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GRADUATION PROJECTS 2016–2017 ARCHITECTURE URBANISM LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE AMSTERDAM ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE


Graduation Projects 2016–2017 Architecture Urbanism Landscape Architecture Amsterdam Academy of Architecture

2–3


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COURAGE AND COMMITMENT Kirsten Hannema, architecture critic

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ARCHITECTURE

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INTRODUCTION Jan-Richard Kikkert, Head of Architecture Department

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MATTER OF FOOD — A NEW MEETING PLACE FOR THE SPAARNDAMMERBUURT Tu rul Avuçlu

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THE HEARD AND SPOKEN WORD — INSTITUTE FOR HUMAN RIGHTS Lorien Beijaert, Arna Ma ki

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ABOUT WALLS AND OTHER FREEDOMS — SEARCH FOR THE MEANING OF THE PANOPTICON IN HAARLEM Annette Bos

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THE SEVEN FOLLIES OF LAMPEDUSA — DECONSTRUCTING THE BORDERLINE THROUGH ARCHITECTURE Chiara Dorbolò

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WHAT A WASTE — A RECYCLING PARTY Hesh Fekry

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TAKE FIVE — INTRODUCING THE URBAN PAUSE TO THE LOCAL TRAIN STATION Nanna Janby

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MEMORY LANE — LIVING, EXPLORING, FORGETTING AND PARTICIPATING IN THE CITY Freek Leber


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THE TRANSFORMATION OF SCHALKWIJK — A SECOND LIFE FOR THE POST-WAR RESIDENTIAL DISTRICT Max Meijer

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THE ARK — THE RESIDENTIAL-BUSINESS BUILDING Daria Naugolnova

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STARDUST — A MUSEUM FOR ASTRONOMY Maik Peters

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HOME OF LEGENDS — ESPORTS HUB FOR FNATIC Dafne Wiegers

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WORK THE CITY — SMALL INITIATIVES FORM THE NEW URBAN ECONOMY Thom Zijlstra

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URBANISM

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INTRODUCTION Markus Appenzeller, Head of Urbanism Department

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ILLUSTRATED DENSIFICATION ATLAS OF HAARLEM — AN URBAN EXPLORATION Ricsi van Beek

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THE NOORDRAND OF BRUSSELS AND ITS HIDDEN POTENTIAL Rob Brink

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WAARDERPOLDER — FROM INDUSTRIAL ESTATE TO WORKING CITY Hein Coumou

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AFFORDABLE PARADISE — PROVIDING A COUNTERBALANCE TO A POLARIZING AMSTERDAM Jerryt Krombeen 2–3


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WELL-BEING ON THE DOLLARD — WOHLBEFINDEN AM DOLLART Katarina Nöteberg

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LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

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INTRODUCTION Maike van Stiphout, Head of Landscape Architecture Department

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KAAP — KOLLEKTIEF AUTONOOM ANDERS PROBEREN (AUTONOMOUS COLLECTIVE TRY DIFFERENT) Kim Jespersgaard Baake

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SCHOUWBURG GARDEN ROTTERDAM — ENCLOSED GARDEN GEM FOR ROTTERDAM Frank den Boer

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THE DUTCH LEVEL — FUTURE FOR A FINITE LANDSCAPE Jelmar Brouwer

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SHORE LAB IJSSELMEER — INNOVATION LANDSCAPE FOR WATER SAFETY Stein van Brunschot

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THE LIFELINE — A GROWING STRUCTURE WITH AN INSPIRING INTERACTION BETWEEN PLANT, ANIMAL AND HUMAN Floris Grondman

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NIEDERRHEIN NATIONAL RIVER PARK — WATER RETENTION IN THE LOWER RHINE PLAIN Robbert Jongerius

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ATLANTIC WALL — FROM A NEW PERSPECTIVE Kim Kool


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AMSTELLAND CLIMATESCAPE — THE RESTORATION OF THE AMSTELLAND BY THE CLIMATE-CONSCIOUS SOCIETY Tim Kort

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FLOWING FORCE — A VISION FOR THE RIVER DELTA AS ONE CONTIGUOUS NATURE CONSERVATION AREA Mirte van Laarhoven

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BLUE GOLD — THE HIDDEN LANDSCAPE OF OUR DUTCH TAP WATER Evelien De Mey

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THE DYKE MOVEMENT — THREE UNIQUE SIDES THAT MOVE MARKEN TOWARDS THE FUTURE Esther van der Tuin

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TIDAL DOCKS — SPACE FOR ESTUARY IN ANTWERP Frank Vonk

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DUTZENDTEICH — DIFFICULT HERITAGE AS NEW PUBLIC PARK SPACES Brigitta van Weeren

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Masters of Science

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Colophon

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COURAGE AND COMMITMENT Kirsten Hannema architecture critic

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It takes courage and great commitment to study at the Amsterdam Academy of Architecture, combining work and study, and sometimes literally working day and night. Especially given the fact that four years ago, when you started, we were in the middle of one of the deepest economic crises in a long time. You probably did not experience this crisis as such; for the new generation the crisis is nothing new, but a status quo. But it did mean that it was difficult to find a job at an office, and that the atmosphere in many offices was very depressed. The belief in architecture seemed to have gone. The real estate market had crashed, the number of architects halved and iconic buildings had become a taboo. In fact, nobody seemed to want architecture at all any more. The question architects asked themselves: how can architecture legitimise itself again? It was Ole Bouman, then director of the Netherlands Architecture Institute, who launched the manifesto Architecture of Consequence in 2010. The purpose was to breathe new life into the profession, by using it for solving big societal problems: climate, food, health, energy and social cohesion. Universal themes that concern and, therefore, motivate the whole international community. So, the programme was also a call to design a better world. The programme resulted in many interesting projects, but there was also doubt. To what Kirsten Hannema

Courage and Commitment


extent can architecture solve problems? Is it not a bit naive — not to say arrogant — to think that the design of a beautiful pavilion for refugees will solve the European migrant crisis? And — another point of concern — would this focus on its societal role not be at the expense of the architecture itself? In the book Building upon Building (2016), Lara Schrijver calls architecture a luxury. ‘A necessary luxury’, she argues, ‘in the sense that it holds the potential to show us a better side of the world as we encounter it. But a luxury nevertheless.’ In fact, the American sociologist Robert Gutman, when comparing the profession of architecture to those of law and medicine, concludes: ‘There generally is nothing in the field of architecture or building which can match the critical needs for legal and medical services. The architect must go out into the community and seek work; he cannot expect to rely on people coming to him, as lawyers and physicians generally can. The challenge to the architect is to find a way of creating a desire on the part of the public to use his services in preference to another type of building designer.’ It is in this context that we should perhaps see contributions in journals and magazines, or even this graduation show — as ‘generating a desire for something not yet known.’ Architecture is not just about making beautiful buildings, nor saving the world. It is about INTRODUCTION

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finding a balance between social concern and architectural articulation. Forty years ago, Arthur Drexler, curator and director of the Department of Architecture and Design at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, wrote in his introduction to the book Five Architects that ‘architecture is the least likely instrument with which to accomplish the revolution [‌]. An alternative to political romance is to be an architect, for those who actually have the necessary talent for architecture. The young men and women represented here have that talent (along with a social conscience and considerable awareness of what is going on in the world around them) and their work makes a modest claim: it is only architecture, not the salvation of man and the redemption of the earth. For those who like architecture that is no mean thing. These graduation projects are not just the outcome of personal fantasies. They all relate in one way or another to current issues, such as the lack of affordable housing in the city, the transformation of vacant buildings such as prisons and churches, or the creation of space for small-scale businesses that can help to strengthen the local economy, now that production is being moved to low-wage countries and the internet is taking over our shopping. They offer practical solutions to the problems our cities are facing. Kirsten Hannema

Courage and Commitment


At the same time, these projects express an urge to create an architecture that is not just functional, but also offers a sensory experience. The designers draw our attention to things we tend to forget or push back in our economically oriented society, and in an architectural scene oriented towards the visual senses. This architecture also incorporates intuition, empathy, atmosphere and melancholy — themes I welcome very much. The graduation show is a moment to celebrate and present your work to teachers and fellow students. But it also offers the opportunity to bring the outside world into the Academy and vice versa. Young architects have always had a hard time finding work, and even though the economic crisis is receding, they still do. Therefore, moments like these are even more important, to show the work of a new generation, to exchange ideas with each other, and to think of your position as an architect, urban designer or landscape architect within society. Because like Gutman said: ‘The architect must go out into the community and seek work.’

INTRODUCTION

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ARCHITECTURE

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What struck me in the new crop of graduation projects is the great interest in social themes, and that makes me hopeful. The first subject that emerges is reuse and transformation. Annette Bos, for example, has made a plan for the repurposing of the Haarlem panopticon into a music venue. Max Meijer breathes new life into the post-war residential district with a number of strategic, almost antimodernist interventions. Tom Zijlstra introduces a new typology for residential-business buildings in the city, as driver for urban development. In addition, I see that technology and science are being celebrated. Dafne Wiegers has sought out new developments with her exploration of the interface between virtual reality and reality in a building. Maik Peters has created a museum with the atmosphere of a planetarium, in which he establishes a relationship between astronomy and the creation of life. Finally, there is a group of students — almost all of them originating from outside the Netherlands — who are concerned about the growing rift in society. They want to bring together people of a different income level, ethnic background and age. Lorien Beijaert and Arna Ma ki do that via an institute: a debating centre. Tu rul Avuçlu provides a space for encounters with his design for a market building, where you Jan-Richard Kikkert

Introduction


casually meet each other. Nanna Janby focuses on the modernisation of the train station, in which she combines infrastructure with recreational functions. Finally, Chiara Dorbolò wants to change the perception of borders and migration through architecture. She analysed the phenomenon on the basis of a cross-section of the ‘refugee island’ Lampedusa and subsequently raises relevant themes, such as a space for discussion and remembrance, in seven follies; an extraordinarily beautiful project. Jan-Richard Kikkert Head of Architecture Department

ARCHITECTURE

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MATTER OF FOOD — A NEW MEETING PLACE FOR THE SPAARNDAMMERBUURT Tu rul Avuçlu Making it easier for people to meet is an important element within architecture. As part of the public space, markets have an important function as social centre in urban life. In this graduation project, a food market has been designed that serves as a meeting place for the Spaarndammerbuurt in Amsterdam and can thus contribute to the social cohesion.

Graduation date 12 01 2017 Commission members Machiel Spaan (mentor) Ira Koers Chris Scheen Additional members for the examination Bart Bulter Rik van Dolderen

Food constitutes a connecting element between the residents of the neighbourhood in this project. It provides the local residents with a place to come together, spend time, buy food products, cook and eat. The combination of, among other things, an outdoor marker, restaurant, and school gardens is aimed at appealing to a broad target group of different income levels, ethnic backgrounds and ages. The building ties in with the existing block of buildings with space for the outdoor market at the front. The routing is an important element in the plan and connects the indoor and outdoor market with each other along the old existing church wall. The design of the building gives the market hall a contemporary interpretation, by consciously abandoning the common market hall typology.

Tu rul Avuçlu

Matter of Food


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ARCHITECTURE

School gardens on the roof Facade

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Roof floor First floor Ground floor Different elements of the program: -market stalls -habitable spaces -cafe/restaurant -roof garden 7 Spaciousness 8 Front elevation Spaarndammerstraat 8 Longitudinal section 10 Model

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Matter of Food


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11 View from habitable space 12 Outdoor market

Tu rul Avuรงlu

Matter of Food


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ARCHITECTURE

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THE HEARD AND SPOKEN WORD — INSTITUTE FOR HUMAN RIGHTS Lorien Beijaert, Arna Ma ki Cities are traditionally known as places where there is a wealth of knowledge and wide range of people. These elements give the urban dweller the opportunity to place him or herself within a broader context and to gain different perspectives on the world around him or her. Democratic and inclusive public places are necessary in order to come into contact with ‘the other’. However, the presence of this in Western European cities — where segregation is becoming a growing phenomenon — has become a challenge. This is also the case in the Netherlands, where public places are often designed on the basis of legislation driven by money and fear, instead of bringing people together. Inclusive public places are places in which groups of people are not excluded, which different groups can identify with and which can be appropriated by different groups of people. In a democratic and inclusive public place, one can relate to the other. Relating to means identifying yourself with the other. This is a continuous and open process that is never finished and never fixes things There is a need for places where this continuous identification is possible: a permanent self-study through the study of the other. Space and language are essential aspects in this. There is a need for Lorien Beijaert, Arna Ma ki

public spaces where one can meet and study the other by entering into discussion, seeking confrontation and being given the opportunity to look at the same theme from different perspectives. In this way, we can head towards a sustainable social society. Het Plein (The Square) in The Hague is the ideal place and case study for the development of a democratic and inclusive place where one can confront the other and identify with the location. First of all, because The Hague as political city and Het Plein as public place are the heart of the democracy. The square Het Plein, built in 1632, has always been an important place, historically speaking, for this subject. Due to the proximity of the Binnenhof (Inner Courtyard) and the meeting places of the government and parliament situated there, Het Plein is often used as a location for political protest demonstrations and rallies. Moreover, this is an urgent assignment in The Hague, because income segregation was already an important issue during the development of the city: those who were well-off settled on the sandy soil and poorer newcomers around the industries on the cheap peat. The border between the sand the peat is precisely located in the soil under Het Plein. The Heard and Spoken Word


We propose an inclusive and democratic place on Het Plein by first providing a place for the Netherlands Institute for Human Rights on Het Plein. This building must offer people a platform for legal actions relating to human rights issues. In addition, one can publicly investigate both current and historical events in the archive, commemorate them on Het Plein and bring them to light in the forum. Subjects can be investigated, for example, for which there is hardly any attention, money and scope at present. Secondly, we will add the platform for the Spoken and Heard Word to the Institute and Het Plein as a new element. This is a platform for secondary school students within which an investigative attitude towards the future is offered through looking at human rights themes from different perspectives by means of debates. The students, who will receive lessons on debating for an entire week, will sleep in the building designed on Het Plein. The legal proceedings and debates will take place in the forum. In addition, young people and senior citizens will also be given the opportunity to tell their own story in the platform. This will be recorded, archived and take place in and around the building.

Graduation date 13 07 2017 Commission members Uri Gilad (mentor) Holger Gladys (mentor) Wouter Kroeze (mentor) Ira Koers Marlies Boterman Additional members for the examination Jarrik Ouburg Jan van Grunsven

All elements will react to the current qualities and phenomena present on and around Het Plein. The ultimate aim to to make the Netherlands Institute for Human Rights redundant and to replace this with the platform for the Spoken and Heard Word.

ARCHITECTURE

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Lorien Beijaert, Arna Ma ki

The Heard and Spoken Word


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ARCHITECTURE

The forum: where young people debate, the human rights cases take place and senior citizens leave their oral history / phenomenon: sand and peat

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The Heard and Spoken Word


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Public listening spots Secret corridor to the House of Representatives The amphitheatre: where the discussions, the debates, legal proceedings and stories from the forum can be heard / phenomenon: sand and peat, statue William of Orange Petition platform

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Floor -1 Longitudinal section Cross section Ground floor

Lorien Beijaert, Arna Ma ki

The Heard and Spoken Word


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Peat and sand

Underground car park and atomic shelter

Statue Willem van Oranje

Underground tunnel to the parliament

Underground tunnel to the Casuariestraat

Hand in petition

Terraces for informal politics

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Lorien Beijaert, Arna Ma ki

The Heard and Spoken Word


Public viewing point Sound clips Dorms

Petition platform

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Entrance Reception area

Meeting rooms Sound clips

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Petition space OďŹƒces Forum for sessions / debates Canteen Shadow garden

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10 Existing situation 11 Existing phenomena and qualities translated into the design 12 Existing situation 13 Removed and added elements in the design 14 Added program elements

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ABOUT WALLS AND OTHER FREEDOMS — SEARCH FOR MEANING OF THE PANOPTICON IN HAARLEM Annette Bos The Haarlem panopticon has been an introvert and closed bulwark for more than 100 years. It consists of an ensemble of buildings designed on the basis of an ideology that has slowly developed with the rise of capitalism since the 17th century. Because the inmate in his cell was continuously under the observation of the guard, he would supposedly behave better and return to society as a ‘reformed’ human. Unobtrusive techniques that made one malleable, controllable and knowable were shaped in this building. The panopticon is in fact the pinnacle of this form of power. This unique piece of heritage, of which only three still exist, is in the process of being repurposed. This was the departure point of a search for a new designated use and interventions. The central question was how this unique ensemble of buildings of historical value can continue to exist and receive a new meaning, whereby its essence would remain visible. And how the new interpretation will enter into a dialogue with the past. The design examines the possibilities of minimal interventions that make the site suitable for use today. By means of inversions, the essence of the building and site is revealed and at the same time a new layer is generated with which Annette Bos

the identity remains visible and tangible. The site, which has gradually become silted up and cramped since 1901, will be given breathing space once again through the demolition of a number of buildings. The demolition material will be reused in order to build a sloping park. In this way, Haarlem East will receive the new green public space it so desperately needs and it will become part of the city. Moreover, the park is ideal for concerts with its intimate amphitheatre. Narrow passageways in the old wall around the site will connect the park to the city. These minimal ‘incisions’ in the wall emphasise the original character of the site. Within the walls, the former strict hierarchy will change, however, so one can roam and discover unconstrained. The former prison site will be transformed into an inviting place for musicians, music lovers and all citizens of Haarlem, with a programme that caters to the ambitions of Haarlem and which reinforce its identity as a city for pop music. There will be, among other things, venues practice rooms, recording studios, workshops for instrument builders, music startups, a vinyl shop, and also space for catering establishments. The About Walls and Other Freedoms


plan will enrich the strong pop music climate of the Spaarnestad by providing a sanctuary for musicians. There will be space for discovery, development, exchange and performance. Collectivity and synergy will be the key focus. Imprisonment will make way for freedom.

Graduation date 16 02 2017 Commission members Marcel van der Lubbe (mentor) Hanneke Kijne Violette Baudet Additional members for the examination Bart Bulter Ira Koers

A unique air item with an acoustic object with an acoustic shell will be placed in the dome. As a result of this, two concert halls will be created, each with their own atmosphere. The air item will be inflatable. In that way, the enormous space can be flexibly laid out for countless types of concerts and performances. This makes temporary use possible so that the soul of the dome is preserved. Through minimal interventions and a balanced use, the plan will be realisable. The research into programme and use is based on discussions with and information from Haarlem citizens and various musical institutions. The uniqueness of this domed complex is worth preserving. Past and present will be connected through minimal interventions in a sustainable way. With a programme that ties in with the city and at the same time contributes to the preservation and reinforcement of collective consciousness.

ARCHITECTURE

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Annette Bos

About Walls and Other Freedoms


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Impressions transformation panopticon Zoning map

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About Walls and Other Freedoms


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Remove, open and add Interventions: -from impervious to permeable area -from slipped to breathable -from hierarchy to casual wanderings -from monologue to dialogue Scale model From monologue to dialogue From hierarchy to roaming unrestrained

ARCHITECTURE

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THE SEVEN FOLLIES OF LAMPEDUSA — DECONSTRUCTING THE BORDERLINE THROUGH ARCHITECTURE Chiara Dorbolò Migration is a natural phenomenon and it has always been part of human history. This is especially evident in a place like Lampedusa, a small island in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea. Since it was first settled, migration has defined the island’s identity, shaped its customs and peculiarities, and ultimately enabled life to continue on it. However, in a society where borders have an increasingly greater impact on international relations and political debate, we forgot the natural role of movement in the history of our species. For centuries, Lampedusa was a stepping stone in the Mediterranean Sea, offering safe harbour to passing ships in case of storms. Locals tell the story of a hermit living in a votive cave who would officiate rites of worship for both the Christian and the Muslim sailors. Today, Lampedusa is a militarised piece of land along the border between Italy and Libya. The arbitrary line that cuts the Mediterranean Sea in two, separating Africa from Europe, burdens the island with a controversial role in the eyes of the European public: that of a detention center. This has led to the ‘spectacularisation’ of Lampedusa as an instrument of political debate Chiara Dorbolò

during the refugee crisis, a stage from which to convey either the threat of invasion or the urgency of humanitarian aid. This project aims to use architecture as a tool to change the narrative around the island in relation to the topics of borders and immigration. It traces an imaginary line between Tripoli, the main point of departure for immigrants eventually reaching Lampedusa, and Amsterdam, our place in the world right now. This line passes right through the island. Just as the borders between countries are based on imaginary lines that become real through social construction, the line on Lampedusa is made real by the construction of seven architectural interventions, so-called ‘follies’. Using a language based on the vernacular architecture of the Mediterranean peoples, the follies aim to be reminiscent of home, wherever that might be. Each folly addresses a specific issue connected to immigration and borders, and each of them creates an emotional experience that relates to the dangerous journey across the sea. In doing so, it reminds everyone that every human being is on a journey. The seven follies carry the visitors and the inhabitants of Lampedusa into landscapes off the The Seven Follies of Lampedusa


beaten path. They also provide new public spaces, free from institutional power and superimposed programmes. In 1843, the Bourbon kings of Sicily built seven palaces on Lampedusa, overlooking the bay that serves as a natural harbour. These seven palaces became the centre of urban development on the island. May the seven follies usher in a new period of social and human development, where the role of Lampedusa as a stepping stone in the Mediterranean is not abused, but cherished once again. Graduation date 08 09 2017 Commission members Holger Gladys (mentor) Laura Alvarez Bruno Doedens Additional members for the examination Bart Bulter Ira Koers

ARCHITECTURE

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Chiara Dorbolò

Non-human migration Porta d’Europa: the monuments to the migrants Experience of the spatial and political consequences of immigration

The Seven Follies of Lampedusa


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A JOURNEY TO LAMPEDUSA In October 2015, I spent three weeks on the island of Lampedusa to gain first-hand experience of the spatial and political consequences of immigration. A large number of migrants reached the island’s shores over the past few years: the information collected during my visit challenged my opinion of this phenomenon. Lampedusa was recently the focus of several scandals regarding the inflow of African migrants, their poor living conditions and their detention without legal basis. The opinions I collected from locals during the time I spent on the island seem to reflect completely different realities. On my first day, I was approached by a middle-aged local who offered to help me figure out where we were on my map. Taking for granted that I was there on holiday, he told me that he was very happy to see tourists in October since “media coverage about the island paints the wrong picture; they let people believe that there are lots of migrants on the streets, but it is not like that! Yes, maybe some boats will arrive around Christmas, but we did not see migrants for the whole summer.” I knew this was not true: the reports from the Italian Coast Guard are available online. The reports said that a new group of migrants arrived to Lampedusa only a few days earlier. Was he lying? Maybe not. He probably did not see any migrants the whole summer. Francesca, an activist from the social and political organisation Askavusa, told me that, by the end of the 90’s, Lampedusans were actually meeting the migrants who arrived from Africa, as they were landing wherever they could and wandered around looking for help. Now the migrants are mostly invisible: they are usually brought to the island by the Coast Guard during nighttime, disembarked on the military pier, and almost immediately transferred to the First Aid Reception Center. Nevertheless, the phenomenon of migration continues to mark the identity of the island. COMMONS Because the ultimate goal of the project is to change people’s perception of immigration by showing the naturalness of migration and movement, the architectural strategy of the follies is based on commons.

Common is the earth we walk on, hence the follies are made of rammed earth, a technique that compresses ground soil, the most widely used material on the planet. Common is the language of informal architecture. The follies all refer to vernacular typologies that can be found across the Mediterranean. Morteammare is a tholos, or a beehive dome. La Torre is a watchtower. Terra Promessa is a hortus conclusus where the inner walls take the shape of an amphitheatre. Dentro is a hypogeus inverted pyramid. Fuori is a step pyramid. Isole are two quffah, or small round boats. La Porta is a spontaneous settlement based on the typology of the courtyard. Commons are the follies which take a critical stand against the present situation. They allow the visitors to look at the island from a different perspective, encouraging them to question the narrative broadcast by the media and form their own opinion. Morteammare questions the silence surrounding the death in the Mediterranean Sea. La Torre criticises the militarisation of the island, which does not benefit the locals or the migrants. Terra Promessa presents the tragic paradox of escaping one hell only to find another. Dentro and Fuori consider the role of Lampedusa in relation to the border, ambiguously and conveniently shifting between the inside and the outside. Isole reminds us that no man in an island, especially not the one living on an island. La Porta criticises the Door of Europe, a symbolic open door in memory of those who die at sea, crashing onto a door that is still closed. Common are the emotions encountered during the human journey. The follies allow the visitors to (re)live a range of feelings, meditate over their life experiences and exorcise their demons. From fear to courage, from safety to uncertainty, from delusion to trust, from calm to anxiety, from alienation to involvement, the simple shapes of the follies are designed to trigger a very personal emotional response. Finally, commons are the public spaces not subject to institutional power. The follies do not belong to anyone: they are not there to support institutional work and they are devoid of any fixed programme. They are synchronic public spaces, where everything can happen because nothing is supposed to happen.

The commons are the resources that human beings share on this planet; compatibly, the follies walk the visitors through the wild and beautiful landscape of Lampedusa, encouraging a different kind of tourism: responsible, curious, and off the beaten track. In the silence of the island, the wind, the sea, and the rock cease to be a backdrop and become cornerstones of our relation with the world, fostering awareness for nature as a common good.

Chiara Dorbolò

The Seven Follies of Lampedusa


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The architectural strategy of the follies is based on commons Aerial view of the seven follies on the line The seven follies

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The Seven Follies of Lampedusa


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Terra promessa: section La porta: plans and sections of the elements 9 La torre: section 10 Fuori: model 11 Morteammare: plan 12 Morteammare: model 8

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44 – 45


WHAT A WASTE — A RECYCLING PARTY Hesh Fekry Sustainability is always a big question. From how it is defined to how it is carried out. In architecture, sustainability is defined within a set of parameters and checklists. Designing by numbers at its worst. Nobody questions how truly sustainable it is and nobody questions the role we play in ignoring it. This graduation is a research into the architects role in the field of sustainability. Zooming into the process of recycling materials and the factories we build to facilitate them, the research indicated a huge inefficiency and a complete lack of transparency at many levels. As architects, we tend to try and over-predict and over-plan the correct way of doing things. Definitive statements, concrete buildings and bold gestures. This leaves little room for innovation and sadly even less for sustainability. We have to be flexible enough to leave space in our designs for them to be completely changed according to demand, to admit your temporary effect on the world and to help facilitate the needs of those around you. Flexibility is a key ingredient to sustainability as defined by this research. A toolbox of simple design interventions and a blank canvas, open to change and interpretation by the future occupants of the land. Hesh Fekry

The research indicated to me that we could use this site to tackle the recycling of aluminium and household products. The stack of NS trains waiting to be decommissioned raised a simple question in my mind. What happens to old vehicles? We live in a culture where we believe our rubbish has no value. Innovators and technological development have opened the door for us to attach value to our waste. Breaking down the inefficient globalisation of the recycling industry, reducing thousands of wasted kilometres in transport and tonnes of burnt carbon fuels, and bringing recycling to our doorstep. We need to open up this hidden industry and teach our population about how to tackle these issues beyond putting plastic in a plastic bin. We need to be educated, and we need to change how we operate. Graduation date 22 12 2017 Commission members Laurens Jan ten Kate Lada HrĹĄak Hans Hammink Additional members for the examination Jeroen van Mechelen Elsbeth Falk What a Waste


1

1

ARCHITECTURE

Impression of the attic of the pavillion

46 – 47


Rent a desk

MANUAL WORKSHOP AND DESK SPACE Every innovator and maker needs a place to send emails, think about their innovations and make prototypes.

Manual workshop

Digital workshop EXHIBITION SHOP AND DIGITAL WORKSHOP Products from recycled materials are exhibited, sold and exchanged. Workshop for digital production showcases innovation in production techniques with recycled materials, robotic arms, drones, CNC machines and 3D printers everywhere.

Exhibition space and shop

PAPER RECYCLING Household plastic and surrounding oďŹƒces and small business waste can be used by recycling innovators for large scale productions. PLASTIC RECYCLING Household plastic and surrounding oďŹƒces ans small business waste can be hired by recycling innovators for large scale productions.

ALUMINIUM RECYCLING The first building can be used to recycle the aluminium from the trains, produce the frames for the other units and to recycle household waste.

2

Hesh Fekry

What a Waste


3

4

2 3 4

ARCHITECTURE

48 – 49

Axonometric Section of the pavillion Site section


5

5

Interior of the pavillion

Hesh Fekry

What a Waste


ARCHITECTURE

50 – 51


TAKE FIVE — INTRODUCING THE URBAN PAUSE TO THE LOCAL TRAIN STATION Nanna Janby “The simple social intercourse created when people rub shoulders in public is one of the most essential kinds of social ‘glue’ in society” — Christopher Alexander, A Pattern Language This project proposes a new type of train station. A type of train station, which serves both logistics and recreation. The recreation, which takes place at this train station is of a public, metropolitan, non-commercial, and short-term nature. The given name of this recreation is Urban Pause. The Urban Pause brings with it hope for better public social interaction and has been chosen as the theme for this project. The Urban Pause is introduced at Muiderpoort Station in Amsterdam, a location which has been classified the second least pleasant train station in The Netherlands. If the Urban Pause can make it here, it can be employed at other stations too. On a more tender note, Muiderpoort Station has been chosen because of its existing architecture, namely the station hall of 1939 by the Dutch architect H.G. Schelling. Through high windows and a slender filter of tall rectangular columns, this forgotten hall transmits East-West daylight in a strikingly ceremonious manner. The tallness of the hall Nanna Janby

leads the eye upwards and elevates thought and imagination. The hall as a whole is divided into two levels: a pedestrian ground floor originally packed with programme, and an inaccessible upper level with complete absence of programme. These two levels have inspired the transformation in an essential way, in that they are transformed into spaces for logistics and recreation, respectively. The programme of the new station is aimed at free public movement and meetings, and it can be called a combination between a train station and a community centre. The building area as a whole is island-shaped and accessible from all around the edge. Inspired by Schelling’s station hall, the logistic and densely programmed space of the ground floor is regenerated and materialised in dark colours, mainly a matte grey in-situ cast concrete floor and columns tiled with polished black granite. This to give the impression of a floor-toceiling plinth and to add a touch of basement sphere to the space, a sphere which echoes through the surrounding structural elements of the island. The dark colours and the glossy tiles of the lower space contrast the light colours and unfinished Take Five


surfaces of the upper space, which transmits the East-West daylight through new and taller windows and is programmed, abstractly, with recreation. These two spaces are divided by a large walkable concrete deck, which is clad in oak wood, and which stretches to the outdoors. This creates a sharp division between the two spaces: up and down — as well as a curiosity between them, emphasised by large openings in the deck, allowing visual interaction between them. The physical connections between the two spaces are strategically positioned along the main pedestrian zone of the new station. And with this, the new station provokes awareness of the other option, spurs encounters between people who might not otherwise meet, while presenting its users with the question: Is the real ground level down at the logistic street level or is it up at the recreational level? Graduation date 30 05 2017 Commission members Marcel van der Lubbe (mentor) Jana Crepon Miguel Loos Additional members for the examination Gianni Cito Rik van Dolderen

ARCHITECTURE

52 – 53


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Nanna Janby

Take Five


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1 2

ARCHITECTURE

The new East wing of the station hall The new station hall

54 – 55


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The library garden, seen from platform 8 The front square

Nanna Janby

Take Five


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ARCHITECTURE

56 – 57


20,0m

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12,3m

4,6m

4,1m

80,0m

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6 1939

1980

2015

NEW DESIGN

The station works as an urban transport machine and is strictly supervised by the station manager and the ticket inspector. The station hall is divided into two levels: A pedestrian ground floor originally packed with programme, and an inaccessible upper level with complete absence of programme.

The square in front no longer serves public transportation and the supervision of the station interior is left to shopkeepers and fragmentary inspections. The platforms are accessed through underground tunnels. A young woman was murdered here by a drug addict in panic.

All station interior spaces have been made inaccessible to the public and the station hall is now used as bicycle storage for a private shop. The square in front has been given a WWII monument and a hedge that blocks direct communication between the square and the station. The entire area is monitored by surveillance cameras.

The station is island-shaped and accessible from all sides. The inner spaces are programmed with takeaway shops and community activities, amongst others a library with a rooftop garden, which is visible from downstairs. The supervision of the station is encouraged through day-to-day shopkeeping and it is kept in check by regular inspection visits and some cameras.

5 6 7 8

Architect Schelling’s Muiderpoort Station of 1939 Muiderpoort Station through time The ground floor plan of the new design Sections

Nanna Janby

Take Five


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ARCHITECTURE

58 – 59


MEMORY LANE — LIVING, EXPLORING, FORGETTING AND PARTICIPATING IN THE CITY Freek Leber My grandmothers and grandfathers were in various care homes in Amsterdam. They ultimately had or developed a form of dementia. The buildings in which they spent their final years, and are still in, often felt like isolated islands in the city in which an above-average number of people are living who are no longer in such a good mental and physical state. In addition to the care staff and some visitors occasionally, there were always few other people there. This may sound self-centered, but as a result of this I found it difficult too visit. This is made even more difficult if there is not so much to communicate about with your grandmother or grandfather due to their mental decline and if there not something else to do or look at together in the buildings which is enjoyable for both of you. When I started my graduation project I thought, wouldn’t it be great if a place such as where my grandfathers and grandmothers live could be a little more approachable, so that there is more to see and to do for both the resident, and the visitor, something which becomes even more important as the resident deteriorates mentally and physically. If there are also other people living in the building and there are functions that can be used, a Freek Leber

building becomes better integrated into the city and the neighbourhood. The building therefore had to be open and approachable for the neighbourhood, the people who live there and visitors. At the same time, the building must also be able to provide protection for the residents who are developing dementia and seeking shelter from too many stimuli from the city. Not too open, but also not too closed. Actually, like a kind of filter. A filter is not totally open, but also not totally closed. It keeps certain things out and lets other things through. Memory Lane also works in that way. In the building, residents who are suffering from dementia to a greater or lesser extent or are forgetful can explore the building in a natural way without immediately ending up outside on the the street. Depending on their physical and mental condition, they can decide themselves whether they want to be exposed to the city or if want to retreat instead. Conversely, the residents and people from the neighbourhood can also choose whether they actually want to participate, help or even briefly have nothing to do with their forgetful neighbourhood residents.

Memory Lane


Memory Lane is an attempt to connect people suffering from dementia with the city in a natural way by means of architecture. Due to the approachable character of the building and its integration with the city, it invites participation in a non-committal way, as a result of which instead of being a closed institution, it actually forms a welcome addition to the neighbourhood and, in this way, makes a growing group of ‘invisible’ city residents visible once again. Graduation date 30 08 2017 Commission members Bart Bulter Onne Walsmit Albert Herder Additional members for the examination Florian Schrage Jeroen Atteveld

ARCHITECTURE

60 – 61


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Freek Leber

Memory Lane


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2 3

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Streets that connect the care dwellings on each floor with each other with the other districts and joint functions exploring in a safe manner whereby you can hear, smell and see the city Roof garden with view over the city Street around patio with recognisable tree, casement windows and recognisable texture Front gate care dwellings with own bench, recognisable door and view of patio and street The dierent squares serve as first transition towards the building

ARCHITECTURE

5

62 – 63


6

7 families

public functions

care dwellings

urban apartments

students

+ Het participatiehuis is in tegenstelling tot veel zorginstellingen, geen gesloten eilandje die zich ontrekt van de stad, maar juist een taste onderdeel van de stad en zijn weefsel. Het huis werkt als een soort filter waarin de demente bewoners er bewust of instinctief voor kunnen kiezen om zichtbaar te zijn in de stad en mee te doen met de maatschappij, of zich juist terug kunnen trekken naar een rustige hearing plek.

smell

playground community centre

6 7

senses playground touch

sight

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Freek Leber

Memory Lane

Section Filter Participation Engaging with senses Potentials existing location 2nd floor 1st floor ground floor


A

A

8

ARCHITECTURE

64 – 65


THE TRANSFORMATION OF SCHALKWIJK — A SECOND LIFE FOR THE POST-WAR RESIDENTIAL DISTRICT Max Meijer In the 1960s, people started building a new future. A future that had arisen from the large-scale housing shortage after the Second World War. With much anticipation, new districts arose outside the cities, where people dreamed of a world of equality, a great sense of community, and spacious and safe housing. System building ensured that they could build quickly and efficiently. Gallery flats, flats accessed from a common entrance hall and terraced houses rose like house plan homes from the ground. The residential district Schalkwijk in Haarlem was one of the urban development districts of the Netherlands. Within 10 years, 10,000 homes were built here. I grew up in the Boerhaave neighbourhood of Schalkwijk. I had a good childhood there, but the dream that they had in the 1960s has changed. The streets are not alive, as a result of the way in which the buildings are connected. They are long strips, with lots of parking spaces and the plinths are closed. There is an abundance of public space, as a result of which there is no order and meaning. And the Netherlands has had a housing shortage now for 57 years. The pressure on the cities is enormous, the population and Max Meijer

especially the number of households continue growing, and the housing production is lagging behind. Urban expansion sometimes seems like the only solution, because city centre building is difficult. I think there is also another solution. Schalkwijk as a post-war residential district can solve the housing shortage and conversely Schalkwijk can change as a result and be given a totally new lease of life. By transforming the district, you can add capacity and quality. Schalkwijk has a characteristic urban design that is typical of the post-war residential district. Schalkwijk is built namely out of ‘stempels’ (repetitive building block configurations). These are compositions of buildings, for example, terraced houses together with a flat accessed from a common entrance hall, which are repeated numerous times in the same way. Different stempels are used in Boerhaave, which subsequently lead to the layout of the district. These stempels each have their own quality, but have also led to the district becoming divided due to the monotone nature of the house types and its residents. This research revealed Stempel 5 is most in need of change.

The Transformation of Schalkwijk


In my proposal. the two worlds of the strip building and the classical building block are combined, leading to the best of both worlds. By making new loops on the existing flats and connecting flats with each other, they will change into building blocks with courtyards. By subsequently intersecting these again with axes, various walking routes will arise. Whereas only the street and the entrance to the building were previously the spatial experience, this stempel will now be given a rich layer public spaces.

Graduation date 18 07 2017 Commission members Wouter Kroeze (mentor) Floris Alkemade Uri Gilad Additional members for the examination Jarrik Ouburg RenĂŠ Bouman

In addition to adding the new buildings, the existing ones will also be tackled. Homes on the dark, low galleries will be transformed into maisonettes on a light gallery that is twice as high. Closed plinths will be transformed into homes, as a result of which there will be life at street level. And the new buildings will form an upper street on a higher level, which will connect the courtyards with each other via the existing flats accessed from a common entrance hall. All these changes will ensure that a wealth of house types will arise, focused on the enormous variation of types of households nowadays. By mixing all these types of people, from young to old, from family to single, that can live in one stempel together. As a result of this, Schalkwijk can be an example for other post-war residential districts. Because in this way, the number of homes will be doubled and you will give the district a second life.

ARCHITECTURE

66 – 67


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Max Meijer

Model Existing situation of the gallery flat on the Ekamastraat Existing situation within the building block Existing situation of the Ekamastraat By connecting homes vertically as maisonettes, a gallery can be removed Transformation in the building block, the new loops connect the buildings and form courtyards Transformation of the Ekamastraat, with a new building block to the left, and a park lane at the heart

2

The Transformation of Schalkwijk


3

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5

ARCHITECTURE

68 – 69


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Max Meijer

Sections of S5 and the transformation of its profile (from below to above) The existing situation – strip building New situation – the best of both world from strip building and courtyard building

The Transformation of Schalkwijk


7

8

ARCHITECTURE

70 – 71


10

slap 10 en m 1 2

0 6,0 10

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Max Meijer

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ke 20 uken m 2 27 tuin ,5m 2

Interior walkway with patios and terraces. 10 Family home on the ground floor 11 Each stempel has its own characteristic house type that I will later use in the design of new homes for a broad group of households

5,0

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ber 7m ging 2

TOWNHOUSE

Rijtjeswoning

Owner-occupied property Koopwoning 5-room apartment 5-kamer woning 1-5 persons 1-5 personen 100m2 + 88m2 100m2garden + 88 m2 tuin (expandable up to 150m2 (uitbreidbaar tot 150m2 met uitbouw + dakkapel) with extension + dormer)

The Transformation of Schalkwijk

ke 20 uken m 2

w 20 one m n 2

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ui +1 tbo b4erm uw 7m gi2ng 2

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slap 10 en m 1 2

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Vijf stempels gemaakt met 5 woningtypes.

Stamp 5 can use the most change

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Stempel 5 kan de meeste verandering gebruiken.

APARTMENT

TOWNHOUSE

PORCH APARTMENT

GALLERY-ACCESS FLATS

Owner-occupied property / Koopwoning / huurwoningen rented housing 4-kamer woning 4-room apartment 1-4 personen 1-4 persons 110m2 110m2

Rented housing Huurwoningen 5-room apartment 5-kamer woning 1-5 persons 1-5 personen 90m2 + 75m2 garden 90m2 + 75m2 tuin

Social rented housing Sociale huurwoningen 3-room apartment 3 kamerwoning 1-3 persons 1-3 personen 47 m2 47m2 (also available with extra (ook met extra slaapkamer verkrijgbaar, dan 55m2, 4 pers,) sleeping room, 55max. m2, max. 4 persons)

Social rented housing Sociale huurwoningen 3- room apartment 3 kamerwoning 1-3 persons 1-3 personen 65 m2 65m2 (also available with (ook met extra beuk extra verkrijgbaar, 92m2, max. 5pers,) space, 92dan m2, max. 5 persons)

Appartement

Rijtjeswoning

ARCHITECTURE

72 – 73

11


THE ARK — THE RESIDENTIAL-BUSINESS BUILDING Daria Naugolnova The Ark is a prototype of a building where people live in a large group. Living in a group means that everyone has their own residential unit, but that there are large communal spaces with kitchens, living rooms and kitchens at the same time, as a result of which relationships arise between the residents, and due to which residents are offered the opportunity to help each other in life, as was the case in large families in the past; compared to the time in which the group helped people to survive, today a person can also survive alone, but the interaction with other people can greatly improve the quality of life.

replace the role of your partner, you need to have about 20 people. The multiple apartments function perfectly if residents have stability in their lives, but what does ‘stability’ mean? A permanent job, steady relationship and suitable home. Those three elements are connected and the absence of one influences the other two greatly. In the case of a divorce, for example, the apartment may become too large, and in the case of a job loss a workspace may be needed.

My point of departure for this project is my own experience. My husband worked for one and half years in another country and I lived alone with my child. When we were alone, we used our house differently. The three of us used all three rooms, but the living room and bedroom became totally unnecessary for my child and I. Only the kitchen and the nursery were used intensively.

How many people today have a long period of stability in their life? – There are 2.8 million single people in the Netherlands – 1 in 3 couples separate – There are 400,000 single parents in the Netherlands – There are 1,000,000 entrepreneurs and half of them use their own house as workplace. And these figures are increasing more and more. We can say that people with a unique living or work situation are no longer the exception, but the rule.

In order to be able to work and study with my child, I had to make many new contacts with people: there were babysitters, neighbours, other single mothers, parents of children from the crèche, etc. My research revealed that in order to

However, what is beautiful and special at the moment is that an increasing number of people are searching for new contacts with people who share the same life circumstances, in order to help each other. Single parents are

Daria Naugolnova

The Ark


searching for contacts with other single parents, in order to take turns bringing children to school, cook warm meals, give each other the opportunity to work until late or to go on dates. Entrepreneurs are joining together to create their own workplaces and be able to work effectively. The Ark is a residential-business building with large communal spaces, different types of homes and many workspaces. As a result of this, all three elements of stability (Permanent job, Steady relationship, Suitable home) find their niche in the building. Graduation date 27 09 2016 Commission members Bart Bulter (mentor) Jan-Richard Kikkert Liesbeth van der Pol Additional members for the examination Rik van Dolderen Wouter Kroeze

ARCHITECTURE

74 – 75


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Daria Naugolnova

The Ark


3

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1 2 3 4

ARCHITECTURE

76 – 77

Different types of home Studio’s Living room Model


COMMUNAL SPACES Communal space consists of 8 communal kitchens, large area between kitchens and homes that residents can arrange themselves as the living or dining rooms, for example, and a large communal rooftop that is accessible for residents and their guests. A family atmosphere is created in this part of the building.

HOMES There are 60 residential units between 30 and 130m2. None of the homes have a front door, so that the living room becomes part of the communal space. Residents can share an important part of their life with others. However, in order to make a slight separation between the communal parts and the more private parts, small differences in height have been introduced between both and it will be executed in a different material. Physical connections between the two will be made using small bridges.

WORKSPACE The office spaces & surgeries and studios provide workplaces for residents who cannot work far away from home for various reasons, or who temporarily have no job and have to work from home. Office spaces are accessible from street level, temporary workplaces are only accessible for residents and are very flexible. These can be arranged by the residents themselves.

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4.1 Studio

4.2 Studio

3.1 Studio

3.2 Studio

2.1 Studio

5 6 7 8

Workspaces and communal spaces Levels 2, 3, 4 Axonometry Model with section

Daria Naugolnova

The Ark


7

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ARCHITECTURE

78 – 79


STARDUST — A MUSEUM FOR ASTRONOMY Maik Peters The body of a newborn baby is as old as the universe. The form is new and unique, but the building blocks are 13.7 billion years old. The material is, among other things, processed by nuclear fusion in stars and formed by electromagnetism. This a sober description for an amazing process. It took a long time before someone told me this. The only thing that I can remember about the origin of life from primary school, for example, is the story of Adam and Even during religious education classes. The true story is so much more beautiful and more plausible. A star died so that we could come into being. The reality of the Big Bang and the evolution of life is that we ask ourselves what the universe is, while we are the universe, to our great surprise. Everyone is a piece of the universe that expresses itself as a human for a brief moment in time. That our atoms once formed a star and that we were the energy before that for an event that we will probably never understand.

There does not appear to be a place in the Netherlands where you can easily come into contact with astronomy. There are examples like NEMO, small observatories or a Planetarium in ARTIS Amsterdam Royal Zoo, but this subject only receives fragmented attention here. In what way could science be given form in a new building? Graduation date 12 07 2017 Commission members Laurens Jan ten Kate (mentor) Ira Koers Jeroen van Mechelen Additional members for the examination Micha de Haas Rik van Dolderen

Astronomy tells the story of the creation and the development, and the general history and future, of the universe. It tells us that the entire universe is made from the same matter.

Maik Peters

Stardust


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2 1 2

Section Impression of the square

ARCHITECTURE

80 – 81


4

3

auditorium LIFE

LIGHT

ELECTRO MAGENTISM

EXTRATERRESTRIAL LIFE

Theme

STARS EARTH

GRAVITY

RADIO ACTIVITY

UNIVERSE COMETS

BUILDING BLOCKS

UNIFICATION QUANTUM mechanics

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Maik Peters

Stardust


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Possible routes through the museum Comprehensive structure Generic vs specific Free routing Programme Draft model Plan

ARCHITECTURE

82 – 83


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Maik Peters

Stardust


10

8 Impression of interior 9 Impression of ceiling 10 Model

ARCHITECTURE

84 – 85


HOME OF LEGENDS — ESPORTS HUB FOR FNATIC Dafne Wiegers Home of Legends is an eSports hub in the heart of London, designed for Fnatic. Fnatic is one of the most storied eSports organisations in Europe, succeeding in being about far more than just gaming. Home of Legends houses Fnatic’s League of Legends team and headquarters. Home of Legends offers spaces for the professional players to train, eat, come together and sleep, and the building can also be visited by fans. In this building, spaces for professional players on the one hand, and spaces for fans on the other hand, are intertwined like an ice cream sundae. Fans visiting the building are on a constant quest to find out where their heroes are, and may (or may not) find them. Because where is the entrance? And how do you get to the next level? What is behind that wall? Like many games, the building is Free to Play, providing an open space with a roof garden for the city, while at the same time guaranteeing a business model.

You can enter in a lot of places, and follow different paths up and down. This temple of gaming is fragmented like the internet is fragmented: you’ll have to find your way through it. Moreover, Home of Legends is an investigation of how our physical habitat will look if the digital habitat becomes more and more influential, and we spend more time submerged in it. I think the digitalisation of our lives is a revolution as important for architects as was the housing development with the industrial revolution, the social turnaround of the sixties and the crave for sustainability in the nineties and zeroes. Graduation date 11 07 2017 Commission members Machiel Spaan (mentor) Kamiel Klaasse Ira Koers Additional members for the examination Bart Bulter Miguel Loos

The structure is designed like a series of scenes the visitor can explore, in stead of starting from a series of floor plans like traditional architecture. This results in a fragmented building. In the Home of Legends building, their is no route. Dafne Wiegers

Home of Legends


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ARCHITECTURE

86 – 87

First sketches


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Dafne Wiegers

Street view: a building without a facade

Home of Legends


ARCHITECTURE

88 – 89


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Dafne Wiegers

Home of Legends


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Bird view Music (pavilion) Gaming arena Office and meeting spaces

ARCHITECTURE

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Dafne Wiegers

Level 2 Pyjama Sport Fire stairs Living room Artist in residence

Home of Legends


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ARCHITECTURE

92 – 93


WORK THE CITY — SMALL INITIATIVES FORM THE NEW URBAN ECONOMY Thom Zijlstra Living and working are two important activities in the lives of people. Throughout the centuries, there have been historical residential and business forms that could be inspiring again. These different archetypes demonstrated the long and rich history of residential and business forms as inspiration for the future. Take, for example, the dyke house, the staff accommodation, the shop house, the craftsman’s house and the merchant’s house. Typologies that arose in Amsterdam as smallscale city. Typologies which in that way gave spatial identity to the entrepreneurs.

up with homes due to the enormous demand.

Cities are the incubators and the motors of the economy. In recent decades, the innovation of the city went hand in hand with the rapid growth of the services and knowledge economy. But in our effort to change the city into an attractive residential and business environment, we have driven the entrepreneurship out of the residential districts. Entrepreneur hubs are disappearing to the outskirts of the city or to stand-alone office buildings. Coworking spaces are shooting up like mushrooms from the ground and provide a completely anonymous model for the entrepreneur. Plinths are becoming vacant and being filled

In this plan, the identity of the Amsterdam entrepreneur and resident will be sought again. New residential and business initiatives as driver for urban development in the Oosterpark neighbourhood.

Thom Zijlstra

The most important quality of Amsterdam is its small scale. The balance between living and working. The accessibility of the city and its residents. How can you restore the interconnectedness of living and working once again in the Amsterdam neighbourhoods? A plan based on the archetype from the canal ring. An architectural plan whereby the Amsterdam citizen and entrepreneur are given a sense of identity again.

Graduation date 01 03 2017 Commission members Jeroen Atteveld (mentor) Lada Hršak Arnoud Gelauff Additional members for the examination Bastiaan Jongerius Paul de Vroom

Work the City


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Merchant’s house, where the urban open space is used as collective courtyard. The deal room can be found in the crown of the building Covered market space, where the central staircase offers access to the homes of the entrepreneurs.

ARCHITECTURE

94 – 95


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Shop house, where the entire ground floor is laid out as public space. In this way, the connection is made between the city and the courtyard garden of the building block Covered market space, where the plinth is used as public space

Thom Zijlstra

Work the City


Deal room

9 apartments

Collective wash house

Connecting route Conservatory Entrance apartments Outdoor route along courtyard garden

Private

Collective Semi-public

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ARCHITECTURE

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Thom Zijlstra

Work the City


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ARCHITECTURE

98 – 99

Craftsman’s house Farriery (1956), Prinsengracht Craftsman’s house Plinth in relation to the street. Internal connection with the house Mass craftsman’s house Shop house Grocer (±1900), Geldersekade Shop house Public plinth, separated from the house by stairs Mass shop house Merchant’s house Cromhout Family (1662), Herengracht Merchant’s house Merchant’s room on the principal floor, connected by stairs and elevated from the street Mass merchant’s house Multi-tenant business buildings vs planned initiatives Quality Amsterdam Co-working spaces Work the City 3 initiatives interwoven in the Oosterpark neighbourhood


URBANISM

100 – 101


It is striking that all the graduation projects relate, in one way or another, to a major development that is taking place in the Netherlands — but also outside of it — namely: the migration from rural areas to cities. Two spatial issues arise from that. On the one hand, the growing demand for housing means that we will have to use the land in the city more intensively, and look for unused locations, such as rail routes or urban ‘residual spaces’. How can you reuse industrial estates and construct new buildings in existing districts? What I find interesting is that densification in these projects is not only approached as a solution to a problem, but also as an opportunity to arrive at a better functioning city. You see that, for example, in Jerryt Krombeen’s proposal to densify the Amsterdam’s Bijlmermeer district, in which he simultaneously maps out the shortcomings of the district and ‘repairs’ the urban fabric. Or take the plan of Hein Coumou, who seizes upon the densification of dated industrial estates in order to transform them into more mixed-use areas, with a combination of residential, business and recreational functions. On the other hand, the exodus from the countryside poses the question of how we can give new meaning to these areas. Markus Appenzeller

Introduction


Katarina Nöteberg focuses on the green area on the German border, for which she designed a ‘well-being landscape’ for wellness, health and recreation. It is a low density development with a very specific programme and building that should attract visitors, while simultaneously giving a sense of identity to the area. One critical note: I find the projects very much focused on the Dutch context. It would be nice in the future to also look outside Northwestern Europe, where everything is solvable and can be arranged. How does a Chinese city work or a metropolis in the Global South? What kind of lessons can we learn from there? Markus Appenzeller Head of Urbanism Department

URBANISM

102 – 103


ILLUSTRATED DENSIFICATION ATLAS OF HAARLEM — AN URBAN EXPLORATION Ricsi van Beek The Dutch medium-sized city still has much room for improvement. There is still a lot to be gained in terms of urban quality. In addition, the urban fabric is for the most part porous enough to be able to absorb substantial densification. The studio focuses on improving the most important structures of the city by means of densification. The aim is to make better use of the potential of the medium-sized city: the creation of attractive living environments with the quality of the landscape around the city within easy reach.

Densification based on quality will ensure that Haarlem can distinguish itself better within the Amsterdam Metropolitan Area in terms of attractiveness. The region gains from attractive urban living environments. A more attractive Haarlem therefore represents a more attractive metropolitan region. A region that can deal with the growth of the future and thus positions itself better internationally on the basis of diversity, a relative small scale and its own clear identity.

Haarlem forms a study case for a densification model that is applicable, in principle, to every classical Dutch medium-sized city, such as Leiden, Alkmaar and Dordrecht. Haarlem is a striking example: a built-up old city with the largest percentage of pre-war buildings in the Netherlands. The study demonstrates that even in the fully developed Haarlem, there are still ample opportunities for densification. An assignment that simultaneously entails a quality transformation, through which the city will become more attractive and unique. As a result of this, the debate about densification will shift from the quantitative to the qualitative realm.

The chosen method is simple: analysis provides a number of core values, after which interventions are formulated on the basis of a set of themes, which together contribute to the reinforcing of the core values on the structural level of the city. This leads to a strategic assignment for the city that plays a decisive role in the further development of the city. Five concrete locations ultimately form the testing grounds that will prove that the execution of the strategic assignments will make the city more attractive.

Ricsi van Beek

This study shows that Haarlem can grow in terms of quality without further stretching the outer borders of the city. By using densification to improve the structure of the city, a stronger Illustrated Densification Atlas


city will emerge. A city by the water with an attractive, unbroken public space, a recognisable profile and an infrastructure with a good regional embedding. In concrete terms, this study provides insight into the way in which Haarlem can successfully densify by making development through densification part of the strategic assignments. On the basis of the outcomes of the key projects, a global decision can be made on the future densification capacity of the city. As part of the strategic assignments, this amounts to approx. 1,550,000 m2 gfa in the case of a city after deducting the existing buildings in the area to be transformed with a degree of urbanisation varying between 0.7 and 1.2 FSI. Expressed in homes, there is space in the city for more than 19,000 homes of 80 m2 gfa. Graduation date 12 05 2017 Commission members Pieter Jannink (mentor) Hanneke Kijne John Westrik Additional members for the examination Ad de Bont Martijn de Wit

URBANISM

104 – 105


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Impression domed site Impression Papentorenvest Impression Transferium Oostpoort Impression neighbourhood harbour Kleverzone Impression Oudeweg

Ricsi van Beek

Illustrated Densification Atlas


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URBANISM

106 – 107


5

Ricsi van Beek

Illustrated Densification Atlas


SPATIAL ASSIGNMENTS inner dune border city centre other buildings city other buildings conurbation urban green zone add water atmosphere: city centre historic add water atmosphere: modern waterfront add water atmosphere: harbour area add water atmosphere: country estates & manors add water atmosphere: greenery and city moats add water atmosphere: parks and waterways outer ring road city avenue with restricted car access solution track crossing outer ring road trunk road N200 construction regional network fast cycle routes transferium route by high-quality public transport thematise city entrance: centrally located residential-business environment thematise city entrance: urban residential-business environment thematise city entrance: inner edge of the dunes thematise city entrance: park residential environment zone supervision improve long line small-scale green square small scale amenities square city centre square entrance square structure square build/move high-quality public transport line/ tram link move regular bus line railway/ high-quality public transport line to be maintained make new long line visible restoration historic watercourse construction green cycle route inner dune border strengthen urban cycle routes new railway station new high-quality public transport stop high-quality public transport stop to be maintained future motorway interchange build new view (high-rise building) remove water barrier navigability missing link bicycle network bicycle network link to be improved

5

Overview map spatial assignments

URBANISM

108 – 109


6

Ricsi van Beek

Illustrated Densification Atlas


A. NORTHERN SPAARNE ZONE

D. SCHALKWIJK CENTRE

Assignments • construction Figee and Droste bicycle bridges • create harbour area around old industrial harbour • create modern waterfront along Spaarneoevers (banks of the river Spaarne) • build fast cycle route east bank of river Spaarne • add residential buildings east bank Spaarne • new buildings east bank face water • realisation high-rise buildings east bank Spaarne for long line Waarderweg • reroute high-quality public transport Spaarndamseweg to stimulate developments Spaarneoevers • refurbish Spaarneboog shopping centre • qualitative boost Paul Kruger park as starting point green cycling route • redevelopment Deli-terrein • redevelopment Sonnebornterrein • replace houseboats along west bank with view of water green recreational places • replace houseboats Waarderhaven with floating homes • make Schoteroogbrug suitable for four-lane outer ring road • redevelop social housing Spaarndamseweg/Jan Gijzenkade

Assignments • construct new high-quality public transport line Schipholweg-Amsterdam-Zuid • move high-quality public transport stop Schipholweg as central transfer point • new profile Europaweg as green city avenue for highquality public transport/slow traffic • fill in central area with mixed urban functions • create attractive habitable space around high-quality public transport stop Schalkwijk Centre • add striking building Schipholweg/Amerikaweg • construction fast cycle routes Europaweg/ Amerikaweg/Aziëweg • connect water network via Europaweg and Schipholweg towards Spaarne and city centre • better supervision long line and water Amerikaweg • reinforce water atmosphere ‘waterway and parks’ existing watercourses • make clear transition Schalwijk centre park city entrances Aziëweg/Europaweg-Zuid • thematise squares around shopping centre

B. ‘OOSTRADIAAL’ (EASTERN RADIAL) Assignments • dig open Papentorenvest and Amsterdamsevaart • redesign Papentorenvest as city centre water • redesign Amsterdamsevaart as city centre water/ green city moat • redevelop Panopticon into multifunctional area as part of city centre entrance • redesign public area Amsterdamse Poort • (phased) redevelopment main workshop into urban residential-business area • replace mediocre accompanying buildings long line Amsterdamsevaart • redesign Lange Herenvest/Oostersingelgracht/ Oudeweg (partly) into inner ring road • construction high-quality public transport stop Prinsenbrug • construction fast bicycle route Harmen Jansweg/ Oostersingelgracht/Amsterdamsevaart • extend Prins Bernhardlaan to Oudeweg as part of new outer ring road • add accompanying high-rise buildings site NedTrain/ Shell/head Waarderweg • replace mediocre accompanying buildings long line Oudeweg • add quality of space and allure Oudeweg as main access road of the city • intensify functions and create centrally located area around Spaarnwoude station • seek connection Oudeweg — future harbour area Industriehaven • new squares on panopticon site and along city entrance Spaarnwoude

E. OUTSKIRTS OF THE CITY CENTRE Assignments • construct new high-quality public transport line via Raaks/Wilhelminastraat/Tempelierstraat/ Amsterdam-Zuid • link all bus lines via Raaks and Nassaulaan • add new high-quality public transport transfer stop Raaks/Zijlweg • new profile Nassaulaan with green recreational area • attractive supervision and recreational area along high-quality public transport route • redevelop 1970s buildings station square and reconsider dimensions square • complete rode fietsloper cycle route by adding bridge Staten Bolwerk • make urban bicycle connection Zijlstraat/-weg visible • add homes Krelageterrein • better supervision beginning new sight line Leidsevaart/corner Brouwersvaart • make Baljuwslaan more attractive from track • redevelopment Gonnetstraatzone towards Spaarne • construction thematise squares Nassaulaan and Nwe Groenmarkt

C. WESTERN OUTSKIRTS Assignments • connect northern and southern parts Delft • make banks more attractive southern Delft • redevelop car parks Kennemer sports centre • blend in sports centre and skating rink better • make crossroads Randweg/Kleverlaan smoother and greener • redevelop CBR-terrein • add striking building Zijlweg/Spoorwegstraat • build urban living room entrance Randweg/Zijlweg (develop educational cluster) • better (small-scale) supervision new long line Brouwersvaart • redevelop site fire brigade/Narcisplantsoen • widen narrow underpass Brouwersvaart/Randweg • thematise square St. Bavo, Plaza West

URBANISM

6

Overview map of strategic development zones. Where multiple spatial tasks meet, there are strategic development areas. Logically, priority is given to spatial planning within strategic development areas, as consolidation reinforces several structures at the same time. In these places is the contribution of densification directly related to increasing urban spatial quality.

110 – 111


THE NOORDRAND OF BRUSSELS AND ITS HIDDEN POTENTIAL Rob Brink This plan proposes to start looking at the Noordrand as an integral part of a large urban system, and not as a bordering wasteland between the regions of Brussels and Flanders. Strategic interventions in the landscape, a change in the way the mobility is managed in the region, and a new vision on the built and unbuilt programme is desperately needed in Brussels, and especially the Noordrand. Brussels is shaped alongside the many valleys and streams in the landscape. The growth of the city in the 19th century led King Leopold II to ask Victor Besme to draw up and carry out a coherent composition of boulevards, parks and public buildings connected by trams, trains and trolleybuses, which still benefits the city today. Unfortunately, developments in the 20th century were carried out with less of an eye for urban quality, leaving Brussels with a Noordrand filled with infrastructural barriers, neglected neighbourhoods, grey and incoherent working zones and large amounts of residual spaces. However the underused potential of gardens, fields, little plots of forest, valleys and parks, together with little treasures such as village centres, churches and industrial heritage scattered through the Noordrand, gives us unique tools to work with. Rob Brink

One of the biggest untapped potentials of the Noordrand is its strategic position between the airport and the city centre, which could offer the same development potential as Amsterdam’s Zuidas and Zurich’s District 11. The demographic pressure on Brussels is rising, as the city is expected to grow by 100,000 inhabitants in the next 10 years, which is twice the growth Amsterdam is expecting. This growth can however be accommodated within the Noordrand, without sacrificing the open spaces it still has. The core of the Noordrand will, however, be shaped and fuelled by an international neighbourhood surrounding the new Bordet Station. This new station will play an important role in the urban traffic system, offering great mobility options. As this plan will demonstrate, the qualities of the landscape, the excellent mobility and the close proximity of the NATO headquarters offer a number of conditions that will attract businesses, hotels and facilities towards the neighbourhood around Bordet station. The existing infrastructure needs to be put to better use in order to reduce the traffic pressure, and to The Noordrand of Brussels


make the shift from a commuter traffic system, focused on inbound and outbound traffic, towards an interurban traffic system, connecting the neighbourhoods of the city. By adding a ring of public transport and bike lanes trough the Rand of Brussels and Flanders, the existing network as a whole can start functioning as a multimodal system. The public transport in Brussels will accommodate doorto-door mobility, and will also make it easier to use public transport for other activities next to commuting, such as visiting a park, a concert or visiting friends in a different part of the city.

Graduation date 16 11 2016 Commission members RiĂŤtte Bosch (mentor) Riikka Tuomisto Roeland Dudal Additional members for the examination Hans van der Made Ad de Bont

The existing open spaces and parks need to be used to improve the living quality, ecology and identity of the Noordrand. This plan proposes connecting the different spatial needs for development, by using the new development to frame the existing open spaces, in order to create added value and upgrade these spaces to public parks. By redesigning the flanks of the former marshalling yard Schaarbeek Vorming as a continuous space, a park on the scale of the region will be developed, which can connect the city of Brussels with Flanders as a green lung. This park, mostly situated on the flanks of the Zenne valley, will restore the identity of Brussels as a city of valleys and streams.

URBANISM

112 – 113


1 2

Rob Brink

The Noordrand of Brussels


3 Meudon Park

New food market with public functions on roof

International school

Zenne river brought back Urban logistics Bike bridge connects canal zone

Bordet park Bordet station

International quarter

Steilrand park Elisabeth quarter

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Brussels 19th century: coherent composition of the city Noordrand Brussels, proposed strategic framework Future Bordet axis: the connection between international programme, urban logistics, laid-back neighbourhoods and recreational areas

URBANISM

114 – 115


~

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Development of housing and the Steilrand park along the Zenne valley flanks Bordet station is the new multimodal node in the Noordrand, allowing the international quarter to develop Existing open spaces are framed and upgraded to a park on a regional scale Bordet station as a new public building, bridging barriers, stitching together local roads, the transversal ring, the international quarter, the NATO and the upgraded Bordet park together 6,5 m

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Rob Brink

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URBANISM

116 – 117


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Rob Brink

View from Bordet station, looking over the Bordet park into the valley of the Zenne View from one of the new housing developments framing the upgraded park

The Noordrand of Brussels


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URBANISM

118 – 119


WAARDERPOLDER — FROM INDUSTRIAL ESTATE TO WORKING CITY Hein Coumou My grandpa had a building company in the centre of Hengelo. His workshop with storage and machinery was behind his home. On Saturday, the workshop was open to the neighbourhood: anyone could make use of the machines under supervision.

preserved and can grow. Where you can pleasantly cycle from the city centre towards the surrounding landscape. You can briefly stop for a sandwich at the most famous baker of the Waarderpolder, where the truck drivers have just finished their lunch.

It is unbelievable how we have made separate residential districts and worksites in recent decades. Residential districts that are quiet and abandoned during the daytime and worksites where security guards guard the site at night. Sites that eat up space: in the last 16 years, the number of industrial estates that have been created is equal to the total surface area of the entire municipality of Rotterdam. Sites that lie like isolated masses in the landscape, are poorly laid out and where you feel hopelessly forlorn due to all the fences around the buildings.

The Waarderpolder now lies like an isolated mass between the landscape and Haarlem. By making the industrial canal public and extending it to the Mooie Nel lake, the Waarderpolder will be given a heart, and will be connected with the city centre of Haarlem and the landscape. If you cycle or walk along the canal, you can stop at the Lichtfabriek (culture), Figeeplein (view) or the Waarderpolderplein (events). The bank along the river Spaarne will be made public, as a result of which Schoteroog park will become part of a recreational network that carries on via the Veerplas lake under the railway line towards Haarlemmermeer. The railway on the south side will be raised in order to connect the new city streets that run through the area with the east side of Haarlem. As a result, no flyovers or tunnels have to be built. You will cycle or drive under the railway.

The project location is the Waarderpolder in Haarlem. An industrial estate of 255 ha with 1,100 companies close to the city centre of Haarlem. Imagine if this industrial estate was transformed into a vital working city with 24/7 use. That this would solve the housing demand in the Haarlem region, and where the number of jobs and companies in the polder will be Hein Coumou

People will live and work alongside the new urban structures Waarderpolder


using space economically. However, not all companies will fit within that. For example, companies that create a lot of noise, smell and particularly those busy with logistics. This companies will be situated on the work streets. The working streets are built in such a way that the urban structures will only cross a work street a single time. Towards the north, a more rugged area will arise where the emphasis is more on work. Other rules will apply here, and you will choose and sign up to live in an area.

Graduation date 19 07 2017 Commission members Huub Juurlink (mentor) Ad de Bont Tom Bergevoet Additional members for the examination Hans van der Made Jaap Brouwer

The development strategy will begin with the most important intervention: the industrial canal. After which, developments along the river Spaarne, in the landscape and the city streets will ensure that the area is further anchored to the city. Clear rules will ensure that the conditions for living and working comfortably are solved. During the transformation to working city, the framework of working streets and new urban structures will always be right. The access to a factory will never run via a neighbourhood street. By adding a gross floor area of 225 ha, the housing demand in Haarlem will be solved. A part of the city that is in use 24/7 will arise where there is support for all kinds of facilities. Just imagine.

URBANISM

120 – 121


Hein Coumou

Waarderpolder


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URBANISM

122 – 123

Impression


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FRAMEWORK Hoofdwerkstraat Working street Industrial canal / Spaarne City street Neighbourhood street

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Square Large landscape park

PROGRAM residential and work functions appropriate for living

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Living in a more rugged area

Current situation Later: urban network with working streets Framework and functions

Hein Coumou

Work 50% public plinth / facilities

Waarderpolder


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124 – 125


Saap garage R&R electrical engineering FOR RENT Iron trade Office

Office

Products for FOR RENT the graphic Cleaning industry company

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5 Saap garage, development of new garage with extended program on roof Vacant buildings are first in redevelopment

9 Products for the graphic industry Existing office moving to new development.

Development new program on own lot.

Iron trade. Twice the size of the existing business space.

6 Development common courtyard garden

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Hein Coumou

Waarderpolder


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T0

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T0 T1: Plots on the neighbourhood/ city streets have enormous design potential Companies with lots of logistics will move to a new larger location on the working street 7 T2: Block will densify further. 8 T0 9 T1: Industrial canal The area will be given a heart. Will become part of Haarlem and the landscape 10 T2: City streets, public bank, landscape park. 225 ha of business floor space has already been added to T2! 11 Industrial canal 12 Spaarndammerplein: IKEA will be incorporated into the urban fabric.

URBANISM

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126 – 127


AFFORDABLE PARADISE — PROVIDING A COUNTERBALANCE TO A POLARISING AMSTERDAM Jerryt Krombeen Housing in Amsterdam is threatening to become unaffordable for people on low and middle incomes and this is having major consequences for the social structure of the city. An unaffordable city centre environment has arisen with mostly people on high incomes, with poorer quality neighbourhoods around it with high concentrations of poverty and people on low incomes. And this while Amsterdam owes its success to the dynamic character that has arisen through the wide range of incomes and people who live interspersed among each other. The Bijlmer in particular has a much lower quality of living than other districts in Amsterdam. There are much less facilities and the Bijlmer also remains substantially behind on a spatial-economic level in relation to other districts. That is partly due to the original spatial structure of the Bijlmer, which does not permit the creation of facilities as a result of the lack of interaction between buildings and major routes.

which could mean the emancipation of the urban fabric. By creating a higher density, more addresses, more space for companies on the street, urban pressure and economic vitality will arise along the major routes. By making the motorway profile of the Gooiseweg single-level, neighbourhoods will be connected with each other and space will become available for approximately 33,000 new homes for people on middle incomes, without having to demolish a home for this. The densification will also provide the current companies and 86,000 residents with a local network with many more facilities. A spatial-economic backbone will be created with opportunities for shops, facilities, entrepreneurs and local initiatives, with which the wealth of cultures can also become visible finally. Through the intervention, a complementary living environment and urban life will arise, in addition to the park-like living environment that the Bijlmer already has now.

The pressure on the housing market in Amsterdam must lead to strategic densification in order to provide a counterbalance to the polarisation in the city. The elaborated test case for the Bijlmer demonstrates that you can create new fabric with urban dynamics,

The demand for more homes for people on middle incomes will lead to more socio-economic diversity at the location and a spatialeconomic structure in the shape of a city street on which the districts themselves can continue to build. Amsterdam can accommodate

Jerryt Krombeen

Affordable Paradise


approx. 73,000 new residents on a devalued motorway and densify at a place where an investment in spatial quality and diversity is most sorely needed. Graduation date 08 12 2016 Commission members Boris Hocks (mentor) Jelte Boeijenga Marco Broekman Additional members for the examination RiĂŤtte Bosch Tess Broekmans

URBANISM

128 – 129


Preserve existing buildings as much as possible, so that people can continue living there for the same rent

+ 33,000 homes on the city street and flanking blocks

Urban homes and apartments towards the Bijlmer ArenA

1

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Townhouses and apartments ranging between 60m2 and 80m2

Arrange performance agreements for exchange possibilities

Ground-level single-family houses of Âą120m2

Densification as expedient for aordable living and as spatial impulse for the Bijlmer Provide counterbalance

Jerryt Krombeen

Affordable Paradise

Big apartments, larger than 70m2 Buildings are transformable in the long term.


HOW CAN THE INCLUSIVE CITY, AND AMSTERDAM AS AFFORDABLE PARADISE, STILL BE SAVED? Amsterdam is currently in the unique situation of having excess pressure on the housing market. This means a unique opportunity has now arisen to use the growth of the city strategically for infill development in areas with weak socio-economic structures. In the problem, the growth of Amsterdam, may also lie the solution. Because now that Amsterdam is growing rapidly, a great deal of problems are arising, but also a great deal of opportunities for maintaining the diversity of the city. The densification assignment is desperately needed if Amsterdam wants to remain attractive as a business location climate and wants to retain its open character. In addition, it is necessary in order to reduce the pressure on the current housing market and also to ensure existing buildings remain affordable. The housing assignment, in terms of both quantity and quality, is still an area of government responsibility according to the constitution. It is evident that the government or municipality currently fulfil this role differently than they did after the war. However, that doesn’t take away from the fact that the municipality is responsible for sufficient housing to a lesser extent. With regard to the problems of scarcity in the housing market, the municipality can no longer continue to pursue a liberal, but selective, policy that only works well for the richer people in the housing market. Counterpressure through government interference is something that should actually be expected now if the city wants to remain inclusive, for example by holding on to middle incomes too. The densification can be given both a spatial significance and a functional-strategic significance in order to also allow people on middle incomes to gain a foothold in places where this target group may have an impact on the income diversity and the economy of an area. In a polarised city, you should come up with a separate solution for each opposite in order to maintain the diversity of the city in those places, and you should look at what the opportunities for densification and diversification are per environment: • In the city centre environment, there is only minimal space to fight this problem. And with the high land and property prices, this zone will require a unique approach. The municipality can use policy-related instruments in order to preserve the current mix. By stretching the cut-off point for housing benefit, for example, or through a halt in the transition of housing association homes to other segments. Subsidy schemes or tax arrangements can ensure that middle incomes can still be retained. Physically speaking, the space is limited and a mixed strategy can still be looked at a building level. However, due to a lack of space, the monumental character, the high land price and fragmented ownership, there are hardly any possibilities here for solving the major housing shortage and the middle-income problem of Amsterdam. The space for densification is minimal. At best, there is space for adding an extra storey to existing homes and densification building by building. In a densification approach, you are dependent on individual openness to densification. • In the case of the neighbourhoods that have seen a considerable decline in land price and living standards in recent years, the post-war extensions and urban renewal areas, there are a lot more options for a possible intervention. It it precisely in these neighbourhoods and urban districts that the densification must lead to a spatialqualitative boost. The municipality has larger available locations here and the allocation of land through ground lease is issued via larger plots. These details alone mean that densification would be more likely to succeed here. In addition, the land price is much lower there, as a result of which any investments can lead to more favourable overall construction costs, for example for private persons who want to initiate their own building. This low land price can be very favourable at the moment that a decision is made to invest in cheap owner-occupied houses and the realisation of diversification in segments in these areas.

With strategic densification, you are not only able to solve the scarcity problem of the housing market, but you also create an opportunity to connect middle incomes to the city once again, and you can break the polarised social structure. The middle-income group can ensure there is more diversity in educational backgrounds and incomes. As a result of the higher density and a wider range of incomes, the level and number of both public and commercial amenities will rise. At present, amenities are lagging well behind in terms of quality, not only due to the income level, but also due to the spatial structure of modernist extensions. This approach could have an unprecedented effect in these neighbourhoods in terms of: • a more sustainable composition socially and a liveable city. As a a result of a more vital spatial-economic system that maintains itself through a functional and social mix; • a variety of amenities, both commercial and public; • an open housing model, an inviting city as climate for students to settle, but also an ‘arrival city’ for people from outside; • social integration of different neighbourhoods, contrasts in the city; • creating economic opportunities and bringing the level of amenities to the same standard; • an attractive city, because you create a more intensive city that goes hand in hand with quality improvement, but also because diversity itself produces a very attractive city in the streetscape. CHOOSE YOUR BATTLES If Amsterdam segregates further and the inclusiveness as residential-business environment decreases, you could say that the success of the city will stagnate. The attractive living environment, which is a reason for many companies to come to Amsterdam, is not only found in the charming, monumental ‘gingerbread houses’, but also has a strong correlation with the social mix and structure. In any case, the housing market lags behind the creation of jobs and the city could be a victim of its own success. With the possible arrival of new head offices in a post-Brexit scenario, we need to fight harder for the preservation of the social mix in the city. If we think that the inclusive city is really so important, the government, driven by the chosen policy, must take stronger action therein. The government in particular, because corporations have a weakened position and cannot serve the middle class, and the government in particular, because they can also rise above commercial interests. Middle incomes can benefit from the enormous excess pressure on the housing market and through reasonably easy to manage supplyoriented densification at certain spots in the city. Preferably at locations where the municipality inspects and supervises the densification, freehold or via long -term leases and policy-related, sectoral control. In that way, the municipality itself can take back control and take large populations groups under its protection.

Income picture Centre

2

URBANISM

Centre: policy-related intervention Minimal space for infill development, at the most add an extra storey and densification building by building Expensive land and smaller, fragmented property Municipality can use policy-related instruments in order to preserve the current mix. For example, stretch housing benefit limit and stop decline in housing association homes

Income picture Expansions

Post-war expansions and urban renewal areas: infill development Qualitative impulse in post-war districts necessary little chance of success in socio-economic terms space for infill development low price of land / suitable property

130 – 131


ende

ende

ende

ende

AFFORDABLE PARADISE URBAN DYNAMICS AND DENSIFICATION AS REMEDY FOR THE BIJLMER AND AMSTERDAM It is time for a new ideal for Amsterdam, as a reaction to the current trend and the poorly functioning urban fabrics like the Bijlmer. The path that Amsterdam is currently taking will be damaging for the foundation and wellbeing of the urban society in the long term, and for the creation of a sustainable, liveable and mixed city. Diversity is not something that simply arises. It is also something that you must explicitly choose. This affordable paradise is not a plastic, socialist housing concept, but a city with sufficient homes for everyone and city that dares to be a city and offers sufficient amenities for its residents. It is actually a basic foundation that needs to be present in every city: a liveable direct residential environment, sufficient housing, and sufficient and high-quality amenities. It is a concept that aims at the reorganisation of basic needs in neighbourhoods where these are lagging behind. Through densification a break can be forced in this place with the 20-year cycle of renewal and restructuring in neighbourhoods that have insufficient urban and spatial-economic dynamics for their own innovative force. The densification is also a reason to force an change in the structure of the city, as a result of which a lasting dynamic is organised along the important daily routes, just as in other parts of the city, by means of city streets. Not only can the city then become more liveable, but also existing neighbourhoods can receive a spatial quality transformation. The investment is a double-edged sword. On the one hand you serve the middle segment, while on the other hand you invest in existing neighbourhoods and this investment also provides a new system for the existing residents. This proposal is now a new utopia, but a pragmatic and functional concept, which ties in with the spatial-economic effect in the form of extensions and city streets.

Affordable Paradise is an ambition that strives for an even more compact, intensive and urban type of housing, because more urban synergy can also be achieved between different functions and people with a higher density. An important condition that needs to be set for the infill development is the creation of a higher density. Particularly on the sides of the new city streets. The resident density in areas like the Bijlmer is suburban and sub-optimal for enabling a city to flourish. More buildings and critical mass will need to be added to the busy routes in particular in order to make plinth activation and interaction with urban routes possible. Along the busier roads in an area like the Gooiseweg in the Bijlmer or Burgemeester van de Vlugtlaan in Nieuwe West, a new ‘daily urban system’ can arise in this way, consisting of affordable housing for a middle segment, with a functional mix of housing, amenities and businesses on the ground floor.

Built away from the road: You can direct 10,000 cars over the Bijlmerdreef or Gooiseweg, but no extra facility or shop will be created as a result of this.

Separate transport systems: The modernist city is not exciting. Connection with the rest of the city is on a raised ground level. No urban pressure or tension through congestion or double usage is created anywhere.

The ideal for an Affordable Paradise comes at a time of excess pressure on the housing market. As a result of this pressure, densification can be used for the mixing Dead ground floors and side walls: of different income groups in the city. By Spaces lead away, spaces are not using densification in neighbourhoods with a defined. A lot of the city’s potential socially weak population composition, middle 3 is lost. incomes can once again become anchored in the city and other target groups can move up to this segment (owneroccupied and rental) in the housing market. Amsterdam must become an Affordable Paradise for everyone. This basic principle sounds quite logical, but the accessibility of housing and the quality thereof are under pressure. School Affordable paradise: wonen, werken en v Affordable paradise: wonen, werken en voorzieningen in post-war extensions are underperforming partly because of polarisation. Due to a Affordable paradise: wone poor connectedness, some schools are not Parkblok Stadsblok Parkblok even getting the minimum number of pupils 5100 m2 14600 m2 required. And as a result of little mixing in minimaal 5 ontwikkelende 5100 m2 Parkblok at least 5 m2 developers partijen a 3000 schools, the educational levels at ‘black minimaal 2 ontwikkelende 4 of 3,000 m2 at least 2 developers 5100 m2 schools’ in Nieuw West and the Bijlmer are partijen a 2550 m2 100% bebouwd 100% developed minimaal 2 ontwikkelende of 2,550 m2 lagging behind. The first symptoms of a partijen a 2550 m2 30% onbebouwd 30% parallel world are already becoming visible 30% onbebouwd undeveloped in the school picture. Commercial amenities minimaal 5 ontwikkelende at least 5 developers for daily necessities of life and opportunities partijen a 2500 m2 minimaal 2 ontwikkelende of 2,500 m2 at least 2 for local entrepreneurship are also lagging minimaal 2 ontwikkelende partijen a 2550 m2 interne logistiek: 1990m2 internal logistics: developers behind, certainly in the Bijlmer. This is not partijen a 2550 m2 1,990 m2 of 2,550 m2 only related to the high concentrations of 30% onbebouwd 30% onbebouwd 30% undeveloped poverty and low incomes, but the threshold value is also not achieved due to the spatial minimaal 5 ontwikkelende minimaal 2 ontwikkelende partijen a 2250 at least 5 m2 developers minimaal at least2 ontwikkelende 2 developers layout of the modernist neighbourhoods. partijen a 2550 m2 partijen a 2550 m2 of 2,250 m2 of 2,550 m2 toegankelijk hof: 3310m2 accessible courtyard: 30% undeveloped 30% onbebouwd 30% onbebouwd 3,310m2 minimaal 2 ontwikkelende partijen a 2550 m2 30% onbebouwd

minimaal 5 ontwikkelende at least 5 developers partijen a 2500 m2 of 2,250 m2 hof: 2500m2 courtyard: 2,500m2

minimaal 2 ontwikkelende at least 2 developers partijen a 2550 m2 of 2,550 m2 30% onbebouwd 30% undeveloped

Plot features and building line rules All sides are on streets in between. These must be at least 50% developed. In addition, 30% of the total development must remain undeveloped. As a result of this, many possible variations will arise when making building blocks.

7750 m2

ende

7600 m2

5

ende

ende

Plot features and building line rules The two short sides are on a city 3450 m2 street and park2 ontwikkelende strip. These building minimaal partijen 1725 m2developed. lines must be a100% The two long sides are on streets in between, these must be at least 50% developed. Openings for logistics and semi-public spaces are therefore possible here. minimaal 3 ontwikkelende partijen a 2550 m2

7750 m2 minimaal 3 ontwikkelende partijen a 2580 m2

7750 m2 30% onbebouwd

Jerryt Krombeen 10400 m2

minimaal 3 ontwikkelende partijen a 2580 m2 30% onbebouwd

Affordable Paradise

minimaal 3 ontwikkelende partijen a 2400 m2 30% onbebouwd

minimaal 3 ontwikkelende partijen a 2550 m2


6

7

8

3

Spatial quality Bijlmer: Functional use, experience of the city 4-5 Example park block 6-7 In addition to a new urban network in the form of city streets, there will be an optimised recreational park structure, which runs right through the Bijlmer. With school at junctions of the green and urban framework. 8-9 A spatial delineation of the Nelson Mandela park, with building blocks, ensures a more pleasant space, where fronts are facing. 10 Positioning social programme and public facilities

URBANISM

9

10

132 – 133


AMSTERDAM

STRETCHING URBANITY

As a result of a hands-off government, Amsterdam has changed into visionless city, where management is lacking in many overarching areas. By not steering the housing policy for almost 10 years, response and remedial politics appears necessary in order to ensure the city remains liveable in the short to medium term. The best approach is to restore the availability for the middle segment and dispel the housing pressure, as a result of which existing neighbourhoods can also remain affordable. The price is being pushed up by the availability levels and impossible scarcity that has arisen in some segments. A frontal attack on the availability levels would seem to be the most logical response for now. However, you must use the densifications strategically in that case and create an added value with the densification for districts like the Bijlmer.

In the relatively green Bijlmer, a new urban condition is gaining ground. That is leading to an exciting contrast with the current buildings, but a necessary addition for maintaining the vitality of the existing buildings. The densification of the current profile of the Gooiseweg is providing the approx. 90,000 existing residents and 73,000 new residents with a new local network, whereby they are not only getting shops closer to home, but can also go from one neighbourhood to the other more easily. In additions, existing parts of the Bijlmer that are already functioning well or which occupy an important position, such as the world food market, various fresh-food markets, large mosques, Bijlmer Arena boulevard and the Amsterdamse Poort shopping centre, are being incorporated into this urban structure. By connecting these with each other by means of a ground floor city street, new opportunities arise for entrepreneurs and local initiatives. At the crossroads of Bijlmerdreef and the Gooiseweg, the greatest urban pressure will arise, which should be partly fed by a tram line. This tram will complement the larger-scale public transport that will transport people greater distances. To supplement this, the tram can open up neighbourhoods and also form a link with Diemen and Amsterdam Zuid. Various neighbourhoods on the Gooiseweg will receive a quicker connection with the train network via the tram, as well as the core shopping facilities and large amenities like markets of the Bijlmer.

What does this development contribute to Amsterdam? Above all, 33,000 new homes in the Bijlmer. That is to say, space will be created at a fairly specific location for approx. 73,000 new residents and there will be space at this location for more variation in target groups and functions. This intervention will have a considerable impact on the scale of Amsterdam, especially now the majority of these homes will be made available for middle incomes in particular. 80% of the homes that will be built in this plan will be made available, in principle, for middle incomes with an annual income between 33,000 and 70,000 euros. 50% of the homes will be built for midpriced rental and 30% for cheap owner-occupied homes and non-subsidised homes, partly intended for middle incomes. In total, that will provide 26,400 homes for middle incomes. A segment that is in a tight corner.

Korrel en groottes

In addition, space will be created for 6,600 public sector homes. These are partly intended to obtain a better mix with the neighbourhoods that are lagging behind. Between 2007-2013, almost 9,000 homes disappeared in the social housing segment. With the construction of 6,600 homes in the Bijlmer, you can rebuild the majority of what was lost during that time. In spite of this addition to the availability levels, new locations will need to be sought for new public sector houses in different areas.

multitenant business Owners’ bedrijfsverzamel building VVE gebouw association

zorg

employees werknemers Gebruik USE

Owners/buyers/owners’ Eigenaren/ kopers/ VVE association cooperaties, corporaties cooperative association, huurders, bedrijven tenants, companies

Through this intervention, Amsterdam can continue to grow from approx. 840,000 residents to 910,000 residents. Targeted growth in order to attract middle incomes back to the city once again and hold on to them. Adding this programme elsewhere in the city also could lead to shifts. For example, by including 35% public sector housing in the programme (approx. 8,000 homes), the public sector housing programme and the waiting list in the rest of the city can be shifted somewhat. Because the development will take place on municipal land, the allocation of homes and developers can be tightly controlled. The number of residents in the Bijlmer on a quite narrow strip of motorway and residual space can almost double.

klanten customers huurders tenants

huurders tenants winkel shop personeel staff

personeel staff

Panden BUILDINGS

FSI/ FSI/ GSIGSI Function Size and height Functie Tenants Maat en hoogte Huurders

The Bijlmer will receive a new heart for the current 86,000 residents, an urban focus point that will serve the existing neighbourhoods and the old Bijlmer flats within a daily urban facilities structure due to its complementary function. The densification will be used strategically to combat the polarising city. And the new backbone will enable people to unlock local initiatives. Space for entrepreneurship will be created at the most favourable spot in the Bijlmer. This design can, therefore, finally provide a sense of identity.

Kavels PLOTS Erfpacht Ground lease Onderhuurders Subtenants different types of verschillende type ontwikkelaars developers

This development will make a considerable contribution to the envisioned Paradise; sufficient and high-quality daily amenities close to home, and is a step in the right direction towards ensuring the city remains accessible for everyone.

Eigendom PROPERTY Gemeentelijk/ Municipal/ erfpacht ground lease Privaat Private Openbaar Public

11

Jerryt Krombeen

healthcare

Affordable Paradise


12

13

14 11 Grain and sizes 12 Park block 13 Urban block with space for companies and businesses 14 City street with urban functions and activity along the Gooiseweg

URBANISM

134 – 135


WELL-BEING ON THE DOLLARD — WOHLBEFINDEN AM DOLLART Katarina Nöteberg I actually do not come from anywhere. I was born in Germany, but hold Swedish nationality. I grew up in Luxembourg, but that is not home for me. The places where countries merge into each other are often not the places ‘where it’s all happening’. Nevertheless, the border holds an attraction for me. What happens on that line? Does something like a border mentality exist among the people who live there? Are there two regions on both sides of the border or is there a border region with its own identity? My assignment revolves around the question of which spatial concepts could bring the two countries together more strongly. I went in search of which qualities and strengths they might share. How can they reinforce each other? I would like to see the physical environment contribute to a healthy, thriving and social Eems Dollard region in which the local population are the main focus. Which physical adjustments and/or interventions will stimulate common economic opportunities and strengthen the image of the region? How can I stimulate an alternative economy in a region that is dependent on a manufacturing industry that is under intense pressure? Healthcare, recreation and wellness form the basis for my concept ‘Well-being on the Dollard’. Katarina Nöteberg

By improving the accessibility and developing facilities at the right places, the foundation will be created for a region that works together across borders. The region will present and develop itself as a healthy region in various ways. The region will not only become more coherent spatially, but also in a programmatic sense. The places can benefit more from each other and complement each other. For example, patients from the new hospital in Blauwestad can be referred to the new spa on the border to rehabilitate. The concept ‘Well-being on the Dollard’ will be tried out in three places: Blauwestad, Bad Nieuweschans and Weener. I have made three designs for those places. Blauwestad will become a place that cares for its environment: there will be a new regional hospital and a care hotel. In addition, Blauwestad will be better connected with Winschoten, as a result of which Blauwestad will become more interesting for recreational joint use. The existing spa of Bad Nieuweschans will be expanded in the Dollard. The connection between the existing and new spa will be more exciting, as a result of which the village will benefit more from the surrounding landscape. The border will function as an inviting park instead of a Well-being on the Dollard


barrier. Weener will benefit from health tourism: there will also be an eye clinic at the edge of the old harbour. As a result of these and two other improvements in the public space, Weener will have a stronger band with the river. The town will more interesting and liveable for recreational users and citizens. Graduation date 27 06 2017 Commission members Miranda Reitsma (mentor) Jandirk Hoekstra Mark Eker Additional members for the examination Enno Zuidema Ingeborg Thoral

URBANISM

136 – 137


Eemshaven

Emden Delfzijl

Oldersum Pogum Ditzum Critzum

Termunterzijl

Jemgum

Leer

Groningen

Bingum Bad Nieuweschans

Bunde Weener

Blauwe Stad

Winschoten

Papenburg

Rhede

1 Facilities / programme

Recreation

Healthcare Austausch

Well-being on the Dollard

Exchange Identity / landscape

Accessibility

Wellness

Katarina Nรถteberg

Well-being on the Dollard


al

an

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ad

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E

ief

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ke

oc

Kn

EMDEN

be

co

me h

e a l t hy ( gro

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Develop the hospital and care hotel in such a way that they connect people and districts with each other in a spatially and socially.

Delfzijl

ay

hea l

thy

Ems-Se

itenkan

al

Expansion of spa in Dollard. Old structures are made inhabitable again and connect Bad Nieuwschans with the surroundings.

un

de

r tr e

a tm e n t

Use the eye clinic to reinforce the allure of the place and the recreational possibilities.

Schildmeer

Hondshalstermeer

Westerw

oldse Aa

Leer

Bunde Blauwe Stad Bad Nieuweschans aan de Dollard Weener Winschoten

Papenburg

2 Seitenkanal Papenburg _ Gleesen

1

URBANISM

(niet afgemaakt)

2

Project area in a wider context Concept of wellbeing at the Dollard. Blauwe Stad, Bad Nieuweschans, Weener

138 – 139

KĂźs


Ems - Dollart estuarium

1500

1550

1600

1650

1700

1750

1800

1900

1850

1925

1950

Ausbaggern Unterems (1898)

Nesserlander Höft (1583)

Zweite Cosmasund Damianflut (1509)

Weihnachtsflut (1717)

2000

1975

Unteremsvertiefung auf 6m Tiefe (1985-1985)

Februar-flut (1825)

2050

Aussenemsvertiefung auf 14m Tiefe (2015)

Wehr bei Gandersum (2002)

Februarflut (1962)

Wehr Hebrum (1890)

2025

Dijkversterking (1970 - 1980)

Opening Eemshaven (NL) (1973)

VW autohaven Emden (DE) (1964)

Ijzer en Staalhaven Emden (DE) (1913 - 1926)

Groei Emden (DE) (1895)

Offshore windpark Emden (DE) (2000)

Scheepsbouw Groningen (1819 - 1860)

Emder Fahrwasser (DE) (1846)

Ems Jadekanal (DE) (1887)

Randveen

Aardgasveld Slochteren (sinds 1960)

Spoorverbinding met Westfalen (DE) (1855)

Eemskanaal (NL) (1866- 1867)

Strokartonfabrieken (1880 - 1960)

Bloei scheepsbouw Papenburg (1868)

Grossefehn (1633)

Papenburg (1631)

Hollandgängerei (1700 - 1875)

Oude Pekala (1599)

De Blauwe Stad (1990)

DortmundEms-Kanal (DE) (1899)

Spoorverbinding Groningen - Winschoten (NL) (1868)

Winschoterdiep (NL) (1618- 1628)

Hoogveen

Ruimtelijk economische ontwikkeling

Klei(polders) (Marsch)

Dollardpolders (1600 - 1923)

Specialisatie op cruiseschepen (sinds 1980)

Küstenkanal (DE) (1935)

Oude Veenkolonieen (NL) (1600 - 1800)

Moorkolonisation Emsland (DE) (rond 1788)

Bloei Oostfriese veengebieden (DE) (1800 - 1850)

Innere Kolonisation Emsland nationaal crisisgebied Emsland (1947) (1925-1933) normalisering Eems ophogen dijken elektrificatie (1950)

Zand (Geest)

Aardappelzetmeelfabrieken (1840 - 1980)

Beschikbaarheid kunstmest (1870)

Dienstsector concentreerd banen op enkele plaatsen (1960)

Verdubbeling bevolking Groningen (1875 - 1914)

1700

1750

1800

Preussen (1744 - 1806) Ostfriesische Grafschaft (1464 - 1744)

Republiek der Zeven Verenigde Nederlanden (1581 - 1795)

1600

1650

Weimarer Republik (1918 - 1933)

Deutsches Reich (1871 - 1918)

2000

1975

2025

2050

2025

2050

Bundesrepubliek Deutschland (seit 1957) Deutsches Reich (1933 1945)

Koningrijk Holland (1807 - 1813)

Nederland (sinds 1839 )

1700

1750

1800

1850

industrialisatie

80 jarige oorlog

1950

Bataafse Koningrijk der republiek Nederlanden (1795 - 1806)(1807 - 1839)

3

Katarina Nöteberg

1925

1900

1925

1950

2000

1975

Well-being on the Dollard

bevolkingsdaling Groningen

1550

Preussen (1867 - 1871)

KönigreichKönigreich Hannover Holland (1815 - 1866) (1807 - 1813)

Spaanse Nederlanden (1556 - 1715)

1500

Preussen (1813 - 1815)

1900

1850

trek naar de stad

1650

bewustwoording klimaatverandering

1600

Zugehörigkeit Ostfrieslands

1550

Zugehörigkeit Groningen

Politieke ontwikkeling

1500


4

5

3

4 5

URBANISM

Timeline of spatial economic history, linked to the landscape of the Eems Dollard Regio Nieuw Statenzijl with connection to the dyke Hospital in Blauwe Stad

140 – 141


6

6 7 8

View on spa outsite Nieuw Statenzijl Spa buildings Hospital in Blauwe Stad

Katarina Nรถteberg

Well-being on the Dollard


7

8

URBANISM

142 – 143


LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

144 – 145


From a plan to contain rising waters in the river landscape to a proposal to tackle the dykes around the island of Marken — all the landscape architecture graduation projects deal with climate change adaptation in one way or another. But I also see proposals for new recreational functions seeking to benefit from this major societal challenge. That combination is interesting. One of the plans demonstrates that the river area provides many more opportunities than for just water buffering alone; a series of designed objects hold back the water and direct it, but also mark spots where you can sit down for a while, at the same time as lending a poetic undertone to the landscape. What I like is that large landscape assignments are ultimately translated into design, as a result of which they are also given a cultural layer. One example is the project for the embankments of the IJsselmeer lake. The embankment vegetation that is introduced here curbs the beating of the waves on the dyke, which does not have to be raised as a result. But those plant fields also work beautifully in a graphic sense. Another project focuses on the redesign of the fragmented peatlands in the Green Heart (Groene Hart) of Holland. The map that has been drawn for this shows a new spatial cohesion and is a thing of unbelievable beauty.

Maike van Stiphout

Introduction


Biodiversity is another important theme. One of the designers wants to make more room for nature in the public space, in such a way that it is accepted. The question is how you can use challenges faced by people in order to improve the nature and make residents feel good, instead of making everything clean and sleek — without that leading to a neglected appearance. It is about finding a balance between design and rewilding. Maike van Stiphout Head of Landscape Architecture Department

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

146 – 147


KAAP — KOLLEKTIEF AUTONOOM ANDERS PROBEREN (AUTONOMOUS COLLECTIVE TRY DIFFERENT) Kim Jespersgaard Baake Project Kaap is about a close group of friends that have started a commune together. The purpose of this commune is to find a new alternative, contemporary way of living. The dream they have is to create a place where they can live and work together. It has to be a place with studios, workspaces and a collective spaces where outsiders are welcome. It’s a sort of estate where Kaap is the center and functions as an intermediary that contributes to its surroundings and the landscape. It’s important that various parties can benefit from this plan. That is the ideology of Kaap. The search for a suitable location takes place within a 15 kilometers radius around the city of Utrecht. On the Utrechtse Heuvelrug, there are a lot of derelict sites waiting for reconstruction. These places would be better off inhabited. The municipality of Utrechtse Heuvelrug own some of these sites. Two of them seem suitable for Kaap’s purpose. The sites are situated close to each other and as it happens located in the Kaapse Forest nearby Doorn. Unfortunately, these sites are contaminated and remediating these sites is an expensive task. But there is a cheaper and more Kim Jespersgaard Baake

sustainable way: phytoremediation. Phytoremediation is the remediation of soil through plants. There are two techniques of phytoremediation that can be used to clean up the contamination of the two sites. The first technique is to clean contamination in shallow soil (stable and solid). The other one is to clean contamination in more deeper soil (volatile and diffuse). Implementation of these techniques takes a lot of time and supervision. Consequently the role for Kaap is obvious: realising their own housing wishes and the need to clean the pollution on the two sites. Kaap will remediate the soil and leave after 10 years when the soil is cleansed. The sites will have a purpose again and will be more valuable when Kaap has left. The two contaminated sites are situated in the historical estate zone Stichtse Lustwarande. In addition to the stakeholders, the municipality of Utrechtse Heuvelrug and the province of Utrecht, the forest administration plays an important role in the area. The forest administration is the landlord of this area. It is their wish to connect open spaces in the forest and strengthen the efforts concerning ecology. Between the two sites there are also two other stakeholders: Villa Hoog Zand and the estate of De Kaap


Ruiterberg. These two are also in de need of reconstruction. The overall plan is to connect the two contaminated sites and add a new identity to this area. Kaap superpositions a new estate on top of existing estate of De Ruiterberg, the land of Villa Hoog Zand and the forest administration. The concept is to make a new estate in the classic set-up, using all cultural historical elements that traditionally belongs to an estate, but now moulded in a new form with a contemporary design. The plan consists of a landscape zone, park zone and a garden zone. At the northern site (landscape zone) situated at the top of the Heuvelrug an orchard with ‘civil engineered’ phytoremediation will be placed for the volatile deeper contamination. Between the two sites (park zone), wells are placed to monitor the contamination currents. Each well is strategically placed in the landscape and helps to restore the estate De Ruiterberg and the Villa Hoog Zand. Around the wells, elements from the cultural historical idiom of an a estate are placed (berceau, snake wall, axes, domes and follies). The southern site (garden zone) will be filled with traditional phytoremediation and becomes the residential site of Kaap. Eventually the soil will be remediated, the estate will be restored, the ecological efforts will be strengthened and this part of the Stichtse Lustwarande will get back its former glory.

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

Graduation date 11 07 2017 Commission members Yttje Feddes (mentor) Pepijn Godefroy Tjeerd Haccou Additional members for the examination Paul Achterberg Mirjam Koevoet

148 – 149


A28

Potential location Potential location Polluted location Polluted location Emergency locationlocation Emergency N227

Location for sale Location for sale

Zeist

Location for sale / polluted Location for sale / polluted

N226

Location for sale / emergency Location for sale / emergency Station Driebergen - Zeist

Station Maarn Maarsbergen

Driebergen-Rijsenburg

Arn

he

ms

eb ove nw e

g

A12

Doorn

me

m Kro MUNICIPALITY UTRECHTSE HEUVELRUG

Rijn

PROVINCE UTRECHT

Veenendaal West Veenendaal Centrum

Leersum Amerongen

N229

N233

Elst

(Remmerden) Nederrijn Lek

Rhenen

1

A

1 2 3

Supervision remediation

Polluted vacant sites Volatile and diuse pollution Assignment: New estate, clean up sites

Kim Jespersgaard Baake

Kaap


2 Rainfall

A 35 m

57,5 m

Layer of sand 0,6 m +10 nap bottom dumpsite +5 nap groundwater level 0 nap

P4 45 m Monitoring well

Stuwwal complex

35 m CKW

-60 nap Formation of Peize

12,5 m Intervention zone Pump & threat

7,5 m

Formation of Maassluis Formation of Drenthe Anaerobic degradation

Doorn

Regional Geohydrological flow

Formation of Waalre

B

Remediating and supervision

3

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

150 – 151


4

Degradation in leaves

Fytoextratie

Fytostabilisatie

Nutrition tube

Ventilation pipe

Fytoaccumulatie Dimensions variable

Transport water Filter Groundwater level

Degradation in rhizosphere

Treewell

Polluted groundwater

Fytodegradatie Bentonite

5 Well

Filter

4 5 6 7

Polluted groundwater

Kim Jespersgaard Baake

Kaap

‘Civil engineered’ Phytoremediation Traditional phytoremediation Impression of the estate of Kaap Estate of Kaap with tiny houses


6

7

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

152 – 153


Landscapezone Orchard Civil engineering phytoremediatie

Watermirror Fens

P1 Ornamental spot Ruiterberg North

P2 Treahouse

Cultural historical recovery Viewpoint

Treehouse - teahouse Highest point estate

Tenniscourt Cultural historical recovery

Parkzone P3 Berceau Entrance Kaap Parkforest from Ruiterberg

P4 Parkforest Parkforest with follie More open spaces More diversity in green

Baroquegarden Ruiterberg Cultural historical recovery

Zichtas Ruiterberg - Hofstede Cultuurhistorisch herstel

P5 Ornamental spot Ruiterberg South Cultural historical recovery Viewpoint

Routing New forest trail along open spaces

Villa Hoog Zand Sight line Villa - restore flank

Axis Connection estate Ecological connection

Estate KAAP Gardenzone

Phytoremediatie garden Collective space Workshop

50km streat Add speed bumps Reduce speed

STAKEHOLDERS Province Utrecht

Utrechts Landschap

Municipality Utrechtse Heuvelrug

Forest Administration

Waterschap Hoogheemraadschap de stichtse rijnlanden

Estate De Ruiterberg

Watercompany Vitens

Villa Hoog Zand

Kollektief Autonoom Anders Proberen

8 9

Kim Jespersgaard Baake

Kaap


10

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12 13 8 9 10 11 12 13

Plan with stakeholders and interventions Plan of Gardenzone and residential site of Kaap Orchard: ‘Civil engineered’ phytoremediation Ornamental spot De Ruiterberg South Courtyard estate Kaap Phytoremediation garden

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

154 – 155


SCHOUWBURG GARDEN ROTTERDAM — ENCLOSED GARDEN GEM FOR ROTTERDAM Frank den Boer The Schouwburg Garden is the sunken urban garden in the former car park under the Schouwburgplein (Schouwburg square). The Schouwburg Garden sets its sights on creating a social and green-blue climate for the urban dweller and responds to the stony space of the Schouwburgplein, which needs to be laid out in a more social and climate-conscious way. The concept of the Schouwburg Garden consists of nine garden gems for humans to inhabit and experience nature. The gems are made up of refined shells, which provide space for humans and nature. Each of the six garden gems are an oasis in the city and contain a rich variety of plants and water features. An exclusive swimming gem will restore an important social component to the location, which was once a great success in the first square of the post-war reconstruction plan. Two entrance gems provide access to the Schouwburg Garden at the side of cultural institutions, the Rotterdamse Stadschouwburg theatre and De Doelen concert hall. As a result of its sunken location, the garden can be closed off and contains a range of delicate perennial borders in the centre of the city, which provide a wealth of smells and colours. Frank den Boer

The gemlike plants will produce pollen throughout the year, as a result of which nature will be facilitated and experienced. Cars from the former Schouwburgplein underground car park will make way for human habitation. The interior of the concrete parking facility is the basis for the Schouwburg Garden. By smartly demolishing the floors of the two-storey car park, footbridges will be created at street level, floors for pavilions in the gardens and floors for buildings at the edge of the garden. Columns between garden gems serve as play opportunities. The six large garden gems have the same layout with perennial border, helophyte filter and a mirror pond. The six helophyte filters together function like kidneys, cleaning the swimming water of the swimming gem with a pump system for safe and clean water. Rainwater is stored under the garden surfacing, which will flow into the sunken garden under the force of gravity. The rainwater will provide the plants with water, as a result of which evaporation and cooling will arise for a pleasant atmosphere. In addition to an experience of nature, the garden gems will provide space for a social program. The Schouwburg Garden Rotterdam


edges of the six garden gems and water gem provide an opportunity to sit down. A widened edge at strategic places will provide space for performance art or lying space. At the heart of the garden gems, and underneath the Pathé cinema, there will be pavilions for collective social activities. For example, there will be a small cabaret amphitheatre at the the side of the Schouwburg Garden and a pavilion for dance in the swimming gem. At the centre of the garden, there will be an enclosed pavilion with a patio and habitable space on two levels for yoga, for example.

Graduation date 18 04 2017 Commission members Bruno Doedens (mentor) Peter Lubbers Dirk van Peijpe Additional members for the examination Jana Crepon Joyce van den Berg

The garden is divided into a central public zone with water axis and a private zone at the edges. Built programme will be facilitated with social interaction at these edges, which reacts to the context of this place. The buildings at the edge of the garden will connect social habitation at street and garden level with each other by means of a restaurant and/or café function. Two underground guarded bicycle parking areas will lead visitors to the garden. The Schouwburg Garden will provide plenty of space for a varied and fun visit and provide the basis for social encounters in the city centre of Rotterdam. As a result of this, the Schouwburg Garden will be close to the hearts of Rotterdam residents and visitors to the city!

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

156 – 157


1

1 2 3

Pavillion and garden Pavilion for relaxation and reflection Swimming gem and pavilions for dance with entrance gem in the background

Frank den Boer

Schouwburg Garden Rotterdam


2

3

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

158 – 159


4

5 6

Frank den Boer

Schouwburg Garden Rotterdam


7

8

9

10

4 5

Plan on street level Detail planting scheme garden gem 6 Longitudinal section Schouwburg Garden Plan on street level 7 6 gems with plants and 1 gem as swimming pond 8 Access routes and entrances 9 Six garden gems that function like kidneys to purify rainwater from the swimming gem 10 Plan on garden level -2

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

160 – 161


THE DUTCH LEVEL — FUTURE FOR A FINITE LANDSCAPE Jelmar Brouwer We all know that image. Green meadows, small rhythmic plots surrounded by water, the ditch level close to the ground level and cows grazing in the fields. It is a typical Dutch image that we associated with the Netherlands and also the logo of the Groene Hart (Green Heart) area. It is a given in this landscape that you live below sea level and the peat soil subsides each year. Nobody realises how this works and what consequences that will have. Om average, the soil in the western part of the Netherlands is subsiding by 10mm per year. It is a relatively slow process that has already been underway for centuries. The soil has now subsided many metres and will continue subsiding even further if we continue like this. This will have consequences for our safety, for the costs of the landscape, for the possibilities thereof and for the climate. The Dutch Level is a vision of the future of this landscape. A longterm vision where we assess the value of the landscape, retain the qualities, preserve the peat and work towards a thriving landscape once again. It is a turning point in the way in which we have been organising the landscape for decades. We therefore call a halt Jelmar Brouwer

to the lurking deterioration of this landscape. The current landscape is organised in accordance with the principle ‘water level follows the function’. That is to say a uniform landscape and more than 120 different water levels in order to be able to preserve that. As a result of processes that we are not able to exert any influence on, such as the various compositions of the soil and the associated speeds of soil subsidence, that has got totally out of hand. By setting one water level instead, existing ground level heights do not pose challenges, but opportunities. The new and higher water level will lead to different water depths. Growing conditions and opportunities for crops, which are suitable for these wetter landscapes, will therefore arise. They will bring diversity to the uniform landscape and make the area more attractive to people from outside. This vision advocates the broadening of our horizon that is currently restricted due to practical arguments. It is a feasible future prospect and reveals the possibilities for a new landscape. An economic boost for the farmer with unprecedented recreations qualities as a result. Expansive hiking areas, The Dutch Level


an unprecedentedly large waterway network, thriving village centres and development opportunities for the farmyard. Landscape, system, use and recreation go hand in hand with this. The Dutch Level is a future perspective for the next Dutch landscape and an opportunity for the metropolis. Graduation date 18 07 2017 Commission members Hanneke Kijne (mentor) Ruut van Paridon Bruno Doedens Additional members for the examination Phillomene van der Vliet Roel van Gerwen

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

162 – 163


1

2

Jelmar Brouwer

The Dutch Level


120

3

12

4

25+ 20+ 15+ 10+ 0 102030405060-

203040506070-

5

6

1 2 3 4 5 6

The Green Heart Soil decline and sea level rise Existing water levels New water levels Existing drainage New drainage

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

164 – 165


Abcoude

Vinkeveen Mijdrecht Wilnis

Nieuwkoop Breukelen

Maarssen Zegveld

Woerden

Harmelen

7

Dairy farm Cranberry Peat moss Bulrush Reed

7

Growing conditions wet crops 8 Growth conditions: peat meadow 9 Cranberry 10 Peat moss 11 Cat’s-tail, reed

Jelmar Brouwer

The Dutch Level


3700 ha > 40-

7

2000 ha 20- 30- 40-

8

880 ha* 30-

9

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

800 ha 0 5+ 10+ 15+ 20+ 25+

10

166 – 167


12

13

Jelmar Brouwer

The Dutch Level


14

12 Varied landscape (cranberry, peat moss, dairy cattle) 13 Wet landscape (bulrush, reed crop) 14 Dry (continuation dairy farm)

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

168 – 169


SHORE LAB IJSSELMEER — INNOVATION LANDSCAPE FOR FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT BY BUILDING WITH NATURE Stein van Brunschot More than two thousand years, the Hollandse Landleeuw (Dutch Land Lion) has been trying to impose its will on the Waterwolf (Dutch word for tendency of lakes in low-lying peaty land to enlarge by flooding): the era in which humans dominate nature. A total revolution is in progress. Hard flood defences and recording natural processes are no longer the solution. In the new era, humankind is ingeniously mastering landscape processes: ‘Building with Nature’. The Hollandse Landleeuw (Dutch Land Lion) is entering into cooperation with the Waterwolf. Knowledge of ‘building with nature’ is required for the new era. To keep our delta liveable and to further develop the globally tradition of water innovation. The artificial lake is coming under heavier pressure, risks are increasing due to the capriciousness of the climate; sea-level rise and river extremes (drought and too much water). In order to guarantee flow and buffer capacity, the government is introducing a flexible water level at the IJsselmeer lake: a range that is going to be expanded to possibly half a metre in due course. This creates problems: it sets new requirements for flood risk Stein van Brunschot

management and has an impact on the shore system. In my proposal, ‘Building with Nature’ methods will be used to transform the problems (water, economics, ecology) which are intensifying due to the flexible water level, into a comprehensive area development. The flexible water level as ‘reconciliation between the regulated and the natural water system’. With the IJsselmeer as role model for the ‘new flood risk management era.’ The rich diversity in shore typology on the IJsselmeer thus offers an excellent opportunity for the ‘building with nature’ experiment: the SHORE LAB IJsselmeer. The landscape design was made for two locations with divergent characteristics, problems and ‘building with nature’ potential. Noordoostpolder (North-East Polder): the ‘back dyke cultivation marsh’, ‘floating elements’ and ‘living reefs’ together form a new phenomenon at the edge of the polder. Capitalising on seepage problems, the deep waters and the identity of agriculture and the fishing industry. The production landscape is combined with new Shore Lab IJsselmeer


ecological values and flood risk management. Friese IJsselmeerkust (Frisian IJsselmeer Shore): boomriffen (tree reefs), kraggendammen (floating root mat dams) and the moeraspolder (marsh polder) tie in with the shore characteristics like sediment transport and shore vegetation. They increase the area and robustness of the natural water defences, a spectacular ecological landscape where recreation is combined with flood-risk management. The new icon in the Dutch delta, a collaboration between entrepreneurs, governments, nature organisations, knowledge institutes and water managers together form the SHORE LAB. The series of sub-projects create a waterretaining park laboratory. The edge of land and water; previously the separating dyke, transforms into the connecting piece between water and hinterland. In contrast to the marking posts: dyke and pumping station, the ‘building with nature’ experiments provide new economic revenue models. A long-term investment, with the result being safety, ecological progress and prosperity. Graduation date 30 08 2017 Commission members Sander Lap (mentor) Lodewijk van Nieuwenhuijze Joost van Hezewijk Additional members for the examination Berdie Olthof Roel Wolters LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

170 – 171


1

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Stein van Brunschot

Shore Lab IJsselmeer


1

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3 4

North-East Polder and Frisian IJsselmeer Shore with Shore Lab experiments Friese IJsselmeerkust (Frisian IJsselmeer shore), self-reliant nature landscape Noordoostpolder (North-East Polder), productive shore New era: ‘building with nature’, floorrisk management as comprehensive area development

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

4

172 – 173


5

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Stein van Brunschot

Shore Lab IJsselmeer


9

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5

Kraggendammen (floating root mat dams) 6 Boomriffen (tree reefs) 7 Building kraggendammen (floating root mat dams), ‘water level viewpoint’ with low water 8 Development kraggendammen (floating root mat dams), ‘water level viewpoint’ with high water 9 ‘Living reefs’, breakwaters, new biotopes and food production 10-11 Moving breakwaters, landscape shell for aqua culture

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

11

174 – 175


12

12 Water-retaining production landscape, from line to landscape

Stein van Brunschot

Shore Lab IJsselmeer


LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

176 – 177


THE LIFELINE — THE RONDJE EILAND (ISLAND CIRCLE) FORMS A GROWING STRUCTURE WITH AN INSPIRING SYMBIOSIS BETWEEN PLANT, ANIMAL AND HUMAN Floris Grondman In this project, a new green-blue structure was designed for the city of Utrecht, where the banks of the Amsterdam-Rhine Canal (Amsterdam-Rijnkanaal) and the Merwede Canal (Merwedekanaal) will be transformed, as a new circle around Kanaleneiland, into a growing structure. The residential building infill development planned by the city at this location close to the city centre will, due to high density, put pressure on the public space. Partly due to these developments, it is now a good moment to make a strong natural (and recreational) circle around Kanaleneiland that is of major significance to the city. This lifeline will ensure that this part of the city remains vibrant and climate adaptive with a healthy urbanisation for plant, animal and human. The lifeline is built up of three supports: the fully regulable and adaptive water system is based on expansion of the current drainage canal and will ensure that a robust water system is created for the entire Kanaleneiland. The gradients in the green structure create good conditions for growth of plants and shrubs, as a result of which a robust green structure arises. Floris Grondman

The hardening and a toolbox of architectural elements are not only functional, but create a wonderful interplay, in a poetic way, between the dynamic green and static grey in the environment. The various design applications of this toolbox provide, on different scale levels, a rich ecological environment with a symbiosis between plant, animal and human. In scale models of 1:1, this interplay between green and grey has been elaborated into beautiful elements in which the desired symbiosis is visible. By providing space and time, the lifeline is a growing green-blue structure in which development and change are essential. In this way, the urban space can be functional and inspiring at every moment in its development. Graduation date 23 03 2017 Commission members Hanneke Kijne (mentor) Sjef Jansen Donald Marskamp Additional members for the examination Mirjam Koevoet Roel Wolters The Lifeline


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LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

1-3

178 – 179

Grow models, executed in full size


Project area

4

Zoning map, island circle 5 1971 Introduction Amsterdam-Rhine Canal (AmsterdamRijnkanaal) 6 2016 From expansion to infill development 7 1971 Introduction Amsterdam-Rhine Canal (AmsterdamRijnkanaal) 8 2016 From expansion to infill development 9 Adaptive water system 10 Kanaleneiland over historical straight line landscape

Floris Grondman

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The Lifeline


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LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

180 – 181


11

WATER SYSTEM An intricate water system leads the water to the lifeline

GREEN STRUCTURE

12

The bank profile and possible gradients in soil form the condition creating structure within which natural growth can take place.

HARDENING This support, consisting of more static material, has a functional and expressive role in the structure. It facilitates slow traffic, including cyclists, athletes and pedestrians. In addition to this infrastructure, the lifeline is connected by a series of architectural elements.

Floris Grondman

11 Three supports 12 Conceptual representation of the lifeline 13 Zoning map, section Merwede area 14 Element, tree tubs 15 Element, stepping stone 16 Element, biotopes wall 17 Section, partial elaboration ‘Tree biotope’

The Lifeline


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13 17

tree tub 20m

1 to 4 13m 1 to 4 water connected with drainage canal

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

tree tub 15m

1 to 3 1 to 2 4m 1 to 2 2m 5m drainage canal Kanaalweg wet berm footpath

182 – 183

C-C’


NIEDERRHEIN NATIONAL RIVER PARK — WATER RETENTION IN THE LOWER RHINE PLAIN Robbert Jongerius Climate change is expected to continue in Europe and the damage caused by river floods will have increased fourfold by 2050. This requires a timely and structural intervention in the river basins of the large European rivers. In order to reduce the flood risk, the Netherlands has opted for river widening instead of dyke heightening following the floods of 1995. By moving the dyke at many spots, the Dutch rivers have been given more room. In spite of the success of the Room for the River project, the Rhine delta is still not safe. Recent research has shown that most river dykes do not comply with the safety standards. The standards have been raised and the ‘Piping’ failure mechanism has been incorporated into the calculations. The result is is that yet another round of costly dyke strengthening awaits the Netherlands. In addition, there appears a great risk of river floods in the Netherlands from the German Lower Rhine (Niederrhein) due to the very poor state of the German dykes just across the border. The Lower Rhine Plain, between Duisburg and the Arnhem-Nijmegen urban region is the key area for the high-water problems in the Netherlands and the German Ruhr Robbert Jongerius

region. The 18,000 hectares of potential retention room in the area can lead to a reduced water level of half a metre in the Rhine, and the dykes in the area must be massively redeveloped. The result of such an intervention is that the Netherlands will have to strengthen the dykes less intensively and that the German Ruhr region and the Rhine delta will become water safe. Niederrhein National River Park is the structural solution for the long term. A land reservation of this size is, however, almost unthinkable. That is why the river area between Duisburg and the Arnhem-Nijmegen urban region will be given the status ‘National park’. This will attract more visitors and investors to the area, which will lead to a financial impulse and the status can prevent these areas becoming built-up. The Niederrhein National River Park is functional, recreational, natural and innovative. The enormous scale of the project is an opportunity to address large spatial agendas and to integrate them into the park design. The four agendas, water safety, ecology, recreation and energy, provide the building blocks for the park. The aim of the project is an energy-neutral, recreational nature reserve within a system of climate-proof dykes, which connects and protects the National River Park


urban regions of Duisburg and the Arnhem-Nijmegen urban region. The river park consists of 13 retention areas that will be developed on a phased basis over a period of 30 years. The Schenkenschans retention area, situated on the Dutch-German border, is the pilot project. The building blocks of the park design will be tested here and the border project symbolises the cooperation between the Netherlands and Germany that will be maintained until the completion of the park in 2050. The park will be comprehensively designed based on spatial quality, the environment and water safety. The experience with process, design and execution that has been gained in the Netherlands with the Room for the River project can be utilised in this project. There is also a better forecasting in terms of time and budget. The total project will begin with a shared master plan, concrete building blocks and a clear goal: An attractive river park between Duisburg and the Arnhem-Nijmegen urban region. Graduation date 31 12 2016 Commission members Lodewijk van Nieuwenhuijze (mentor) Jana Crepon Patrick McCabe Additional members for the examination Peter Lubbers Roel Wolters

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

184 – 185


1 2

1

2

Digging an extra drainage channel is an opportunity to restore the relationship between Schenkenschans fort and the river. The basins become striking landscape objects; striking refuges with magnificent views over the Rhine.

Robbert Jongerius

National River Park


LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

186 – 187


Rhine delta

KEY AREA Niederrhein

Ge

Red: potential retention room; areas that have been dyked in the past 200 years, but have remained undeveloped.

rm

EL

an

EI F

Mittelrhein Main Moezel

Obenrhein

Alpenrhein

3

4 New watercourse

Hydropower plant

river beaches

Overfall Turbine dam electricity network

Emmerich Schenkenschans basin Climate-proof Park dyke (1:100,000)

Recreational harbour

Park entrance

Park entrance

Griethauser Altrhein

Kleve

Robbert Jongerius

Floodplain forest at Old Rhine channel

National River Park

Agricultural island 1:250

Summer dyke 1:250


Extra drainage channel dig

Widen channel

5

Connecting the Old Rhine (Altrhein) with the main stream

Schenkenschans

Drainage channel with side stream

Overfall

Drainage channel winter dyke Wide discharge area in the main stream Schenkenschans

6 Multifunctional ‘convex’ supporting bank 1:3 1:2

Natural ‘hollow’ slope

1:2

Retention area /Park side

1:4 MHW

7

+8m +6m New dyke body of excavated clay Existing dyke body

3

4

5 6 7 8

Expected annual damage in the event of flooding along the Rhine and the Lower Rhine as key area in the high-water problems. Landscape design for the pilot project National River Park Schenkenschans Phase 1: Dig from the Griethauser Altrhein. Final phase: retention area Schenkenschans. Phase 2: Building a new dyke system Phase 3: Building the overfall

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

Concrete support structure Inner dyke 1:2

1:6

Bridge connection across the sill

Rhine

Culvert

1:2 1:8

8 +8m +3m

188 – 189

Normative high-water levels


ATLANTIC WALL — FROM A NEW PERSPECTIVE Kim Kool Hidden behind the gates of the water abstraction area south of Katwijk, a massive concrete wall cuts mysteriously through the landscape. Sometimes as a barrier, high and visible, sometimes lower to the ground, camouflaged in the surrounding dune landscape. The 1.5 km long tank wall in Katwijk is a historical remnant of the Atlantic Wall, built in the Second World War. It’s one of the largest defence works (5,000 km) Europe has ever known. The Atlantic Wall was a sophisticated three-dimensional system in a new era of warfare. Where the enemy was not only on land, but also in the sky and sea. Looking at our way of dealing with cultural heritage, we see a changing movement in how we approach it. At the beginning, after the war, we wanted to destroy everything. The main goal was progression and the objects along the coastline reminded us of the occupation. That is also why the tank wall in Katwijk is unique because of its remaining length and authentic state. This is because it was only about 10 to 15 years later when we realised that some elements were actually worth keeping. As monuments to remember all the victims, for example, or museums with educational objectives, such as telling the next generation that Kim Kool

this can never happen again. We are currently focused on victims and witnesses who have experienced the war, collecting all their stories before it’s too late. In my project, I want to show that this way of collecting stories from witnesses could help us determine how to deal with cultural heritage. ‘Because this beautiful piece of cultural heritage does not only bring us the past, but it can lead us to an understanding of our attitudes about and feelings for what persists (sometimes not too well) in the present’ (Michael S. Roth). For example, when I was standing in front of the wall, it took me out of my historical research into the present where at that moment a huge wall was built between Turkey and Syria. And for me the whole project is about: creating that moment of personal interaction between person and object. But to create that moment of interaction, I think it is necessary to look at the object as a (silent) witness. I see it as my job to create an environment where the object can tell its story and speak to you, and where you feel safe to receive the story and listen. The design seeks a balance between object and interventions. By maintaining the authenticity, but allowing usage. By creating a context, but also the freedom to Atlantic Wall


interpret and discover it for yourself. One of the main interventions is making the area around the tank wall publicly accessible. This creates a new route across the dunes. Where once the wall was whole, new interventions reconnect the remaining structure of the wall to the coast. Stairs are placed along the route, to have a moment of confrontation with the wall. Sometimes from a distance, sometimes close by, which makes it possible to walk along or on top of it. The route ends in the higher sea dunes, where as in the system, land, sea and sky meet and where the local structure of Katwijk hits the giant European line of the Atlantic Wall. The whole route creates a moment of reflection, a new perspective. Graduation date 09 05 2017 Commission members Dingeman Deijs (mentor) Marieke Timmermans Ronald Rietveld Additional members for the examination Eric Luiten Bram Breedveld

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

190 – 191


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3

Kim Kool

Atlantic Wall

Plan 'Something happened to me here. Standing in front of the wall, this place meant more than history, more than my research. I was wrenched loose and realised that this was not history, but that countless walls are still being built nowadays and borders are being erected.' Design principles


current situation disappeared

remaining

disappeared

waterwin area

interventions lift barrier

authentic material

interventions

large and striking

small and subtle

new perspective

sea

air

land

experience

3

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

connection freedom

border division

192 – 193


4

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Kim Kool

Atlantic Wall

The interventions are all made of steel wires (the ones used in reinforced concrete). The idea for the material is based on one of the original building materials, but explicit designed so it’s clear that they are added to the existing structure. By making the tank wall publicly accessible, a new route has been created through the dunes. On top of the foundation of a former bunker, steel wires are pointed 6 metres high towards the sky. Drawing your eye away from the land toward the second layer of defence. In the distance, the next point is again visible. This spectacular point on top of the sea dune shows all the defence layers in one: land, sea and sky. When you look back inland, you see the bunker and the wall in the distance. Standing in the middle, the steel wires form a perfect line with the horizon. Walking through the circle you have a constantly changing and exciting new perspective.


5 6

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LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

194 – 195


AMSTELLAND CLIMATESCAPE — THE RESTORATION OF THE AMSTELLAND BY THE CLIMATE-CONSCIOUS SOCIETY Tim Kort The Amstelland is a landscape in transition. Risen from the sea at the time of the Ice Age, dried up in warmer times into a forest of trees interspersed with reed lands resulting in a thick peat deposit. With the rise of the sea level after the Ice Age, the area was swallowed up by the sea once again. Vegetation conquered the sea with a peat deposit up to five metres above Amsterdam Ordnance Datum as natural history climax. Around 1100 AD, humankind moulded this landscape to its will. Under the direction of the Bishop of Utrecht’s reclamation plan, Amstelland was drained on a large scale and metres of peat evaporated as CO2. Amstelland added to global warming with these emissions. The thick peat deposit was exchanged for large problems in terms of, among other things, water regime and environment. The peat meadow landscape has been exploited for nine hundred years and is running out of its reserves. The agricultural landscape leads to high social costs and is untenable. Time for a new transformation, time for a restoration plan. The restoration plan is a response to the reclamation plan of 1100 AD and gives society a manual on how to transform this landscape. With the increase in tourism and residents, the demand for Tim Kort

recreational options around Amsterdam is greater than ever. The high-quality culturalhistorical Amstelland is becoming overburdened by the many hikers, cyclists, motorists and the agricultural traffic that make use of the narrow roads along the Amstel river. The growing demand for recreation is an solution for the problems that are afflicting this landscape and provide opportunities for a transition from agricultural landscape to climatescape. One look at the soil map shows the natural-historical riches of the Amstelland, hidden beneath a carpet of grass. By connecting the landscaping of the Amstelland to the soil, the natural-historical riches will become inhabitable in the form of woodland environment, reed environment and food environment. The Amstelland of the future is a landscape of great culturalhistorical and natural-historical value. With this restoration, the Amstelland will strengthen its right to exist and the Amstelscheg will be preserved as green lobe of Amsterdam. Climate change will force us to transform to a CO2 neutral society within 20 years. The Amstelland of the future offers the general public the space to compensate its own Amstelland Climatescape


CO2 emissions by blowing new life into lost nature, thus storing CO2. The climate-conscious society sets the restoration of the Amstelland in motion through buying a plot in one of the three environments. A climate-neutral home may be built within the borders of the nature experience so that the Amstelland is also given social significance. In this way, Amstelland Climatescape is created; a landscape of great culturalhistorical and natural-historical value. A restoration plan through which soil subsidence becomes a thing of the past. A landscape that contributes to a better climate, made possible by the climateconscious society. Graduation date 28 08 2017 Commission members Marieke Timmermans (mentor) Dingeman Deijs Jana Crepon Additional members for the examination Marie-Laure Hoedemakers NikĂŠ van Keulen

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

196 – 197


‘What a beautiful place to end my first Amsterdam-Ronde Hoep bicycle route.’

Jannssen Family 3.5 ha / 157,500

Mr Snel 2.3 ha / 103,500

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Tim Kort

Amstelland Climatescape


Society is given the opportunity to buy a climate plot and thus live in a climate positive way

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8 9 10 11 12 13

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Impressionaxonometric projection woodland environment 2017 - land use Development chronicle woodland environment 2017: CO2 emissions & soil subsidence 2037: CO2 absorption & land uplift 1 ha. costs 45,000 euros, 5 ha costs 225,000 euros, a climate plot is affordable for everyone Rule 1: locationappropriate building material so that CO2 is sequestered Rule 2: live off-thegrid Rule 3: open to the recreational user and for each other Rule 4: an image quality plan wood peat > woodland environment Clay > food environment Phragmites peat > reed environment

>

>

>

>

7

8 11

9

12 ...% max. developed, dependent on type of environment nature experience is paramount modern appearance max. two floors restrained use of colour

13

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LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

198 – 199


14

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14 Impression woodland environment 15 Impression reed environment 16 Impression food environment 17 The master plan 18 Elaboration reed environment, food environment and woodland environment

Tim Kort

Amstelland Climatescape


17

16

18

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

200 – 201


FLOWING FORCE — A VISION FOR THE RIVER DELTA AS ONE CONTIGUOUS NATURE CONSERVATION AREA Mirte van Laarhoven The Dutch river delta plays a major role in our national identity and our economy. We have designed it so that we can live safely, are able to sail our ships through it efficiently, and can cycle along it when we want to. After decades of building, however, we have lost sight of the beautiful nature area that passes straight through our country. Functionality prevails, the recreational value does not fulfil its potential, the natural dynamic is low, and the maintenance-prone waterways are facing more and more challenges due to climate change. What if we transform the river delta into a more sustainable, self-sufficient system in which all important functions work together? A system where we make use of the natural forces in order to shape the landscape once again. And where we can create a dynamic system of rivers with the aid of flowing water, erosion and sedimentation that is not only safe and economical, but which is also beautiful and increases the biodiversity. Flowing Force is a ‘cultural design’ for the Dutch Delta, which aims to make stakeholder ‘rethink’ their approach to assignments in this field. The project does not directly make execution-oriented Mirte van Laarhoven

design proposals, but views the Delta as one contiguous nature conservation area where water decorates the landscape and where man and nature can exist together. The vision looks at the DNA of the Delta and allows the various river branches to augment their own character. The impact of the vision is demonstrated in three subareas, which jointly sketch a cross section of the delta landscape and with which three types of missing links are restored within the network of nature areas which run throughout the country. By implementing strategic interventions at crucial spots in the system, assignments relating to water safety, biodiversity, recreation, infrastructure, preserving fresh water, restoring fish and bird migration routes and the implementation of ambitious European nature objectives are approached in a positive manner. Instead of viewing these assignments as conflicting, Flowing Force allows them to actually reinforce each other. One example is the high-water channel close to Varik, originally designed only to drain away a lot of water in the event of high water. By permanently using this channel for both water drainage and navigation, this means room is being made to transform Flowing Force


the current state of the river bend — that is nowadays clogging with sedimentation and requiring a large amount of maintenance being a navigation channel — as a lowwater bed. In that way, the river can restore itself as a lush green nature reserve where water may paint the landscape, where sandy river dunes may thrive along the banks and where visitors can benefit from these flowing forces. A study into landscape design using natural processes led to a toolbox of 15 ‘land-scapers’ that take the principle of building with nature as a starting point. These tools not only shape the landscape, but also deliver added value for biodiversity and recreation. Take, for example, active dunes created by the wind, which are suitable as mountain bike track. In addition to strategic interventions and ‘land-scapers’, the accessibility of the landscape was thought about last. Today, the area is difficult to reach by car, dull for the cyclist and unclear for the hiker. By making a few hotspots easily accessible, people from outside the area can get to know the river landscape more easily without disturbing the peace.

the Dutch Delta can excel in its own flowing force and place a rich and dynamic landscape on the map as destination. One contiguous nature conservation area, with one powerful brand: a dynamic national park that stretches from the eastern to the western border of the Netherlands, where new generations can enjoy and which will also protect us against floods. A landscape that fundamentally changes, because our mindset changes. Graduation date 20 06 2017 Commission members Bruno Vermeersch (mentor) Eric-Jan Pleijster Eric Frijters Additional members for the examination Hank van Tilborg Jana Crepon

I am convinced that by looking at the design of specific places in another way, a totally different idea of the Dutch river delta can ultimately arise; one that is comparable to the grandeur and natural force of the national parks like Grand Canyon, while the landscape will still preserve its current functions. What’s more, LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

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Tidal gradients at the Ventjagerplaten River dunes at the bend of the Sint Andries Meandry bends and swamp in the Rijnstrangen

Mirte van Laarhoven

Flowing Force


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4 5 6 7 8

Mirte van Laarhoven

dynamic

Dynamic delta Flowing Force

water buering 2050

Large bodies of water

2000

continuation Delta programme

normalised

Room for the river

guided meandering 1000 1800

Plan Ooievaar

meandering

Deltavisie Stromende Kracht History of the water course Tidal gradients Active sand Meanders and marsh

Flowing Force


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6

Stick function: start pioneering phase

Grid function: supervise following phase

Cruiser function: ‘comb’ landscape processes

Range function: stimulate gradients

Sleeper function: accentuate expanding step

High point function: articulate landscape process and use

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Stick function: start pioneering phase

Grid function: supervise following phase

Cruiser function: ‘comb’ landscape processes

Range function: stimulate gradients

Sleeper function: accentuate expanding step

High point function: articulate landscape process and use

8

Stick function: start pioneering phase

Grid function: supervise following phase

Cruiser function: ‘comb’ landscape processes

Range function: stimulate gradients

Sleeper function: accentuate expanding step

High point function: articulate landscape process and use

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Mirte van Laarhoven

Flowing Force


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Demonstration Rijnstrangen; from a former sedimented river bed that has been transformed into an agricultural water system to reintroduction of flowing currents with small streams, wetlands and marshes. 10 Demonstration Ventjagersplaten; from dissected embankments to gradual land-water transitions with tidal gradients 11 Demonstration Bend of Sint Andries; from clogging channels to navigation channel and low-water channel with river dunes

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

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208 – 209


BLUE GOLD — THE HIDDEN LANDSCAPE OF OUR DUTCH TAP WATER Evelien De Mey The Dutch landscape is full of gates, fences, walls, barbed wire and locks. It seems as if everyone wants to demarcate and protect his or her property, and keep outsiders out. Not so strange; the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world and people prefer to arrange things neatly and properly within Dutch culture. This is also the case for the available land and the designated use hereof. It seems as if every piece of land belongs to something or someone and that they want to make that known. Fencing and closing off appears to be the simplest and clearest way of doing this. That’s why you will find closed and hidden land everywhere in the Netherlands. In the Soestduinen (Soest dunes), there is a closed groundwater abstraction facility owned by Vitens. Why would there be a fence around the site while the water is abstracted deep under the ground level? Is it possible to open it without cause any damage and why would we want to open it? Entering into discussion with Vitens about now and the future, the reason of closure may be discovered. Soestduinen is the oldest water abstraction facility of Vitens and the first water abstraction facility in Utrecht. There is a beautiful, but Evelien De Mey

empty, pump building. It is even a nationally listed building and the site contains many old relics that can reveal a lot about the technical water abstraction landscape. The design arose for a unique addition to the landscape with the search to gain support for water abstraction companies, guarantee the safety of drinking water and consider the reason for opening. In the design, we let the landscape tell the story of water abstraction through time. But vulnerability also plays an important role. The water abstraction facility will become accessible to the surroundings with a special route. The nationally listed building will be given a new use whereby the water abstraction facility will once again be connected to the landscape. Emotion will be engaged with through themes like purity and depth and tap water will be given a unique place to present itself to the public. Graduation date 13 03 2017 Commission members Hanneke Kijne (mentor) Hank van Tilborg Rianne Makkink Additional members for the examination Bram Breedveld Paul Achterberg

Blue Gold


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Zoning map Blue Gold

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Evelien De Mey

Blue Gold


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Design De Stompert hill Scale model De Stompert

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Evelien De Mey

Blue Gold


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Basic detail route Section De Stompert Section forecourt pumping station Development water through time: 1882 Development water trough time

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214 – 215


THE DYKE MOVEMENT — THREE UNIQUE SIDES THAT MOVE MARKEN TOWARDS THE FUTURE Esther van der Tuin Marken is a beautiful island (peninsula) where time seems to have stood still. The monumental mounds (terps), which used to protect the inhabitants of Marken against annual floods, are now flooded with tourists. The balance between the normal everyday life on Marken and tourism is missing. The distribution of visitors in terms of both time and space is minimal and at the same time there is a shortage of family homes in order to guarantee the preservation of functions on the island. In terms of planning, Marken is ‘locked’ and this limits spatial renewal and innovation. There is an overflow dyke around the peninsula Marken, a primary water-retaining structure. As owner of the dyke, Rijkswaterstaat (Directorate-General for Public Works and Water Management) has stated that the western and southern embankments no longer meet the desired safety standards and need to be reinforced. There is a lack of height, macro-instability and/or insufficient dyke revetment. With respect to the rest of the island, the circular dyke of Marken is less impeded by the spatial regulations, because safety is paramount. In this way, this dyke is, in many respects, the ultimate element that starts the movement towards a more robust and futureEsther van der Tuin

proof Marken in terms of living, recreation and nature development. The circular dyke of Marken consists of three characteristic sides for the island. Each side tells a unique story about Marken both spatially and functionally. A choice has been made to preserve this and to emphasise the identity of each side and to execute it through sitespecific dyke reinforcements. The western embankment is now a low angular dyke. The dyke barely has to be raised further, but this side does have to be protected against wave runup. In addition, it is a shame that the unique village silhouette is barely visible from the dyke. The proposal is therefore to spare the western dyke from reinforcement, but to use it in the construction of ‘lee dams’ (luwtedammen). As a result of this, the dyke is protected against wave runup. The ‘lee dams’ emphasise the angular identity of the dyke and they simultaneously form new routes and sightlines in the direction of the village silhouette. They also provide visibility and protection of the foreland, that is still present here outside the dykes. Furthermore, they contribute to further diversity and nature development in the Gouwzee. The ‘lee dams’ provide space for a new form of tourism, The Dyke Movement


which will especially be stimulated in the winter period. As a result of this, people are invited to spread across the island, not only spatially, but also in time. The southern embankment will use its winding dyke character to emphasise the mounds as icons in the open, vast landscape. The winding dyke will be preserved by raising it carefully and reinforcing it inwards or outwards.

Graduation date 17 07 2017 Commission members Hanneke Kijne (mentor) Harm Veenenbos Saline Verhoeven Additional members for the examination Nikol Dietz Roel Wolters

By building a landing stage for larger cruise ships on the south side of the island, Marken will be better connected with Amsterdam and increasing tourism towards the Marker Wadden. A transferium will be created whereby numerous combinations of (public) transport and routes across the island will be possible. The use of the dyke, as route around the island, will also be better regulated through this. The reinforcement of the northern embankment can contribute to the start of futureproof living in keeping with the village conservation area. So that visitors can see that inhabitants of Marken are still alive, taking account of the water. In this way, the three dyke sides can, on their own but especially through their interplay, enable Marken to move towards the future.

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Savi’s warbler Small swan

Osprey Shoveler Avocet

Night heron Great reed warbler Spoonbill

Marsh warbler

Grebe

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6

Outside the breeding season, the frontlands are well accessible Materialisation western dyke Materialisation southern dyke Materialisation northern dyke The plan for reinforcement of the dyke is based on preservation of the characteristic identity of the three unique sides of Marken, as an accessory to the beautiful island experience. The dyke reinforcement adds multiple functions; nature and tourism development plus new housing possibilities to Marken. The dyke protects the island against water floods and standing still in time.

Esther van der Tuin

2

Brick path with a single stretch string and concrete beam along the edge

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Brick path with a single stretch string and concrete beam along the edge

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Re-use current basalt columns overgrown with grass, anthracite, approx. 0.15-0.20 diameter Re-use current rubble, basalt, anthracite, 25kg approx. 0.20-0.50 diameter

Re-use current basalt columns 50% overgrown with grass, anthracite, approx. 0.15-0.20 diameter Rubble, basalt, anthracite, 30-40kg approx. 0.40-0.60 diameter

Brick path with a single stretch string and concrete beam along the edge

New innovative materials Riprap; limestone, anthracite, 60kg approx. 0.7-1.0 diameter

The Dyke Movement


Outward reinforcement dyke

Inward reinforcement dyke

Equal reinforcement dyke both sides

5

Solution western dyke: support berth and front bank

Solution southern dyke: support berth and front bank, level up until maximum +2.40m NAP

Solution northern dyke: maintain dyke width, slope 1:4 and maximum +2.40m NAP

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9 +2,37

1:2,5

1:2,5 0,20

0,10 -1,00

5,00

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Esther van der Tuin

3,00

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-2,00

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The Dyke Movement

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Concrete path and bridge

Gliding concrete path, 30cm. above ground level +2,37

-0,00

-0,40

-0,10--0,40

5,00

7,00

7,00

3,50

7,00

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-0,40

-1,00

5,00

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40,00

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11 12

7-9

A transferium on the south side of Marken opens up possibilities to new marketing and routes towards and on the island. Possibilities to stay give more profit for Marken itself. 10-12 Places along the dyke get the chance to develop into amazing places, to look back and see historical houses and forward to see innovative living with water, all because of dykes.

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TIDAL DOCKS — SPACE FOR ESTUARY IN ANTWERP Frank Vonk In the last decades, the harbour in the city of Antwerp has dramatically expanded. The result was the ruination of natural systems between city, landscape and river. The river Schelde was heavily canalised along and through the city. A landscape of quays and constructions was the result. The continuous upscaling of the harbour also resulted in vacant docks which were not appropriate for handling big ships and freight activities in the city. What is left is the monument of the quays at the old docks of Antwerp. The city of Antwerp proposes the activation of this old harbour area into a floating city in order to urbanise the space again. Tidal Docks makes a statement: Nature first! The idea is to transform the docks into a tidal landscape, which can be experienced by the residents of Antwerp. The system of docks is perceived as water machine that handles different flows of water. The motor of the water machine is the difference in tide. The unique quality of a 5m tide difference is used to connect the old brook system of the river Schijn with the river Schelde. At high tide, the river enters the docks, while at low tide the river recedes and the brook flows into the river. The river leaves sediment in the docks, which creates mudflats and salt marshes. Frank Vonk

The existing quays frame the water machine. The intervention provides space for the river and creates a complete new landscape in the city. The quality of the water increases because it will be refreshed twice a day. Each dock has its own function in the water machine. For instance, Kempisch dock purifies residual water from the purification plant. Asia dock incorporates willow banks to increase biodiversity and green space in the city. The Hout dock collects all the water. The function of each dock has also recreational potential. For me, it was important that one could experience this new landscape. I combined the purification dock with a swimming dock. The willow banks creates a canoeing paradise. Unlike many nature reserve areas along the river Schelde, this one will be accessible. Instead of a desolate harbour area, the old docks will be transformed into an attractive landscape. A landscape that hosts a sustainable water system that can deal with extreme weather and improves the biodiversity in the city. It encloses the future park structure of the Groene Singel around the city centre of Antwerp. And creates distance towards the harbour.

Tidal Docks


Graduation date 06 07 2017 Commission members Cees van der Veeken (mentor) Kristian Koreman Evert de Baere Additional members for the examination Marie-Laure Hoedemakers Jana Crepon

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Tidal Docks, perspective on Kattendijkdok Principle of the water machine tide dierence and use in the dry docks

Frank Vonk

Tidal Docks


2 Schelde water (brackish) Black/grey water (freshwater) polluted Effluent clean water (freshwater/low-oxygen) Schijn stream water (freshwater/ lightly polluted) Gradient (freshwater/clean/oxygen-rich) Waterway Brackish water

Freshwater

RWZI Deurne Outlet construction with check valve Low water -0.5 TAW

Low water +0.5 TAW

High water +5.33 TAW

High water +1.5 TAW

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Master plan 2035, vacant docks become a tidal park in the north of Antwerp city centre

Frank Vonk

Tidal Docks


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Brackish water landscape of mudflats and salt marshes. Twice a day, at low tide, the mudflats become dry The river Schijn flows through Asia dock and willow banks Roof park on the Ring Road in between Lobroek dock and Albert canal

Frank Vonk

Tidal Docks


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228 – 229


DUTZENDTEICH — DIFFICULT HERITAGE AS NEW PUBLIC PARK SPACES Brigitta van Weeren Cultural history and heritage are often seen as positive and purposeful subjects in design- or planning processes. It contributes to the character of the place; the ‘genius loci’. However, I find the existing approach to cultural history in landscape architecture too narrow; it is often used as a reassuring nostalgic layer which gives a positive feel to the project. Yet this approach does not apply everywhere. How do we then deal with locations that have a difficult heritage and no pleasant history? These locations are often controversial and therefore left to decay, while some of them tell an important story. Dutzendteich is one of those sites. It is the location where in the 1930’s the Nazi Party rallies were held. These rallies tell the story of the Nazis megalomania and the methods they used to indoctrinate the people. It is now a 340 hectares event- and recreational park on the outskirts of Nuremberg. In the 1930’s Albert Speer made a masterplan with an enormous scale of which some prominent structures remain until today. These structures and buildings have been in decay now for quite some time. The city of Nuremberg recently decided to conserve the sites.

Brigitta van Weeren

But what would be the best way of doing this? My idea is to not look at the structures and architecture alone, which is done now, but to connect them to the surrounding park and the city. The current condition of the park isn’t so good, it is outdated, fragmented and the Nazi structures create an immense scale with lifeless open spaces. How could a new approach to this difficult heritage give an impulse to Dutzendteich becoming a high quality city park? My proposal is to incorporate the heritage sites in a better way by making them ‘open spaces’ in the forest. Long before the 1930’s, Dutzendteich started out as fishing ponds in the forest. Since then the city grew around the park with some parts of the forest still present at the site. Instead of reducing the scale of the heritage sites they would become better controlled and defined spaces by placing them into something even bigger: the forest. With this intervention, the difficult heritage gets a place in the longer history of the site. My design focuses on the four open spaces that contain the most prominent and problematic heritage sites. First of all the Grosse Strasse, now an 8 hectares paved parking area, becomes a water axis. Dutzendteich


The footprint of the road remains and the historic structure stays visible but the function changes completely. Instead of a parking lot, it can now be used as a place to swim, row or cycle along. This intervention provides the material for two of the other sites. The soil that is left from digging the water at the Grosse Strasse, is used to fill up the heavily toxic and polluted Silbersee. The Silbersee is an excavation made for the planned ‘Deutsches Stadion’ and has since filled up with ground water and chemicals from the adjacent Silberbuck (debris hill). By filling up the Silbersee, it becomes a Silberdüne, a new park typology that refers to the dunes in the forest surrounding Nuremberg. For the third location, the Zeppelinfeld, the granite stones on the Grosse Strasse are used to create a new public sports square on the now closedoff Zeppelinfeld. The last location is the Congress hall, the biggest preserved national socialist building. The two head-buildings are used for cultural functions, the ‘Dokumentationszentrum’ and the Symphony Orchestra. The proposal is to open up the facade of the U-shaped building that is now mainly used for storage and to make the courtyard, now mainly used for parking, into an exotic courtyard garden.

public park spaces, that will keep on telling the stories of the site. Graduation date 27 06 2017 Commission members Yttje Feddes (mentor) Marieke Kums Joyce van den Berg Additional members for the examination Roel van Gerwen Hanneke Kijne

With these interventions I’m not trying to erase history, but to use it and give it a new meaning for the future. In this way, the heritage contributes to and interacts with its surroundings by becoming new LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

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1 2

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Masterplan Redefining the scale of the heritage sites: four open spaces in the forest with each their own character Filling up the toxic Silbersee creates a new dune, the SilberdĂźne Re-use

Brigitta van Weeren

Dutzendteich


3

4

Re-use: The existing material at the site provides for most of the material of the new designs. The soil from channelling the Grosse Strasse is used to fill the Silbersee, the granite on the Grosse Strasse is used for the square on the Zeppelinfeld. The leftover bricks from opening up the Congress hall get a new usage at the entrance squares of the park. This reuse of material makes the project sustainable and cost-eective.

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5

5-6 Impression of the Grosse Strasse as a water axis 7 Small-scale park program along the water 8 Now: a paved parking area of circa 1.5 km long and 60 m wide in the centre of the park 9 Proposal: the water creates a new use and sense of place but also shows the history by keeping the form intact

6

Brigitta van Weeren

Dutzendteich


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8

9

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10

11

12

Brigitta van Weeren

Dutzendteich


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10 The now closed-o Zeppelinfeld becomes a public sports square made out of the granite from the Grosse Strasse 11 A tennis practice wall on the backside of the Zeppelintribune 12 Playing basketball on the Zeppelinfeld with the Zeppelintribune in the background 13 The new public courtyard garden with lush planting and exotic plant species 14 The courtyard garden is located at one of the main park entrances and could be programmed by the cultural functions that are in the headbuildings of the Congress hall

14

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Architect, Master of Science Urbanist, Master of Science Landscape Architect, Master of Science Architects, urbanists and landscape architects learn the profession at the Amsterdam Academy of Architecture through an intensive combination of work and study. They work in small, partly interdisciplinary groups and are supervised by a select group of practising fellow professionals. There is a wide range of options within the programme so that students can put together their own trajectory and specialisation. With the inclusion of the course in Urbanism in 1957 and Landscape Architecture in 1972, the Academy is the only architecture school in the Netherlands to bring together the three spatial design disciplines under one roof. Some 350 guest tutors are involved in teaching every year. Each of them is a practising designer or a specific expert in his or her particular subject. The three heads of department also have design practices of their own in addition to their work for the Academy. This structure yields an enormous dynamism and energy and ensures that the courses remain closely linked to the current state of the discipline. The courses consist of projects, exercises and lectures. First-year and second-year students also engage in morphological studies. Students


work on their own or in small groups. The design projects form the backbone of the syllabus. On the basis of a specific design assignment, students develop knowledge, insight and skills. The exercises are focused on training in those skills that are essential for recognising and solving design problems, such as analytical techniques, knowledge of the repertoire, the use of materials, text analysis, and writing. Many of the exercises are linked to the design projects. The morphological studies concentrate on the making of spatial objects, with the emphasis on creative process and implementation. Students experiment with materials and media forms and gain experience in converting an idea into a creation. During the periods between the terms there are workshops, study trips in the Netherlands and abroad, and other activities. This is also the preferred moment for international exchange projects. The Academy regularly invites foreign students for the workshops and recruits well known designers from the Netherlands and further afield as tutors. Graduates from the Academy of Architecture are entitled to the following titles: Architect, Master of Science; Urbanist, Master of Science and Landscape Architect, Master of Science.

238 – 239


ADVISORY BOARD Markus Appenzeller, Jan-Richard Kikkert, Madeleine Maaskant, Maike van Stiphout EDITORS Klaas de Jong, Bruno Vermeersch, Michiel Zegers TRANSLATION Richard Glass (Alphabet Town) THANKS TO Nik Berkouwer, Theo Peters GRAPHIC DESIGN Arthur Roeloffzen PRINTING Art Libro | Drukkerij Roelofs PUBLISHER Amsterdam Academy of Architecture Waterlooplein 213 1011 PG Amsterdam The Netherlands T +31(0)205318218 info@bwk.ahk.nl www.academyofarchitecture.nl ISBN 978-90-827761-0-2 © Amsterdam Academy of Architecture and the authors

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ARCHITECTURE Matter of Food The Heard and Spoken Word About Walls and Other Freedoms The Seven Follies of Lampedusa What a Waste Take Five Memory Lane The Transformation of Schalkwijk The Ark Stardust Home of Legends Work the City URBANISM Illustrated Densification Atlas of Haarlem The Noordrand of Brussels and its Hidden Potential Waarderpolder Affordable Paradise Well-being on the Dollard LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE Kaap Schouwburg Garden Rotterdam The Dutch Level Shore Lab IJsselmeer The Lifeline Niederrhein National River Park Atlantic Wall Amstelland Climatescape Flowing Force Blue Gold The Dyke Movement Tidal Docks Dutzendteich

9000

978-90-827761-0-2

Graduation projects 2016 2017 amsterdam academy of architecture  
Graduation projects 2016 2017 amsterdam academy of architecture