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Antoine Fourrier A vegetable garden for Paris Le Plateau de Saclay: designing with agriculture Samutrakade 727, 1019PV Amsterdam +31 (0)6 17 06 66 28 antoine.fourrier@yahoo.fr linkedin.com/in/antoine-fourrier Landscape Designer at REDscape Landscape and Urbanism & at van Paridon x de Groot landscape architects

Amsterdam Academy of Architecture Graduation Projects 2014-2015


Landscape Architecture

Antoine Fourrier A vegetable garden for Paris Le Plateau de Saclay: designing with agriculture

In the last years, the urban sprawl phenomenon has particularly affected our peri-urban agricultural areas. Due to the growth of our cities and consequent strong demand for housing, farmland is disappearing more and more each year. This has become a source of growing social, ecological and cultural concern. The case of the peri-urban farmland of Saclay in France is a good example of this problem. Located on top of a plateau, Saclay is one of the largest agricultural areas within the outskirts of Paris. The area is part of the Grand Paris urban plan and will become the ‘French Silicon Valley’, a cluster of research and science, in the near future. This is a place of both agricultural and heritage significance. Despite their industrial practices, the farmers of Saclay has been seeking to get closer to the consumer. They have formed community-supported agriculture associations and are greatly appreciated by people. They have also been protesting against the urbanisation of their fertile lands with the support of public opinion. If people are keen to protect Saclay, it is because this place is a heritage landscape. Indeed, the water system of Saclay and its aqueduct used to provide water to the fountains of Versailles in days gone by. The ambition of this project is to transform Saclay into a meaningful agricultural landscape for the metropolis, instead of it being a building reserve. This project will investigate how fresh food production can be a driving force for peri-urban areas. Sustainable and intensive agriculture The future of farming begins with the landscape. We should use all aspects of the landscape to produce more and better food. Nowadays, a new kind of agriculture is being developed together with precision farming, agroecology, and high-tech farming techniques. These new technologies use all the aspects of the landscape to produce food in an optimum way, according to the climate, soil, water or topography of the place. This project develops a strategy to encourage the farmer to work together with the scientific cluster Paris-Saclay and cooperate with the locals in order to produce fresh food. Consequently, instead of being a threat, the urban development of the new scientific cluster is a great opportunity for farmers through the sharing of knowledge and competences. Furthermore, the rationality and the functionality of the agriculture in Saclay can lead to a poetic landscape. Among other things, contemporary farming can create new landscapes and regenerate old structures. For example, clumps of trees can grow in the corners not accessible by automated agricultural machinery, in evocation of wood once used for hunting. Moreover, this wood can be used for other agricultural purposes (mulching, animal feed, etc.). Typical tree alignments from the 17th century can also be brought back with a new agricultural and recreational infrastructure. Finally, the old water system can be used for high-tech aquaponic farming or for more traditional watercress and snail farming. New connections are proposed between the villages and the metropolis. The future metro station Paris-Saclay can be a great location for an agro-logistic hub. Here, people can buy fresh products and see how food is produced and processed. Saclay has remained a curiosity in the French landscape due to its innovative water system from the 18th century. Tomorrow, the technology of the 21st century will transform this place again. This technological revolution will also result in a landscape revolution. Saclay will shift from a monotonous, large-scale landscape to a deeply diverse and subtle landscape. Agriculture can become highly meaningful for the metropolis by connecting the farmers and the people with the beauty of an innovative agricultural landscape. Graduation date 06-07-2016

Commission members Ruut van Paridon Gianluca Tramutola Jana Crepon

Additional members for the examination Harm Veenenbos Niké van Keulen


Antoine Fourrier


Landscape Architecture

FISH

BEETS

CHICKEN

TEA THEA

COCONUTS SUGAR

CHICKEN

PEPPER

CACAO COFFEE

TEA SUGAR

SUGAR

BANANA

APPLE PEARS

ORANGES

ORANGE APPLE

SHEEP

DAIRY PRODUCT KIWI APPLE

GRAPES

ONION

COFFEE

CACAO

SUNFLOWER

BEAN ORANGE SOY

STRAWBERRIES

OIL BEEF

COFFEE

SUGAR

PEANUT

THEA

COFFEE

CABBAGE

SOY BEAN

PEANUT

COFFEE

APPLE

MANGO

RICE

THEA

TEA FRENCH BEANS

CITRUS CASHEWS

TEA COFFEE MAIZE

COCOA

PORK

CHICKEN

FISH

COFFEE

CACAO

FRENCH BEANS

COFFEE

COFFEE

COFFEE

OIL CACAO

COFFEE

CACAO

MANGO

COFFEE CACAO

ORANGE

COFFEECOFFEE

BERRIES BERRIES COFFEE COFFEE

CABBAGE CHICKEN POTATO RICE ONION CABBAGE PORK CHICKEN ONION

FISH

WHEAT

MELON

GRAPE

KIWI

BEEF

WHEAT CORN MILK PRODUCTS

OAT WHEAT

CARROTS

SUNFLOWER OIL WATER MELON STRAW STRAWDATE FIG

CACAO

OAT

POTATO

WHEAT RYE POTATO WHEAT

BANANA MILK

MANGO

CACAO COFFEE

CABBAGE

CORN APPLES

VODKA

BARLEY

POTATO

FISH

CITRUS

CACAO

CACAO

MILK

COFFEE

CACAO

COFFEE

EGGS

CACAO

BANANA

COFFEE ASPERGE

CHICKEN

CACAO

KIWI

FENCH BEANS

FENCH BEANS

ORANGES

FISH

SUGAR CACAO

WINE

DATE

FISH

COFFEE

BANANA

Location of Saclay

KIWI

SUGAR

BANANA

Saclay

FRENCH BEANS

SUGAR

TOMATOES

SUGAR

OAT RYE SUNFLOWER OAT

APPLE EGGS MILK BEEF

LETTUCE

ORANGE

COFFEE

Versailles

CUCUMBER

CORN BARLEY CABBAGE

LETTUCE MILK CARROTS WHEAT TOMATO PORK CARROTS BARLEY

PORK

OAT

ORANGES

APPLE

MILK

WHEAT STRAWBERRIES

Paris

MILK

FISH

FISH POTATO

CORN BEEF BARLEY MILK

An unsustainable food system - where does our food come from?

Marshlands Paris

Se

FISH PRODUCTS

MILK

FISH SHELLFISH MAPLE SYRUP SOY

Versailles

ine

Se

1300

Fresh food production

Defence line 1814-1870

ine

Se

Saclay Saclay

Saclay

18th century

20th century

Fresh food production

Se

ine

ine

Saclay

Today

Paris grew in tandem with its agriculture

Ditch 1

Underground aqueduct

2

Lake of Saclay

Underground aqueduct

Yvette river

3

1 Ditch

5 Versailles 4 Acqueduct of Buc La Bièvre

Saclay, a heritage landscape: a landscape to provide water to the fountains of Versailles by using the swamps and the lakes of Saclay

Urban development in Île-de-France - Source: Jean-Luc de Bry, Le cauchemar pavillonaire, Apr. 2012

Demonstration against the urbanisation of the Plateau de Saclay - Source: ADEVE, Dec. 2013


Antoine Fourrier Urban area Built-up area New metro line Water

Agriculture & research Existing water

Aquaculture

New water

Wetland agriculture

Landscape structure

A vision for Saclay: creating an attractive and diverse landscape through innovative agriculture

The Agri-Cluster at Saclay metro station: an entrance to an agricultural park

Fruit contour farming

Path along ditch

Fruit polyculture

Agri-infrastructure

Tomatoes & cucurbitaceae polyculture

Historical tree alignment

Root crops & legumes contour farming

Fort

Root crops, legumes & nuts contour farming

Path

Leaf vegetable polyculture

Combined metro line & agri-infrastructure

Fields for research


Landscape Architecture I - Conditions

II - Landscape framework

III - Farming typology

IV - Ownership

Polyculture

Big farm (more than 300ha)

Agroforestry

Medium farm (100 - 300ha)

Contour farming

Small farm (50 - 100ha)

Topography

Contour farming + agroforestry

Cooperative farming

Hydrometry

Niche farming

Municipality, Private & Science Cluster

°C

Climate Use

Cultural history

Water

Pedology

Nutrients

NO3 Landscape structure

Strategy and design principles

Silt contour farming: root crops and legumes

Silt poly culture: fruit & leaf vegetables, legumes

Silt poly culture: fruits & condiments

Clay contour farming: fruits

Sand Contour farming: root crops & nuts

Shallow waters: watercress & condiments

Lakes & ponds: fish & leaf vegetables

Wetland: sheep & amphibians

‘Foodscapes’ according to the different conditions of the landscape

Innovative agriculture generating a new landscape structure - Location: Orsigny area


Antoine Fourrier

Farm entrance

Farmer route through the fields

A multifunctional farmer infrastructure

A new water system for agricultural irrigation - Location: West side of Saclay Lake

Watercress farming and snail farming - Location: Corbeville ditch

A diverse and attractive agricultural landscape - Location: North of Saclay village


Landscape Architecture

Nature reserve

DGA thrusters trials, Military Base N118 motorway Rare connections Bird reserve to the landscape

An isolated landscape monument - Location: Lake of Saclay (existing)

Buc

Experimental fields

Aquaponic Farm entrance

Aquaculture

Tree alignment along new agricultural infrastructure

Route along the ditches Ditch for water storage & watercress culture

A productive water system - Location: Lake of Saclay (proposal)

Biochemistry

Enclaved farm

Experimental fields Seed research

Valley

Research centre

Farmer infrastructure

Guyancourt

Connection from the city to the research fields Connection to the farm

An enclave experimental field - Location: La Minière (existing)

An agri-research park - Location: La Minière (proposal)

New path ‘Designed by agriculture’

New tree clumps for wood production Fruit polyculture Contour farming Agriculture

Modern and diverse agriculture - Location: Orsigny

Connection to the valley Vegetable polyculture


Antoine Fourrier

Bringing back an old tree structure for farmers & recreational use - Location: Domanial ditch

The experimental fields of the Paris-Saclay science cluster - Location: Moulon

A water structure upgraded for new use for recreational purposes - Location: Orsigny ditch


Architect, Master of Science Urbanist, Master of Science Landscape Architect, Master of Science Architects, urbanists and landscape architects learn the profession at the Amsterdam Academy of Architecture through an intensive combination of work and study. They work in small, partly interdisciplinary groups and are supervised by a select group of practising fellow professionals. There is a wide range of options within the programme so that students can put together their own trajectory and specialisation. With the inclusion of the course in Urbanism in 1957 and Landscape Architecture in 1972, the Academy is the only architecture school in the Netherlands to bring together the three spatial design disciplines under one roof. Some 350 guest tutors are involved in teaching every year. Each of them is a practising designer or a specific expert in his or her particular subject. The three heads of department also have design practices of their own in addition to their work for the Academy. This structure yields an enormous dynamism and energy and ensures that the courses remain closely linked to the current state of the discipline. The courses consist of projects, exercises and lectures. First-year and second-year students also engage in morphological studies. Students work on their own or in small groups. The design

projects form the backbone of the syllabus. On the basis of a specific design assignment, students develop knowledge, insight and skills. The exercises are focused on training in those skills that are essential for recognising and solving design problems, such as analytical techniques, knowledge of the repertoire, the use of materials, text analysis, and writing. Many of the exercises are linked to the design projects. The morphological studies concentrate on the making of spatial objects, with the emphasis on creative process and implementation. Students experiment with materials and media forms and gain experience in converting an idea into a creation. During the periods between the terms there are workshops, study trips in the Netherlands and abroad, and other activities. This is also the preferred moment for international exchange projects. The Academy regularly invites foreign students for the workshops and recruits wellknown designers from the Netherlands and further afield as tutors. Graduates from the Academy of Architecture are entitled to the following titles: Architect, Master of Science; Urbanist, Master of Science and Landscape Architect, Master of Science.

Landscape Architecture

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Antoine Fourrier - Master of Landscape Architecture - A Vegetable Garden for Paris  

Antoine Fourrier - Master of Landscape Architecture - A Vegetable Garden for Paris  

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