Hyperdense Conflux: an incremental, modular solution to migrant habitats
THESIS Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of Requirements for the Award of the Degree of BACHELOR OF ARCHITECTURE by SURJYATAPA RAY CHOUDHURY
Chandigarh College of Architecture Chandigarh, India 2016
declaration: I hereby certify that the work presented in this thesis entitled, â€œHyperdense Conflux: an incremental, modular solution to Migrant Habitatsâ€?, in partial fulfillment of requirements for the award of the Degree of Bachelors of Architecture, submitted to Chandigarh College of Architecture, Chandigarh, India, is an authentic record of my own work carried out during the period from January 2016 to July 2016 under the supervision of Associate Professor Sangeeta Bagga Mehta. The matter contained in this thesis has not been submitted by me for the award of any other degree.
Surjyatapa Ray Choudhury
This is to certify that the above statement made by the candidate is correct to the best of our knowledge.
Assoc. Prof. Sangeeta B. Mehta Thesis Guide
Prof. Sohanlal Saharan Thesis Co-ordinator
Prof. Pradeep K. Bhagat Principal
recommendation: We hereby certify that the Thesis Report entitled â€œHyperdense Conflux: an incremental, modular solution to Migrant Habitatsâ€?, prepared by Surjyatapa Ray Choudhury under our guidance, be accepted as a requirement for the partial fulfillment of the Degree of Bachelor of Architecture Dated: 28.06.2016
Assoc. Prof. Sangeeta B. Mehta Thesis Guide
Prof. Sohanlal Saharan Thesis Co-ordinator
Prof. Pradeep K. Bhagat Principal
acknowledgement This thesis reflects not just my capabilities but the collective motivation and effort of some of the best individuals I have known. I would begin by thanking the residents of Dharavi for all the help that they provided and for helping me see and live a new way of life. Sangeeta Bagga Ma'am, thank you for the support and knowledge that you have imparted not just in the last 6 months as my Thesis Guide but throughout these 5 years. Sohan Lal Saharan Sir, I could not have imagined to have worked out the design to this extent without your constant help and encouragement, helping out with the technical details and pushing my ideas beyond limits. A note of gratitude for the Jury who have criticised and praised when deserved, but have without fail pushed me towards a healthy completion of my research and project, to Amrit ma'am and Deepika ma'am for taking time out of busy regimes to discuss my work, and to all the faculty who have helped me grow through these 5 years, for me to be where I stand today; to the bunch of hard working juniors who have helped me throughout this thesis: Saurajeeta, Anchal, Aditi, Shilpa, Priscilla, Sonam, and a special call for Surabhi, Tanya and Saumya! Sashank and Surabhi, thank you bearing with all the incessant nagging and helping me work my way through these 6 months! To my seniors, Amrita ma'am and Prachi ma'am: you have been a constant source of support and motivation through these five years! Thank you for being there. Drishti, you are my rock. A huge thank you to my family for being the silent guardians: all that I do is for you. ..and to Joey, Chandler, Rachel, Ross, Phoebe, and Monica: Thank you for keeping the humor in my life alive this whole time!
Lastly, my heartfelt gratitude for being an inspiration ever since I have known architecture, Frank LLoyd Wright.
â€œI would like my architecture to inspire people to use their own resources, to move into the future.â€? -Tadao Ando
abstract Migration often results in the formation of pockets of new communities at concentrated areas of the metropolis- an area which reflects the commercial fabric of the metro itself and its typological, topographical and architectural features but varies deeply in terms of the social structure. But ironically these are the ones that stand most neglected; no set architectural dialog has been established for the incremental and organic nature of these cores, resulting in the outgrowth of slums and squatter settlements with substandard living conditions. The inclusive design of the settlement, its strong social structure and habitat values demand a more in-depth research, along with a detailed study of the built units and their foundations- an architecture entirely constructed by the migrant themselves. The Thesis aims at finding and developing a High Density Incremental solution to the scenario that amalgamates the functions of Living, Working and Socialising to form a unified entity; a structure that does not compromise the lighting and sanitary conditions and basic services due to the inhabitants, owing to its Additive nature.
SECTION ONE: INTRODUCTION Slums: Process of development and Growth Issues High Density Architecture: Validity Objective of Research Scope of Research Methodology
15 16 17 18 19 20
SECTION TWO: ESSAYS Density in Architecture Dual Nature of Density Perception of Density Social Implications Crowding and Behaviour Concept of Territoriality Architecture and Behaviour
22 23 24 24 25 25 26
Urban Morphology The condition of Slums Slums as a resource
27 29 30
Geometry in Architecture Packing of a Triangle, a Square and a Hexagon Triangle vs Rectangular Grid Fractalisation
31 32 33 33
SECTION THREE: CASE EXAMPLES
Flexible density: Scrap Skyscraper
Social Housing Project in Mexico: Tatiana Bilbao Condition in Mexico The Design
38 39 40
Micro Compact Homes Concept Technical Specifications Design Tree Village
44 45 45 46 48
Kowloon Walled City Location Timeline of Development Development controls City of Anarchy: Infographic Plans Building Conditions Circulation Analysis Spatial Analysis Social Spaces: the Roof Multiprogramme space: Sweet Factory Industrial Profiles Housing and Business Statistics Inference
49 50 50 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
Aranya Housing: Indore The context The Location Area Statement Design Process Checklist of Considerations The Masterplan Heirarchy and Distribution of Amenities Form: Flexible and Incremental Demonstration of houses: Kit of Elements Site and Services Self-Help architecture Service Layout Inferences
61 62 62 63 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 69 70 71
SECTION FOUR: SITE AND PROGRAM Program development Validity: Site
72 73 74
SECTION FIVE: CONTEXT DHARAVI An Overview New Transit Camp Infrastructure Tool House: Case Study Industrial Profiles Dhobi Ghat Papad Making Broom Making Textile and Tailoring Waste and Recycling
78 79 81 82 83 84 85 85 85 86
SECTION SIX: SITE ANALYSIS Site Selection Land use pattern Circulation analysis Service Layout Climate analysis Construction Technology Techniques of Construction Material Index Lynch Map Nolli Map
SECTION SEVEN: CONCEPT Spatial Theories Design Criteria Checklist of Considerations Area Requirements Site Zoning Morphological Studies Spaces: Derivation Form: Derivation
APPENDICES BIBLIOGRAPHY xiv
91 92 94 96 97 98 98 99 100 100
104 105 106 107 108 110 112 113
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list of figures fig1.1: Global Migration Trend fig1.2: Internal Migration Trend fig1.3: Process of formation of a Slum fig 1.4: Illustration of Problems in architecture of the Migrants fig 1.5: Illustration of Population Density across the World fig2.1.1: Architectural Density: Kowloon Walled City fig 2.1.2: Monotoneity in Density: High rise structures of HongKong fig2.1.3: Homogenization of buildings to save economy: Increase in stress level of inhabitants fig. 2.1.4b: Illustration to demonstrate population density fig. 2.1.4c: Illustration to demonstrate Building Density fig2.1.5: Illustration to demonstrate implications of High density architecture in linear and clustered layout. fig 2.2: Comparative study of occupation patterns and urban grain fig 2.2.1: Urban Morphological Models of Slums fig 2.2.2: Illustration demonstrating architectural features of a slum fig 2.2.3: Illustration demonstrating planning features of a slum fig 2.2.4: Illustration demonstrating Common features of a slum fig 2.3: Illustration of Pythagoras Dragon Lines fig2.3.1: Sundt house: Frank Lloyd Wright; 1941 fig 2.3.2: House for Joe Price: Bruce Goff; 1956 fig 2.3.3: No. of possible convex shapes made by aggregating the units of the grids. fig 2.3.4: possible arrangements in which combinations of the rectangular shapes can be packed into the square grid fig 2.3.5: possible arrangements in which combinations of the rectangular shapes can be packed into the triangle grid fig 3.1: Visualisation|Scrap Skycraper fig 3.1.1: Material Index of a module fig 3.1.2: Study of the progressive structure based on sketches by Projecto Colectivo fig 3.1.3: The progressive transformation of the housing capsule based on sketches by Lebeus Woods fig 3.1.5: Schematic Section fig 3.1.4: Detail of the Structural members fig 3.2.1: Visualisation|Social Housing in Mexico graph 3.2.1Housing Crisis in Mexico fig 3.2.2: Housing condition in Mexico graph 3.2.2: Climate data: Mexico fig 3.2.3: Homogenous elevations of the current scenario fig 3.2.5: Flow chart of various functions fig 3.2.4: Illustration demonstrating the availability of additional space in a house fig3.2.6: Illustration showing material uses and construction
14 14 15 16 17 22 22 23 24 24 26 27 28 29 29 29 31 32 32 32 33 33 35 36 36 36 37 37 38 39 39 39 39 40 40 41
fig3.2.7: Incremental options for the module fig3.2.8: Illustration demonstrating functional variations fig3.2.9: Sections fig3.2.10: Axonometric fig 3.3.1: View over the lake| McH fig 3.3.3: Internal views|McH fig 3.3.2: Aerial View|Japanese Tea House fig 3.3.5: Plan fig 3.3.6: Section. fig. 3.3.4: Structural details fig3.3.7: Installation View fig 3.3.8: Pad foundation fig 3.3.9: View|Tree Village
41 42 43 43 44 45 45 46 46 46 47 47 48
fig. 3.4.3: Plan showing air routes 50 fig 3.4.4: Infographic|Walled City 51 fig 3.4.5: plan|internal street layout 52 fig3.4.7: plan|main street layout 52 fig 3.4.9: Public space in Kowloon 52 fig3.4.10: plan|service layout 53 fig 3.4.11: View|Standpipes 53 fig 3.4.12: Documentation of circulation spaces 54 fig 3.4.13: Analysis of a Stairwell 55 fig 3.4.14: Illustration demonstrating relaxing spaces: the roof 56 fig 3.4.16: people working in the sweet factory 57 fig 3.4.15: activity charts|sweet factory 57 fig 3.5.1: View of a lane down Aranya township 61 fig 3.5.6: Context map|Arnaya 62 fig3.5.4: Commercial zones: small shops etc. Hierarchy of commercial coincides with hierarchy of streets. 62 fig3.5.5: Ordered hierarchy of street in terms of widths, physical character, location and activities adjoining. Street double as open spaces for a range of activities. 62 fig 3.5.1: View of a lane down Aranya township 62 fig.3.5.9: Principal Road Network: Site and Services, main street 66 fig.3.5.11: Definition spaces: main street 66 fig3.5.14: Plan 67 fig 3.5.15: Elevations 67 fig 3.5.16: The core was designed in a way as to allow a variety of options for growth. The EWS units grew as viable for them. 68 fig 3.5.17: The variety of options available impart a sense of ownership to the users, encouraging them to build the structure in a way they want to. 68 fig 3.5.18: Kit of Parts 68 fig. 3.5.20: Service Layout of a cluster 70 fig 4.1: Program development 73 fig 4.2.1: Prospective sites 74 fig 5.2.1: View of New Transit Camp and Semi-subsidised housing 79 fig 5.2.2: Map of New Transit Camp 80 fig 5.2.3: Plans|Tool House 82 fig5.2.5: Functional analysis 82 fig 5.2.4: Sections|Tool House 82 fig 5.2.6: Mapping the industrial units of transit camp 83 fig 5.2.7: Dhobi Ghat 84 fig 5.2.8: Activity map| Dhobi Ghat 84 fig 5.2.9: View of street with waste stored alongside 86 fig 5.2.9: Recycling shop 86 fig 5.2.12: Aerial View|Kumbharwada 87 fig 5.2.10: Street lined with clay goods 87 fig 5.2.11: Women building pots 87 fig 5.2.13: Brick Kilns lining the streets 88 fig 5.2.14: Plan of Kumbharwada community showing Kilns lining the streets 88 fig 5.2.15: Plan|Typical home 89 fig 5.2.17: Longitudinal section through streets 89 fig 5.2.187: View of streets in Kumbharwada 89 fig 5.2.16: section|Typical home 89
fig 6.1.1: Plan of Dharavi showing sectoral division fig 6.2.1: Existing Vertical Land-use pattern fig 6.2.2: Existing land use map fig 6.3.1: Existing circulation pattern fig6.3.2: Diagrammatic Site Section fig 6.3.3: Grid Iron Layout of streets fig 6.3.4: Clustered Layout of streets fig 6.4.1: Existing service layout fig 6.4.2: shallow drains run along the street to drain off sewage and storm water fig 6.4.3: Community water taps installed in inner street to supply water to households fig. 6.4.4: Illustrations highlighting current scenario of drainage and water supply fig 6.5.3: Dharavi Elevation fig 6.6.1: Construction detail|Upper floors fig 6.6.2: Constructio detail: Ground floors fig 6.6.3: Material index fig 6.7: Lynch Map|Imageability fig 6.8: Nolli Map fig 7.1.1: Proposed Site Zoning fig 7.1.3: Proposed Vertical Zoning fig 7.1.2: Connectivity of functions fig 7.2.1: View of existing morphology fig 7.2.2: View|Temples as nodes fig 7.2.3: View|Streets as social spaces fig 7.3: Conceptual View of Spaces fig 7.4.2: Exploded view|Module fig 7.4.1: Geometric derivation of form
91 92 93 94 94 95 95 96 97 97 97 99 100 100 101 102 102 108 109 109 110 111 111 112 113 113
list of tables Table 2.1: Dual nature of High Density Architecture Table 2.2.1: Comparative analysis of Slums and Cities Table 3.5.1:Area statement|Housing Table 3.5.2:Area statement|Amenities Table: 3.5.3: Material index Table 4.2.1: Comparative analysis of prospective sites Table 5.2.1: Space analysis based on industrial profile Table 6.5.1: Shadow angle analysis|Mumbai Table 7.1: Details for Ventilation shaft Table 7.2: Percentage distribution of Land Use
25 30 65 65 70 76 85 101 107 107
introduction Slums: Process of development and growth Issues High Density Architecture: Validity Objective of Research Sope of Research Methodology
introduction Migration is inevitable. The phenomenon of human migration, defined as the “movement by people from one place to another with the intention of settling temporarily or permanently in the new location” , has been soaring steadily in the last century. According to the 2011 census, internal migrants in India reached a count of 400 million, over half the global figure of 740 million and almost twice as many as China's estimated 221 million. These internal migrants comprise a third of India's population. With more than 50% of the world’s population living in cities, the trend of migration is set to rise exponentially. With it arise the problems of high density inadequate living. Estimates show that one out of every three people in cities of the developing world lives in deprived and unplanned squatter settlements. According to the UN Habitat’s report “State of the World’s Cities 2008/2009,” the rate of growth of these unplanned parts of a city is way higher than the visible, planned parts.
STATUS OF MIGRATION IN THE WORLD:
migrated population 232 million
53% fig1.1: Global Migration Trend
fig1.1: Sourced from survey by United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs Statistics Division, Demographic and Social Statistics Branch fig1.2: Sourced from Census of India, 2011
fig1.2: Internal Migration Trend
a natural and necessary part of the process of urbanisation, it is a squalid and overcrowded urban street or district, socially isolated from the rest of the city; pockets of deprivation inhabited by poor people.
The Migrant cores identify as the Microcosms of the Metropolis they are set in. A metropolis is guided by its social, economic and political institutions. The occupants of the place make it what it is; the commerce of the place thrives on the availability of resources: both skilled labour and natural. The society is born out of its inhabitants, their cultures and traditions and this forms the native identity of the area. Migrants when travel down these areas in search of new opportunities, owing to different circumstances, find it difficult to absorb themselves in the atmosphere in short spans of time. This gives rise to pockets of new communities at concentrated areas of the metropolis- an area which reflects the commercial fabric of the metro itself and its typological, topographical and architectural features but varies deeply in terms of the social structure.
URBAN AREAS SCARCITY OF LAND, ECONOMIC IMBALANCE
SLUMS UPGRADATION BY AUTHORITY
FAILURE OF DVPT PLANS
ECONOMIC DOWNFALL, FAILURE OF TRADE AND LIFESTYLE COMPROMISES
fig1.3: Process of formation of a Slum
A series of recurring characteristics may be observed in these settlements ranging from the spontaneity of construction of makeshift shelters to serious depravation of basic services. Despite these problems however, most of these communities withstand the test of time; the only thing that fails it is the lack of a proper architecture system. Some prominent examples are the favelas of Rio de Janeiro where fragile shacks are built on stilts on a slope of more than 80% gradient, and thesquatters of Manila, Philippines where most urban dwellers prefer the flimsy makeshift shelters devoid of basic services to the posh elite housing.
fig 1.4: Illustration of Problems in architecture of the Migrants
Apart from the mentioned problems, the substandard living conditions generated in these pockets degrade the overall standard of living of the metropolitan. Vast distinction in social standards is created as seen in the case of New York, United Kingdom and other such progressive metropolitans. Failure to provide employment opportunities also harm the economy of the state; a wide variety of home based economies and micro enterprises develop based on the consumer demands of the metropolitan and the skills of the unemployed. These in major cases though help the economy; lack of control of the same could result in haphazard growth and illegal activities.
WHY HIGH DENSITY "It appears that built environment, both in terms of public space as well as building, if configured in a correct way can improve the perception of density, while if configured incorrectly may lead to a negative perception of density." -Studio uek, ARGE Kรถb & Pollak Contemporary High-Density Housing. Social and Architectural Implications
HIGH POPULATION DENSITY
Population of india (2016):1,326,801,5761 Population Density (people/sqkm):
fig 1.5: Illustration of Population Density across the World
URBAN LAND SHORTAGE
Population growth rate:
The demand for land has been rising for decades now, owing to rapid growth in urbanisation. This shortage is further exacerbated artficially by the numerous state, central and municipal regulations. Massive chunks of lands lie within the realms of the public sector, thereby unavailable for building housing units. Excessive control over the volume of construction in centrally located areas in a city and virtually stopping land recycling has pushed the constructions along the periphery, making the commutes longer which results in a direct production on squatters on illegal land.
As high density patterns in settlements are an inevitable phenomenon in the urban world with its fast growing population, a systematic distribution has to be sought with proper designation of space according to demand. This lacks in these migrant areas as the growth of the place is largely unplanned and progresses with time without any prior organisation or foresight. A wide section of the migrants have home based economies and require designated spaces to carry them out which proves inconvenient in housing complexes. A close knit structure is thus required for the same.
fig1.5: Sourced from Wikipedia.org
OBJECTIVE The objective of the study is to analyse the architectural and planning characteristics of migrant cores, and thereby develop a solution which deals with the sociological, environmental, psychological conditions of the place. The major objectives of the research and design process are: To analyse the sociological and psychological situation of migrants To design a module suitable to the lifestyle of self-sustaining migrants To design a flexible and incremental modular structure which aids the steady flow of migration in a metropolis • To analyse, study and develop high density economical solution to living and working spaces. • To develop a method of construction which can survive without special discourse. • • •
WHY DO SLUMS IN INDIA NOT RISE VERTICALLY?
Scarcity of buildable land and high rates of population growth will eventually compel us to seek vertical expansion. In major slums though, the growth is mainly horizontal as the dwellers remain inexperienced in construction techniques and are thus not dispensed well to avail the resources. A pattern of construction and design is thus sought which will help answer this problem and encourage slum dwellers to vertically expand their dwelling and commercial areas on their own. Vertical modularity thus develop as a core objective in the design and analysis process.
scope of research
The core structure holding the modues is sought to be to allow flexibility to aid the incremental additive nature of the program.
HEIRARCHY OF SPACES
A solution which deals with the proper flow of spaces in a mid to high rise module will be sought to cater to the multifunctional module of residences and commerce.
The structure will be designed so as to serve the steady flow of immigrants into a metropolis and will essentially be Incremental in nature.
PROPER SERVICE LAYOUT
An algorithm of interlocking of modules will be researched that will solve the lack of basic services due in these areas as Natural lighting, Plumbing, Sanitation, Drainage, etc.
The research seeks to design a construction technique that will allow users to build their own houses using readily available materials.
MULTI-FUNCTIONAL MODULE: CONFLUX OF RESIDENTIAL+ COMMERCIAL
The conflux of residential, commercial and social spaces: a module that comprises of required commercial spaces of home based economies attached to residencial areas, as is seen in the ground based existing units, is sought; the interlocking of these modules at different levels would produce the requisite social spaces.
A study of anthropometrics and volumetric analysis of space will be done to justify the hyper dense layout.
methodology: TYPE MIGRATION TRENDS
Literature study Case study
Surveys/ Questionnaires Data collection Interviews
validate project determine site parameters
INCREMENTAL SELF HELP
Literature study Case study
Site Survey Observation
Literature study Case study Experimentation
Site Survey Observation Physical models
Literature study Case study
Analysis Surveys and Questionnaires Interviews of users Site Survey Observation Physical models Market survey
Literature study Case study Experimentation
PLANNING TYPE PROPER SERVICE LAYOUT MULTI-FUNCTIONAL MODULE: CONFLUX OF RESIDENTIAL+ COMMERCIAL
Literature study Case study
Site Survey Observation Interviews
Literature study Case study Experimentation
Site Survey Observation Physical models
Literature study Case study
Analysis Surveys and Questionnaires Interviews of users
HEIRARCHY OF SPACES
TYPE ANTHROPO METRY
Design strategy + concept test results
Literature study Case study
Site Survey Observation
Literature study Case study Experimentation
Site Survey Observation Physical models
SITE ANALYSIS TYPE
Literature study On-Site study
Surveys/ Questionnaires Data collection Interviews Observation Physical Documentation
CONCEPTS The Livelihood Framework Urban Morphology
essays Density in architecture Urban Morphology Geometry in architecture
density in architecture An alarming rate of population growth teamed with the fast depletion of resources creates an inescapable demand for high density architecture. Posing as a sustainable solution to these situations, high density architecture seeks suitable use of land resources and space as prior aim. Inspite of the apparent advantages of a high density environment, it has its own set of limitations.
fig2.1.1: Architectural Density: Kowloon Walled City fig 2.1.1: Sourced from Architecture of Density, Michael Wolf fig 2.1.2: Sourced from Architecture of Density, Michael Wolf
fig 2.1.2: Monotoneity in Density: High rise structures of HongKong
THE DUAL NATURE OF DENSITY Perspectives towards density as a unique criteria for generating builts and urban environments have always been dual, as described further. This imposes various limitations while designing, most times posing as the governing factors behind it.
Rational use of urban land resources Maintaining a compact urban and infrastructure development Minimal impact upon surrounding rural and natural areas Efficient use of urban transportation systems and fuel resources
Congestion of urban landscapes Reduction of urban green areas Occurrence of heat islands Deterioration of urban networks and traffic Infrastructure by overloading Increase in psychological stress for inhabitants
Table 2.1: Dual nature of High Density Architecture
The common problems arising in High Density architecture is primarily attributed to the following reason:
A design that vertically multiplies the same plan scheme or over determines constructions while looking for the perfect match of form and function is no longer viable in light of current changes.
The main theme of contemporary design is relating to a constantly changing context.
Architecture experience reveals that high density projects are generally incapable of long-term adaptation, generating urban and social conflicts and eventually being abandoned.
fig2.1.3: Homogenization of buildings to save economy: Increase in stress level of inhabitants Tabe 2.1: Sourced from https://densityarchitecture.wordpress.com/ Fig 2.1.3: Sourced from Architecture of Density; Michael Wolf
THE PERCEPTION OF DENSITY: Density is only successful to the extent of perception of the users. What determines the extent of a positive perception is the combination of social and physical characteristics of space, decisive being the interaction between individual and the environment as a whole.
Types of Density Population density:
fig. 2.1.4b: Illustration to demonstrate population density
Population density: the number of individuals or households per given area.
fig 2.1.4a: Principles supporting dense and vital environment
Social and Architectural Implications: High density housing
fig. 2.1.4c: Illustration to demonstrate Building Density
Most times, the success of high density housing depends on the perception of its users. There is a direct effect of the built environment on man: it deeply affects his neighbourhood and personal relations. Spatial configuration to a large extent determines the satisfaction of residents. Understanding this co-existing dynamics of high density and human behavior is thus very important for designing such hyper density environments. Central to the relationship between architectural configuration, peopleâ€™s experience and their behavior is the way in which built environment meets the needs and social expectations of its inhabitants.1 fig 2.1.4a: Sourced from Life and Death of Great American Cities; Jane Jacobs fig 2.1.4b: Sourced from https://densityarchitecture.wordpress.com/ fig 2.1.4c: Sourced from https://densityarchitecture.wordpress.com/
Building Density: the ratio of building structures related to plot surface. Building density has a complex relation to urban morphology, playing an important role in determining the urban form. Different combinations between the plot ratio and site coverage will manifest into a variety of different built forms, and urban development of the same density can take very different urban forms.
The perception of crowding is a function of the frequency of interaction and unwanted and uncontrolled social contact. 1. https://densityarchitecture.wordpress.com/
Crowding and Behavior: Jonathan Freedman (1975) defines the framework for the study of high density consequences, noting the important distinction between crowding in physical terms, as defined by lack of space and the perceived crowding, defined as the “sensation of being crowded”, a distinct feeling from that of having very little space.
fig. 2.1.4d: Illustration to demonstrate high density crowded environment
fig.2.1.4e: Illustration to demonstrate controlled social environmet in high density living
Concept of Territoriality: PUBLIC
The perception of public space
fig. 2.1.4f: Illustration to demonstrate perception of Public Space
The notions of these spaces are linked with the concept of territoriality, an attribute that refers to the social structure. The attachment towards certain territories, the clear awareness of borders and the tendency to defend them are manifestations of territoriality.
The factors that are negatively influencing territoriality are: • ambiguity of spatial design • uncertain borders and areas that are hard to defend.
In relation to the environment, territoriality is identified with three needs: The need for stimulation, identity and security. The spatial configuration elements that can be traced by design in order to support the well-being of inhabitants are identified as: • defining privacy by spatial borders that allow control over social contacts by the inhabitants of an apartment; • offering relations for the apartment with public space that should contain also green areas with natural character, both visual and of access; • maintaining areas with natural qualities in relation to urban spaces in areas of the city with high density, green qualitative and well maintained urban areas being considered to be the most important factor in determining the perceived quality of life in big cities; • accessibility and quality of public transport; • an increased level of security and a low level of anti-social behavior; noise control.
Architecture and Behaviour: THE BAUM VALINS EXPERIMENT The Experiment entailed the first sociological study that relates the behavioral manifestation to configurations of built environment. Two dormitories were studied for the case: one having a linear layout with rooms arranged along a hallway and other having a clustered layout. The corridor-design dormitories, due to the spatial configuration of the layout, do not allow their residents to control the interactions with large numbers of students, also intensifying the consequences of interactions that can be perceived as stressful. The suite-design dormitories on the other hand offer their residents enough protection against unwanted social contacts, as well as control over desired contacts. The results of the study showed that students that lived in the corridor-design dormitories, being exposed to large groups and intense and uncontrollable social interactions have developed a greater sensitivity to group size and a lower tolerance towards crowding. Their way of adapting to the frequent and unregulated social interactions is generally withdrawal and avoidance of social interaction • Exposed to high levels of interaction • Decreased levels of privacy
• Sustain privacy • Possibility of filtering the unwanted interactions with other residents fig2.1.5: Illustration to demonstrate implications of High density architecture in linear and clustered layout. fig2.1.5: Sourced from https://densityarchitecture.wordpress.com/
urban morphology Urban Morphology is an approach to studying and designing urban forms which considers both the physical and spatial components of the urban structure. It is the study of the form of human settlements and their process of formation and transformation. -Bentley and Butina (1990:67)
fig 2.2: Comparative study of occupation patterns and urban grain
The analysis of physical form focuses of the following aspects: • • • • •
Street Pattern Plots Blocks Buildings Open Space
Structure Form Level Pattern
It is the arrangement of land use in urban areas. It also concerns with the arrangement of Public and Private spaces and the degree of connectivity and accessibility.
Urban Form: It is defined as the physical design
and layout of a city. It essentially concerns with the physical infrastructure of a city.
Typology Land Use
fig 2.2.1: Urban Morphological Models of Slums The morphology of Slums however differ to a large extent from that of the city. The urban morphological models of a slum differs from that of a city by definition of its scale.
Slums Mixed: both horizontal and vertical High uniformly
cities Mostly segregated with mixed use majorly in the cores Different density patterns Proper hierarchy
Less hierarchy: majorly narrow owing to dense physical infrastructure
Formation+ Transformation Physical Infrastructure
Depends on Varies. Migration Pattern Self-Built, haphazard Mostly designed layout prior to construction
Table 2.2.1: Comparative analysis of Slums and Cities
The condition of slums: Most often, unsuccessful migration lead to the inception of slums. According to the UN-HABITAT: UN Human Settlement Program, the definition of a slum depends on a group of factors that point out basic deprivations in the living conditions of poor neighbourhoods. The Basic Deprivations are as stated1: • Nature of housing- not permanent or durable • Insufficient living space • No easy access to safe water • No access to proper sanitation • Lack of security of property
Atleast 3 basic deprivations Alternate definition: Invasions of public/private land with SELF-BUILD SHELTERS developed by poor groups.
Architecture of Slums Local architecture
Planning features of a Slum organic
fig 2.2.3: Illustration demonstrating planning features of a slum
Minimal character of the volume
Built according to possibilities
COMMON FEATURES OF A SLUM
Similar building indices
Simple Construction techniques
Constant need of improvement
Similar sizing of interior space
Short construction time
fig 2.2.4: Illustration demonstrating Common features of a slum
The economy of Slums: SUBTERRANEAN ECONOMIES, MARKET AND EMPLOYMENT • Partially/totally self governed • Special economies: lightweight
commerce and services • Self-sustaining • Helps the economy of the Metropolis as the businesses are usually held in small areas and transportation costs are minimized.
fig 2.2.2: Illustration demonstrating architectural features of a slum
1. Sourced from UN-HABITAT: UN Human Settlement Program
Slums as a resource: Many contemporary viewpoints consider the slums as a resource for the global future, by the force embedded in this dense structure of people, activities and relationships. The specific force of slums is based on the following • dense environment • the social relations and the resilience of their inhabitants, strengthened by the age of the population, which is generally young. • The entrepreneurial spirit of the inhabitants keeps the community alive through the economy and the constant housing rebuilding • The social ties within the slums are very tight, based on relationships of caring, arising from the condition of poverty. Slums contain qualities often invoked by architects and urban planners as attracting the quality of an urban space: • Easy to navigate on foot • Containing mixed functions obtained both by practiced trade and multiple uses of housing • Have high density • In a continuous process of rewriting and transformation
EXTREMELY LOW ENERGY FOOTPRINT The compactness of housing units in the settlement makes the slum itself an ecological model of maximum energy efficiency. • Construction materials: Collected and recycled • Continuous spaces of activities and social communication generated
geometry in architecture: triangle
Small spaces demand a flexible layout and arrangement: a situation which is not determined just by the immediate space of the user or a room, but also by the shapes of the dwellings and the overall scheme of layout. The research shows an analysis of the shapes which provide more flexibility in arrangements and a better sense of ownership and individuality: factors which play considerable role in designing residential units of a small scale.
fig 2.3: Illustration of Pythagoras Dragon Lines
Packing of squares, triangles and hexagons:
Most buildings follow a rectangular layout in its plan owing to the efficiency in packing together rooms. In most cases, this scenario develops when there are a number of rooms in the plan. In case of single room or individual spaces, deviation from regular geomery can be seen. Therein develops an objection to the scenario: Efficient packing of rooms can be possible with other twodimensional shapes too, provided they are of regular geometry an equilateral triangle or a hexagon. Among regular figures there are just three shapes that tessellate in a way so as to fill an entire plane without leaving residual spaces: the square, the equilateral triangle and the hexagon. Examples can be cited of architects who have laid out efficient plans on regular grids of triangle and hexagons, such as Frank LLoyd Wrightâ€™s Sundt House project in 1941 and Bruce Goffâ€™s house for Joe Price of 1956.
fig2.3.1: Sundt house: Frank Lloyd Wright; 1941
The triangular grid in this case promotes the use of more than one shape: smaller triangles could be joined together to form a Parallelogram, Trapezia, Hexagon etc., apart from other geometries which are more complex and not strictly regular but are made up of equilateral triangles. This imparts a sense of flexibility and individuality to a space. fig 2.3.2: House for Joe Price: Bruce Goff; 1956
Triangle vs Rectangular grid: Common belief would suggest that a square grid would offer more possibilities for room shape than a traingular one. For the purpose of study, let us consider a fragmentary square and a triangle, each comprising of nine grid cells and imagine the plans for simple houses to be laid out on these grids with their walls following the selected grid lines. How many distinct shapes for rooms can be made by joining adjacent grid cells together, in each case? fig2.3.1: Sourced from Why are most buildings Rectangular?; Philip Steadman fig2.3.2: Sourced from Why are most buildings Rectangular?; Philip Steadman
fig 2.3.3: No. of possible convex shapes made by aggregating the units of the grids.
Let us confine our attention, since we are thinking about rooms in buildings, to convex shapes, convexity being a characteristic of most small architectural spaces. Let us also count shapes that are geometrically similar, but are of different sizes (made up of different numbers of grid cells) as being distinct. Thus on the square grid we can make three different square shapes, with one cell. four cells or nine cells. Our criterion of convexity means that there is only one shape that can be made on the hexagonal grid: the unit hexagonal cell itself. All shapes made by aggregations of hexagonal cells are non-convex. On the square grid by contrast it is possible to make six distinct shapes; but on the triangular grid it is possible to make 10 distinct shapes. The triangular grid, contrary to what I had expected, offers a greater range of shapes for rooms than does the square grid. fig 2.3.4: possible arrangements in which combinations of the rectangular shapes can be packed, without interstices, into the square grid
The process of breaking down an object into parts that is self-similar at all scales. The arrangements of the smallest possible unit of an triangular vs rectanguar equilateral triangle vs that of a square is much larger in number, as explained by the experiment. Let us consider a 9 square grid and an equilateral triangle divided into 9 smaller similar triangles. Aggregating the units without any gap gives us 53 possible arrangements in case of a square and 68 in that of a triangle. 1 It is this seen that the Triangle Grid offers more possible arrangement of Shapes than does the square grid.
This theory proves important in the situation of developing a modular arrangement which advocates flexibility and indivuality.
fig 2.3.5: possible arrangements in which combinations of the rectangular shapes can be packed, without interstices, into the triangle grid 1. Why are most buildings Rectangular?; Philip Steadman
case examples flexible architecture: scrap skyscraper Incremental housing: Mexico Micro Compact homes Kowloon walled City Aranya Housing
density architecture flexibility
fig 3.1: Visualisation|Scrap Skycraper
Built as a solution to the growth pattern of the favelas of Sau Paolo, the project uses garbage to create a structure that adapts to the incremental nature of slums, valuing the waste we generate as both an agent of social change and as a physical element of construction. The proposition is to break the traditional rules of construction re-using as many elements as possible in its current state, combining it in a high-end software capable to catalogue and predispose what will be built.
fig 3.1.1: Material Index of a module
fig 3.1.2: Study of the progressive structure based on sketches by Projecto Colectivo
fig 3.1.3: The progressive transformation of the housing capsule based on sketches by Lebeus Woods fig3.1.1: Sourced from http://www.dezeen.com/2012/07/31/scrap-skyscraper-by-projeto-coletivo/ fig3.1.2: Sourced from http://architizer.com/projects/scrap-skyscraper/ fig3.1.3: Sourced from http://architizer.com/projects/scrap-skyscraper/
The buildings will be at the banks of Tiete's river and Pinheiro's river, and each building will receive population's trash transported by the waterways. This way all the city's garbage can be organized and used at its best, being cleaned, catalogued and reused.Â The mixed-use tower will have dwellings at its body and a kind of factory in its bottom that will focus on selecting and reusing trash. The habitation part is for people who will work on this factory. Many of the homeless in SĂŁo Paulo already lives collecting trash through the city, this way they will have a chance to go off the streets, have a home and a job. Experts will teach them how to do it exploring their own creativity for improving each habitation. fig 3.1.4: Detail of the Structural members
fig 3.1.5: Schematic Section fig3.1.4: Sourced from http://www.dezeen.com/2012/07/31/scrap-skyscraper-by-projeto-coletivo/ fig3.1.4: Sourced from http://www.dezeen.com/2012/07/31/scrap-skyscraper-by-projeto-coletivo/
Incremental Architecture Multifunctional spaces Incremental architecture:
SOCIAL HOUSING PROJECT In Mexico, the social housing model is unlivable, unhealthy, and dangerous. Fourteen million people live in conditions no one should live in—that they have to pay for. And it’s very expensive,” Bilbao says. “Historically, developers have understood social housing as a financial operation, and architects didn’t fit in the equation. It’s because we can make a difference and help people create their own lives that social housing needs to be a human operation with architects designing spaces. Developers aren’t going to knock on our doors, proposing models.”
fig 3.2.1: Visualisation|Social Housing in Mexico
The Condition in Mexico Social housing has become one of the most important issues in our present day architectural agenda. Only in Mexico, there are more than 30 millions houses all over the country, but with a total population of about 120 million, and with one of the fastest population growth rates in Latin America, the housing shortage constitutes a total of 9 million homes.1 40,000
The climate is warm and temperate in Mexico City. Mexico City is a city with a significant rainfall. Even in the driest month there is a lot of rain. The climate here is classified as Cfb by the KĂśppen-Geiger system. The average temperature in Mexico City is 15.9 Â°C. Precipitation here averages 625 mm.
35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000
Affordable-housing units have an average price tag of $30,000.
Per Year No.of Homes Required
graph 3.2.1Housing Crisis inCRISIS Mexico HOUSING
No. of Homes Bult
graph 3.2.2: Climate data: Mexico
fig 3.2.2: Housing condition in Mexico
fig 3.2.3: Homogenous elevations of the current scenario
graph 3.2.1: Date sourced from http://www.wikipedia.org/ graph 3.2.1: Sourced from http://www.wikipedia.org/ 1. http://www.archdaily.com/775233/tatiana-bilbaos-8000-house-could-solve-mexicossocial-housing-shortage
fig 3.2.2: Sourced from http://www.archdaily.com/478283/exhibition-beyond-thesupersquare fig 3.2.3: Sourced from http://www.archdaily.com/478283/exhibition-beyond-thesupersquare
THE DESIGN The design aims at finding a solution to the affordable housing issue in Mexico, a project which is defined by its low cost and material nature and spatial qualities responding to the user aspect. Bilbao, in order to fight the housing crisis and rental problems, sought to build $8,000 to $12,000 homes for some of the poorest people in Mexico. The plan called for 3,000 homes to be built in five years.1
Additio nal Space
fig 3.2.4: Illustration demonstrating the availability of additional space in a house
To be able to achieve such a goal, it was deemed to know what the people who were actually going to live inside the house needed and wanted in terms of materials, form, function and appearance and space requirements.
They discovered that while villagers preferred a pitched roof, they also craved additional space, one of the reasons area builders were using flat roofs and exposed rebar in the first place.
Large Family: Migrants
Selling Area Working area/ Store Textile industry
Storage Grocery Store Owner
Extra rooms Working area/ Store
Seating Kitchen/ Store
fig 3.2.5: Flow chart of various functions 1. http://www.archdaily.com/775233/tatiana-bilbaos-8000-house-could-solve-mexicossocial-housing-shortage
Storage Selling area
After several in-situ interviews and workshops, and in total contrast from what is being built all around the country in terms of social housing, a form of the archetypical house (two slanted roofs) was derived which adapts to different geographical, social and cultural variations. CENTRAL CORE
fig3.2.6: Illustration showing material uses and construction
The minimal federal requirement of 43 sq. meters (463 sq. ft) per house was extended to 62 sq. meters, by building a central core of rigid materials (concrete blocks) and different surrounding modules of lighter/ cheaper materials (wood pallets) which allow for future expansions in different phases, always preserving the outside appearance of a completed house and adapting to each family budget, needs and desires.
Bilbao says her firm has gone in a different direction, designing sixty-two-square-meter homes able to grow up to 120 square meters. “Ours are better, and the main reason they’re better is because there’s more space,” she says. The firm is also at work on public housing projects in Veracruz, Sinaloa, and Aguascalientes, Mexico, and areas of France. fig3.2.7: Incremental options for the module fig 3.2.6: Sourced from http://www.archdaily.com/478283/exhibition-beyond-the-supersquare fig 3.2.7: Sourced from http://www.archdaily.com/478283/exhibition-beyond-the-supersquare
fig3.2.8: Illustration demonstrating functional variations
Bilbao’s firm developed an ingenious solution, the Social Housing Prototype, described in an interview in Bomb magazine. “We figured out a way—by making interior patios and double-height spaces— for a house-owner to double their space by building partitions, all without exceeding the original footprint of the house, contained under the traditional pitched roof,” Bilbao said. “There’s even a water tank fitted in under the roof.” fig 3.2.8: Sourced from http://www.archdaily.com/478283/exhibition-beyond-the-supersquare
CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW AT AA’
GROUND FLOOR AXONOMETRIC VIEW
CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW AT BB’
12m FIRST FLOOR AXONOMETRIC VIEW
The first phase of the house includes two bedrooms, 1 bathroom, 1 kitchen and a 5 meter height dining/living room. When completed, the third phase contemplates space for the same rooms and 5 separate bedrooms, with the possibility of adapting each separate house according to each family specific needs.
CROSS SECTION VIEWING WEST
CROSS SECTION THROUGH DOUBLE HEIGHT LIVING AREA
fig 3.2.9: Sourced from http://www.archdaily.com/478283/exhibition-beyond-the-supersquare fig 3.2.10: Sourced from http://www.archdaily.com/478283/exhibition-beyond-the-supersquare
Compact living Anthropometric stidy
micro compact homes The micro compact home is a high quality compact dwelling for one or two people. Its neat dimensions of a 2.66m cube adapt it to a variety of sites and circumstances, and its functioning spaces of sleeping, working/dining, cooking and hygiene make it suitable for everyday use.
fig 3.3.1: View over the lake| McH
Project Project details details
ARCHITECT: Richard Horden BUILDING TYPE: special constructions, mobile constructions, small structures SUPPORT STRUCTURE CONSTRUCTION: frame construction FACADE CONSTRUCTION: building envelope ROOF CONSTRUCTION: flat roof SUPPORT STRUCTURE MATERIAL: steel/ aluminum FACADE MATERIAL: metal, aluminum ROOF MATERIAL: metal, aluminum
fig 3.3.2: Aerial View|Japanese Tea House
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS: • Compact bunk beds 198cm x 107cm, with • • • •
covered cushions. Storage space for bedding and cleaning equipment. Dining table measuring 105cm x 65cm, for dining for up to five people. Shower and toilet cubicle Kitchen area fitted with electrical points and featuring a double hob, sink and extending tap, microwave, fridge and freezer units, three compartment waste unit, storage shelves, cutlery drawers with gentle return sprung slides and double level work surfaces. Air conditioning, water heating, fire alarm and smoke detectors. Thermostat controlled ducted warm air heating or electric under floor are available alternatives.
One tatami mat= 1.65 sqm. Inspired by the intimate scale of a Japanese tea house and the compact efficiency of a smart car, a team comprised of researchers from London and Munich developed the Micro-Compact Home (m-ch) as a short-term living solution for students, business people, and weekend vacationers. Sleek, minimal, and modern, the m-ch design gained immediate attention, and it’s now in use throughout Europe. Living in an m-ch means focusing on the essential concept that less is more, and all the amenities of home are micro-sized. The m-ch measures 266cm x 266cm x 266cm. The .ceiling height is 198cm and the door width is 60cm
fig 3.3.3: Internal views|McH fig 3.3.2: Sourced from http://www.google.co.in/ fig 3.3.3: Sourced from http://www.microcompacthome.com/
Aluminum panel Lightweight wood structure Inner PVC cladding
fig. 3.3.4: Structural details
A sandwich-structured composite is a special class of composite materials that is fabricated by attaching two thin but stiff skins to a lightweight but thick core.
2.65m fig 3.3.5: Plan
fig 3.3.6: Section. Drawings and Diagrams: Courtesy of Richard Horden Architects
fig3.3.7: Installation View
The most recentÂ micro compactÂ home, m-ch 016, is now installed at a spectacular site at Brissago overlooking Lake Maggiore in Switzerland.The new owners made a request to enlarge the standard micro home, a 2.6m cube, by one meter in the south direction to create a full size 1.8m square double bed and space for dining table to seat up to eight people The modified champagne coloured micro home, is constructed using a light aluminium frame, total weight .1.8 tons In addition to double bed, which lifts and lowers, the guest bed and dining and working space, the micro home has toilet shower and kitchen fitted with microwave, fridge and freezer etc. The little house also has air conditioning and low energy LED lighting and beige leather surfaces with custom designed space for Geneva sound system and Nespresso coffee machine
The m-ch has a timber frame structure with anodized or polyester powder coated aluminum external cladding finishes, insulated with polyurethane foam and fitted with aluminum frame double glazed windows and front door with security double lock.
fig 3.3.8: Pad foundation
Drawings and Diagrams: Courtesy of Richard Horden Architects
Designed Primarily for student housing, the 15m high Tree Village is planned on a minimal 12m square footprint to fit a mature landscape with tall trees. Its structure is made up of a cluster of small steel vertical columns or 'reeds' that echo the surrounding natural vertical architecture whilst reducing foundation disturbance to tree roots and vegetation. An open core space contains the central lift shaft and stairway surrounded by thirty micro compact homes. These are Supplied with power and water from at internal ring of vertical services 'reeds'. The micro compact homes are arranged around the core in a way to provide maximum transparency and openness for nature to penetrate the space. The roof of one unit becomes to extension into nature, a landscape viewing platform for .the micro compact home above fig 3.3.9: View|Tree Village
framework: High Density High Rise: Advantages and Disadvantages The process of growth of a squatter settlement: horizontally and vertically and limit of increment Multiple use of Space: Multifunctional modules Social Structure Commercial Structure Compact Living
KOWLOON WALLED CITY Location:22Â°19'56"N 114Â°11'24"E | Hong Kong, China, Population: 33000 ,Year of Inception: 1898 , Year of demolition: 1993 ,Total Site Area: 6.5 acres.
Kowloon Walled City is an extreme example of what happens to a place when there is no planning. The superblock eventually grew up to be an unplanned artificial city: reaching up to 14 storeys high. Kowloon Walled City, located not far from the former Kai Tak airport, was a high rise squatter camp that by the 1980s had 50,000 residents. A historical accident of Colonial Hong Kong, it existed in a lawless vacuum until it became an embarrassment for Britain.
fig 3.4.1: View of Kowloon by Greg Girard
location: Kowloon Walled City was located near the Kai Tak airport of Hong Kong. It was surrounded by estates on three sides and a slum on one which was later rehabilitated.
MEI TUNG ESTATE
timeline of development:
During World War II, the Japanese army razed the walls for materials to expand the Kai Tak airport.
TUNG TAU ESTATE
SAI TAU TSUEN SQUATTER AREA KAI TAK AIRPORT
In March 1993, the settlement was demolished and a park that looked like a typical Chinese Garden was biuilt in its place. It retained a few elements from the Walled City, such as old cannons and remnants of the South Gate and its entrance plaques
uncontrolled building begins
fig. 3.4.3: Plan showing air routes
The city grew to be a lawless land, self-governed and without the proper consideration for any sort of controlled growth. Because of the close proximity to the airport, strict Airport Height Restrictions ranging from 45.72m P.D. (permitted development) to 51.82m are imposed under the Hong Kong Airport Ordinance.1
fig 3.4.2: Illustration demonstrating height restriction fig 3.4.2: Sourced from the South China Morning post; https://www.scmp.com/sites/ default/files/2013/03/16/scm _ news _ 1.1.nws _ backart1 _ 1 _ 0.jpg
*51.82m or up to the height of the highest natural feature within 90m of the point concerned, whichever is higher. 1. Redevelopment of Kowloon Walled City, A feasibility Study; Ho Siu Fong, Betty
THE CITY OF ANARCHY: INFOGRAPHIC
fig 3.4.4: Infographic|Walled City
fig 3.4.4: Sourced from the South China Morning post; https://www.scmp.com/sites/ default/files/2013/03/16/scm _ news _ 1.1.nws _ backart1 _ 1 _ 0.jpg
fig 3.4.5: plan|internal street layout
fig 3.4.6: Views|Internal streets
fig3.4.7: plan|main street layout
fig 3.4.8: Views|Main streets
There were 300 buildings altogether in the KWC, with an average height of 11 storeys. With the exception of the former Yamen and Tin Hau Temple, all of these buildings were built/rebuilt after the Second World War. Since the area is not under the control of the Buildings Ordinance, the developers tend to exploit development potentials to the maximum but ‘cut’ the building costs to the minimum, resulting in an unsafe and unhealthy environment. All drawings courtesy of Nicolas Chung,http://pr2015.aaschool.ac.uk/DIP-02/Nicolas. chung
THE TIN HAU TEMPLE
THE OLD PEOPLE’S CENTRE
fig 3.4.9: Public space in Kowloon fig 3.4.8/3.4.9: Sourced from City of Darkness; Greg Girard and Ian Lambot
Though many flats had piped supplies from one of the 70 or so privately drilled artesian wells, safe drinking water was available from just eight government standpipes. Of these, only on Tai Chang street was within the Cityâ€™s boundaries. At certain times queues would form to fill buckets and containers, though throughout the day a constant stream of residents would drop by to wash vegetables, dishes or even their hair. The many hoses seen clustered around the standpipe were from the numerous food factories which naturally congregated in this area. fig3.4.10: plan|service layout
8 standpipes: 0ne within the city and 7 on its perimeter owing to the dense layout
Building conditions Whilst in general buildings are constructed out of RCC, the quality of material employed is substandard. Building structures are not rested on proper foundations. Developers claim that the whole area is bedded by a piece of large rock and hence no piling is necessary. Buildings have been observed to tilt eventually. Only one building was installed with lift despite the average height being 11 storeys. Owing to height restrictions, developers turned to minimizing floor to floor height to achieve maximum number of saleable storeys. Lack of space between buildings resulted in windows being blocked off and streets virtually turned into internal corridors. New buildings were usually simple shells with little or no built in amenities, not even piped water or drainage. Slight settlement of the building after completion was considered normal. fig 3.4.10: Sourced from Redevelopment of Kowloon Walled City, A feasibility Study; Ho Siu Fong, Betty
fig 3.4.11: View|Standpipes fig 3.4.11: Sourced from City of Darkness; Greg Girard and Ian Lambot
fig 3.4.12: Documentation of circulation spaces All drawings courtesy of Nicolas Chung,http://pr2015.aaschool.ac.uk/DIP-02/Nicolas. chung
narrowed corridor: back alley and staircase
The case reviewed here is of a stairwell and narrow corridor onto which opened 4 factories and a local groceries store. A study of the circulation passage shows different functions at different hours of the day: At 9:00 am in the morning, when factory production was not active, the main social flow would consist of residents going to and from the local groceries store During lunch hours, the factory workers would disperse and converge near the staircase pocket space for socialising. With late house of the night approaching, the factories would shut down and the relief space near the staircase would attract drug dealers and addicts for illegal activities at shady spots.
factory grocery store
fig 3.4.13: Analysis of a Stairwell All drawings courtesy of Nicolas Chung,http://pr2015.aaschool.ac.uk/DIP-02/Nicolas. chung
The roof was the centre-hold of all social activities: children playing in the evening, women conversing, men resting. Being the only space receiving fresh air and sunlight in the entire city, it was a welcome place for all such activities.
fig 3.4.14: Illustration demonstrating relaxing spaces: the roof All drawings courtesy of Nicolas Chung,http://pr2015.aaschool.ac.uk/DIP-02/Nicolas. chung
social spaces: the roof
MULTIPROGRAM SPACE: sweet factory
fig 3.4.16: people working in the sweet factory All drawings courtesy of Nicolas Chung,http://pr2015.aaschool.ac.uk/DIP-02/Nicolas. chung
The sweet factory was originally established by Lee Yu Chunâ€™s family in the early 1970s. The business still runs majorly in the family, employing housewives majorly from all the city. fig 3.4.15: activity charts|sweet factory All images sourced from City of Darkness; Greg Girard and Ian Lambot
place transforms into a living area at night
Like most other factory owners in the City, Yu Hing Wan chose his location on Lung Chun Road for its cheap rent, given his need to accommodate large machinery and store cloth.
Located on the ground floor of 58 Lung Chun Road, Lam Leung Po’s business was one of the many food- processing factories located near the standpipes.
In the City’s heyday more than 150 illegal dentists partied, the figure dropped to 86 by 1987. Simple dentistry was majorly practised, such as teeth cleaning, small fillings ad denture work. All images sourced from City of Darkness; Greg Girard and Ian Lambot
Hui Tung Choy runs the noodle factory in the day, the
WORK + LIVE
GENERAL STORE LUNCH BOX SERVICE
housing and business statistics Household size
3 or less graph
more than 3
Sharing of living quarters
Shared with other households Single family
Private housing with self-contained facilities simple stone structures and temporary housing unknown
Accommodation in the KWC costs about Â˝ to 1/3 of that in nearby districts. A 100 sq. feet room rented at $400-$500 a month and a 300 sq.ft. flat rents at only about $900. The selling price of a 400 sq.ft is around $80,000 while that of an 800 Sq. ft. is about $100,000. Prices vary according to the availability of natural light and ventilation. The older buildings were built with larger flat size of 600-800 sq.ft. but new ones were only 300400 sq.ft. There was a total of 645 businesses and factory establishments operating within the Walled City. These include 89 clinics, 97 dental clinics, 77 shops, 28 restaurants, 12 electrical appliance shops, and 10 real estate agencies, 30 factories in textile, 44 in garment manufacturing, and 56 in metal processing /production, 93 in plastic products, 41 in manufacturing, 35 in meat and 33 in cake production.
electrical appliance shops
real estate agencies
metal processing/ production
cake production 1. Data sourced from Redevelopment of Kowloon Walled City, A feasibility Study; Ho Siu Fong, Betty
inferences The case is a perfect example of high density haphazard growth in a vertical environment. The lack of appropriate spillover spaces forced the residents to encroach the corridors for social and industrial activities during the day. Dingy corridors facilitated illegal activities during the nights. The work-live environments as seen in most migrant cores is highlighted in this case, but the lack of spaces and proper control against encroachment made the existing spaces unhabitable. Lighting and ventilation was compromised owing to the uncontrolled growth.
framework: Site and Services Approach Self Help Techniques and Process Incremental Architecture
aranya township Client: Indore Development Authority , Design Population: 65000 projected; 45000 initial ,Year of Inception: 1982 , Year of Realization: 1987 ,Total Site Area: 220 acres, Phase 1 development: 100 acres
Typically processed to be a Site and Services project, the Aranya Township was the brainchild of B.V. Doshi, successfully replacing the insensitive grid layout associated with such projects with an urban vocabulary justifying the socio-economic circumstances of the households accommodated.
fig 3.5.1: View of a lane down Aranya township
Aranya works more on an urban level: the masterplanning and design deals with the insensitive grid layout that is usually associated with all site and services project. The built language corresponds to the socio-economic environment and climate of the place. Incremental and affordable architecture forms the core of the design, the units following a Kit-of-Parts method of constructions that advocates individuality while keeping in check the cost considerations during construction.
slums of Indore
SPACES FOR DOMESTIC ACTIVITIES, HOME BASED ECONOMIES
fig 3.5.1: View of a lane down Aranya township
fig 3.5.2: Hierarchy of house extensions: the semi-private to private character which spill over with domestic activities; offers variation in street form. Culturally important spaces.
Topography of the site was important determinant in planning roads, and other service networks to maximize use of gravity flow and minimize the cut and fill of land. The criteria for Site selection was based on the linkage to the city and employment generated in the surrounding industrial areas.
fig3.5.3: Spaces for home-based economies: preparation of eatables, production of incensed sticks etc.
MARKETS, COMMERCIAL AVENUES
Developing industrial areas fig3.5.4: Commercial zones: small shops etc. Hierarchy of commercial coincides with hierarchy of streets.
INTERNAL STREETS/ ALLEYS fig3.5.5: Ordered hierarchy of street in terms of widths, physical character, location and activities adjoining. Street double as open spaces for a range of activities.
fig 3.5.6: Context map|Arnaya
area statement Table 3.5.1:Area statement|Housing
Table 3.5.2:Area statement|Amenities
3.66 X 9.65
EWS II EWS III
TYPOLOGY EWS I- EWS EWS I II- EWS III
NO. OF PLOTS
AREA (Hectares) PERCENTAGES
NET PLANNING AREA
6.1 X 7.32
6.1 X 7.62
4262 LIG I- LIG IILIG III
4.75 X 12.20
6.10 X 12.20
7.62 X 12.20
Shopping (main roads) Internal shopping (1/2 double slots)
SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY
Single service slots
Â½ Double service slots
9.15 X 15.25
12.20 X 18.30 223 891
HIG I- HIG II HIG I HIG II
15.25 X 21
16.30 X 25.9
16.30 X 33.55
NON-MARKETABLE ROAD AREA Open spaces
1095 MIG I- MIG II
OVERALL LAND DISTRIBUTION
design process settlement structure: size or heirarchy spatial definition and boundaries Population and composition Relationship to other areas Legal and Organisational Structure: Forms of tenure Need and type of control
Table 3.5.1/3.5.2: Data sourced from report on Aranya Community housing, Indore, India; the Aga Khan Award for Architecture
settlement design: Density and cost Road Network Open spaces system Supportive facilities: Nature and magnitude of facilities Location Growth and Change
checklist of considerations BROAD OBJECTIVES
Vitality Imageability Equity Efficiency Feasibility Flexibility
Indigenous character of built form Optimisation of land utilisation Marketability Economy of infrastructure Innovation in site and services Reconsideration of standards
HIERARCHY AND SIZE OF COMMUNITIES WITHIN A SETTLEMENT Township level Sector level Community level Cluster level Dwelling level
Planning at the Sector level: • Use natural features and landmarks constructively and efficiently • Encourage interaction and integration amongst income/social groups • Promote multiple and overlapping land uses • Segregate pedestrian and vehicular movements • Provide a sense of boundary to each sector • Provide local facilities within easy reach
Planning at the Dwelling level: • Make the dwellings sensitive to the lifestyle and daily needs of the people • Give each dwelling a rich, unique identity • Integrate the spaces within and outside the dwelling • Allow for vertical and horizontal expansion of the dwelling in future • Study the efficiency of plot sizes, walls, foundations and internal circulation • Advocate the ‘self-built’ approach.
1. Data sourced from report on Aranya Community housing, Indore, India; the Aga Khan Award for Architecture
A comprehensive checklist was compiled based on evolved heirarchies, as follows1:
Planning at the Township level: • Allow formation of an environmental area by discouraging through traffic • Incorporate all the basic community and institutional facilities • Place the community and central facilities within easy reach • Provide a well ordered heirarchy of roads, open spaces and commercial spaces. • Allow design population densities to accommodate future growth • Ensure that overall land use and marketable areas reflect economic planning in the Indian context • Adopt self-financing approach through crosssubsidy Planning at the Community/ Street level: • Promote person to person contact through cluster of human scale. • Provide and individual character to each cluster • Provide spaces for social/religious activities • Provide income generation at cluster level • Provide all essential amenities and utilities to every street
MIG LIG EWS
10 MIN COMMERCIAL CENTRE
7 MIN 5 MIN SECTOR ROAD
3 MIN HEALTH CENTRE SECONDARY SCHOOL
GREEN SPACES SPINE ROAD
RESIDENCES PUBLIC SQUARES
stages of development
fig 3.5.7: Masterplan
fig 3.5.8: distance-amenities cycle
The plan developed by IDA showed a grid iron layout without any hierarchy of open spaces, circulation system etc.
Initial stage of proposed plan with distributed open spaces and street hierarchy
Intermediary stage: rectified orientation to minimise heat gain and increase natural shading
Final stage: interlinked open spaces, builtform variations, distributed amenities, road network hierarchies and climate friendly orientation.
hierarchy and distribution of amenities THE PLAN: imitates the informal nature of a slum settlement. The town centre consists of 4 clusters of shopping, residential and office complexes, and at the end of the central spine, two mixed-use clusters. Residential clusters that open on to a street are comprised of ten houses, each with a rear courtyard for use as a play and service area. Open spaces and pedestrian pathways intersect and connect the clusters to the central spine. Internal streets and squares are paved, and the major roads and arteries that link the town centre to other parts of Aranya are tarred.
fig.3.5.9: Principal Road Network: Site and Services, main street
fig.3.5.10: Community facilities: Site and Services, narrow street
Lower level community facilities organised in green spaces: • Even distribution • Maintains link with town centre • Pedestrian access easier
fig.3.5.11: Definition spaces: main street
fig.3.5.12: Distribution plots, narrow lanes, alley
COMMUNITY HALL CULTURAL COMPLEX UNIT PRIMARY SCHOOL
CAR PARKING PLAYGROUND POST AND TELEGRAPH OFFICE HEALTH CENTRE SECONDARY SCHOOL
fig 3.5.13: Axonometry|Distribution of Amenities Data sourced from report on Aranya Community housing, Indore, India; the Aga Khan Award for Architecture
flexible and incremental
fig 3.5.15: Elevations All drawings and diagrams courtesy of Vastu Shilpa Architects
demonstration of houses:
kit of elements
Table: 3.5.3: Material index
Load bearing brick walls (plastered and painted)
CRC roof (high investment)
Pile foundation: low cost underreamed CRC piles for core house.
fig 3.5.16: The core was designed in a way as to allow a variety of options for growth. The EWS units grew as viable for them.
steel RCC RAILING VARIATIONS
balcony chajja fig 3.5.17: The variety of options available impart a sense of ownership to the users, encouraging them to build the structure in a way they want to.
otta fig 3.5.18: Kit of Parts
All drawings and diagrams courtesy of Vastu Shilpa Architects
site and services: The Site and Services was adapted in this project to a new scheme entailing cross-subsidisation: the HIG, MIG groups were to pay for their plots according to their income, the amount generated would then be used to build the housing for EWS. The residents of the EWS category had to pay back the loan on a monthly basis. For the EWS, the options of core housing included: • Site, Plinth and service core (WC and water tap) • Site, Plinth and service core (WC and Bath) • Site, Plinth and service core (WC and Bath) and 1 Kitchen The other income groups had plots sold to them. A verandah or house extension helped in expanding the EWS houses and enhanced space quality.
Incremental growth of house from a Plinth and Service core to Two Storeyed structure.
There was a loan based system for training for self-help architecture available for the EWS society. Contractors were available for the higher income groups. Owners were free to use any material for their house construction and decoration; brick, stone and cement are available locally. The down payment was based on average income of the family, and the loan balance paid in monthly installments. A monthly maintenance charge of two rupees was fixed for all plots owned by the lower-income groups. Doshi’s model has not been followed in the houses post the initial 80. A number of original owners have either sold their plots or are offering them for sale through a broker. The resale price of a 35sqm plot is currently 700$, 10 times its original price.
fig 3.5.19: Site and Service Layout
Data sourced from report on Aranya Community housing, Indore, India; the Aga Khan Award for Architecture
service layout: Every 20 houses are connected to one septic tank. 3 reservoirs, each serving two sectors, were built at the high points of each and interconnected to provide water for the entire area. Overhead electricity distribution was installed for the higher- and middleincome groups, and an underground network was installed for the lower income areas.
Introduction of open slot around service core combines twice as many toilets per manhole and cuts down pipe lengths to half, achieving economic efficiency without affecting its performance. The service slot has been integrated as design element helping break the continuous built mass and becoming useful play area for children with platform for neighbourly interaction.
fig. 3.5.20: Service Layout of a cluster Data sourced from report on Aranya Community housing, Indore, India; the Aga Khan Award for Architecture
inferences: Aranya township, even though entails a successful design strategy fails to function at the same vision in the present scenario. The 80 houses designed by Doshi are being sold off at prices 10 times its original value. A part of this is due the fact that even though employment opportunities were created at the sector level, dedicated spaces for carrying out home based economies were not generated. The Site and Services scheme for the project proved an ingenious one, with more units sharing a common core, which economised the project to a major extent.
Site+Program Program development Validity: Sites
Program development considerations The Program for the project has been developed after a detailed background research of existing slums. The main factors considered in determining the layout were as follows: • Develop a hierarchy in the size of units: allocate specific area for different family size • Cater to the existing home based economies and small scale industries • Design appropriate social spaces while catering to the existing layout of religious structures. • Retain the existing social structure in the built program • Provide designated space for commercial programs along the streets in accordance with the current layout The built program has been structured based on the existing layout of built as well as social structure. It caters to the demands of the current migrants and promotes their productivity and work evironment which is a major setback in current slum rehablitation schemes. The area are provided with interstitial spillover zones such that the environment on the 9th floor reflects that on the ground floor: a scheme to promote high density high rise living.
FUNCTIONAL COMPONENTS fig 4.1: Program development
Validity: Site Site Parameters: The analysis of issues and challenges helped frame the requirements of a site, mentioned as follows: Density: Owing to high rates of population growth and migration, the site chosen shall be able to accomodate a dense pattern of structure. Existing dense conditions are a favourable condition in this scenario, so as to help study and evaluate current conditions.
Commercial zone: The site should accomodate home based economies, small scale industries and other selfsustaining modes of migrant economy. KATHPUTLI COLONY, DELHI
COLONY NO. 4, CHANDIGARH
Long term residency: The site should preferably house migrants of second/ third generation as the solution aims towards providing more permanent yet flexible solution to the problems in such cores. Social life: The site should have strong community values and social structure as the solution seeks to provide a wholesome approach to the problem.
fig 4.2.1: Prospective sites
A comparative study of prospective sites on terms of density, commercial fabric, long term residency and social structure help us decide the area of intervention.
DENSITY 667 PPA
KATHPUTLI COLONY, DELHI
Approximate population: 20,000 Site Area: 3 Acres
2000 PPA Approximate population: 1,000,000 Site Area: 535 Acres
COMMERCIAL Acrobat, magician, puppeteer, singer, dancer and musician communities Recycling industries, leather tanneries, pottery, heavy metal work, manufactured goods like garments, shoes, luggage and jewellery, WHO certified surgical thread.
Labourers, domestic workers, Approximate population: unknown petty traders, mobile vendors Site Area: 25 Acres
COLONY NO.4, CHANDIGARH
Table 4.2.1: Comparative analysis of prospective sites
LONG TERM RESIDENCY
Open spaces for artisans Bihari, Marathi, UP, Gujrati, Marwadi camp. Schools, Workshops, Health centre
Heirarchy of open spaces Gujrati, UP, estimates vary. 33% Muslim, 6% Christian, 60% Hindu Health care, religious, schools, Public amenities.
Several Open spaces UP, Bihar, Rajasthan, Haryana, HP, Tamil Nadu communities. Dispensary, Govt. School, Community Toilets.
Dharavi: an overview Transit camp Kumbharwada community Industrial profiles
â€œDharavi in its extraordinary conundrum and kaleidoscopic alterations offers a multiplicity of investigative trajectories that combine and separate, creating never-stable but alwaysinterrelated patterns.â€? - Contested Urbanism
dharavi Dharavi, a settlement formed over years of migration and still undergoing processes of change, has emerged as a symbol of informal urbanism. Composed out of 85 nagars or clusters, it is a labyrinth of dense multifunctional work-live dwellings showcasing a wide range of commercial activity, the productivity contributing to a 6th of the GDP of the entire city of Mumbai. The settlement started with the village of the Koliwada, now a private land bought off by its inhabitants, eventually spreading out to the 175 ha of slum dwellings that it is in the present. Dharavi is composed out of a myriad of multifunctional living units, open spaces, organic clusters, industrial, institutional, commercial, social zones. It forms the perfect example of a migrant habitat as a microcosm of the city it is a part of: a fully self-functional unit. The incremental evolution of the built form and adaptability of the settlement over time poses as a real time example of the architecture of migrant habitats.
fig. 5.1.1: Plan of Dharavi
New Transit camp: Dharavi The New Transit Camp structures were built in 1985 as part of the PGMP as temporary housing for slum dwellers before they moved into new semi-subsidised apartment block. The camp structures have now turned into permanent dwellings for the migrants, and houses most of the commercial structures of Dharavi itself.
fig 5.2.1: View of New Transit Camp and Semi-subsidised housing
fig 5.2.2: Map of New Transit Camp
fig 5.2.2: Sourced from â€œDharavi - Ground Upâ€?: A Dwellers-Focused Design Tool for Upgrading Living Space in Dharavi, Mumbai; Prof. Amita Bhide, Arch. Mag.arch Martina Spies
4 blocks 2 chawls: 1 plot 1 chawl: 20 rooms
Textile and Textile
Rubber and Plastic
500 400 300 200 100 0
Sanitary Facility Status
Water Supply Status 2000
Electric Power Supply Status
4000 2000 0 Metered
< 27.85 sq m
>= 27.85 sq m
All data sourced from survey by SPARC|KRVIA
case study of a multifunctional house
fig 5.2.3: Plans|Tool House
fig5.2.5: Functional analysis fig 5.2.5: Sourced from urbz.net
fig 5.2.4: Sections|Tool House
INDUSTRIAL PROFILES: Econimic activity in the Transit camp is decentralised, home-based, low-tech and labour intensive. Most activites are carried out on a work-live scenario, though the industrial activities have designated location. Commercial activities are planned along the streets which function as major spillover zones.
15000 Single room factories
fig 5.2.6: Mapping the industrial units of transit camp
FORM OF ORGANISATI ON
SPACE UTILISED FOR WORK
Traditional, Family based
Actively linked to organised economy
SMAL UNIT/ FACTORY
PUBLIC PUBLIC CONSOLIDA DISPERSED TED Dhobis
Table 5.2.1: Space analysis based on industrial profile fig 5.2.6: Sourced from â€œDharavi - Ground Upâ€?: A Dwellers-Focused Design Tool for Upgrading Living Space in Dharavi, Mumbai; Prof. Amita Bhide, Arch. Mag.arch Martina Spies
The Dhobi Ghat was started by migrants from Andhra Pradesh. People of Chakali Caste from the state shifted to Mumbai from fear of congestion. The residents belonged mainly to the Mahalakshmi and Dhobi Talao. Once migrated, the resident invested meagerly in housing as they were still attached to their village homes. Currently 6-7 families reside in Dharavi, having encroached lands near the railway tracks. fig 5.2.7: Dhobi Ghat
fig 5.2.8: Activity map| Dhobi Ghat fig 5.2.8: Sourced from â€œDharavi - Ground Upâ€?: A Dwellers-Focused Design Tool for Upgrading Living Space in Dharavi, Mumbai; Prof. Amita Bhide, Arch. Mag.arch Martina Spies
All Data obtained from NSDF survey
Papad making: Papad making is a business majorly carried out by the women of Dharavi. Most employees work for Mahila Griha Udyog Lijjat Papad, a cooperative involved in manufacturing of various fast-moving consumer goods. The process of Papad making is described below: • The daily process is started by women going to the Lijjat centre (employers) to bring the dough at around 5:00am by bus or a shared auto-rickshaw. Nearly 3-4 kgs of dough are collected for the purpose. • Papads are then rolled out by mid-morning, after the household chores are done. For this purpose open areas are used and the women are helped by other member of the family. • The Papads are then dried outside the homes. During monsoon, this step of the process is carried inside using kerosene.
Broom making: Broom making is a home-based economy which is carried out by all members of a family at times. The process is underlined below: • Dry leaves are collected around winter: bought from the market or cut from trees • They are then soaked for a day outside. • The washed and dried leaves are made into bundles and tied together. • They are then trimmed and stored in sacks. • When the count reaches 1000-1200, the women of the family take it via trains to Bhiwandi to sell them off.
Textile and Tailoring: Post the decline and fall of the Textile Industry in the 1950-60s, it developed into an informal industry. Weaving, printing, tailoring, etc., emerged as separate units. The textile industry now thrives, with a large quantity of the production being outsourced from garment companies and jeans manufacturers. The final products are exported world over to major companies.
All Data obtained from NSDF survey
Waste Pickers: The waste pickers started off as migrants who came to the city in the 50-60s in search of jobs. During the 80-90s, labour became expensive and jobs became scarce. Many a migrant shifted to waste picking to earn their livlihoods. Some, unable to find a place to live in shifted to live in nearby slums around 5 km from the dumpyard. The process is underlined below: • The work begins in the morning, the pickers take rounds of familiar lanes. • Things that may fetch money are collected in bags. • They are then deposited in the Waste Collecting shops that they are working for.
PROBLEMS Work Problems
•distasteful looks from passersby and often trouble from the police. •. They are frequently apprehended for minor thefts. •Monsoons are a particularly difficult time. Mixed waste begins to decompose and stink. •Recyclable material like paper is spoilt, plastic becomes wet
•Injuries due to glass, metal are common. •Sugravi damaged her leg due to an injury at a garbage heap.
fig 5.2.9: View of street with waste stored alongside All Data obtained from NSDF survey
BACK BREAKIN G WORK
MOST DEPRIVED BACKGROU ND
•It involves competition with other waste pickers, animals like dogs that also frequent the heaps
UNCERTA IN INCOME
NO FIXED HOURS !
Recycling: Recycling is not a traditional occupation in the slum. The workers do not belong to any particular social group that deal with waste. The business started in the 1970s. Over 722 small and big establishments function in this industry employing over 5000 people. The estimated turnover is 50 lakh rupees a year.
fig 5.2.9: Recycling shop
Kumbharwada community The Kumbharwada (Potter) colony is spread over 12.5 acres of land at the intersection of the 90 feet and 60 feet roads in Dharavi. The community comprises of semi-permanent to permanent housing in a planned yet organic environment. The Kumbhars are one of the oldest communities of Dharavi. They prevail mainly from Gujarat in the North.
fig 5.2.10: Street lined with clay goods
fig 5.2.12: Aerial View|Kumbharwada
fig 5.2.11: Women building pots
fig 5.2.13: Brick Kilns lining the streets
Built in the 1930s after a fire raged through the community, many residents own a one-story Each family was given 15â€™X60â€™ (900 sq.ft) plot of land with a single story brick house. The block is composed of 6-10 buildings that are grouped together in between smaller secondary alleys. The block is further divided into buildings, and also into units. Now comprised of approximately 2000 families living in the same amount of area. Earlier there were 500 families: buildings have been divided and sub-divided for the next generation of the family or as a means of extra income renting to new migrants to the city. Also, as need for space increases, the homes have expanded up, adding lofts and second stories where necessary.
30â€™ at one point
fig 5.2.14: Plan of Kumbharwada community showing Kilns lining the streets
fig 5.2.15: Plan|Typical home
fig 5.2.16: section|Typical home
fig 5.2.17: Longitudinal section through streets Shopperâ€™s side
Small squares with Kilns
fig 5.2.187: View of streets in Kumbharwada
site analysis Selection of Site Land use pattern Circulation analysis Service layout Climate analysis Material and Construction detail Nolli map Lunch map
GREEN SOCIETY G+4
LUCKY CO. SOCIETY G+4
NIRMAL MILK CENTER
POLICE QUARTERS G+4
BMC G+2 BMC G+2
BUDH VIHAR LAKSHILA
SANJAY HAIR DRESSERS
POWER HOUSE (RELIANCE)
OM SAI SEVA MANDAL
TRANSIT CAMP G+1
TRANSIT CAMP G+1
TRANSIT CAMP G+1
HW HW HW HW
HW HW HW
VINDESHWARI CO. HO. SO.
BEST SUB STATION
IV/C/27/SRA BEST SUB STATION
S. T. D.
NALANDA SAHAKARI GRUHNIRMAN SANSTHA
IV/B/20/SRA PUMP HOUSE
2.8 M WIDE RD.
HW HW HW HW HW HW
ER ST WE
HW HW HW
CHURCH SIDE BASTON
A G+4 C.H.S.
III/L/34/S HW HW
HW HW HW
BLDG. FIRE M STN G+4 G-4
SHREE BALAJI STORE
BLDG. FIRE M STN G+4G-18
BLDG. FIREM STN G+4 G-2
I/F/39/MCG DHARAVI BLDG. FIRE M STN G+4 G-3
BLDG. FIRE M STN G+4G-17
GNP G+4 C.H.S.
MATUNGA LABOUR CAMP
BLDG. FIRE M STN G+4 G-5
BLDG. FIREM STN G+4 G-6
HW HW HW
BLDG. FIRE M STN G+4 G-7
STN I/F/46/MCGM FIRE G-9 DHARAVI BLDG. G+4
STN I/F/47/MCGM FIRE G-10 DHARAVI BLDG. G+4
I/F/45/MCGM DHARAVI FIRE STN BLDG. G-8 G+4
STN I/F/51/MCGM FIRE G-14 DHARAVI BLDG. G+4
STN I/F/48/MCGM FIRE G-11 DHARAVI BLDG. G+4
STN I/F/50/MCGM FIRE DHARAVI G-13 BLDG. G+4
STN I/F/49/MCGM FIRE G-12 DHARAVI BLDG. G+4
BLDG. FIRE M STN G+4 G-16
HW HW HW
BLDG. FIRE M STN G+4 G-1
I/J/80/R NI NIWAS G+4 GNP C.H.S.
BLDG. FIRE M STN G+4G-15
ISAHWAR I/J/81/RG I NIVAS G+4 NP C.H.S.
RGNP C.H.S A I/G/65/ G+4 ANARI
STATION I/E/34/MCGM FIRE E- 19 DHARAVI BLDG. G+4
SHALI NP G+4 C.H.S.
SHALI NP G+4 C.H.S.
I/J/82/RG I NIVAS G+4 NP CHS
RGNP C.H.S A I/G/66/ G+4 ANARI
STN I/F/37/MCGM FIRE A-8 DHARAVI BLDG. G+4
FIRE E- 18 DHARAVI BLDG. G+4
STATION I/E/32/MCGM FIRE 17 EDHARAVI BLDG. G+4
STN I/F/36/MCGM FIRE A-7 DHARAVI BLDG. G+4
NP C.H.S.I NIVAS G+5
RGNP RA C.H.S. I/G/67/ KSHET HWAR G+4
STATION I/E/31/MCGM FIRE 16 EDHARAVI BLDG. G+4
FIRE 15 EDHARAVI BLDG. G+4
STATION I/F/35/MCGM FIRE E- 13 DHARAVI BLDG. G+4
SRA NIWAS I/G/70/ L G+7 GOKU
FIRE 14 EDHARAVI BLDG. G+4
STATION I/E/25/MCGM FIRE E-9 DHARAVI BLDG. G+4
STATION I/E/26/MCGM FIRE 10 EDHARAVI BLDG. G+4
RGNP APART I/G/71/ SH G+4
I/G/68/RG KSHETRA PALESHW NP G+4 AR C.H.S.
I/G/69/RG KSHETRA PALESHW NP G+4 AR C.H.S.
RGNP ASHAL I/G/72/ G+4
FIRE A-6 I/E/16/M VI
FIRE DHARAVI A-5 BLDG. G+4
STATION I/E/28/MCGM FIRE E- 12 DHARAVI BLDG. G+4
STN I/F/56/MCGM FIRE DHARAVI G-19 BLDG. G+4
STN I/F/57/MCGM FIRE DHARAVI G-20 BLDG. G+4
I/G/76/ NDEYA G+4
I/E/27/MCGM STATION FIRE E- 11 DHARAVI BLDG.
BEST Sub Station 2002
FIRE I/E/13/M A-3 VI
STATION I/E/24/MCGM FIRE E-8 DHARAVI BLDG. G+4
STATION I/E/21/MCGM FIRE E-5 DHARAVI BLDG. G+4
STN I/E/14/MCGM FIRE DHARAVI A-4 BLDG. G+4
I/E/20/MCGM STATION FIRE E-4 DHARAVI BLDG. G+4
I/E/19/MCGM STATION FIRE E-3 DHARAVI BLDG. G+4
STATION I/E/18/MCGM FIRE E-2 DHARAVI BLDG. G+4
STATION I/E/17/MCGM FIRE E-1 DHARAVI BLDG. G+4
STATION I/E/23/MCGM FIRE E-7 DHARAVI BLDG. G+4
FIRE A-2 VI I/E/12/M
I/E/22/MCGM STATION FIRE E-6 DHARAVI BLDG. G+4
FIRE I/E/11/MCGM DHARAVI A-1 BLDG. G+4
B.M.C. CAMP MANDAI
ENGLISH HIGH SCHOOL
TOILET MHADA ONLY GROUND FLOOR
Dharavi has been divided into 4 sectors based on the social and functional typologies and land use patterns. • Sector I: leather and recycling industries; SRA land for rental housing • Sector II: Clusters with strong social structure and commercial activity. • Sector III: Industrial and institutional functions • Sector IV: Transient population consisting of migrants. Parts of it are not more than 40 years old. • Sector V: Municipal and public services for entire Dharavi.
VYAYAM SHALA VALMIKI TEMPLE BALWADI
BABA SAHEB AMBEDKAR SANG
DR. AMBEDKAR HALL
BEST SUB STATION
CGM VALMIKI MITRA MANDAL
M I/H/95/MCG M
GM JANASEVA TOILET
SHRIRAM INDUSTRIES G+2
CAMP MATUNGA LABOUR (B.M.C.SCHOOL)OF MARATHI MEDIUM
The Site chosen has the maximum density in terms of dwelling units, and is not more than 40 years old. Parts of the and belong to Co-operative housing Socities.
AMBEDKAR STATUE OPEN
fig 6.1.1: Plan of Dharavi showing sectoral division
1. Area: 5408.22 sqm R: 37|C: 86 2. Area: 16674.54 sqm R: 241|C: 82 3. Area: 6448.22 sqm R: 208|C: 49 4. Area: 1630.25 sqm R: 3|C: 1 5. Area: 4757.45 sqm R: 154|C: 88
6. Area: 7771.77 sqm R:302|C: 91 7. Area: 1336.10 sqm R: 47|C: 46 8. Area: 3717.69 sqm R: 96|C: 77 9. Area: 7718.91 sqm R: 452|C:86 10. Area: 3678.09 R: 60|C: 79
fig 6.1.2:Map of Ambiguous clusters: transient units not forming a set social structure. fig 6.1.2: Sourced from ReDharavi; Sparc, KRVIA.
Land use: Existing Total Site Area: 7.14 Acres Existing F.A.R.: 2 Height restriction: 56m
graph 6.2.1: Distance amenities diagram (not to scale)
fig 6.2.1: Existing Vertical Land-use pattern fig 6.2.1: Sourced from Dharavi, Informal Settlements and Slum Upgrading; Melbourne School of Design.
fig 6.2.2: Existing land use map
The existing situation is much more mixed and Industrial functions are more commonly on the upper floors. This is largely because such rooms are rented from owners who seek to inhabit the ground floor. This location is more crucial for housing because the overcrowded interiors are relieved somewhat by the capacity to spill both social life and domestic items into the adjacent laneways during the day. The industrial uses are more self-contained and do not have these threshold functions nor the volumes of entry traffic. Retail functions are clearly linked to ground floor locations but also economicaly to residential so that shops can also function as housing and shopkeeping can be integrated with domestic life. 81
fig 6.3.1: Existing circulation pattern
fig6.3.2: Diagrammatic Site Section fig 6.3.2: Sourced from Dharavi, Informal Settlements and Slum Upgrading; Melbourne School of Design.
Grid Iron Layout: The narrow lanes have high lighting and ventilation problems due to the narrow interior street layout. fig 6.3.3: Grid Iron Layout of streets
Clustered Layout: Most streets open onto squares or public areas like the toilets. Internal blocks have high problems of lighting and ventilation. fig 6.3.4: Clustered Layout of streets
Smaller Lanes: Minimal urban Larger Lanes: Lined with Main Street: Appeared to have been passageways without entry transitions, building entrances on both side. created by demolishing surrounding storage or social life. At 2m wide, Entries set up behind a narrow plinth structures to provide vehicular access. They the lane allows some transition space that serves as entry porch, seat, work are primarily lined with 2-3 storey structures, and ladders to upper floor but the platform and storage, also the base majorly commercial and retail in function. overhang means that upper floors are for steep stairs. The street edges act as strong pedestria and at times al-most joined. social spaces. 83
fig 6.4.1: Existing service layout
fig 6.4.2: shallow drains run along the street to drain off sewage and storm water
fig 6.4.3: Community water taps installed in inner street to supply water to households fig. 6.4.4: Illustrations highlighting current scenario of drainage and water supply
fig 6.5.1: Wind data
fig 6.5.2: Diagrammatic presentation to demonstrate soil conditions
Table 6.5.1: Shadow angle analysis|Mumbai
fig 6.5.3: Dharavi Elevation
fig 6.6.1: Construction detail|Upper floors
fig 6.6.2: Construction detail: Ground floors
fig 6.6.2: Sourced from DharaviI Informal Settlements and Slum Upgrading; Melbourne School of Design.
fig 6.6.3: Material index
fig 6.6.3: Sourced from DharaviI Informal Settlements and Slum Upgrading; Melbourne School of Design.
fig 6.7: Lynch Map|Imageability
fig 6.8: Nolli Map
concept + design Spatial theories Checklist of Considerations Existing Scenario Concept Form Evolution Area Requirements Drawings and Illustrations Annexure
spatial theories: Higher densities demand better social spaces. Heterotopia noun
spaces that have more layers of meaning or relationships to other places than immediately meet the eye.1
Space is formed of layers of qualities: it is neither homogenous nor empty, as illustrated in the works of Gaston Bachelard, author of “The Poetics of Space.” It is layered with dreams, passion, and the meagre activities of our daily lives, but never does it have a single isolated function. In relation to studies of a slum, space becomes much more intricate than it is in the regular, functional areas of a city: the layers of function of a single space increases manifold here. The severe lack of resources and opportunities, posed as the “Architecture of Crisis”, compels the user to treat the small spaces flexibly with multitudes of function on an other homogenous space. In terms of visualising the architecture of crisis, there develops two scenarios: Utopia and Dystopia.1 Utopian designs dictate a state of perfection, it is one in which there is no real space. Every variable or set of relationships that define a space is manoeuvred to perfection in a way that it forms part of a world that does not exist in reality but in the dreams of a man. Such is the scenario of development proposed by the Dharavi Redevelopment plan, which assumes the slum dwellers to be a part of the city lifestyle, disregarding the complex multifaceted way of life that these migrants and inhabitants of the slum possess.This stands as the main cause behind the failure of most such projects. Dystopia is an imagined state in which everything is unpleasant and deviod of the fators required to sustain a healthy lifestyle. This is the state in which the city inhabitants generally view the slums, an impure reality that disturbs the fabric of the rest of the metropolis. What is most often left unrealised is that in reality there exists no Utopia or Dystopia but only Heterotopias, as described by Foucault in his work, “of other spaces: Utopias and Heterotopias”. 1. Of Other Spaces; Foucault 2. Contested Urbanism|in Dharavi -Camillo Boano|William Hunter|Caroline Newton
Heterotopia, being the state of reality that has overlaid factors of both a Utopia and a Dystopia, determines the sort of space that has layers of function superimposed on it: a kind of heterogenous space that is generally seen around us. Slums are a perfect example of Heterotopias: they are generated from spaces that have diverse meanings that are usually not acknowledged in normal scenarios. The heterogeneity of space is focused upon in this theory: the migrant habitats are usually cities made of ambivalence and impurity, in a state of constant metamorphosis than a homogenous global prototype of population warehouse2. The solutions to the condition of these habitats should be dictated out of this theory. The different layers of functions usually found in the spaces of slums are described below: The street which is usually meant for transportation becomes a hub for community activities. Women socialise here, children play about. Spillover of daily activities onto these streets and open areas become a common phenomenon. Flexibility of living is generated by the creation of such designated spaces. This forms a perfect example of lived space as defined by Henry Lefebvre in his work, “the Production of Space”. Social Space is a Social Product3 People create the space in which they live. Architecture does not determine the use or character of a space, it can only act as a force in structuring what can be done in the space itself. The flexibility of use of a space should be catered to in a design, instead of imparting specific functions to it. 3. The Production of Space; Henry Lefbvre
design criteria Inferences from studies:
The architecture, morphology of environments entailing residences accommodating home-based economies largely varies from that of a normal housing/ residential complex. It reflects the morphology of the city on a much more intricate scale. Spillover areas: The case example of Kowloon highlights the fabric of such a structure in a high rise: the different economies spill over onto the corridors at the upper levels. A similar situation is seen at Torre David, the worldâ€™s tallest slum (currently evacuated). Spillover spaces and work areas form a central part of such schemes. Incremental design: A large part of the challenge is to develop incremental areas without compromising on such spillover areas and open spaces that are formed. Services: The most drastic outcome of an unplanned incremental and haphazard growth is the compromise in services. Most dwellings end up tapping electricity, sharing water connection that have temporal outlets in a day, thus giving rise to severe scarcity and unlivable conditions. Cite E.g., favelas, barrios. The design should evolve from the services as they form the basic necessity of all dwelling units. Structure: The structure should dictate flexibility in all means: horizontal+ vertical growth. It should advocate all the afore-mentioned conditions, while maintain the morphological perception of exiting slums. Use of cheap and recyclable materials promotes the sustainability and cost-efficiency of the structure, while using materials which can be assembled quickly on site saves a lot of energy and cost at the same time. Flexibility: in structure as well as module. Most slum dwellers are accustomed to using a single space for multiple uses. A design which caters to this while reducing wastage of space, volume proves more sustainable than a rigid volume. The flexibility should but not result in a cost alleviation of the entire project.
Slum rehabilitation schemes fail most times due to the mix of eligible and ineligible candidates that arise. The ineligible candidates oppose the plans to an extent of failure of the entire project. Especially in the case of larger slums as Dharavi, the barrios of Caracas in Venezuela and the favelas, the Orangi Township in Pakistan, it poses bigger problems.
Thus slum rehabilitation scheme on the same site which advocates influx of migrants proposes better success in this scenario. Moreover, structures should be developed to promote and sustain migration instead of developing scenarios where the growth of a building becomes obsolete after a certain while which results in the formation of new slums.
checklist of considerations:
Macro Level Intervention: • A well-networked connectivity at the city level • Widen existing main road to accommodate vehicular traffic • Provide increase in built density to free up ground space from
surrounding clusters • Promote cross cluster circulation
Meso Level Intervention: • • • • • •
Retain exiting morphology in an ordered manner Develop heirarchy of roads, circulation and social spaces Retain existing religious structures Develop community open spaces with religious structures as nodes of avtivity Respond to projected population growth by increasing built density Service layout should remain workable even in case of unplanned growth
Prototype • • • • •
Flexibility of space: Module should respond to heterogenous space activity Design Work-Live modules to cater to the economy of the habitat Cater to minimal space requirements Provide scenario for incremental growth without compromising open space by encroaching Cater to social implications of high density environment.
Micro Level Intervention: • • • •
Consolidate the service layout Design proper drainage and flood prevention system Adopt appropriate material for built units that reduce construction, labor and maintenance cost Promote self-help architecture by developing appropriate construction technology
area requirements: F.A.R Propose: 4.01 Division of area: Community Space: 15% of total built up area Low income: 0.3-0.4 ha/1000 persons Minimum average dimension of Recreational space shall not be less than 7.5m Social Amenities: Dispensary: 1 per 1000 persons 0.08-0.12ha
Low Income Housing: (data applicable to clusters of 400 DU) Open spaces: 0.3ha per 1000 persons Road Areas: 10-20% of Site Area One Nursery School: 0.1ha per 1500 population 4shops/ 1000 populations Layout: 75% of the plots should have area less than 60 sqm
Services: Electrical substation (1 for 15000 population of 11kv): 500 m2 Ventilation Shaft: Height of building
Size of shaft (sqm)
Minimum dimension of one side (m)
Table 7.1: Details for Ventilation shaft
Light Well: Minimum dimension: 0.25 X Building Height Minimum area: (1/3h)2 Septic Tank dimensions: Septic tanks shall have a minimum width of 750 mm, a minimum depth of 1 m below the water level and a minimum liquid capacity of 1 m3. The length of tanks shall be 2 to 4 times the width Septic tanks may be constructed of brickwork, stone masonry, concrete or other suitable materials as approved by the Authority. Meter room shall be ventilated and accessible from outside. Lift Well: (4 persons) 1300X1800 mm; car size: 700X 1100 mm
Land Use: Function
Percentage of Area
Work + Commercial
Roads, Pedestrian paths, drains etc.
Table 7.2: Percentage distribution of Land Use
In Mega Cities, average plot side should be 15 sqm Only Cluster planning is allowed Density: (mega cities) 500 DU/Ha In case single room tenements are provided where future additions are not possible, Carpet Area shall not be less than 12.5 sqm Independent WC: 0.9 sqm Independent bathroom: 1.2 sqm Kitchen should not be less than 2.4 sqm Height: Habitabe room: 2.6m Kitchen: 2.6m WC/ bath: 2.1m Corridor: 2.1m Circulation area shall not exceed 8sqm per DU
All data obtained from NBC India, URDPFI guidelines.
fig 7.1.1: Proposed Site Zoning
fig 7.1.2: Connectivity of functions
The case of migrant habitats Lived space is what thrives in these habitats: The space developed by the people. A certain amount of flexibility is endowed in these spaces, a factor which is of utmost importance in designing a type of architecture for such a scenario.
fig 7.1.3: Proposed Vertical Zoning
fig 7.2.1: View of existing morphology
The social structure of Migrant Habitats is the factor that is most often overlooked in designing a prototype for the same. An indepth study of the same shows that there is a wide variety of flexible spaces that have a spillover of social and community functions onto them. Replication of these spaces on upper levels could be a sustainable solution for a high rise establishments of these habitats.
The religious structures most often form highly active nodes in these settlements. Operating as breathing spaces and social zones, provision of such spaces in the design is deemed necessary for the social structure to work
fig 7.2.2: View|Temples as nodes
Relaxation spaces are in the form of terraces: such areas are not found in every structure due to lack of availability of resourcess. They form a luxury that is to be provided in the current framework of design.
fig 7.2.3: View|Streets as social spaces
fig 7.3: Conceptual View of Spaces
The form has been derived from regular geometrcial arrangments. As concluded from the research that an equilateral triangle breaks down into most number of forms, an equilateral triangle of side 12m has been taken as the base of the grid which is further broken down into triangles of side 0.6 m to give a flexible arrangement for the deduction of forms for the module. 3 forms have thus been derived depending upon family size.
fig 7.4.1: Geometric derivation of form
Final Form of module:
fig 7.4.2: Exploded view|Module
AREA STATEMENT Total Site Area: Area of Intervention: Existing FA.R: F.A.R proposed:
28920.34 sqm 21194.69 sqm 1.54 4.0
Site area percentage distribution: Roads: 20% Ground Coverage: 40% Open Area + Services: 40% Total Built-up area: 84778.8 sqm
Units (Residential + Commercial): 75% |63,584.1 sqm Percentage distribution: 80% residential| 20% commercial F.A.R achieved:
Total community area (on all floors): 8900.30 sqm Precentage distribution of BUA: Community spaces: 15%|12716.82 sqm Total Spillover area (on all floors): 3918.13 sqm 1 Balwadi (for every 100 persons): 21sqm Total Area for Balwadi (8500 people approximately): 1785 sqm Percentage of Community area achieved: 1 Women Welfare centre 12818.43 sqm | 15.1% (for every 100 persons): 21 sqm Total Area for Women Welfare centre Total circulation area on all floors: (8500 people approximately): 1785 sqm 8519.7 sqm | 10.04%
RESIDENTIAL AREA: Total number of units builts: Units of 20sqm (incremental area 10sqm): Units of 10 sqm (migrant workers): Units of 30 sqm (7 people family):
1482 150 81
Total units on all floors: 1713 Total area covered: 51390 sqm| 80.8% COMMERCIAL AREA: Total number of units on ground floor: 106 Total number of industrial units: 154 Open commercial area on ground floor: 8842.72 sqm Total commercial area on all floors: 11,820 sqm | 18.5%
GROUND FLOOR PLAN
piered space: women welfare centre
Balwadi Pump Room
1 m wide drain to prevent flooding.
Meter Room Commercial Stores
GROUND FLOOR ILLUSTRATION: MARKET+ COMMERCIAL
6m wide fire tender road
open plan piered space for marketing pump room
The ground floor is of open plan with piers creating a maze of spaces. The entire floor is used to house various services apart from area with marketing functions to sell the products that the users create on the floors above. This increases productivity of the community as a whole, thereby promoting selfsustenance. FUNCTIONS ATTRIBUTED GROUND FLOOR:
Flea markets • Markets for goods prepared in the small-scale industries on the 10th floor and home-baed economies on the other floors • Open community functions • Recreational area rooms for shops etc underground storage tanks
Services: • Meter rooms • Electric substation • Accessibility to underground storage tanks, rain water harvesting and other tanks etc.
PLAN: BLOW UP DETAIL 108
rat trap bond wall shear wall The central vent shaft act as the main structural core for the structure, with symmetrical shear walls adding onto it. The partition wall is of Rat Trap bond which helps save cost of construction as well as creates thermal comfort.
SECTION: BLOW UP DETAIL 109
Density is only as successful as to the extent of perception of the user. It gets even difficult to deal with in case of a high rise,high density scheme. The privacy of the tenants and a sense of self control over the immediate surroundings rule the success of such schemes. Leading on from this train of thought, a form/layout has been devised to translate the existing morphology while enhancing privacy in the scheme detailed below.
UNIT 2 LAYOUT: 1/3 FLOOR
UNIT 3 LAYOUT: 1/3 FLOOR
vent shaft, structure core
UNIT 2 LAYOUT: 2/4 FLOOR
TYPICAL LAYOUT 110
circulation passages (upto 2m wide): supported by the structure of the modules itself.
UNIT 3 LAYOUT: 2/4 FLOOR
The layout has been derived from a triangular grid as explained in the concept derivation stage. A set of a maximum of five modules surround a hexagonal structural core cum vent shaft, through which all wet servicing of the modules occur. These modules grouped together create an organic yet decidedly complocated setup of units to maintain the privacy as well as established lifestyle of the tenants.This reduces the expense of creating separate columns and ducts for a same layout. The modules are mirrored along the centreline of each unit on the immediate floor plan above to control encroachment.
UNIT 1 LAYOUT: 1/3 FLOOR
community area vertical circulation cores:
30m from each other.
placed at a radius of
UNIT 1 LAYOUT: 2/4 FLOOR
UNIT 2 LAYOUT: 5/7 FLOOR
UNIT 3 LAYOUT: 5/7 FLOOR
UNIT 2 LAYOUT: 6/8 FLOOR
UNIT 3 LAYOUT: 6/8 FLOOR
TYPICAL LAYOUT 112
The modules are decreased along the external periphery as we rise up, to cater to the light and ventilation of the floors below.
UNIT 1 LAYOUT: 5/7 FLOOR
UNIT 1 LAYOUT: 6/8 FLOOR
BLOW UP at A
TYPICAL LAYOUT 114
BLOW UP at B
The 10th floor houses all the small scale industries as offset printing, kite making, surgical thread making etc.
The layout is the same with walls opening up to creating larger rooms and a flow that justifies industrial activities. Refuge spaces in terms of the spillover areas are provided for the workers to increase productivity.
UNIT 1 LAYOUT: 10th FLOOR
The migrant housing units are single room apartments of 10m2 which are essentially obtained by dividing the regular modules into half. Each such module thereby has a combined incremental area of 10m2
UNIT 1 LAYOUT: 9th FLOOR
UNIT 3 LAYOUT: 9th FLOOR
A set of modules amounting to 30m2 have been designed to show the case of regular modules that have incremented upto the 10m2 space provided. These would also cater for the families with 7 members or more.
UNIT 2 LAYOUT: 9th FLOOR
TYPICAL LAYOUT 116
UNIT 3 LAYOUT: 10th FLOOR
UNIT 2 LAYOUT: 10th FLOOR
The modules are mirrored along the central line such that the incremental areas are flipped vertically. This creates a double-height void above the circulation/spillover area leading upto the modules, thus putting a check on encroachment into common areas as the cost of building a roof overhead would be unviable.
6:00 AM Major activity is in the kitchen and bathing area
Major activity is in the kitchen and bathing area
ACTIVITY MAP scale= 1:50
9:00 AM The family accumulates together to start about the daily activities. Major activity is seen around the flexible space near th kitchen, and the incremental area
Activities seen around the living and incremental area
ILLUSTRATION: DETAIL OF MODULES 118
11:00 AM The family members disperse to start their daily works. Major home based economic activities are carried out in the inremental zone.
Major home based activites are carried out in the incremental zone
6:00 AM The family gather around the livng room again after a dayâ€™s work.
The family gathers around the living room after a dayâ€™s work.
VIEW: COURTYARD SPACE 119
ILLUSTRATION: SPILLOVER + INCREMENTAL AREA 120
spillover areas: community interaction +work zone
Module: open space for flexible daily activities Incremental areas: family activities+home based economies
Community area: market activities + social zone
The vertical zoning was detailed such that the ground floor housed marketing and community activities, floors from 1-8 housed regular tenants with home based activities. The 9th floor housed the migrant communities and large family houses. The 10th floor exclusively housed the small-scale industries and had a separate lift well for its purpose such that it did not interfere with the housing lifestyle below.
View: FRONT ELEVATION
View: FRONT ENTRY 126
View: SIDE STREET ENTRY 127
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Every eligible residential slum structure is provided with an alternative tenement admeasuring 25 sq. m. preferably at the same site, irrespective of the area of slum structure. • Every slum structure existing prior to 01/01/1995 •
• • •
is treated as protected structure. Every slum dweller whose name appears in the electoral rolls as on 01/01/1995 and who continues to stay in the slum is eligible for rehabilitation. Every eligible residential slum structure is provided with an alternative tenement admeasuring 269.00 sq. ft. preferably at the same site, irrespective of the area of slum structure. Every eligible slum structure that is being used for commercial purposes is granted an alternative tenement having area equal to the structure subject to an upper limit of 20.9 sq. m. A minimum of 70% of eligible slum dwellers in a slum pocket come together to form a co-operative housing society for implementation of Slum Rehabilitation Scheme. (SRS) The underlying land is used as a resource for the SRS. The slum dwellers appoint a developer for execution of SRS. The developer puts in resources in the form of money, men and material for construction of free houses for the slum dwellers. The developer is compensated for his efforts in the form of free sale component. The developers are allowed to construct tenements for sale in the open market. The area allowed for sale in the open market is 1:0.75 for City Area & 1:1 for suburbs area of tenements constructed for Rehabilitation of slum dwellers. Floor Space Index (known as FAR elsewhere) upto 3.00 (in situ) is allowed for SRS. The developer is required to construct the rehabilitation tenements on the plot itself. The balance FSI left is allowed for construction of free sale tenements.
All data sourced from http://www.sra.gov.in/
• The spill over entitlement to the developer is
permissible for sale in the form of transferable development right in the open market. These transferable rights can be utilised on other nonslum pockets subject to the provisions of D. C. Regulations. The plots which are reserved for public purposes and which are over run by slums can also be taken up for implementation of a Slum Rehabilitation Scheme. In case of plots reserved for unbuildable reservations like R.G. & P.G the development is carried out as per the High courts direction in City Space Matter. In case of plots reserved for buildable reservations, a certain predetermined proportion of the permissible built up area is to be constructed as per the requirement of user agency and handed over free of cost to the city administration as a part of SRS. Slum Rehabilitation Authority is designated as a local planning authority to provide all the requisite approvals for SRS under one roof. The authority is mandated to act as a facilitating agency for implementation of SRS. Along with the free rehabilitation tenements the developers also have to provide space for amenities like a creche (Balwadi), society office, welfare centre. Facilitating measure in the form of additional 5% incentive commercial area is available to the projects being implemented by either a society of slum dwellers directly or a NGO. A Maintenance Deposit of Rs. 20,000/- per Rehabilitation tenement is deposited by developer for the society.
Appendix II: Special Appendix IV rehabilitation schemes. Three types of SLUM SCHEMES are permissible.
These types are as per the provisions of different sections of Development Control Regulations (DCR) under which they are approved. viz. • Under provisions of DCR 33(10) also called insitu scheme. • Provisions of section 3.11 also called PAP scheme. • Under provisions of DCR 33(14) also called transit scheme. 33.10 Scheme In the schemes approved under the provisions of this DC regulation, the slums are rehabilitated on the same site. 3.11 Scheme In the schemes approved under the provisions of this DC regulation, an owner of vacant unencumbered land can use it for construction of PAP tenements for which he is compensated by TDR for land and for construction. 33.14 Scheme In this scheme, the landowner is allowed to consume the existing FSI potential of the land, owned by him. The additional potential of 1.5 for suburbs, 1.66 for difficult area & 1.00 for islandcity (only for government or public sector plots) is granted under this scheme. The developer constructs transit tenements out of a prescribed part of this additional potential. The balance of the additional potential is allowed as free sale component.
• DCR 33(10) & 33(14) exclusively deal with •
• All data sourced from http://www.sra.gov.in/
slum rehabilitation. Incentive commercial FSI of 5% granted to the society of slum dwellers or an NGO if the project is run by them. One Balwadi and welfare center each of 20.90 sq.mts and society office of 20.00 sq.mts areas is to be provided for every 100 rehab tenements or part thereof. Area of Balwadi, welfare center, society office & common passage upto 2.0 m wide is allowed free of FSI in rehab building. These areas and area of eligible religious structure, other social infrastructure like school, dispensary, gymnasium run by public authority or charitable trust as well as incentive commercial area in addition to FSI for rehabilitation tenements are termed as Rehabilitation component. Sale component equal to 0.75 times the rehabilitation component in city areas; equal to rehabilitation component in suburbs and extended suburbs and equal to 1.33 times the rehabilitation component in difficult areas is allowed. Maximum permissible FSI to be consumed at any site shall be restricted to 3.0 and balance can be claimed as TDR, to be sold in open market. Minimum density on plot shall be 500 tenements per net hectare. All the activities existing in the slum even if nonconforming with the zone of the area shall be allowed to be relocated. All reservation plots upto 500 sq.mt. in area under slum shall be cleared of slums and the slum dwellers shall be relocated elsewhere. Plots reserved for non-buildable reservations and encumbered with slums shall be cleared if the area is less than 500 sq.mt. or they are encumbered to an extent less than 25%. Special concessions in building requirements are granted. Viz. Relaxations in open space requirement; Relaxations in room size requirement. 131
bibliography: List of Books:
List of Papers:
Flexible|Architecture that responds to change -Robert Kronenburg An Architectural Study on the Kowloon Walled City: Preliminary Findings -Suenn Ho, 1992 Urban Planning in the Third World: Chandigarh Experience -Madhu Sarin, 1982 City of Darkness: Life in Kowloon Walled City -Greg Girard| Ian Lambot Life and Death of Great American Cities: Jane Jacobs The Production of Space: Henri Lefebvre Of Other Spaces| Utopias and Heterotopias -Michael Foucault
Overview of Internal Migration in India -UNICEF Architecture for Immigration Reform: Fitting the Pieces of Public Policy -University of Denver • Strategic Issues Program • 2009 Immigration Panel • Final Report Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants -Marc Prensky | From On the Horizon (NCB University Press, Vol. 9 No. 5, October 2001) Crossroads The Psychology of Immigration in the New Century -Report of the APA Presidential Task Force on Immigration Planning for high density in low-income settlements -Arif Hasan|Asiya Sadiq|Suneela Ahmed|March 2010 Shifting the Housing Paradigm|Embracing Incremental Construction and Access to Finance in Low-Income Neighbourhoods -Mukta Naik|Rakhi Mehra A Psychology of Immigration The Art of Inequality: Architecture, Housing, and Real Estate A Provisional Report -Reinhold Martin, Jacob Moore, Susanne Schindler Editors Trends and Patterns of Internal Migration in India, 1971-2001 -R.Lusome and R.B.Bhagat
Essays: High Density Architecture: Nic Clear, A Near Future, in: Castle, H., Clear, N. (eds.), “The Near Futures”, Architectural Design Vol. 79, No. 5, September/ October, Wiley, London, 2009, p. 6-11 • Chye Kiang Heng, Lai Choo Malone-Lee, Density and Urban Sustainability: An Exploration of Critical Issues, in: Designing High-Density Cities for Social and Environmental Sustainability, Edward Ng (ed.), Earthscan, London, 2010, p. 41-52 • Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Random House Inc, New York, 1961 • Freedman, JL. Crowding and Behavior. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1975 • Cheng V. Understanding Density and High Density. In: Ng, Edward (Ed.). Designing High-Density Cities For Social & Environmental Sustainability. London: Routledge; pp. 3-17, 2009. •
Social and Architectural Implication of High Density: Baum A, Valins S. Architecture and Social Behavior: Psychological studies of social density. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 1977. • Calhoun JB. Population Density and Social Pathology. Scientific American, Vol. 206 (3), pp. 139–148, 1962. • Freedman JL. Crowding and Behavior. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1975. • Mitchell RE. Some Social Implications of High Density Housing. American Sociological Review, Vol. 36, pp. 18-29, 1971. •
Moch A, Bordas F, Hermand D. Perceived density: how apartment dwellers view their surroundings. Cybergeo: European Journal of Geography, 1996. URL: http://cybergeo. revues.org/294; accessed in 05.03.2012. • Lawson B. The Social and Psychological Issues of High Density. In: Ng E, editor. Designing High-Density Cities for Social and Environmental Sustainability. London: Earthscan; pp. 285292, 2010 •
Excerpt from the paper: Contemporary High-Density Housing. Social and Architectural Implications Urban Morphology: Burgess E.W. (1924)"The growth of the city: an introduction to a research project" Publications of the American Sociological Society, 18:85-97 • Comparative Analysis of Urban Morphology: Evaluating Space Syntax and Traditional Morphological Methods; Xiaowei Sun • Urban morphology as an emerging disciplinary field; Anna Verdez Moudon •
Architecture of Slums: Quick Guides for Policymakers no. 1 – Urbanization, Housing the Poor in Asian Cities, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, 2008.
Geometry in Architecture:
H. Allen Brooks. Frank Lloyd Wright and the Destruction of the Box; Source: Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 38, No. 1 (Mar., 1979), pp. 7-14 • Philip Steadman. Why are most Buildings Rectangular?; • Xiaoshu Lu, Derek Clements-Croome,, Martti Viljanen. Fractal Geometry and Architecture Design: Case Study Review; • Nicoletta Sala. Fractal Models in Architecture, a case ofstudy. • Sven Schneider, Reinhard König, Robert Pohle. Who cares about right angles? Overcoming barriers in creating rectangularity in layout structures.
Contested Urbanism|in Dharavi -Camillo Boano|William Hunter|Caroline Newton
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List of Websites: Micro Compact Home: Encyclopedia Britannica|Favelas http://catcomm.org/favela-facts/ http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/ article-2608506/Slum-stilts-A-mother-babypaddles-dirty-oily-water-Nigerias-Makoko-slum250-000-residents-huddle-homes-lagoon.html • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makoko • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kowloon_ Walled_City • http://thevelvetrocket. com/2010/01/20/the-barrios-of-caracasvenezuela/ • http://www.economist.com/news/ americas/21599382-support-among-poorgovernment-nicol-s-maduro-conditional-insidebarrios • http://www.kathputlicolonydda.com/ • http://static.indianexpress.com/mimages/M_Id_442567_chandigrah.jpg • http://static.indianexpress.com/mimages/M_Id_441361_Slums.jpg • http://www.konermann.net/dharavistills/ Dharavi-31-adj.jpg • http://censusindia.gov.in/Census _ And _ You/migrations.aspx • http://www.indiastat.com/default.aspx • http://matome.nave r.jp / odai/2136087619322668401 • http://www.kathputlicolonydda.com/ proposed-units.asp#fa • https://densityarchitecture.wordpress.com/ page/2/ • ht tp: //u n h a b itat.o r g /i n c re m e nta l housing-the-new-site-services-reinhard-goethertmassachusetts-institute-of-technology/ • http://web.mit.edu/incrementalhousing/ articlesPhotographs/ • http://www.anna-heringer.com/index. php?id=39 • • •
http://inhabitat.com/micro-mini-home/ http://www.microcompacthome.com/ h t t p : / / w w w. d e z e e n . com/2012/06/19/micro-compact-home-016by-richard-horden/ • https://translate.google. com/translate?depth=1&hl=en&p rev=search&rurl=translate.google. co.in&sl=de&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww. m i c r o c o m p a c t h o m e . com%2Fprojects%2F%3Fcon%3Dtree • https://translate.google. com/translate?depth=1&hl=en&p rev=search&rurl=translate.google. co.in&sl=de&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww. s u e d d e u t s c h e . de%2Fmuenchen%2Fwohnwuerfel-fuerstudenten-leben-auf-quadratmetern-1.749521 • • •
Tatiana Bilbao, Mexico Social Housing http://architizer.com/blog/architizerinterviews-tatiana-bilbao/ • h t t p : / / w w w. d e s i g n b o o m . c o m / architecture/tatiana-bilbao-studio-visit-interview/ • h t t p : / / w w w. d e s i g n b o o m . c o m / architecture/chicago-architecture-biennial-tatianabilbao-sustainable-housing-mexico-10-12-2015/ • h t t p : / / w w w. d e z e e n . com/2015/10/06/tatiana-bilbao-low-costsocial-housing-mexico-chicago-architecturebiennial-2015/ • http://www.archdaily.com/775233/ tatiana-bilbaos-8000-house-could-solve-mexicossocial-housing-shortage •
Kowloon Walled City:
http://projects.wsj.com/ kwc/#chapter=people • http://www.archdaily.com/493900/ the-architecture-of-kowloon-walled-city-an-excerpt-from-city-of-darkness-revisited • http://cargocollective.com/thearchh i v e / I N D E T E R M I N A C Y- I N - A R C H I T E C T U R E - T H E - C A S E - O F - K O WLOON-WALLED-CITY • http://asiasociety.org/hong-kong/life-kowloon-walled-city • http://www.techinsider.io/the-surreal-mania-of-chinas-kowloon-walled-city-2015-8 • h t t p : / / w w w. s p o o n - t a m a g o . com/2014/06/11/japanese-arcade-kowloon-walled-city/ • http://jiksun.com/2010/04/27/sketches-of-kowloon-walled-city/ • http://pr2015.aaschool.ac.uk/DIP-02/ Nicolas.chung#image-7 • http://lasombra.blogs.com/la_sombra_ del_asno/2013/04/inside-kowloon-walled-citythe-process.html • http://cityofdarkness.co.uk/category/the_ city/ • http://www.archdaily.com/361831/infographic-life-inside-the-kowloon-walled-city • h t t p : / / w w w. s p o o n - t a m a g o . com/2014/10/28/detailed-cross-section-ofthe-kowloon-walled-city-created-by-japanese-researchers/ • http://3d.kowloon-walled-city.info/ • http://www.mascontext.com/issues/19trace-fall-13/kowloon-walled-city-heterotopia-ina-space-of-disappearance/ • http://www.rioleo.org/kowloon/
http://www.symbioticcities.net/index.cfm ?id=64554&modex=blogid&modexval=182 44&blogid=18244 • http://ngm.nationalgeographic. com/2007/05/dharavi-mumbai-slum/dharavi-video-interactive • http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/ city/mumbai/Dharavi-slum-redevelopment-unviable-with-height-curbs/articleshow/47195616. cms • http://afternoondc.in/special-report/inthe-flight-path/article_107996 • h t t p : / / w w w. p l a n e t i z e n . c o m / node/35269 • http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/ print/2007/05/dharavi-mumbai-slum/jacobson-text • http://ngm.nationalgeographic. com/2007/05/dharavi-mumbai-slum/jacobson-text • http://www.deccanherald.com/content/216254/dharavi-self-created-special-economic.html • http://www.nytimes. com/2011/12/29/world/asia/in-indian-slum-misery-work-politics-and-hope.html?_r=0 • http://www.theguardian.com/cities/2014/nov/25/dharavi-mumbai-mini-factories-slum • h t t p s : / / w w w. w s w s . o r g / e n / a r t i cles/2009/06/mumb-j13.html • h t t p s : / / w w w. b e h a n c e . n e t / g a l lery/4329215/Dharavi-An-Urban-Case-StudyPart-II • h t t p s : / / w w w. b e h a n c e . n e t / g a l lery/4328727/Dharavi-An-Urban-Case-StudyPart-1 • https://ourheartwork.wordpress. com/2014/02/19/diagrams-for-my-ba-projectabout-water-in-the-slum-dharavi-mumbai/
http://www.reinventingdharavi.org/ resources.php • http://www.theguardian.com/cities/2015/feb/18/best-ideas-redevelop-dharavi-slum-developers-india • http://www.pond5.com/stock-video-footage/1/dharavi-slum-mumbai.html#1 • http://www.stor ypick.com/interesting-facts-about-dhararavi/ • http://www.sachacarina.com/2012/10/ dharavi-slum/ •
Allied: http://www.ted.com/talks/ron_eglash_ on_african_fractals#t-637094 • http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/india-2/migration-and-trends-of-migration-in-india/42411/ • http://blog.gramener.com/281/migration-patterns • http://www.evolo.us/architecture/nomad-skyscraper/ • http://qz.com/192440/where-everyone-in-the-world-is-migrating-in-one-gorgeouschart/ • http://www.un.org/popin/icpd/prepcomm/official/rap/RAP8.html • http://www.theguardian.com/cities/ gallery/2015/feb/16/dharavi-biennale-mumbai-new-arts-science-festival-in-pictures • http://web.mit.edu/incrementalhousing/ articlesPhotographs/index.html • h t t p : / / w w w. d e z e e n . com/2009/05/05/incremental-housing-strategy-by-filipe-balestra-and-sara-goransson/ • http://u-tt.com/film/mumbai-maximum-city-under-pressure/ • http://www.mid-day.com/articles/mumbai-skywalk-to-bring-relief-to-those-commutingthrough-dharavi/16150151 •
A high density incremental, modular solution to migrant habitats in a city: the site for the project is in Dharavi, Mumbai.