning several new skills.

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Engineering Experience Brandon Few Student Number: 140045949 Studio F: Group III

Individual Statement: After watching “Moon” by Duncan Jones we set out as a group to piece apart the scene and look at identifying the main themes within that we wanted to represent within both our experiential video and installation. The older clone of Sam Bell is in a room with a coffin shaped pod that he is supposed to climb into and through a video, is informed that he will fall asleep for his flight back to earth. This however, is a lie as Sam realises that it is in fact a machine designed to incinerate him and make way for the new clone now that his three year contract mining resources on the moon has come to an end. We felt that this scene showed the helplessness and fear of Sam’s situation as he begins to realise that even after three years of hard work he may never escape the moon back to home. We decided we wanted to focus on trying to emulate the emotion of loneliness, incapability and fear for his life through our installation and film. These emotional responses are also shown later when the two clones find a secret trap door that leads into a basement area containing morgue drawers as far as the eye can see, designed to replace each clone as they are killed after their three year stint on the moon. This idea of impending doom, death and destruction was also a theme and emotion we really wanted to emulate through our video and installation. The third idea was the idea of the clones life cycle and so tying in this concept of life and death of each clone. With the arrival of the second clone and the comparison of the original Sam Bell’s body decaying and falling apart this linked well with the concept of new life and the life cycle of one clone ending, giving new life to the next clone. We started by meeting as a group and discussing ideas and working out the main themes we were aiming to emotionally recreate within the person viewing the film. Having decided these three main themes we split into different groups, a larger main group for construction of the installation and a sub group to create a video using the installation to evoke these emotions within the individuals experiencing the installation. The concept of the design we arrived at was the creating of a set of morgue type drawers that would contain items that helped to cement the ideas we had about our clip. This resulted in the construction of three morgue type drawers to house each theme. The drawers would be coated in a reflective surface to create the sensation of space travel and also to reflect a vague atmosphere of each installation to try and reproduce the scene of the never ending corridor of unconscious clones. The first drawer would contain new life representing the awakening of the new clone to work for his three year contract. The second would contain a candle to represent the first clones battle with loneliness while on the moon for the past three years and using mirrors to reflect the candle more than once we tried to replicate the atmosphere of impending doom as each clone is just a cog within a big machine aimed at eradicating the problems on earth. The third and final drawer would contain death, replicating the fear that the original clone has towards his impending doom, death and destruction as the company tried to eradicate him in an incinerator.

Initial sketches of our design proposal for the installation.

Process Work: The group set about designing and building the three morgue drawers to house the installation that would become the main footage within our video. Once these were completed we could install the interior of each installation to try and evoke the emotions to our audience. One addition we decided upon was bin bags for viewers to stick their heads through, in an effort to try and emulate morgue body bags and create a very constricting sensation to the viewer and again evoking the loneliness that the first Sam Bell has been experiencing for the past three years.

Construction Process:

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Final Installation:

[Fig. 1.]

[Fig. 2.]

[Fig. 3.]

[Fig. 4.]

[Fig. 1.] Shows the set of three morgue drawers in the final arrangement and with each installation piece installed within the drawers. [Fig. 2.] The interior of the first morgue drawer was filled with plants and flowers to represent the new life of the new Sam Bell being awoken from the basement of the station. The candle inside is hardly burnt signifying how recently he was awoken. His spirits are high and he is naive and brash. [Fig. 3.] The interior of the middle drawer is covered in spilt wax, a candle that is burnt far down and mirrors stopping you from ever seeing the back of the installation. This was aimed to signify the loneliness and fear that Sam Bell experiences as he has arrived at the end of his three year contract and the company is trying to kill him off. He thinks he is going home to his family but soon realises that he is just a cog in a machine. This was replicated through the mirrors reflecting the same candle, showing the sensation of a cog in the machine. There is only one candle, showing the realisation of the men that they are clones. The never ending aspect within this installation was to replicate the experience that the two clones had when they discover the hidden basement containing an endless number of clones to replace them once they had fulfilled their contracts. {Fig. 4.] This final morgue drawer is filled with dead leaves and a bright red light shining at you to try and replicate an emotional reaction within the viewer of impending doom, death and decay. This is in an effort to replicate an emotional response to the original Sam Bell’s body beginning to decay and break apart as he has reached the end of his contract. NB: Unfortunately we do not have any images of the installation with the morgue body bags attached to the front of the installation.

Video Concept:

Video Process Images:

For the video we created a sub group to take focus on this part of the project. The initial idea was for a three minute video, providing a minute for each theme to be included. The video would be mainly a slow panning shot of the installation from the first drawer through to the last drawer, as if someone was peering into each morgue drawer one after the other.

We started by brainstorming ideas about what we wanting to emotionally evoke within the viewer and how we wanted to create this through the three main themes of our installation. We started by focusing on each theme and listing the type of film clips that we felt would fit well within these themes and help to create an atmosphere of deja vu within the viewer even though they had never seen the video before. We looked at the themes and how they were experienced by Sam Bell and his clone and decided to use videos from earth rather than outer space to make the video and the emotions more easily understood by the viewers. To help the experience to be relatable to people watching and not a concept that was alien to them.

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Reflection: The Engineering Experience project was like no other project I had every experienced, both in the course or outside of it. In the beginning stages it seemed incredibly alien to be trying to create an installation, almost a piece of artwork to try and evoke emotion and a reaction within the audience. As a group we started out testing ideas nervously and some what reserved in our breadth of experimentation but as the project continued, we were able to break free from the classic architectural process and way of think, allowing us to start to become far more outgoing with our adaptations and ideas of the proposal. After the decision to split the group to work on different sections of our ideas I was in the video group. This was really exciting as it was something I had experienced very briefly before but never with such artistic freedom, trying to evoke emotions within our audience. This allowed us to experiment with many different ideas of lighting, sound and imagery to try and simply create the emotions within the people experiencing our installation. Using the soundtrack of the movie we were able to immerse the film within the video without using outer space imagery (except for the end of the video). I found the concept of the project very difficult to comprehend initially and it was difficult to try and break from the usual process of our design projects and focus solely on the “experience� but, with time, I became more comfortable with the intended role of the project and it has made me think back to many of my previous projects in this year and first year and how I could emulate the true experience of the designs to the intended user, guest or passer by. I felt that the constricting time limit was a shame due to the group having so many ideas and wanting to do so much but having to really cut them down to make sure our proposal could be completed on time and without spending a fortune on the installation and video.

Final Video Link: https://www.dropbox.com/sh/l45rlyj4mc2w9xi/AABgZ1fTT0rZN8V6quBID5Goa?dl=0

The images of the film sequence shows the idea implemented of videos from real life situations flashing like deja vu across the installation video to create an emotional reaction from the viewer. The initial 6 images show a few snippets into the initial minute of the video, aiming to produce the idea of new life and the connection that the new clone feels with earth as he believes he has just arrived for his three year contract on the moon. The following 4 images show the middle section of the installation, evoking the loneliness and impending doom that the old clone of Sam Bell is experiencing as he has reached the end of his contract on the moon and discovers he is a clone, simply a cog in a machine that the company is trying to dispose of before the new clone is awoken for the next three year contract. The final 4 images are for the death and destruction part of the installation. Using video of disasters, terrorist attacks and other similar imagery we tried to recreate the imminent sensation of hopelessness, death, destruction and decay that the old clone of Sam is experiencing as his body starts to break down. We decided to end the clip with a video from part of the movie showing the rover looking back towards earth in an effort to show the origins of the clones and all their fears and emotions; Earth. Showing the concept that these emotions and problems for the clones have been created due to a problem on earth that was created by the human race and their energy consumption. To add a link back to the movie and due to the soundtrack for the film being very eerie and quite a dramatic build of tension throughout we used an audio clip from the movie within our video and at the end of the video where the earth is visible with the vehicle in front we used the beginning of the audio repeated to continue the theme of these robots being a cycle, one ends their three year contract and dies and another is awoken to begin theirs.

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P2.5 Exploring Experience Exploring Experience followed on from Engineering Experience, continuing the themes of materiality and experience. The project focused on the small town of Berwick-Upon-Tweed and the annual Berwick Film Festival. We were given a brief to design an art gallery designed around a specific artist and material that would also act as a venue for the festival. The material was treated as part of the processes of building, making, crafting and inhabitation of the building and its design.

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Apologia. Semester 2 revolved around materiality and experience with my studio focusing on the materialistic qualities of plastic. Plastic was integrated into both the design of my building and the work of my resident artist Renzo Nucara. My design concept revolved around the recycling of the material itself from a waste product into useful items and artwork. The resident artist Renzo Nucara is part of the Cracking Art group and recycles plastic bottles into giant animal sculptures - this led me to the concept of the artwork within the building itself being entirely recycle-based. I began by researching the processes involved in recycling plastic bottles and this led me to maintaining a strong conversation between both the private artist workshops and the public areas. The core concept behind the design of the building was the process of recycling plastic and the education of visitors to the galleries. The workshops were suspended at different levels within a steel frame with the gallery and existing building wrapping round it. The gallery design focused on maintaining the form of the existing building whilst using recycled plastic (polycarbonate) and steel frame for the materiality. This led to a gallery that acted as a core circulation path, starting at ground level and gradually stepping up and wrapping round the workshops up to the community area. This allowed for the education of visitors on the processes behind the artwork within the gallery space before even arriving at the community area on the top floor of the existing building.

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“It is a cliche to call a festival that is off the beaten circuit ambitious, but under the stewardship of (Peter) Taylor over the past two years Berwick has become more than ambitious, it has become an important event. Berwick shows how art remains vital to public debate and the tattered public sphere, and more importantly still it demonstrates the way in which a small community with real intent can educate, provoke and resist.� John Douglas Millar, Art Monthly

Berwick-Upon-Tweed

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Map showing context of Berwick-Upon-Tweed in relation to Northumberland as well as the UK.

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Northumberland

Berwick-Upon-Tweed

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Map of Berwick-Upon-Tweed. 1:3000 scale.

Map showing site context within Berwick-Upon-Tweed. (Site marked in orange.)

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Site Photography.

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Plastic research.

Blueprints for machines designed to recycle plastic from your own house produced by Precious Plastics. This inspired the design ethos behind the gallery being the main circulation route that provides views into the workshops to allow visitors to see the final product and also see the process happening within the workshops. This creates a conversation between the visitors and the scientists and artists working and living within the building.

1. The plastic bottles are cleaned and the plastic wrapping is removed before they are ground down into pellets.

2. The pellets are inserted into a machine that melts them down and produces a thin string like consistency that can be wrapped round bobbins to be used in moulds.

3 (i). The plastic coil is inserted into a mould to be compressed into a certain shape depending on the mould design.

3 (ii). A larger mould machine than 3(i) that done the same job.

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Renzo Nucara.

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Renzo Nucara is an Italien artist and founder member of the Cracking Art group. For this project Renzo’s processes and his works would be produced and then exhibited within the gallery in Berwick-Upon-Tweed.


Art gallery and archive by Lacaton Vassal.

I used this precedent as inspiration for the use of plastic as a material in my design as well as the concept of maintaining the same form as the existing building but using a different material.

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Parrish Art Museum by Herzog & de Meuron.

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This art museum by Herzog & de Meuron was the inspiration behind the materiality and structural choices of wood and steel frame. I wanted to create similar light and clean spaces achieved by Herzog & de Meuron within my design.


Process Work.

Comparison of sites between site 3 and 6 as well as initial site analysis of site 3 in Berwick-Upon-Tweed. Sketches looking at materiality and form within the site context.

Continued sketches from the site visit and research into artists.

Design concept sketch showing ideas for the conversation between public and private areas of the building. Diagram showing the concept of plastic recycling being a journey and the different floors being different stages along the process.

Initial site analysis of site 3 in Berwick-Upon-Tweed. Sketches looking at materiality and form of the existing building.

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Part 1 - Initial massing for foyer and entrance way.

Part 2 - Initial studio and workshop massings.

Part 3 - Initial gallery massings.

Part 4 - Initial artist accomodation and living area massings.


Part 2 - Initial courtyard concept.

Initial concept design to the gallery acting as a circulation space around the courtyard space. Initial plan sketches for ground floor to calculate floor area and arrangement.

Initial plan sketches for ground floor to calculate floor area and arrangement. (ii)

Initial plan sketches for ground floor to calculate floor area and arrangement. (iii)

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Concept sketch showing the gallery acting as circulation wrapping round community and workshop spaces. SEE + UNDERSTAND + EXPERIENCE concept for visitors as they move through the gallery and see the work and process before taking part in a hands on approach in the community outreach space.

Massing sketch and materiality sketch.

Moving the building back from Drivers Lane to allow for an external area for pedestrians to safely use to walk from car park to main road.

Initial construction sketches.


Perspective from inside the gallery looking towards the car park.

Sketches to try organise arrangement of ground floor and the foyer area.

“Only 1 in 5 plastic bottles are recycled.� Ban the bottle, Hannah Ellsbury

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Plastic Experimentation 1.

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Ground Floor Plan. 1:200 Scale

Key: a. Plastics sorting and storage area. b. Artist and scientist living area. c. Shop. d. Foyer. e. Cafe dining area. f. Cafe kitchen. g. Initial processing workshop for artist and scientists.

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South Elevation of Mill Lane House within the site context.

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A closer image of the building itself is on the next page to allow details to be seen more easily.

[Existing Building]

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South Elevation of Mill Lane House within the site context.

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South Elevation of Mill Lane House within the site context.

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View of the gallery within the site context.


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South-East elevation of the gallery


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Workshop construction detail


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Tom small arrives with his grandfather at the gallery


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After walking round the foyer space looking at the hanging plastic bottle installations Tom and his grandfather stop for a spot of lunch in the gallery cafe.


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After lunch Tom heads to the gallery and up to the viewing platform to watch the artists and scientists hard at work in their workshops. and learn about recycling plastics


Non-Design Modules I have found the non-design modules this year much more complex and in-depth compared with last year. It is an area that I have struggled with this year especially essay writing but have made a real effort to try and work on the skills required as these will be essential for my dissertation next year. I have made a real effort to integrate as much technology into my design projects as possible to try and show constructional details within sections. I felt this was appreciated in the crits this year but I hope to work on achieving a higher quality and thoroughness of the technology courseworks next year.

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ARC2009: Architectural Technology 2.1

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

Coursework Submission Part 1.

Student Number: 140045949

Design Summary Mill Lane

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[Fig. 1]

[Fig. 2]

Mill Lane

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[Fig. 3]

[Fig. 4]

[Fig. 1] Map showing building site (marked with yellow box) and surrounding buildings. [Fig. 2] Plan showing proposal within context.

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

Coursework Submission Part 1.

Student Number: 140045949

[Fig. 3] Ground Floor Plan showing section of wall used within the construction detail (marked with yellow box). The section cut lines for [fig. 7] can also be seen.

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

[Fig. 4] First Floor Plan showing section of wall to be used within the construction detail (marked with yellow box).

Coursework Submission Part 1.

Student Number: 140045949

Mill Lane

Rooftop

12,055 mm 11,700 mm

Fourth Floor

9,155 mm 8,800 mm

Third Floor

6,255 mm 5,900 mm

Second Floor

3,355 mm 3,000 mm

First Floor

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15,075 mm 14,600 mm

[Fig. 5]

[Fig. 6]

0 mm -355 mm

[Fig. 7]

[Fig. 8]

[Fig. 5] Fourth Floor Plan showing section of wall to be used within the construction detail (marked with yellow box) to show the wall to roof detail.

[Fig. 6] Perspective showing building proposal within site context. The section of wall used in the construction detail can be seen.

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

[Fig. 9]

[Fig. 7] Section cut showing building proposal within the site. For my construction detail I reverted to a previous version of my design where the was no Basement Floor. This section however is the only one I have and includes the basement portion.

Coursework Submission Part 1.

[Fig. 8] Collage showing a perspective from within the cafe looking towards the street front. The section of wall used for the construction detail can be seen far left.

Student Number: 140045949

Ground Floor

[Fig. 10]

[Fig. 9] Diagram Showing initial concrete frame design for the design proposal.

of the floors of the building, their different sizings and their components.

[Fig. 10] Diagram showing initial construction design

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

Coursework Submission Part 1.

Student Number: 140045949

A. Precedent Studies 152 Elizabeth Street

UNISON HQ

by Tadao Ando

by Squire and Partners, London, 2011

My first precedent study is on Tadao Ando’s first building in New York. The proposal is for a building of glass, concrete and steel materiality that rises 7 storeys. I chose this project as a precedent due to the similarity in materiality and structure but also due to the residential similarities to my proposal. I wanted to create a building which merged with its surroundings whilst also embodying a more light and open feel than its neighbours. I looked into the way Tadao Ando worships space, materiality and light within his designs. This resulted in the use of a concrete frame to provide the strength for my 4 storeys, roof top greenhouse and food processing facilities. My design complex revolved around a central core that was “immovable” and the outer 2 sections being able to open to the surroundings in a similar style to Tadao Ando’s Design. I used a white render on the outer 2 sections of my design to create a more open and

flexible element to the appearance whilst mimicking the cast insitu wall used for the 152 Elizabeth Street to create the appearance of a solid concrete mass structure for the central solid core of my building. Having a concrete frame structure provided the strength and structure for my building proposal which then allowed me to use timber frame walls for their cheap cost and very well insulated nature. This construction method resulted in similarly large, open spaces full of light for my residents to his design shown. The 2 façades looking onto the street and towards the waterfront were also heavily influenced by Tadao Ando’s use of floor to ceiling windows that are framed in steel. This provided extra strength and the ability to wrap the glass round the corner towards the cast in-situ concrete render at the centre of the

building. Creating passive surveillance for the residence to look out over the street and surrounding neighbourhood. I personally believe that Tadao Ando’s design uses a limited number of materials with great success to provide a stable structure as well as a building of great visual aesthetics and integration within its surroundings. I think the design could be seen to take very little regard to the environment due to the overglazing causing excessive heat loss and increased cost to maintain temperatures within the apartments. The large quantity of cast in-situ concrete resulting in a large amount of trapped CO2. Tadao Ando may have used a similar render for his appearance of cast in-situ concrete for a more eco-friendly structural approach for this project but I could not find evidence for this due to the incomplete nature of the project.

This project by Squire and Partners in London is similar to the previous precedent study due to its concrete frame structure but with a very big difference of a stone cladding. This precedent inspired the idea that I could use a very thin and light weight cladding for the facade to create the look and style that I was trying to achieve. The cast in-situ concrete appearance of my south-west facing facade could be easily and cheaply achieved through a thin render rather than an actually concrete wall. The concrete frame again provided all the structural support the building needed and so the external walls were not needed as structural support and purely to provide the insulation and weather protection to the inside of the building from the elements. This also reduced the cost of the external walls and provided easy access for any future repairs or potentially improvements to the eco-friendly performance of the building.

This project also includes private flats, affordable housing and shop fronts within the design which linked with the project brief we were working with. The public spaces within the UNISON HQ building include very large and open circulation routes as well as large and light room spaces for the shop fronts. This was the atmosphere and light quality that I was looking for within my public and private areas within my design.

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Student Number: 140045949

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

Studio and Loft, Karin Sander, Berlin

CH 139, Mixed Use Building.

by Sauerbruch Hutton

by CADAVAL & SOLÀ-MORALES

This Studio and Loft design in Berlin by Sauerbruch Hutton boasts of incredible open living areas with surrounding walls rendered in white and snippets of the structural elements subtly creeping into the space. This project inspired the aesthetically ideals that I was aiming for within my construction choices. I enjoyed the modern, white finished walls that were then interrupted by slight peeks into the structure holding up the building. This design led me to choose for the concrete frame and floor construction to be visible while the exterior walls to be a white render (other than the central core of the design.) thus creating modern, light and very spacious areas for both the public and private realms whilst allowing for snippets of the construction elements to be visible for the residents within.

The main aim of this project by CADAVAL & SOLÀ-MORALES was to retain the existing façade as much as possible and enhance the value of its inherent construction properties. This aim to “enhance the value of its inherent construction properties” inspired my choice of construction to be concrete frame in an effort to provide a platform to celebrate and express this structure through its visible nature within my building proposal. The visible concrete beams and ceilings create a unique perspective of the buildings construction that you often do not have the ability to appreciate within many building designs. This is why the floors were left with a visible polished concrete finish within my structural design as well as the hollow-core flooring within my structure being left bare and visible within both the public and private realms within my building.

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

Coursework Submission Part 1.

Student Number: 140045949

Coursework Submission Part 1.

Student Number: 140045949

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

Coursework Submission Part 1.

Student Number: 140045949

Coursework Submission Part 1.

Student Number: 140045949

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

Coursework Submission Part 1.

Student Number: 140045949

B. CONSTRUCTION EVALUATION

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

C. CONSTRUCTION DECLARATION See SketchUp File.

D. TECTONIC INTENT Suggested Improvements: Using the GG2S I realised that the two major elements of my design that I would choose to improve are the Upper Wall structure and the Seperating Floor structure. I was disappointed that the Upper Floor hollow precast reinforced slab was not as successful as I originally thought it would be. With a rating of E in the GG2S I would change this to be reclaimed timber flooring on timber joists. This construction method would produce a GG2S rating of A+ and the main reason behind this change would be that aesthetically this change in method would not take away from the style of the building even though it is very different from the polished concrete finish originally intended. My second change would be for the Seperating Floor construction. The original method produced a rating of C in the GG2S and I would change this to be a steel frame structure that would produce a rating of A+ in the GG2S. I am slightly more hesitant for this change due to the exposed concrete ceiling being a major design feature within my proposal although this could be achieved with a concrete render suspended from the steel frame structure. Maintaining the aesthetics of the original design without the poor performance in the GG2S.

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When designing my building proposal my main focuses were on the materiality, spacial and light quality within the different realms of my building. I wanted to find a material that I could use to over exaggerate the different public/private realms within my space as well as the need for a structure that could support four storeys as well as a rooftop greenhouse. Through the exploration of Japanese design ideologies and architects such as Tadao Ando who is incredible with concrete I believe that I found the right structure to provide the atmosphere within my building that I wished to achieve. With reference to Tadao Ando’s 152 Elizabeth Street and the studio and loft design based in Berlin I believe I have achieved similar success with creating spaces that are large and open, with good light quality and light atmosphere to them despite the solid nature of the structure supporting the building. Through the use of exposed materials I was successful in aesthetically revealing portions of the buildings structural side to the visitors and residents of the building whilst not putting the integrity of the structure at risk within this design. The use of concrete frame and hollow concrete floor slabs provided a structure for the floors and ceilings that was able to span within the need for extra beams or columns other than the concrete structure already in place.


ARC2009: (Access for All) 2A

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

Coursework Submission Part 2A

Student Number: 140045949

CONTENTS ARC2009 Architectural Technology - Coursework Submission Part 2A Access Audit and Report - TATE LIVERPOOL, Liverpool Student Number: 140045949

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

Coursework Submission Part 2A

Student Number: 140045949

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

Introduction Audit Location and Scope Report Summary Bibliography and References Appendix A - Access Audit

Coursework Submission Part 2A

Student Number: 140045949

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

pg. 1-4 pg. 5-10 pg. 11-17 pg. 18 pg. 19 pg. 20-24

Coursework Submission Part 2A

Student Number: 140045949

Introduction: The TATE LIVERPOOL, owned by Tate, is a 5 storey modern art gallery that attracts over 600,000 visitors annually. In the 1980s the Tate director decided to build a “Tate of the North” with a disused warehouse at the Albert Docks in Liverpool as the chosen site. In 1952 the building was Grade I listed but had fallen into disrepair. The new design left the brick and stone facade, built over doric columns, relatively untouched whilst creating a simple and elegant arrangement of galleries within.

[Fig. 2] Shows the pedestrian access route leading up to the ramp in front of the gallery entrance.

[Fig. 1] Shows the pedestrian access route leading up to the Tate Liverpool from the main road.

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ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

[Fig. 3] Shows the view of the pedestrian access route leading towards the gallery from the main road as seen from the ramp.

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Coursework Submission Part 2A

Student Number: 140045949

This audit is in reference to family member X, a quadriplegic due to a paragliding accident at age 38. This injury has caused family member X to require the use of a wheelchair and be pushed by a full time carer (or use of an electric wheelchair controlled by head movements) and so disabled parking close by is a vital requirement.

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

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Coursework Submission Part 2A

Student Number: 140045949

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

Coursework Submission Part 2A

Student Number: 140045949

Liverpool Central Station

Carpark

Audit Location and Scope:

Q-Park Hanover Street

TATE LIVERPOOL, Albert Dock, Liverpool Waterfront, Liverpool, L3 4BB

James Street Station (Bus Stop)

Accessible car parking (100m distance)

Liverpool Lime Street Station

Audit date: 09/04/2017 Weather: Overcast with patches of sunshine throughout the day.

TATE LIVERPOOL

[Fig. 6] Is a map showing the surrounding area of the gallery including points of interest such as car parks, bus stops and train stations that would allow a quadriplegic to gain transport access to the gallery.

[Fig. 4] Shows an image of a quadriplegic individual using an electric wheelchair.

[Fig. 5] Shows the spinal cord injuries responsible for different levels of spinal cord damage including the area of damage most likely to result in quadriplegia.

[Fig. 7] Shows a site map of Tate Liverpool within its context as well as the most accessible pedestrian access route to the gallery from a disabled parking area.

Liverpool One Bus Station Disabled Parking

Coursework Submission Part 2A

Student Number: 140045949

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

Pedestrian Access route from accessible car park at the pump house public house. TATE LIVERPOOL

Pedestrian Access routes from car parks, bus stations and train stations to the gallery

Q-Park John Lewis

TATE LIVERPOOL

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ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

Albert Dock

Gallery Entrance

Point of Interest

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Coursework Submission Part 2A

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Student Number: 140045949

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

Coursework Submission Part 2A

Student Number: 140045949

[Fig. 8] Shows the floor plans of the gallery publicly accessible for this audit (in white).

Circulation Space

Circulation Space

4

Gallery Toilets and Cloakroom Clore Learning Centre

[Fig. 11] Shows the first floor plan of the gallery which contains a learning centre and gallery space.

4 Circulation Space

Circulation Space

Gallery

Entrance Foyer

[Fig. 13] Shows the fourth floor plan of the gallery which contains a disabled toilet and gallery space.

Disabled Toilet

Shop Cafe

G

Gallery

B

2

G

Disabled Toilet

[Fig. 12] Shows the second floor plan of the gallery which contains a disabled toilet and gallery space.

[Fig. 10] Shows the ground floor of the gallery which contains the entrance foyer, shop, cafe and gallery space (as labelled.)

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ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

Gallery Disabled Toilet

[Fig. 9] Shows the basement floor plan of the gallery which contains toilets and cloakroom.

1

Circulation Space

1

B

2

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Coursework Submission Part 2A

Student Number: 140045949

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

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Coursework Submission Part 2A

Student Number: 140045949

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

Coursework Submission Part 2A

REPORT: Pedestrian Routes.

External Ramps.

The pedestrian route maintaining a relatively even, flat surface is essential for the ease of transition from disabled parking to the gallery entrance for family member X due to wheelchair use. The route needs to be wide enough for a wheelchair user to pass others and not be obstructed by steps or large changes in levels. The pedestrian route leading from the disabled car park to the gallery was sufficiently wide enough for plenty of room for a wheelchair user. The terrain was consistently flat and led to a ramp from the route to the entrance of the gallery allowing for family member X to easily transition from car park to gallery space. There is possibilities of improving the route to the gallery through increased lighting and contrast on the pathways leading up to the gallery to help with visual recognition of the route to the gallery. The gallery also could be improved through the increase in signage on the building as well as leading up to the gallery from the public transport links and car parks.

External ramps are essential for ease of access in the case of family member X due to the use of a wheelchair. The route to the entrance of the gallery was only possible via an external ramp to the building. The ramp was not accompanied by steps and had a rise of 600mm (greater than 300mm stated in 6.1). The ramp was clearly visible from the approach route and due to being the only access was not signed. The ramp length and gradient were suitable - with a length of 6000mm and rise of 500mm and was not wider than 2500mm, complying with 6.4. The top and bottom landings were sufficiently sized to be clear of door swing and was not long enough to require any intermediate landings (6.6). The edge of the ramp was protected by a railing and the black metal provided visual contrast to the ramp and landing (6.7). The stone surface on the ramp and the landing was not very visually contrasting with only different sized stones to contrast, this could be an easy improvement (6.9). I could not see any lighting visibly on the ramp although overhead lighting may be present (6.10).

Student Number: 140045949

Railing protecting the sides of the ramp.

No floor lighting visible on the ramp itself. [Fig. 14] Shows the approach route from the accessible car park towards the gallery.

Signage for the gallery.

[Fig. 18] Shows the external ramp leading to the gallery.

Contrast between the railing and the surface. Flat approach route suitable for wheelchairs. Also space for pedestrians on either side to pass wheelchair users.

Ground and terrain is consistently flat and also contains texture and colour change of the surface to show visually the access route. TATE LIVERPOOL

Contrast in size of stone to visually contrast ramp to surrounding ground.

Albert Dock

[Fig. 17] Shows a site map of Tate Liverpool within its context as well as the access route to the gallery from a disabled parking area with signage and lighting marked.

Pedestrian Access route from accessible car park at the pump house public house. TATE LIVERPOOL [Fig. 19] Shows the approach route from the main road towards the gallery.

Gallery Entrance

Street lighting along route. [Fig. 15] Shows a closer look at the approach route from the accessible car park towards the gallery.

Contrast in colours and textures of the terrain allows for easy visual recognition of accessible route to gallery entrance.

Seating provided at regular intervals and set back slightly from access route. Clear space to both sides of the fixed seatings, allowing space for a wheelchair.

[Fig. 16] Shows a closer look at the approach route from the accessible car park towards the gallery.

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ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

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Coursework Submission Part 2A

Student Number: 140045949

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

Entrance-ways are vital for a wheelchair user such as family member X to be able to easily find a wheelchair accessible route into the gallery. The Tate entranceway consisted of 2 revolving doors and 2 swing doors adjacent. There was sufficient flat ground leading from the top of the ramp to the outside of the entranceway. The swing doors were clearly visible and are always available. The signage for the accessible doors were a little small size sufficiently visible on approach. The entrance way accessibility signage was mainly on the clear glass windows and this sometimes caused issues with glare from the surroundings. There was however no level changes moving from the outside of the entrance way to the foyer within. The route was well managed and no obstructions were in the way.

Coursework Submission Part 2A

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Flat approach route suitable for wheelchairs.

Student Number: 140045949

Main entrance.

Entrances.

[Fig. 20] Shows measurements of the ramp leading to the gallery entrance.

Contrast between the railing and the surface.

Signage along the route.

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

Coursework Submission Part 2A

Student Number: 140045949

Information. Information being clearly visible and legible from the aspect of a wheelchair user is vital due to their restricted view and angle of view within a gallery. The Tate Liverpool had a wealth of information in a vast variety of formats. Their font was suitable and their designs and layouts were simple and uncluttered. The one thing they fell short on in my opinion was the size of the font in some instances which could have proven difficult to read from the point of view of a wheelchair user who has restricted views. The information was available in both 24pt and 36pt forms and also available as Braille and audio versions. As well as two large fonts blue acetate was also provided for users who struggle with contrast between black and white. Audio tapes and telephone services were also available for those with eye sight difficulties. The gallery’s website was incredibly information especially about accessibility to the gallery and the range of information forms provided. In certain instances the small size font onto clear glass windows provided a slight difficult to read with glare from the surroundings and this could easily be improved.

Font quite small - could easily be improved to allow for greater visual impact.

Location of information on wall opposite entranceway makes it very easy to spot the information required to know your way round the building and what is on.

Clearly signed and incorporating the international symbol for access.

[Fig. 21] Shows the signage showing the wheelchair accessible automatic door button.

Revolving door is supplemented with 2 adjacent swing doors which are clearly visible and always available. [Fig. 24] Shows the distance from main entrance to wheelchair accessible entrance. Wheelchair accessible entrance.

Contrast in size of stone to visually contrast ramp to surrounding ground.

Ability to call to reception for assistance if required.

[Fig. 27] Shows the main information on entry into the gallery on the main wall opposite the entranceway. Text is legible from close up but from further away the small font makes it difficult to distinguish the grey text from the white background. The design is simple and uncluttered and titles are easily distinguishable. A minor change to the size of font and avoiding grey to increase contract would make this even more effective. The line spacing and line lengths are suitable however and make reading easy.

Structural supports clearly identified and positioned away from pedestrian access routes.

Level area provided directly outside of entranceway. [Fig. 22] Shows the wheelchair accessible doorway (one of two available). Clearly signed and visible from relatively far away. Incorporating the international symbol for access.

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[Fig. 26] Shows two examples of the font used at Tate Liverpool viewed on the outside of the building near to the entranceway. [Fig. 23] Shows the wheelchair accessible toilet roughly 10m from the entranceway of the gallery.

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[Fig. 25] Shows the distance from main entrance to wheelchair accessible entrance.

Example of where the white text onto clear glass was difficult to read due to glare. This was a problem due to the disabled access signage being in this form and so sometimes difficult to distinguish.

An example of black text on white background provided clear and legible source of information from the exterior of the building. Due to the white background no glare has effected the text.

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ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

Coursework Submission Part 2A

Student Number: 140045949

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

Coursework Submission Part 2A

Student Number: 140045949

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY Bibliography and References:

The bulk of information above the elevator was of a font size too small to be read from the point of a wheelchair user and the glare from the lights above did not help with the problem of illegibility. Increasing the font size of the text and creating more of a consistent light on the wall would help to improve the legibility of the text to both wheelchair users and other visitors

Summary Large font of white text on a dark blue background provides good contrast to make the information easily read and understood. The titles and other information are easily distinguishable although there is a large use of capitalisation which makes the information slightly more difficult to read.

I think that the Tate Liverpool has worked hard to create a gallery that provides access to all. This is visible through the limited number of examples were improvements could be found. The ease of transition from accessible car park to entranceway being one of the most notable. Unlike other galleries the only path from the access route to the entranceway is via a ramp, not stairs with a separate accessible route that wheelchair users have to find. The gallery’s information is available in a vast range of forms and the website makes a big effort to emphasise the ease of access to these different forms of information. There were minor improvements with size of font and location of signage on the route to the building but the gallery has been designed around allowing wheelchair and other disabilities access to each and every area of the gallery.

[Fig. 28] Shows the information above the lift on the ground floor.

Total word count 1018 Main information about the floors and what is on each floor is easily legible and at a good height for wheelchair users to read. Located near the lift which provides wheelchair access to each floor.

Text showing the doorway into the gallery space is legible due to the contrast of black on clear glass. The doors however were very heavy and had no automatic capabilities which would prove difficult for family member X to open. Although double doors individually they were not wide enough to allow a wheelchair to pass through with just one open.

[Fig. 29] Shows the information above the lift on the ground floor.

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ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

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Coursework Submission Part 2A

Student Number: 140045949

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

Coursework Submission Part 2A

Student Number: 140045949

Coursework Submission Part 2A

Student Number: 140045949

http://www.tate.org.uk/about/who-we-are/history-of-tate#liverpool http://www2.tate.org.uk/archivejourneys/historyhtml/bld_liv_opening.htm http://www.livescience.com/41076-spinal-cord-injury.html http://www.tate.org.uk/visit/tate-liverpool http://www.tate.org.uk/about/who-we-are http://www.brainandspinalcord.org/quadriplegia/ https://www.spinal.com.au/resources/spine/ http://www.allocine.fr/diaporamas/cinema/diaporama-18660428/ http://www.echoarena.com/visiting-us/the-venue/parking/ http://www.q-park.co.uk/parking/liverpool/q-park-liverpool-one COMPASS: YOUR GUIDE TO TATE LIVERPOOL’S SPRING PROGRAMME https://www.google.com/maps http://www.albertdock.com/attractions/tate-liverpool/ [Fig. 1] Own drawing [Fig. 2] Own Photograph [Fig. 3] Own Photograph [Fig. 4] http://www.allocine.fr/diaporamas/cinema/diaporama-18660428/ [Fig. 5] https://www.spinal.com.au/resources/spine/ [Fig. 6] Image taken from Apple Maps as a basis for photoshop image [Fig. 7] http://digimap.edina.ac.uk used as a basis for own map [Fig. 8] Floor layout from COMPASS: YOUR GUIDE TO TATE LIVERPOOL’S SPRING PROGRAMME used as a basis for own floor plan diagram [Fig. 9] Floor layout from COMPASS: YOUR GUIDE TO TATE LIVERPOOL’S SPRING PROGRAMME used as a basis for own floor plan diagram [Fig. 10] Floor layout from COMPASS: YOUR GUIDE TO TATE LIVERPOOL’S SPRING PROGRAMME used as a basis for own floor plan diagram [Fig. 11] Floor layout from COMPASS: YOUR GUIDE TO TATE LIVERPOOL’S SPRING PROGRAMME used as a basis for own floor plan diagram [Fig. 12] Floor layout from COMPASS: YOUR GUIDE TO TATE LIVERPOOL’S SPRING PROGRAMME used as a basis for own floor plan diagram [Fig. 13] Floor layout from COMPASS: YOUR GUIDE TO TATE LIVERPOOL’S SPRING PROGRAMME used as a basis for own floor plan diagram [Fig. 14] Own photograph [Fig. 15] Own photograph [Fig. 16] Image from google earth [Fig. 17] Digimaps used as a basis for own map [Fig. 18] Own photograph [Fig. 19] Own photograph [Fig. 20] Own drawing [Fig. 21] Own photograph [Fig. 22] Own photograph [Fig. 23] Own photograph [Fig. 24] Own photograph [Fig. 25] Own photograph [Fig. 26] Own photograph [Fig. 27] Own photograph [Fig. 28] Own photograph [Fig. 29] Own photograph page 19

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

Coursework Submission Part 2A

Student Number: 140045949

Appendix A - Access Audit

s !RETHEYLARGEENOUGHFORPEOPLETOPASS each other?

s 3ETBACKFROMTHEACCESSROUTE

s #LEARSPACETOBOTHSIDESOFlXEDSEATING

Yes - a total of 24 benches line the route from the accesible parking to the entranceway. They are at regular intervals and have space both sides of the fixed seating

3.4

Are routes sufficiently wide?

Yes

3.5

Is there adequate clear headroom to the full length of the access route?

N/A

3.6

Where gradients between 1:60 and 1:20 are unavoidable, are level landings provided at intervals?

3.7

Where gradients are greater than 1:20, are ramps provided? (See checklist 6 External ramps)

3.3

Is seating provided at regular intervals?

N/A

Yes - see external ramps.

3.8

Do paths have a suitable crossfall gradient?

N/A

3.9

Signage and landmarks to aid orientation?

Yes - along the whole route

3.10

Planting used to identify routes or hazards?

s +EPTWELLTRIMMED

N/A

s !RETHEYWELLMAINTAINED

s $ODIFFERENTADJACENTMATERIALSHAVESIMILAR frictional characteristics?

s (AVEMINIMALDEVIATIONSINLEVEL

s 3UITABLEEDGES

3.12 3.13

Are sound qualities, textures and colours of surfaces used to highlight routes? Are drainage channels and gratings set outside of the access route?

s !RETHEYmUSHWITHTHEPAVINGSURFACE

s !RETHESLOTSANDGRATINGOPENINGSSMALL enough to avoid presenting a trip hazard?

Signage and lighting 3.14

Are signs suitably located?

s %ASYTOSEE CLEARANDLOGICAL

3.15

Are routes and potential hazards adequately lit?

3.16

Are lights positioned to provide an even level of illumination and to avoid glare?

Yes and evenly spaced.

Yes. N/A

Hazard warning and protection Are pedestrian and vehicular routes separated and clearly differentiated?

Yes

3.18

Is blister tactile paving used to indicate an approaching vehicular route?

Yes at crossing points on the road.

3.19

Is hazard protection provided to any object that projects into a pedestrian route? s $OESTHISINCLUDEATAPPINGRAIL

3.17

3.20

Does hazard protection contrast visually with the surroundings?

N/A

N/A

General observations:

98

99

Coursework Submission Part 2A

Student Number: 140045949

Access Audit Handbook

Is information available in a range of formats, including:

s #LEARPRINT

s ,ARGEPRINT

27

s "RAILLE

s 4ELEPHONESERVICES

s !UDIO

s $IGITALFOREXAMPLE DISK #$2/- $6$OR file attachment)?

27.2

Is the information readily available?

Yes.

Clear print 27.3

Does printed material follow clear print guidelines, including:

s !SUITABLEFONTSTYLEANDSIZE

s %FFECTIVECONTRASTBETWEENTEXTANDBACK ground?

s !SUITABLELINELENGTHANDSPACING

s !SUITABLEWORDSPACINGANDPARAGRAPH alignment?

s !NAVOIDANCEOFDECORATIVETEXT TEXTWRITTEN at an angle or in curved lines?

27.4

Are the design and layout simple and uncluttered?

27.5

Are headings, photos, illustrations and text clearly differentiated?

27.6

Are photos and illustrations suitably sized?

Yes.

Yes.

Yes.

Large print 27.7

Do large print documents follow best practice guidelines, including:

s !SUITABLEFONTSTYLEANDSIZE

s %FFECTIVECONTRASTBETWEENTEXTAND background?

Yes.

27.8

Can documents be readily produced in a font size to meet individual customer need?

Ramp accompanied by an alternative means of access where the total rise is greater than 2000mm?

6.3

Ramp identifiable from approach route or clearly signed?

6.4

Ramp length and gradient suitable?

s /VERALLLENGTHOFRAMPANDTOTALRISE acceptable?

s 7IDEENOUGHTOFULLLENGTHOFRAMPSLOPEAND landings?

27.9

Are large print documents as close as possible in format to the standard print version?

27.10 Is Braille information professionally produced to

6.5

Maximum cross-fall gradient to ramp slope and landings?

N/A

6.6

Top and bottom landings of adequate size and clear of door swings?

Yes.

s )NTERMEDIATELANDINGSATREGULARINTERVALSAND of sufficient length?

N/A

s ,ARGERLANDINGSPROVIDEDWHEREITISNOT possible to see from one end of the ramp to another? Edge protection to any open side of ramp or landing?

s 6ISUALLYCONTRASTINGWITHRAMPANDLANDING surface?

the equipment? Relay service?

individual customer requirements, for example by saving information as a particular file type?

Yes.

Yes.

Yes.

N/A

including:

s 3TRUCTUREANDLOCATIONOFINFORMATIONCLEARLY communicated?

s %FFECTIVEINDEXINGOFSECTIONSTOENABLEEASY navigation of tape?

N/A

s 2ECORDINGQUALITYGOOD

Digital 27.16 Can information be readily transmitted on disk,

N/A

CD ROM, DVD or via the internet (using email or downloaded from a website)?

27.17 Is the document designed in a clear, simple manner?

N/A

161

s !DEQUATESLIPRESISTANCEINALLWEATHER conditions?

6.9

Slope surface visually contrasting with landings?

6.10

Adequate and even level of illumination to the full length of the ramp?

s ,IGHTlTTINGSSELECTEDANDPOSITIONEDTOAVOID glare?

6.11

Are portable ramps available in existing buildings where no alternative means of access is possible?

s 3UITABLEWIDTH

s 5PTURNEDEDGES

s 3LIP RESISTANTSURFACE

N/A

N/A

General observations:

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7.0 Access audit checklists

9

Entrances

N/A - stone may be very slippy when wet.

Threshold and surfaces 9.12

Identification, signage and approach Only in size of stone used. Could be more clear.

No lighting visible on ramp - may be over head lighting, unsure. Could add lighting to improve visibility.

N/A

See also checklist eight Handrails General observations:

Coursework Submission Part 2A

See also checklist 28 Websites

27.15 Do audio tapes follow best practice guidelines, s 3PEAKERSVOICECLEARLYAUDIBLE

Yes - black railing proves contrast to the ramp and landing stone surface.

104

saved) as a text-only file?

Audio tape

N/A

27.19 Can digital information be tailored to suit

Yes.

Surface suitable?

page 21

Yes.

clearly advertised and staffed?

27.14 Are telephone operators familiar with the Text

Yes. Not wider than 2500mm.

N/A

Telephone services

27.13 Are textphone operators trained in the use of

Length 6000mm Rise 500mm

s 2AMPSWIDERTHANMMDIVIDEDINTO channels?

27.18 Is the information available (or able to be

RNIB guidelines? such as a complex and frequently updated catalogue, is an alternative available, for example a telephone information service?

Clearly visible but no signage.

Access Audit Handbook

27.11 If any information is not available in Braille,

27.12 Are contact telephone and textphone numbers

Total rise is not over 2000mm.

6.7

6.8

No steps, only ramp.

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

page 23

160

6.2

Braille

Yes.

Licensed copy from CIS: uninew, UNIVERSITY OF NEWCASTLE, 03/03/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

27.1

Ramp accompanied by steps where the rise is greater than 300mm?

7.0 Access audit checklists

Information

Licensed copy from CIS: uninew, UNIVERSITY OF NEWCASTLE, 03/03/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

N/A

page 20

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

121

Different colours and textures highlight route to entranceway.

6.1

105

Student Number: 140045949

Yes.

9.1

Is the principal entrance (or entrances) accessible to everyone?

9.2

Are alternative accessible entrances available for everyone to use?

9.3

Entrance easy to find and positioned logically in Positioned logically but signage can relation to the approach route? be slightly on the rare side, until you get very close to the building itself. s %NTRANCEDOORSCLEARLYDISTINGUISHABLE

9.4

Revolving doors are supplemented with 2 large electrically controlled swings doors.

Entrance doors clearly visible.

Is the alternative accessible entrance(s) clearly signed from the edge of the site and from the principal entrance?

Yes.

s )NCORPORATINGTHE)NTERNATIONAL3YMBOLFOR Access?

Yes.

9.5

All entrances clearly signed and visible from approach routes?

Yes.

9.6

A level area provided immediately in front of all Yes - large area. accessible entrances?

9.7

Structural supports clearly identified?

Yes in bright orange and out the way of any pedestrians

s 0OSITIONEDAWAYFROMPEDESTRIANACCESS routes?

9.8

Weather protection provided?

Yes shelter from weather

9.9

Clear view in from outside to aid orientation?

Yes

9.10

Outward-opening doors adequately guarded or Yes recessed?

9.11

Revolving doors supplemented with an adjacent swing door?

s 3WINGDOORCLEARLYVISIBLE

s !LWAYSAVAILABLE

Yes Yes

Licensed copy from CIS: uninew, UNIVERSITY OF NEWCASTLE, 03/03/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

Yes passing places are provided at each junction and regularly along the whole route from the accessible parking to the gallery entrance. They are wide enough for people to pass as well as for people to pass a wheelchair.

Yes - stone and pavement paves the route from accessible car park to entranceway. They are well maintained and provide adequate grip along the route. There is little to no deviations in level and have suitable levels.

Licensed copy from CIS: uninew, UNIVERSITY OF NEWCASTLE, 03/03/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

Are passing places provided at junctions and corners of access routes and at regular intervals?

Are surfaces firm, durable, smooth and slip resistant in all weather conditions?

Licensed copy from CIS: uninew, UNIVERSITY OF NEWCASTLE, 03/03/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

Yes - the whole route is near level and accessible by a wheelchair user from the designated accessible parking to the gallery entrance.

Licensed copy from CIS: uninew, UNIVERSITY OF NEWCASTLE, 03/03/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

Licensed copy from CIS: uninew, UNIVERSITY OF NEWCASTLE, 03/03/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

3.2

Are access routes from the edge of the site to the principal entrance (or alternative accessible entrance), or from the designated parking area to the entrance, or to other main routes on site, level or near level?

3.11

6

External ramps

Surfaces and drainage

Layout and gradients

Access Audit Handbook

7.0 Access audit checklists

Licensed copy from CIS: uninew, UNIVERSITY OF NEWCASTLE, 03/03/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

3

Pedestrian routes 3.1

Access Audit Handbook

7.0 Access audit checklists

Licensed copy from CIS: uninew, UNIVERSITY OF NEWCASTLE, 03/03/2016, Uncontrolled Copy.

Access Audit Handbook

Entrance door threshold flush or with minimal upstand and gradual change in level?

s !DJACENTmOORlNISHESlRMLYlXED

9.13

Drainage channels adjacent to door thresholds flush with adjacent surfaces?

9.14

Thresholds to internal doors flush with floor finishes on either side?

s %DGESOFmOORlNISHESlRMLYlXED

9.15

Entrance matting extends sufficiently into building?

s 3UITABLE NON COMPRESSIBLEMATERIAL

s &IRMLYlXEDLOOSE LAIDMATSAVOIDED 

Yes Yes N/A

Yes. Yes. No matt.

Entrance lobbies 9.16

Lobby large enough to allow people to move clear of one door before negotiating the second?

Yes.

s !RRANGEDFORSTRAIGHTTHROUGHTRAVEL

9.17

Double swing doors to enable travel in both directions?

No, 2 single direction swing doors.

9.18

Lobbies with single-leaf doors large enough?

No lobby doors

9.19

Inner lobby door meets same criteria as entrance door?

No Lobby door

9.20

Lighting designed to provide gradual transition between exterior and interior?

9.21

Full-height glazing incorporates markings for safety and visibility?

s -INIMALREmECTIONS

9.22

Projections into access route minimised?

s !DEQUATELYHIGHLIGHTEDORGUARDEDWHERE unavoidable?

No. Not very gradual.

Yes.

N/A

General observations:

page 22

110

111


ARC2009: (Access for All) 2B

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

Coursework Submission Part 2B

Student Number: 140045949

CONTENTS ARC2009 Architectural Technology - Coursework Submission Part 2B Means of Escape - Exploring Experience Student Number: 140045949

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

Coursework Submission Part 2B

Student Number: 140045949

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

pg. 1-5 pg. 6-13 pg. 14-17

Summary and Calculations Background Information Strategy

Coursework Submission Part 2B

Student Number: 140045949

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

Coursework Submission Part 2B

Student Number: 140045949

Ground Floor: Room

Total floor area (m2)

Type of accommodation

Floor space factor m2/ person

Calculation

Maximum Capacity

1

89.3

Shop

7.0

89.3/7.0=12.75

12

2

57.19

Storage

30

N/A

N/A

3

33.5

Kitchen

7.0

33.5/7.0=4.79

4

4

45.5

Cafe

1.0

45.5/1.0=45.5

45

5

61.8

Foyer

0.7

61.8/0.7=88.29

88

6

18.4

Bedroom

8.0

18.4/8.0=2.3

7

N/A

Sanitary

N/A

8

N/A

Circulation

N/A

First Floor: Room

Total floor area (m2)

Type of accommodation

Floor space factor m2/ person

Calculation

Maximum Capacity

1

179.4

Gallery

5.0

179.4/5.0=35.88

35

2

21.6

Bedroom

8.0

21.6/8.0=2.7

3

24

Bedroom

8.0

24/8.0=3

4

45.6

Artist Living Area

7.0

45.6/7.0=6.51

6

2

5

N/A

Circulation

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

6

N/A

Sanitary

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

9

163.71

Courtyard

0.7

163.71/0.7=233.87

Notes: Room 5 is circulation and corridor space and so has been omitted from calculations. Room 6 is sanitary accommodation and so has been omitted from calculations.

Stair 2: This stair only serves the 2nd floor with a total of 163. Therefore the stair width needs to be a minimum of 1100mm width.

Notes: Room 7 is sanitary accommodation and so has been omitted from calculations. Room 8 is circulation and corridor space and so has been omitted from calculations.

Total Building Occupancy = 384+163+46 = 593 Second Floor: Room

Total floor area (m2)

Type of accommodation

Floor space factor m2/ person

Calculation

Maximum Capacity

1

80.1

Cinema Room/Lecture Theatre

0.5

80.1/0.5=160.2

160

2

24

Bedroom

8.0

24/8=3

3

3

N/A

Sanitary

N/A

N/A

N/A

4

N/A

Circulation

N/A

N/A

N/A

Stair 3: This stair only serves one floor but it will need to accommodate people from the 1st and 2nd floor as people merge with the flow out of the building upon reaching the 1st floor landing. Therefore a total of 209 people. Stair width needs to be a minimum of 1100mm width.

Minimum escape route corridor and door opening widths: (Based on information from Table 4: Widths of escape routes and exits pg. 36) Ground Floor: To accommodate people from all floors leaving the building (593). Minimum of 5mm per person = 593 x 5 = 2965mm for each escape route provided.

Stair 4: This stair only serves the 2nd floor with a total of 163. Therefore the stair width needs to be a minimum of 1100mm width.

First Floor: To accommodate people from the first and second floor leaving the building (209). Minimum of 1050mm for each escape route provided.

Total Second Floor Occupancy = 163

Based on information from table C1: Floor Space Factors pg. 135

Notes: Room 3 is sanitary accommodation and so has been omitted from calculations. Room 4 is circulation and corridor space and so has been omitted from calculations.

Second Floor: To accommodate people from the second floor leaving the building (46). Minimum of 750mm for each escape route provided.

page 1

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

Minimum stair width for each stair: (Based on information from Table 4: Widths of escape routes and exits pg. 36) Stair 1: This stair only serves one floor but it will need to accommodate people from the 1st and 2nd floor as people merge with the flow out of the building upon reaching the 1st floor landing. Therefore a total of 209 people. Stair width needs to be a minimum of 1100mm width.

233

Total Second Floor Occupancy = 384

Based on information from table C1: Floor Space Factors pg. 135

3

Total First Floor Occupancy = 46

Based on information from table C1: Floor Space Factors pg. 135

My design does not comply with the building regulations in the approved document. My main concern is the lack of protected stairwell for the public and the limited number of routes for the public to move out of the upper levels of my building to escape danger. My doorways are no where near wide enough - requiring a 2965mm wide (minimum) final exit when dealing with the total maximum number of visitors. I have tried to adjust the errors in my building such as door width, number of exits available per room and increasing the number of stairwells for better safety within my building design. This was achieved with minor success. The design of the building currently does not allow for increased width of certain stairways although these are contained within the residential section of my building and so may be allowed.

2

page 2

Coursework Submission Part 2B

Student Number: 140045949

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

page 3

Coursework Submission Part 2B

Student Number: 140045949

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

Coursework Submission Part 2B

Student Number: 140045949

Background Information:

Maximum Travel Distances for Occupants of Building When Escaping: (Based on information from table 2: limitations on travel distance pg. 33) Minimum width for each final exit: Final exits should not be “less in width than the minimum width required for the escape route they serve.� (paragraph 5.30 pg. 57). Due to my building not having over 60 people capacity on every floor I have calculated my maximum travel distances for the rooms using table 2: Limitations on travel distance. The maximum travel distances with travel in more than one direction are as follows:

Exit a and b. Due to servicing the 3 bedrooms and the artists living areas resulting in a total of 13 people so the final exit would need to be 750mm minimum. It is currently 1000mm.

The bedrooms (room 6 ground floor), (rooms 2 and 3 on first floor) and (room 2 on second floor) require 18m.

Exit c. This exit is for the cafe and kitchen and so a total of 49 people using this exit. It would need to be 750mm minimum. It is currently a double swing door each 1000mm wide.

In the shared artist living area (room 4 first floor) the distance is 35m. In the shop (room 1 ground floor), kitchen (room 3 ground floor) and cafe (room 4 ground floor) require 45m.

Exit d. This exit is for all the people within the building and so with a total of 593 people it would need to be 2965mm wide minimum. Currently it is 2300mm and would need to be increased.

In the foyer (room 5 ground floor), courtyard (room 9) and gallery space (room 1 first floor) the requirement is 18m.

Exit e. This exit is for all the people within the building and so with a total of 593 people it would need to be 2965mm wide minimum. Currently it is 2000mm and would need to be increased.

The cinema/lecture theatre (room 1 second floor) the requirement is 32m due to having seats in a row.

Exit f. This exit is for the cafe and kitchen and so a total of 49 people using this exit. It would need to be 750mm minimum. It is currently 900mm wide.

Please note these are the distances required to the nearest exit.

Sandgate

Drivers Lane

The storage rooms (both room 2 ground floor) the distance is 45m.

See labelled ground floor plan in background information

Site Context Map at 1:500

page 5

page 4

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

Coursework Submission Part 2B

Student Number: 140045949

2

1:200 Original Second Floor Plan

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

page 6

Coursework Submission Part 2B

Student Number: 140045949

1

1:200 Original First Floor Plan

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

Coursework Submission Part 2B

f.

3

1

6

3

Student Number: 140045949

G

1:200 Original Ground Floor Plan

4

3

4

4

8

6

5 2

c.

2

a.

b.

e. 5 d.

9

2 1

1 2

page 7

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

7

page 8

Coursework Submission Part 2B

Student Number: 140045949

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

page 9

Coursework Submission Part 2B

Student Number: 140045949

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

Coursework Submission Part 2B

Student Number: 140045949

1:200 Second Floor Plan

1:200 First Floor Plan

1:200 Ground Floor Plan

g.

b.

e. d.

a.

c. a.

b.

d.

Ground Floor: a. The shop has a distance requirement of 45m. The current distance is 18m. b. The storage room has a distance requirement of 45m. Currently the distance is 5m. c. The storage room has a distance requirement of 45m. Currently the distance is 10m. d. The kitchen has a distance requirement of 45m. Currently the distance is 8m. e. The cafe has a distance requirement of 45m. Currently the distance is 10m or 4.5m. f. The bedroom has a distance requirement of 18m. Currently the distance is 6m. g. The circulation route has a distance requirement of 35m. Currently the distance is 8m or 10.5m. h. The foyer has a distance requirement of 18m. Currently the distance is 8m or 5m. i. The courtyard has a distance requirement of 18m. Currently the distance is 14m or 10m.

First Floor:

i.

a. The gallery has a distance requirement of 45m. The current distance is 35m. b. The bedroom has a distance requirement of 18m. Currently the distance is 6m. c. The communal living area has a distance requirement of 35m. Currently the distance is 13m. d. The bedroom has a distance requirement of 18m. Currently the distance is 6m.

h.

c. b.

a.

Second Floor: a. The cinema/lecture theatre has a distance requirement of 32m. The current distance is 18m. b. The bedroom has a distance requirement of 18m. Currently the distance is 6m.

page 10

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

Coursework Submission Part 2B

page 11

Student Number: 140045949

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

page 12

Coursework Submission Part 2B

Student Number: 140045949

Background Information:

1:200 revised Second Floor Plan Additional Fire Door for emergency Exit through a protected stairwell

2

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

3

1

Coursework Submission Part 2B

Student Number: 140045949

1

1:200 Original First Floor Plan

3

6

4

4 5 Additional Fire Door for emergency Exit

2

2 Additional Fire Door for emergency Exit

Stair width increased to conform to approved document B

Doorway (main entrance) width increased to conform to the approved document (and fire safety calculations from previous working).

1

Stairway widened to conform to approved document.

Additional stairway added to allow multiple access points into gallery

page 13

page14

page 15

122


ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

Coursework Submission Part 2B

Student Number: 140045949

G

1:200 Original Second Floor Plan

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

Coursework Submission Part 2B

3

1

4

2 Additional Emergency exit added to allow ease of access and exit from kitchen and cafe.

Additional fire escape added from store room to allow for more access points into room.

Additional fire escape added from store to allow for more access points into shop and out in case of emergency.

page 16

123

page 17

Student Number: 140045949


ARC2010: Environmental Design & Services 2.1

STUDENT NUMBER: 140045949 ARC2010 ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN & SERVICES 2.1 DWELLING PLUS STUDIO C, MILL LANE SITE 19TH JANUARY 2017

ARC2010 ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN & SERVICES 2.1

U Values:

Coursework Submission Part 1.

Student Number: 140045949

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

Coursework Submission Part 1.

Wall Type 1: (Timber Frame) Wall Components

Thickness (mm)

Conductivity (W/mK)

External Surface Factors

Resistance (m2K/W) 0.040

Render

20

0.50

0.040

OSB Board

10

0.15

0.067

Insulation (mineral wool quilt)

300

0.033

9.091

OSB Board

10

0.15

0.067

Plasterboard

10

0.16

0.0625

Internal Surface Factors

U Value

Double Glazing (air filled 12mm gap.)

2.8

References: https://www.pilkington.com/~/media/Pilkington/Site%20Content/UK/Reference/TableofDefaultUValues.ashx Architect’s Pocket Book, Fourth Edition http://www.leedsbeckett.ac.uk/teaching/vsite/low_carbon_housing/resources/thermal-conductivity-of-building-materials.pdf

Improvements Made Within SAP Calculation:

Windows were changed from Double Glazing (air filled 12mm gap) with a U value of 2.8 to Double Glazing (Low E, En = 0.1, argon filled 12mm gap) with a U value of 1.9. The thickness of the hot water insulation jacket was increased from 100mm to 150mm. The boiler was changed from Boiler with uninsulated primary pipework and with cylinder stat. to a Boiler with insulated primary pipework and with cylinder stat. helping to reduce Primary Circuit loss from 610 KWHr/year to 360 KWHr/year. I also changed the Insulation from mineral wool quilt to glass mineral wool and also this improved the U value of the wall design from 0.105 to 0.099 this sadly made no difference to the SAP rating as the U value is inserted to 1 d.p, so each time the U value was 0.1. These changes helped to change the SAP rating from the original 81 to a revised rating of 84.

0.123

Total R

External Glass Door leading to balcony:

£/year

9.4895

U value (= (1/ Total R) = (1/ 9.4895 = 0.105

0.105

U value Double Glazing (air filled 12mm gap.) = 2.8

ARC2010 ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN & SERVICES 2.1

Student Number: 140045949

Coursework Submission Part 1.

Student Number: 140045949

Revised U value:

Space Heating Costs Water Heating Costs Pump and Fan Cost Energy for Lighting (assumes 100% low energy lighting) GL 0.198315458 C2 1.52651794 EL 418.8001968

106.6816167 86.96904126 15.6 50.25602361

Total Energy Cost

259.5066816

ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

Coursework Submission Part 1.

Student Number: 140045949

Use of Daylight: Wall Type 1: (Timber Frame) Wall Components

To study how the building uses the daylight I entered the living area into dialux to see the quality of light within the space and whether it could be improved.

Thickness (mm)

Conductivity (W/mK)

External Surface Factors

Resistance (m2K/W)

Daylight study 1:

0.040

Project 1

Project 1

Render

20

0.50

0.040

OSB Board

10

0.15

0.067

Insulation (Glass Mineral Wool)

300

0.031

9.677

My initial dialux study for the quality of light within my living area showed me that the living area was far too light in most of the areas and that the space was far too over glazed. The D(av) was much larger than the recommended 2-5% and so some changes to the windows within the space had to be done.

Project 1

19.01.2017

Operator Telephone Fax e-Mail

19.01.2017

19.01.2017

Room 1 / Light scene 1 / 3D Rendering

Room 1 / Light scene 1 / Workplane / Isolines (D)

Operator Telephone Fax e-Mail

Room 1 / Light scene 1 / False Colour Rendering

Operator Telephone Fax e-Mail

Scale 1 : 59

Position of surface in room: Working plane with 0.500 m Boundary Zone Marked point: (0.500 m, 0.500 m, 0.750 m)

Grid: 128 x 128 Points Dav [%] 5.72

OSB Board

10

0.15

0.067

Plasterboard

10

0.16

0.0625

Total R U value (= (1/ Total R) = (1/ 9.4895 = 0.105

Dmax [%] 19

Dmin / Dav 0.098

Dmin / Dmax 0.030

Horizontal illuminance outdoors Eo: 11432 lx

DIALux 4.6 by DIAL GmbH

Daylight study 2: Internal Surface Factors

Dmin [%] 0.56

Page 3

DIALux 4.6 by DIAL GmbH

Project 1

DIALux 4.6 by DIAL GmbH

Project 1

Page 5

Project 1

19.01.2017

19.01.2017

19.01.2017

Room 1 / Light scene 1 / 3D Rendering

Room 1 / Light scene 1 / False Colour Rendering

Room 1 / Light scene 1 / Workplane / Isolines (D)

Operator Telephone Fax e-Mail

0.123

Page 2

Operator Telephone Fax e-Mail

Operator Telephone Fax e-Mail

10.077

For my second dialux study I changed the windows and left the glass sliding doors leading to the balcony as they were. This helped to reduce the over glazing in my living area and reduced my D(av) from 5.72% to 4.2%, comfortably within the recommended 2-5% required.

0.099 Scale 1 : 59

Position of surface in room: Working plane with 0.500 m Boundary Zone Marked point: (0.500 m, 0.500 m, 0.750 m)

Grid: 128 x 128 Points Dav [%] 4.20

Dmin [%] 0.38

Dmax [%] 14

Dmin / Dav 0.091

Dmin / Dmax 0.028

Horizontal illuminance outdoors Eo: 11432 lx

DIALux 4.6 by DIAL GmbH

Page 2

DIALux 4.6 by DIAL GmbH

Page 3

DIALux 4.6 by DIAL GmbH

Page 5

124


ARC2010 ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN & SERVICES 2.1

Coursework Submission Part 1.

Student Number: 140045949

Energy Strategy: Rain Water Recovery: To try and improve the buildings energy efficiency I have incorporated rain water collection equipment on the roof of the building for use in the greenhouse, shared gardens for the residents and use in flushing of toilets. A 1200l Polytank Water Butt on the roof would cost around £300 and provide plenty of water for the 6 dwelling units within the building (17 residents in total. 17x30l (per person) = 510l with an excess of 690l in total. I feel due to Edinburgh’s annual rainfall of 668mm, this strategy for recycling rainfall would be a very successful method within the building. Reclaimed rainwater can be used for a range of applications such as toilet flushing, washing machines and irrigation. There are three main types of rainwater recovery systems: indirectly pumped, directly pumped, and gravity fed. The advantages of using a header tank system with my design is the High reliability of the design; it reverts to mains water if power or pump fails. The low cost pump and simple controls (possible) as well as the energy efficiency of the pump due to it running at full flow. The flat roof design of the building as well as the added sloped roof of the greenhouse means that this system will retain a significant amount of the initial rainfall which may evaporate. This would also help towards the heating and cooling systems in the building.

Photovoltaic Modules: Within my building design I have incorporated hotovoltaic modules (PV modules) on the roof of the rooftop green house to supply the building with sustainable electricity. These modules would be located on the roof of the rooftop greenhouse and work by converting sunlight directly to DC electricity.

https://blackboard.ncl.ac.uk/bbcswebdav/pid-2679598-dt-content-rid-7910494_1/courses/M1617-ARC2010/Course%20Documents/SAP%20 The%20Illustrated%20Guide%20to%20Renewable%20Technologies/Illustrated%20Guide%20to%20Renewable%20Technologies.pdf

The diagram to the left shows the various uses for home-generated solar power. As sunlight hit the PV cells in the solar panels electrons flow your charge controller, it determines whether this power is needed for home use or whether it is more useful to power a deep-cycle solar battery to be used later. The DC current leaving the controller can be used to run most electronic devices that don’t require an alternating current. Any other current passes through a DC to AC inverter, transforming it into AC electricity. At this point all surplus electricity not being drawn by your home can be sent to the power grid.

One benefit of this method for supplying electricity to my building dwellings is that there are a wide range of installation options including sloping roofs, working with the rooftop Greenhouse installation. Another positive is that for the most optimal results the PV modules need to face between south-east and south-west, with an elevation of between 30-40 degrees and should be clear of shade. The height of my building and the buildings surrounding it allows for this to be achieved with minimal shading on the units.

This energy strategy, although expensive with installation will be very successful due to the lifetime it would be in use for and the number of residents using these units within the dwelling. The energy provided by these units will help to save on the use of electricity produced through use of finite resources such as coal or gas. Through my SAP calculations the heating system and water heating elements to my dwelling had the largest negative environmental effect with 681 & 555 kg CO2/year. To try and change this the solar energy would be used within my dwelling for the heating system and water heating elements to try and reduce this negative environmental effect. 1 m2 of monocrystalline or polycrystalline array will provide a useful output of 90-110 kWh per annum

https://blackboard.ncl.ac.uk/bbcswebdav/pid-2679598-dtcontent-rid-7910494_1/courses/M1617-ARC2010/Course%20 Documents/SAP%20The%20Illustrated%20Guide%20to%20 Renewable%20Technologies/Illustrated%20Guide%20to%20 Renewable%20Technologies.pdf

125

http://www.climatedata.eu/climate.php?loc=ukxx0052&lang=en

https://blackboard.ncl.ac.uk/bbcswebdav/pid-2679598-dt-content-rid-7910494_1/courses/M1617ARC2010/Course%20Documents/SAP%20The%20Illustrated%20Guide%20to%20Renewable%20 Technologies/Illustrated%20Guide%20to%20Renewable%20Technologies.pdf


ARC2020: Dissertation studies & Research methods

An investigation into the increasing trend of small space design and the aesthetical similarities between app based companies such as Airbnb and the physical architecture and materiality associated with them.

School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape 2016-2017 Student No.:

140045949

Degree Prog. :

K100 Stage 2

Module :

ARC2020

Exercise :

Research proposal 1

Due :

12:00:00 Friday, 19th May 2017

Dissertation Proposal

Marker :

Student: Brandon Athol Few

Plagiarism Statement I am aware of the University's policy on Plagiarism as described in my Degree Programme Handbook. Where this submitted work is not completely my own, it makes a clear acknowledgment of the work of others, in accordance with advice given by the Module Leader or other relevant members of staff.

Tutors: Ed Wainwright, Sam Austin, Ruth Raynor An investigation into the increasing trend of small space design.

Where there is reasonable suspicion that I have fabricated research results or that I have made unacknowledged use of another person's idea, words or work, then I am aware that this will be dealt with under the University's Assessment Irregularities Procedure and I accept that I may also be subject to disciplinary action as determined by the Registrar in accordance with the University's Disciplinary Procedures.

Date :

In 2012 I discovered the work of Foster Huntington, a photographer who left his design job based in New York, bought a van and decided to travel around the West Coast living out of van which he had designed into a small space living situation making money off photography. Since then he has designed and built a set of tree houses in the Columbia River Gorge, documenting the process in a hardback bood called The Cinder Cone Build Book. Following these design processes and living arrangements through his blog sparked a real passion and interest for small space living design and the increasing trend towards small space living that many have taken to. From this initial passion for Foster’s story I discovered “Hank bought a bus” about an architecture student studying his masters in America who was tired of creating theoretical designs and projects of buildings. As a result he bought a bus and designed the interior as a small space design project towards his masters. He built the project as well as succesfully designing the plans as part of his university work. This inspired me towards investigating the relationship between small space design within buildings as well as other spaces. What role do architects and architecture play within these mobile home type designs? Later, this interest led me to the discovery of companies such as Airbnb and Getaway. Airbnb was created in 2007 by Joe Gebbia and Brian Chesky who were both 27 at the time and had met 5 years earlier at Rhode Island School of Design. They were struggling to pay rent and came up with an idea of renting out three airbeds in their living room and cooking their guests breakfast. From this small scale conceptAirbnb has grown to is a value of $1.3 billion. Getaway is a company that was launched in 2015 by Harvard University graduates. The company designs, builds and rents out wilderness micro cabins to urban residents. I would like to investigate the apparent trend in small space houses that allow busy city residents to escape the hustle and bustle and experience a simplistic form of living as a micro escape from their normal lives. This style of architecture and design as well as the increase in demand for it is leading to far more clever designs as well as an attitude towards simplistic living, accomodating a house within a space sometimes as little as 15-20 metres squared.

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When you submit a paper copy of the work at reception, you will receive a receipt via email within 24 hours. This refers to your paper copy ONLY. You must also submit an electronic copy via Blackboard by the deadline. Failure to submit both copies by the deadline will result in a late or non-submission being recorded and a mark penalty will be applied.

In 2016, articles went viral about a 25 year old illustrator who built a bedroom ‘pod’ to live within because of the housing prices in San Francisco being too expensive. This is yet another example of the social and economic climates that have caused individuals such as Peter Berkowitz to live out of an 8 foot long box in order to afford living prices in places such as San Francisco. For my dissertation I would like to investigate questions such as; - what social and economic factors have led to the increasing trend in small space design. - the digital and physical realms and how app based companies such as Airbnb have led to physical commonalities between the apps and their physical architecture. - How much influence are companies such as Airbnb and Getaway influencing small space design and architecture in a broader sense. - Is there an attitude within millenials that has influenced this increasing trend towards small space living as well as simplistic living. - The psychology of living within small space design. Within my research towards this dissertation I would like to use observation, articles, books, film documentaries and hopefully interviews towards this 8000 word dissertation.

References: Dezeen. 2017. Twin micro homes by S Plus One are finished in different woods. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.dezeen.com/2016/04/21/twin-micro-homes-cedar-house-pine-house-s-plus-one-wood-japanarchitecture/. [Accessed 18 May 2017]. k+b design London. 2017. Addressing the challenge of small space design | k+b design London. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.kbdesignlondon.com/visit/news-and-updates/smaller-spaces-trend. [Accessed 18 May 2017]. researcharchive.vuw.ac.nz. 2017. No page title. [ONLINE] Available at: http://researcharchive.vuw.ac.nz/ xmlui/handle/10063/4551. [Accessed 18 May 2017]. Kleber and Associates. 2017. Tiny Homes Trend: The Rise of Small Space Homes. [ONLINE] Available at: http://kleberandassociates.com/tiny-homes-trend/. [Accessed 18 May 2017]. Undark. 2017. The Psychology of Living in Small Spaces. [ONLINE] Available at: https://undark. org/2016/05/31/psychology-living-small-spaces/. [Accessed 18 May 2017].

cleaver/. [Accessed 18 May 2017]. Dezeen. 2017. NArchitects complete New York’s first micro-apartment tower. [ONLINE] Available at: https:// www.dezeen.com/2016/02/01/carmell-place-micro-apartment-tower-new-york-city-narchitects-photos/. [Accessed 18 May 2017]. Dezeen. 2017. San Francisco city chiefs call for 20 square metre “micro apartments”. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.dezeen.com/2012/12/10/san-francisco-city-chiefs-vote-to-allow-20-square-metre-microapartments/. [Accessed 18 May 2017]. Dezeen. 2017. Micro apartments could help cities retain their diversity says Ian Schrager. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.dezeen.com/2016/03/24/micro-apartments-could-help-cities-retain-diversity-ianschrager-manhattan-san-francisco-housing/. [Accessed 18 May 2017]. Hank Bought A Bus | Sometimes the best plan is to not have one…. 2017. Hank Bought A Bus | Sometimes the best plan is to not have one…. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.hankboughtabus.com. [Accessed 18 May 2017].

Small Space Design – The Tiny Life. 2017. Small Space Design – The Tiny Life. [ONLINE] Available at: http:// thetinylife.com/tag/small-space-design/. [Accessed 18 May 2017]. 2017. . [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.arestlesstransplant.com. [Accessed 18 May 2017]. I’m Fine, Thanks. 2017. I’m Fine, Thanks. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.imfinethanksmovie.com. [Accessed 18 May 2017]. Home - Getaway. 2017. Home - Getaway. [ONLINE] Available at: https://getaway.house. [Accessed 18 May 2017]. Telegraph.co.uk. 2017. Airbnb: The story behind the $1.3bn room-letting website - Telegraph. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/news/9525267/Airbnb-The-story-behind-the-1.3bnroom-letting-website.html. [Accessed 18 May 2017]. Dezeen. 2017. Twin micro homes by S Plus One are finished in different woods. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.dezeen.com/2016/04/21/twin-micro-homes-cedar-house-pine-house-s-plus-one-wood-japanarchitecture/. [Accessed 18 May 2017]. Dezeen. 2017. Harvard students create holiday micro cabins for city dwellers. [ONLINE] Available at: https:// www.dezeen.com/2016/07/12/harvard-students-create-tiny-vacation-houses-for-stressed-out-city-dwellers/. [Accessed 18 May 2017]. Dezeen. 2017. Sleeping pod built to avoid San Francisco rents. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.dezeen. com/2016/03/29/peter-berkowitz-builds-sleeping-pod-in-friends-apartment-to-escape-san-francisco-rents/. [Accessed 18 May 2017]. Dezeen. 2017. Micro dwelling by All(zone) erected within abandoned towers. [ONLINE] Available at: https:// www.dezeen.com/2015/10/07/micro-dwelling-allzone-abandoned-towers-parasites-chicago-architecturebiennial-2015/. [Accessed 18 May 2017]. Dezeen. 2017. Naomi Cleaver: expect student-style accommodation for adults. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.dezeen.com/2015/09/11/student-style-accommodation-adults-next-market-london-uk-naomi-

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ARC2024: About cities, cultures & spaces

Student Number: 140045949

An investigation into the work of Bjarke Ingels (and the Bjarke Ingels Group (BIG)) and how their representational work has informed their designs and led to international architectural recognition.

Essay Question: “5. Architects of the 20th and 21st centuries not only designed buildings, they also developed new techniques of

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representation (think Rietveld’s axonometrics, Venturi Scott Brown’s mappings of Las Vegas, Zaha Hadid’s constructivist paintings or MVRDV’s datascapes and many many more). Choosing the work of just one architect/architectural practice that is particularly interesting to you, and with reference to at least 4 carefully selected examples, suggest how their representational work informed their design or spatial ideas.”

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An investigation into the work of Bjarke Ingels (and the Bjarke Ingels Group (BIG)) and how their representational work has informed their designs and led to international architectural recognition.

Danish born architect Bjarke Ingels has often been referred to as “one of the most influential architects of our time”2 and at only 42 years of age has his name on more buildings than the vast majority of his contemporaries who practice within the industry. Ingels was born in Copenhagen (in 1974) and in 1993, with an aspiration of becoming a cartoonist, started studying architecture at the Royal Academy with hopes to improve his drawing skills.2 This soon faded however as whilst studying he quickly discovered his love and passion for architecture and went on to continue his architecture studies at the Technica Superior de Arquitectura in Barcelona.2 During an interview in 2005 (titled Bjarke Ingels: Advice to the Young)3 Ingels describes his development as an architect through his student years as a sort of “professional serial monogamy”3; explaining how he would fall in love with the work of a particular architect and dive deep into that particular obsession, picking apart their work until he reached the root assumptions that they had made. Quoting the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, Ingels talks about “philosophizing with a hammer”4 and explains how his student life exploring architecture was with a very similar mentality to Nietzsche’s mentality to philosophy; finding architects’ work which he was interested in and digging deep into their assumptions and thought processes to test them and see what real value lay behind their concepts.3 This continued until Ingels discovered Rem Koolhaas, an architect with a background in journalism. Ingels was particularly interested in Koolhaas’ work due to every project dealing with a certain situation whether it be political, economical or technological there was always the concept that architecture is not meant to be designed as a sculptural piece occurring in its own

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concepts. This reveals itself through Ingel’s “strictly diagrammatic approach”1 to creating and explaining architectural forms behind each design. This approach to form was inspired by his former mentor Rem Koolhaas who commented on Ingels being named “one of Time Magazine’s 100 most influencial people of 2016”6 saying “He is completely in tune with the thinkers of Silicon Valley, who want to make the world a better place without the existential hand-wringing that previous generations felt was crucial to earn utopianist credibility.”6 Bjarke’s diagrammatical approach thrives alongside his powerful presentation skills, persuasion and self-promotion that have gained great respect from architects within the profession.2 Ingels has also worked incredibly hard through the use of these multimedia techniques to construct a large presence online through his extensive use of animations and video interviews that aim to inspire people about architecture who have no previous background in the industry.

state and environment but that it is directly linked with the dialogue of society surrounding it.2 Ingels went on to work for Rem Koolhaas at the Office of Metropolitan Architecture (OMA) until 2001 when he left to co-found PLOT Architects with Julien de Smedt before founding his current practice, Bjarke Ingels Group (BIG) in 2005. BIG grew at an astonishing rate and quickly developed a highly respected international presence with offices in both Copenhagen and New York. Through a sizable list of award-winning design projects and buildings, Ingels has already achieved a “level of critical acclaim that is rare for new names in the industry”1 as well as upholding a reputation for building designs that are both programmatically and technically as innovative as they are cost and resource conscious.

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Paddle8: Smoke Up With Bjarke Ingels - Bjarke Ingels. 2017. Paddle8: Smoke Up With Bjarke Ingels - Bjarke Ingels. [ONLINE] Available at: https://paddle8.com/work/bjarke-ingels/63727-smoke-up-with-bjarke-ingels. [Accessed 05 February 2017]. 2 ArchDaily. 2017. Spotlight: Bjarke Ingels | ArchDaily . [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.archdaily.com/553064/spotlight-bjarke-ingels. [Accessed 05 February 2017]. 3 YouTube. 2017. Bjarke Ingels Interview: Advice to the Young - YouTube. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8yMzZwAtZRw&t=134s 4 Friedrich Nietzsche, 2012. Hammer of the Gods: Apocalyptic Texts for the Criminally Insane. 2012 Edition. Sun Vision Press.

Bjarke Ingels has successfully proven that architectural representation can still be rethought, reimagined and reinvented to change the way people look at architecture today in the 21st Century. Explaining BIG’s design ethos and approach to architecture, Ingels says: “Historically the field of architecture has been dominated by two opposing extremes. On one side an avant-garde full of crazy ideas. Originating from philosophy, mysticism or a fascination of the formal potential of computer visualizations they are often so detached from reality that they fail to become something other than eccentric curiosities. On the other side there are well-organized corporate consultants that build predictable and boring boxes of high standard. Architecture seems to be entrenched in two equally unfertile fronts: either naively utopian or petrifyingly pragmatic. We believe that there is a third way wedged in the no-mans-land between the diametrical opposites. Or in the small but very fertile overlap between the two. A pragmatic utopian architecture that takes on the creation of socially, economically and environmentally perfect places as a practical objective.”2 Through this approach to architecture Ingels has reimagined the way that architecture is presented, moving from final representational images towards videos, images, animations and diagrams that explain the start to finish concepts to his buildings and the form manipulations behind the main 5

. 2017. Why is Rem Koolhaas the World's Most Controversial Architect? | Arts & Culture | Smithsonian. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/why-is-rem-koolhaas-the-worlds-most-controversialarchitect-18254921/. [Accessed 05 February 2017].

suggesting through diagrams and explanations that the final form is the necessary result for the site and the prominent limitations, boundaries and design difficulties involved with each project.

W57: VIA 57 WEST 8

With the project VIA 57 WEST we can see the iconic image and 3 letter abbreviation again instilled within the website design of BIG. The icon portrays the “hybrid between the European perimeter block and the traditional Manhattan high-rise, combining the advantages of both: the compactness and efficiency of a courtyard building with the airiness and the expansive views of a skyscraper.”8

This ideology towards representation is best presented within BIG’s 2009 publication “Yes is More: An Archicomic on Architectural Evolution”7. The book sets out to explain the process behind 30 projects completed by BIG in a style and attitude that will portray the experience you feel when you engage with an architect in a face-to-face interview or a visit in person to an architecture firm. This is achieved through the familiar form of a comic book to represent and outline the storyboard of a project from initial concept to final design, with the aim of being understandable and inspiring to those with no knowledge of architecture. The book links closely to the style of the firm’s website, a Flash-based site that displays each project as a memorable diagrammatic icon and a three-letter abbreviation. This logo approach to each project and firm is another technique employed by Bjarke Ingels and the team at BIG to create a representational style and iconic messaging that markets the company as iconic and memorable through a simple font and logo system.

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The above image is a perfect example of BIG’s iconic diagrammatical approach to explaining the concept and process behind the project VIA 57 WEST. This representational technique very simply shows the thought process that Manhattan high-rise combined with a European perimeter block leads to the final shape shown. In this way Ingels uses these representational techniques to create spaces and building designs that are morphed directly from the philosophy behind their initial components. Through these techniques Bjarke Ingels thoroughly explains his work as the inevitable,

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Dezeen. 2017. Bjarke Ingels included in Time's 100 most influential people of 2016. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.dezeen.com/2016/04/22/bjarke-ingels-named-time-100-most-influential-people-2016-rem-koolhaascitation/. [Accessed 05 February 2017]. 7 Bjarke Ingels, 2009. Yes Is More: An Archicomic on Architectural Evolution. Edition. Taschen.

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BIG | Bjarke Ingels Group. 2017. BIG | Bjarke Ingels Group. [ONLINE] Available at: https://big.dk/#projects-w57. [Accessed 05 February 2017].


The images above, taken from BIG’s website show a more complex step by step process towards the simple and methodical approach Bjarke Ingels takes towards each project design he tackles. You can see the flows of traffic and sunlight shown in simple and colourful diagrams that any person could understand without having to study architecture. The representation helps to shape an incredible cohesion between two very different forms of architecture to create a building that utilises the positives from the two separate design approaches yet simultaneously becoming an iconic design and high-rise building that is incredibly unique, only further promoting BIG’s style of representation and building design within the international stage both within architecture and beyond.

and experience the architecture without (potentially) even knowing the magnitude of thought that was invested into it.

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ARC: AMAGER RESOURCE CENTER

The AMAGER RESOURCE CENTER is a project currently under construction in Ingels’ birthplace of Copenhagen. In a 2017 YouTube video called “Worldcraft: Bjarke Ingels (Future of StoryTelling 2014)”9 Bjarke uses the representational technique of an online video to talk about architecture as the “fiction of the real world, turning dreams into concrete reality with bricks and mortar”8, the idea that all new buildings should not be boring and box like and more like the movie inception, where the architects can turn their wildest dreams into reality due to designing within a dream state.10 Ingels uses his representational work to be able to explain his dream-like designs in a manner that makes complete sense and explains the reasoning behind each decision, turning a dream-like design into reality. The project is the idea of taking a dirty power station that will be the tallest structure in Copenhagen into a positive public icon. Ingels’ answer was to investigate Copenhagen having snowfall but no mountains and thus marrying the ideal of Copenhagen’s tallest structure with the local love of skiing. This is possible due to the power plant releasing completely none toxic steam and CO2, meaning this symbiotic manifestation of ideas can successfully work in harmony. Bjarke pushes the concept further to completely alter peoples’ opinions of a dirty power plant into something exciting by designing a chimney that releases its steam as puffs of smoke rings. 9 Through his simple, understandable and explanatory representational techniques Bjarke Ingels and the team as BIG are changing the world we live in and the buildings we inhabit, “…this is the world changing potential of architecture. What started off as wildly fictional ideas, ski slopes and smoke rings is turning into everyday reality...”9. The buildings shape and multipurpose potential is realised and explored through the simple concept that a building that is usually thought of as boring, dull and damaging to the environment can become a utopian concept of the joining of the functionality of a power plant and the playful and healthy activity of skiing into an iconic design that is proving that architecture is not a boring profession but one where clever and idealistic designs can become hard reality within the world we live in, today in the 21st Century. Helping to transform the enormity of a buildings design as a negative, to providing a city with 2/3 of a ski slope on the community’s doorstep.

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GHG: GRAMMEL HELLERUP HIGH SCHOOL 8

BIG’s proposal for a 1100m2 multi-purpose hall for Ingels old high school was a design proposal that considered social, cultural and environmental influences within the site context. The firm has a design ethos of trying “to mine as much information out of a situation before we intervene”11 and this project was no different. With football being the national sport of Denmark Ingels explains how this site would have been “political suicide”11 and instead considers the possibility of designing the building to be sunk into the courtyard. This approach considered the cultural context behind the location of the building and outlined specifically why the building was placed where it was. In another stroke of genius, BIG decided to relate the actual design and shape of the structure to correspond to the main sport played within the hall itself. With this being a handball court, the architect designed the shape of the roof based upon the formula of a ballistic arch.11 This design not only successfully included the different requirements of height at the middle and limits of the court but also provided a logical and elegant solution based upon the science of the sport itself. The shape of the dome also provided an opportunity to utilise the exterior and make it into an attractive space. This could be used for social interactions and produced a location for informal furniture above the structure and within the courtyard, preventing the space from becoming a negative afterthought to the design and rather being incorporated into the positive impacts of site choice. Through Ingels representational techniques of simple diagramming, Ingels is able to show how his design process is an informed response to the environment as well as considering social factors affecting the site context. This resulted in a design that not only performs successfully for its main purpose of a sports hall but also provided a relationship and significance between the use of the interior and exterior of the building. This utilised the roof structure of the building to provide moments for the students to sit, interact

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YouTube. 2017. Worldcraft: Bjarke Ingels (Future of StoryTelling 2014) - YouTube. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pyNGDWnmX0U. [Accessed 05 February 2017]. 10 Inception, 2010. [DVD] Christopher Nolan, USA: Warner Bos.

YouTube. 2017. Bjarke Ingels Will Make You Believe in the Power of Architecture - YouTube. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n9rye_X-qhY&t=74s. [Accessed 05 February 2017].

REN: PEOPLE’S BUILDING SHANGAI

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The PEOPLE’S BUILDING SHANGAI is an interesting case study of a design that failed for the competition it was originally designed for. However, due to a few chance events and a rethinking of its design concepts it ultimately became a huge success. In his 2009 publication, Bjarke talks about how the true work of an architect is in realising “that his/her career is the result of random opportunities and chance.”7 This project proved this entirely and resulted in proving that it is through Ingels representational skills that often his buildings are a huge success, and occasionally this happens to not be the case. In the Spring of 2008, BIG was invited to participate in a competition to design the Danish Pavilion for the Shanghai World Expo. On arrival into the country Bjarke spotted the blue expo mascot, HAI BAO and he was instantly reminded of a building design the firm had imagined 5 years earlier for a conference centre in the North of Sweden.7 The idea of splitting a traditional hotel slab into two, allowing a public promenade to pass between the two sections of the building was an idea that was not successful in Sweden due to the location and site context. This design when seen by a business man from Guangxi Province looking for Scandinavian architects was brought back to life when it was explained that the building’s design resembled the Chinese character for people.7 This, alongside an invite to the Shanghai Creative Industry Week allowed the team to redesign the “failed” proposal from 5 years before and reimagine the building as a celebration of the people of China. This new design along with consulting a Feng Shui master allowed for Bjarke Ingels and the team to bring new meaning into a project previously seen as a disaster and misunderstanding of culture and context. The buildings design not only incorporated the Chinese character for people but also the elemental characters for fire, earth, metal, water and wood which heavily linked the buildings design to the symbolism of China. This change in focus of the representational work towards explaining the design through its cultural significance and symbolism worked in harmony with the Chinese characters and purpose for the building itself, showing that Ingels was able to use his representational skills to not only resurrect a failed project but also influence a design through representational work to consider several symbolisms behind the buildings design and purpose.

Paddle8: Smoke Up With Bjarke Ingels - Bjarke Ingels. 2017. Paddle8: Smoke Up With Bjarke Ingels - Bjarke Ingels. [ONLINE] Available at: https://paddle8.com/work/bjarke-

ingels/63727-smoke-up-with-bjarke-ingels. [Accessed 05 February 2017]. Bjarke Ingels is a perfect example of how architects of the 21st Century are still finding new and improved ways to inspire and create through innovative and unique representational work. What makes Bjarke Ingels and BIG so fascinating is the way in which their success and fame has occurred through a representational technique that strictly remains loyal to the ideology that new architecture should not be boring and box like but should also be inspiring and innovating to the everyday person. The notion that architects should be marrying different ideas and utopian ideologies that provide both functionality to their design whilst also remaining enjoyable and interesting to the everyday person is not a new concept, but Ingels manages to push the limits of this with incredible success. Not only has he founded a firm that has created a multitude of successful and award winning buildings, he has also inspired a generation of people beyond the realm of the industry to take an interest into the design concepts and processes within the world of architecture. Marketing a firm as an iconic and symbolic emblem towards what architecture of the future needs to be considering and striving towards is an incredible feat for an architect of only 42 years of age. Simplistic representational diagrams and innovative designs have led to a firm of incredible creative power and international success due to their relatively young, brash and somewhat excitable founder Bjarke Ingels.

ArchDaily. 2017. Spotlight: Bjarke Ingels | ArchDaily . [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.archdaily.com/553064/spotlight-bjarke-ingels. [Accessed 05 February 2017].

YouTube. 2017. Bjarke Ingels Interview: Advice to the Young - YouTube. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8yMzZwAtZRw&t=134s

Friedrich Nietzsche, 2012. Hammer of the Gods: Apocalyptic Texts for the Criminally Insane. 2012 Edition. Sun Vision Press.

. 2017. Why is Rem Koolhaas the World's Most Controversial Architect? | Arts & Culture | Smithsonian. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/why-isrem-koolhaas-the-worlds-most-controversial-architect-18254921/. [Accessed 05 February 2017].

Dezeen. 2017. Bjarke Ingels included in Time's 100 most influential people of 2016. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.dezeen.com/2016/04/22/bjarke-ingels-named-time100-most-influential-people-2016-rem-koolhaas-citation/. [Accessed 05 February 2017].

Bjarke Ingels, 2009. Yes Is More: An Archicomic on Architectural Evolution. Edition. Taschen.

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Z - Worldcraft: Bjarke Ingels (Future of Storytelling 2014). [ONLINE] Available

at: http://adfilmfest.com/site/index.php?mid=ny2015_films&listStyle=viewer&document_srl=3705. [Accessed 06 February 2017].

BIG | Bjarke Ingels Group. 2017. BIG | Bjarke Ingels Group. [ONLINE] Available at: https://big.dk/#projects-w57. [Accessed 05 February 2017].

(A) NY 2015 Films A-Z - Worldcraft: Bjarke Ingels (Future of Storytelling 2014). 2017. NY 2015 Films A•

YouTube. 2017. Worldcraft: Bjarke Ingels (Future of StoryTelling 2014) - YouTube. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pyNGDWnmX0U. [Accessed 05 February 2017].

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Inception, 2010. [DVD] Christopher Nolan, USA: Warner Bos.

YouTube. 2017. Social Infrastructure | Bjarke Ingels | TEDxEast - YouTube. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8PItGf69eaw&t=545s. [Accessed 06

YouTube. 2017. Bjarke Ingels Will Make You Believe in the Power of Architecture - YouTube. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n9rye_X-qhY&t=74s. [Accessed 05 February 2017].

The Architecture of Message: The innovative use of multimedia in the representation of Bjarke Ingels Group (BIG) | etruxes architecture. 2017. The Architecture of Message: The innovative use of multimedia in the representation of Bjarke Ingels Group (BIG) | etruxes architecture. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.etruxes.com/architecture/the-architectureof-message-the-innovative-use-of-multimedia-in-the-representation-of-bjarke-ingelsgroup-big/. [Accessed 06 February 2017].

YouTube. 2017. Bjarke Ingels on Architecture, Grove at Grand Bay - YouTube. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=erUWdbez1aQ&t=310s. [Accessed 06 February 2017].

YouTube. 2017. Bjarke Ingels "Good design is careful, bad design is careless" - YouTube. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B_W48ZsIqSo. [Accessed 06 February 2017].

ArchDaily. 2017. AD Interviews: Bjarke Ingels / BIG | ArchDaily . [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.archdaily.com/477737/ad-interviews-bjarke-ingels-big/. [Accessed 06 February 2017].

Vimeo. 2017. AD Interviews: Bjarke Ingels / BIG on Vimeo. [ONLINE] Available at: https://vimeo.com/83584858. [Accessed 06 February 2017].

ArchDaily. 2017. Yes Is More: The BIG Philosophy | ArchDaily . [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.archdaily.com/366660/yes-is-more-the-big-philosophy/. [Accessed 06 February 2017].

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Stage II Architecture Portfolio 2017  

Stage II portfolio from Newcastle University.

Stage II Architecture Portfolio 2017  

Stage II portfolio from Newcastle University.

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