BRC Bournemouth Research Chronicle
25 years of research
Featured stories: Tackling global disasters to reduce risks, build resilience and ensure recovery
Understanding the origins of modern-day broadcasting
Protecting native fish species The effects of emotional processing on physical health
The effects of emotional processing on physical health
Mothers, midwives and post-natal â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;bloodâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; loss
Understanding the origins of modern-day broadcasting
From spin doctors to social media: The evolution of political communication
Protecting native fish species
From face blindness to super-recognisers: how research is changing lives
Tackling global disasters to reduce risks, build resilience and ensure recovery
The effect of large scale interventions on improving public health
24 Developing doctoral research at Bournemouth 26
The future of research at Bournemouth University
Bournemouth Research Chronicle | www.bournemouth.ac.uk/brc | August 2018 | 3
Welcome to the Bournemouth Research Chronicle O
ver the last twenty-five years, research at Bournemouth University (BU) has gone from strength to strength. The university is currently home to around 800 academic staff and over 30 research centres and institutes, covering research areas as diverse as orthopaedics, journalism, animation and ecology. I am proud of the ground-breaking work undertaken by our staff and I am delighted to share with you an insight into some of our outstanding areas of research.
In this edition of the Bournemouth Research Chronicle (BRC), you will be able to learn about some of the research projects that have taken place at the university over the last twenty five years and how they’ve made a difference to the world beyond our campus. In the Faculty of Science & Technology, researchers have been working with industry partners and charities to protect native fish species in India. Meanwhile, in the Faculty of Health & Social Sciences, staff have used research into post-natal ‘blood’ loss to influence decades of midwifery teaching, as well as underpinning World Health Organisation (WHO) guidance. In our Faculty of Media & Communication, researchers have been working across disciplines to explore political communication and seeing how the development of social media has changed the nature of debate. And in our Faculty
of Management, staff have a long history of working with governments all over the world, preparing them for how to respond to a disaster situation. The stories reported in this edition of the BRC reflect the great diversity and depth of work taking place at BU. They also show our long-standing commitment to developing research that makes a difference beyond our campus. I hope that you enjoy reading about this small selection of the outstanding research projects that have taken place at Bournemouth University over the last twenty-five years. If you feel inspired to find out more, want to collaborate with our researchers or start your own career in research, visit www.bournemouth.ac.uk/research for more information.
“I hope that you enjoy reading about a small selection of the outstanding research projects that have taken place at Bournemouth University over the last twenty-five years.”
Vice Chancellor, Professor John Vinney
Bournemouth Research Chronicle | www.bournemouth.ac.uk/brc | August 2018 | 5
Faculty of Health & Social Sciences
The effects of emotional processing on physical health A
lmost every day, we face and overcome any number of small stresses and difficulties which mostly have no effect on our overall wellbeing. However, every now and again we experience life-changing events, a serious illness, the death of a parent or the breakdown of a relationship, all of which can be extremely difficult to deal with. Research carried out at Bournemouth University suggests that not only can these events affect our mental health, but they can also have consequences for our physical health.
Bournemouth Research Chronicle | www.bournemouth.ac.uk/brc | August 2018 | 7
The link first began to emerge in the early 1980s, when Professor Roger Baker and a team of other clinical psychologists were exploring how best to treat people experiencing panic attacks. Panic attacks were a relatively unknown condition at the time and were only just beginning to be distinguished from generalised anxiety disorders. One of the first stages of the research was to start to understand what was causing them. “Panic attacks are a very sudden physical event, which can be quite overwhelming and distressing for the people experiencing them. Your heart might start beating faster, you might feel dizzy and experience breathing difficulties. The symptoms can feel quite similar to a heart attack; around 25% of people taken to hospital apparently experiencing cardiac arrest symptoms are actually having a panic attack,” says Professor Baker, “Through interviewing people who had suddenly started having panic attacks, I began to see that there might be a connection between their physical symptoms and earlier traumatic events.” “Although they often described their lives as going well, many had experienced difficult or stressful life events in the run up to the start of their panic attacks. This could be anything from the death of a friend to the loss of a job or a divorce. People often spoke about their emotions in terms of suppression, which was supported by a further large-scale study in the area – panic attack patients were clearly supressing their emotions and focusing on somatic sensations rather than understanding the emotional connection with stressful events.”
Over the course of several years and a number of different studies, Professor Baker and other research colleagues explored the link between emotion suppression and a multitude of different medical conditions. Repeatedly there was shown to be a strong connection between problems with processing emotions and a number of psychological conditions and even physical illnesses. “It became apparent to me that what was needed was a psychological scale, which would help clinical practitioners to identify potential problems with emotional processing,” says Professor Baker, “However, in order to create such a scale, a large amount of data needed to be collected.” The creation of the final published scale took decades worth of work to finalise which factors should be taken into account and to establish a range of norms against which to benchmark people’s emotional processing skills. During that time, the emotional processing scale went through a number of different iterations and was tested in a wide range of research studies. “One such study, conducted by Dr Carol Wilkins at BU, explored the link between the likelihood of developing postpartum depression and emotional processing,” says Professor Baker, “By using the emotional processing scale, the research was able to show that if women’s emotional processing skills were problematic during pregnancy, then they were more likely to develop depression after giving birth. It was a very clear indication of the link between emotions and mental health.”
After decades of work on the subject, the final emotional processing scale was published in 2015, and much of Professor Baker’s time is now dedicated to sharing it more widely with clinical practitioners to increase its use in research and in all types of therapy. “The idea that emotional processing can have an effect on both our mental and physical health is still yet to become a mainstream idea within counselling and the medical professions. At the moment, there’s still quite a focus on the medical model of treating people, but in time, I hope that this will begin to change,” says Professor Baker.
“It became apparent to me that what was needed was a psychological scale, which would help clinical practitioners to identify potential problems with emotional processing” Professor Roger Baker Professor of Clinical Psychology
For more information about the work of Bournemouth University Clinical Research Unit (BUCRU), please visit: www.bournemouth.ac.uk/bucru
Bournemouth Research Chronicle | www.bournemouth.ac.uk/brc | August 2018 | 9
Faculty of Health & Social Sciences
Mothers, midwives and post-natal ‘blood’ loss
For more information about BU’s research in the area of maternal health, visit the website of the Centre for Midwifery, Maternal and Perinatal Health: www.bournemouth.ac.uk/cmmph
lood’ loss after childbirth is a normal occurrence for women, due to the separation of the placenta. Excessive blood loss within the first 24 hours is known as primary post-partum haemorrhaging, while excessive blood loss after this period is known as secondary post-partum haemorrhage. Research undertaken by former Bournemouth University staff explores the prevention and early detection of the latter, which can result in chronic ill health and even the need for emergency medical care. The ‘blood’ loss, known as lochia, gradually changes colour and reduces in volume over several weeks. Observations of the lochia and the gradual reduction in size of the uterus in the first few weeks after childbirth have long been a standard part of midwifery care. These observations are an essential part of monitoring for warning signs of secondary post-partum haemorrhaging. Dr Sally Marchant and Emeritus Professor Jo Alexander were the lead researchers behind the project, which was partly inspired by Dr Marchant’s earlier career as a practicing midwife. “I was a Ward Sister for around ten years, specialising in postnatal care,” explains Dr Marchant, “During that time, I noticed that there were some inconsistencies in practice. Midwives were taking very different approaches to the same task, as a lack of evidence meant it was unclear which method was best.” A review of guidance for midwives in textbooks showed that while certain postnatal practices were advocated as being correct care, there was very little evidence to underpin them. Having established the gaps in knowledge, the next stage of the research was for Dr Marchant to carry out a longitudinal survey of postnatal women to see how their lochia changed over time and what advice they were being given.
“The second stage of the research was quite revealing, as it showed us that there was a huge lack of knowledge among new mothers about why they were being asked to monitor their ‘blood’ loss”, explains Dr Marchant, “Women were aware of what to look for, but not why it was important or why a change might be significant and could be something to be concerned about.” “For midwives, it seemed to be perceived as just another test which needed to be conducted as part of their routine checks. We also found that the way notes were written up was quite inconsistent. The terms and language midwives used to describe the postnatal uterus varied hugely, so there was sometimes miscommunication about the normality of a woman’s health.” As a result of their research, the team were able to make a number of evidence-based recommendations which still underpin the advice in midwifery textbooks today. These recommendations also inform World Health Organization (WHO) guidance on this aspect of postnatal health. The final stage of the research was a case control study in which Dr Marchant compared retrospective data of 530 women who had not experienced secondary postpartum bleeding against 265 women who had. The aim was to establish predictive factors, which might help to identify at-risk women.
“Among other things, Dr Marchant found that if women had a previous history of the condition then they were at higher risk of it happening again,” says Professor Alexander, “We also found that smoking during pregnancy was a risk factor, which wasn’t an obvious connection.” “In addition, we looked at the extent to which midwives’ observations were predictive of the likelihood of secondary post-partum haemorrhaging. We found that they were significantly predictive, which was reassuring!” The project took place as part of the work of a wider group of researchers who were exploring a number of different avenues related to the health of women, babies and their families. This included considerable work in the area of post-natal care and breastfeeding which, among other successes, resulted in a module about breastfeeding for the website HealthTalk. This site brings together video clips of women recounting their experiences, with best quality evidence in order to help others to gain a better understanding of any health challenges they may be facing and to feel less isolated.
Bournemouth Research Chronicle | www.bournemouth.ac.uk/brc | August 2018 | 11
Faculty of Media & Communication
Understanding the origins of modernday broadcasting O
ver the last twenty-five years, Bournemouth University (BU) has built up a wealth of expertise in the area of media history. Not only has this knowledge helped to better understand the development of radio programmes of the time, but it is also helping to inform the teaching and education of future broadcasters. 12
Professor Hugh Chignell, Head of BU’s Centre for Media History, is a wellknown media historian who specialises in radio broadcasting – covering both news and drama programmes. His research in the area began in the late 1990s when Bournemouth University began to host an archive of radio programmes produced by the BBC. “At the time that we began hosting these archives, there were a number of researchers at BU who were keen to learn more about the history of radio and TV broadcasting. They felt it would be useful knowledge for our students, who would hopefully go on to produce future broadcast content,” explains Professor Chignell, “It was an approach to teaching pioneered by Bournemouth and became a really useful resource for our undergraduates, as it gave them a
sense of where our contemporary radio and TV broadcasts come from. It’s also what sparked my own PhD research.” For his doctoral research, Professor Chignell explored BBC Radio 4’s longstanding current affairs programme, Analysis. His research spanned a wide range of topics, including the political nature of current affairs programmes, the evolution of news and current affairs at the BBC and a better understanding of how to interpret old radio content. “Current affairs programmes are reasonably unique to British media culture,” says Professor Chignell, “The BBC chose to keep its news broadcasts purely factual, in order to maintain their impartiality, but its current affairs programmes were very different. Their
“For example, the Analysis programmes of the 1980s were partially responsible for introducing listeners to the neoliberal policies and ideas of Margaret Thatcher’s government. Although the programme itself didn’t have a political agenda, its role in making policies more accessible did end up giving it a political stance.”
“Older radio programmes can sound quite strange to us now. It’s not the same experience as watching an old Hollywood film, for example,” explains Professor Chignell, “My current research interests are around radio dramas of the 1950s. To fully appreciate them, an understanding of 1950s theatre is needed, as radio productions were heavily influenced by trends in the theatre. For that era in particular, French theatre dramas were extremely influential.”
Through his research, Professor Chignell also developed a better understanding of how to listen to and interpret old radio programmes, as outside of their temporal context, some broadcasts can be difficult to fully appreciate. Often their creators and producers are no longer around to ask questions of, which means that understanding the context in which they were made, can be a challenge.
“The first step for any media historian is to understand the context – what happened, the programmes that were made and what was said. Only then can you move onto the analysis, which enables us in the present to learn from the past. By exploring older radio dramas, for example, you can gain quite a fascinating insight into the culture of the time, often in quite a surreal way.”
focus on explaining the context of the news and what was going on around it made them quite political.”
“Not only does it give us a window into the past, but it can help to spark ideas for the creation of new programmes and broadcasts.” Bournemouth University’s Centre for Media History was established in 1998 and compromises over 20 academics and post-graduate researchers from across the university. While it takes its origins from an interest in radio history, the Centre now specialises in media history across all forms of broadcast media.
For more information, see: www.bournemouth.ac.uk/cmh
Bournemouth Research Chronicle | www.bournemouth.ac.uk/brc | August 2018 | 13
Faculty of Media & Communication
From spin doctors to social media: The evolution of political communication
ew media, particularly social media, have become instrumental in political elections and campaigns today. Politics has changed dramatically over the past couple of decades, partly due to the continuously emerging forms of communication. The field of political communications combines different elements of political science, communication, cultural studies, media, and psychology, and has been established at Bournemouth University since 2002. The Centre for Politics and Media Research at BU focuses upon the soft power exerted through political campaign communication and its impact upon society and the citizen, the social and cultural frameworks which shape ideology and the collective psychology of publics, and the psychology of political violence. BU academics Professor Barry Richards, Professor Candida Yates and the Director of the Centre, Dr Darren Lilleker, have different research backgrounds within media, advertising, cultural and communication studies and psychology.
“I’ve always been interested in the relationships between politics, emotion, culture and society” explains Professor Yates, “my Doctoral research focused in particular on the cultural politics of emotion, film and masculinity in crisis. From there, I began to look more widely at the ways in which different emotions are shaped, experienced and communicated in politics, culture and society.” Throughout the 1990s, political communication in Britain and elsewhere underwent a huge change which is often associated with Tony Blair’s New Labour
To keep up with the latest news from the Centre for Politics and Media Research, visit www.bournemouth.ac.uk/pmg
government with its use of spin doctors and mediatised news management. There was also a significant increase in news media competition and advances in technology that seemed to provide citizens with a sense of choice and control over media consumption, although this sense of empowerment with regards to social media is now often questioned and problematized. “I turned my attention away from the study of masculinity in film and instead turned to the analysis of political communication and the culture of politics more widely; I analysed the fantasies and feelings that emerged in relation to some key political figures at the time and how those psycho-political
formations relate to the ways in which we engage with and emotionally invest in politics,” says Professor Yates. “People thought of spin as this manipulative, domineering process that was all about bringing the techniques of marketing into politics in a bad way,” says Professor Richards. “However, I thought that there was something potentially more positive in this shift in political communication, and so the arrival of spin and political marketing increased my interest in electoral politics.” Throughout this time, mainland Britain was also facing political violence and terrorism. “In the 1970s and 1980s, it was almost exclusively Irish Republican terrorism, and then in the late 1990s and early 2000s we had the arrival of Islamist terrorism across the world,” explains Professor Richards. “I had always been interested in terrorism: the impact it has on the British public and the psychology of how people could come to carry out attacks.” These years showed a huge shift in global politics. With this, political communication started to become more and more promotional, and celebrity culture began to infiltrate politics. “There was a dominant set of ideas by the government at the time and then there were other marginal ideas that didn’t get voiced,” explains Dr Lilleker. “When I started doing my research, what interested me was how politicians developed ideologies, how they were sold and then understood by citizens.” With the introduction of social media in the early 2000s, the hegemony of the mass media was challenged and political communication changed dramatically. The prevalence of social media in politics has made parties and officials more accessible and accountable to citizens. “Now, citizens can react immediately to an event and they can even influence what’s being said by using social media to come together to form a mass,” explains Dr Lilleker.
With evolutionary changes such as new media and globalisation shaping politics, political communication is clearly evolving rapidly and becoming increasingly important. Future research within the Centre for Politics and Media Research will include looking further into the psycho-dynamics of contemporary political culture, the marketisation of political discourse and campaigning, and comparative politics. “I am now looking at the role of empathy in relation to the current political, social and cultural landscape of Brexit and its aftermath, which is very polarised” says Professor Yates. “I’m interested in how empathy can emerge in groups and whether there is a way that we can actually help to facilitate it as a way to encourage constructive rather than destructive debate.”
“I’m interested in how empathy can emerge in groups and whether there is a way that we can actually help to facilitate it as a way to encourage constructive rather than destructive debate.” Professor Candida Yates Professor of Culture and Communication
“I’m embarking on some research into national identity, and its relationship to the needs for safety and for dignity, which I think are major drivers of our experience and action as citizens. The starting point is how much do people think of themselves as having a national identity these days. This is a very rich psychological area as well as an important political issue,” says Professor Richards. Meanwhile, Dr Lilleker is concerned with the dangers of social media and the misleading and fake news that is shared and consumed by millions. In the light of recent revelations about the use of data from social media sites, such as Facebook, this has perhaps never been so important. “Media literacy has never really been taught but I think now it’s crucial to understand what’s happening on social media, especially for young people who should be educated on this issue.” “At BU, there are a few of us now who look into the structures of feeling and emotions that underpin politics as it represented, communicated and experienced ,” says Professor Yates. “We want to develop that field to become a centre of excellence.”
Bournemouth Research Chronicle | www.bournemouth.ac.uk/brc | August 2018 | 15
Faculty of Science & Technology
Protecting native fish species
ince its establishment in 2007, the Centre for Ecology, Environment and Sustainability has undertaken research in areas such as biodiversity and environmental change, with the aim of supporting both policy development and conservation practice. One particular strand of work has concentrated on the effect of invasive species on ecosystems, native species and economies in the UK and beyond.
Professor Robert Britton, a fish ecologist, and Adrian Pinder, Associate Director of BU’s Global Environmental Solutions (BUG), first worked together on the issue of invasive species while investigating the effects of Topmouth Gudgeon on UK waterways. Topmouth Gudgeon are native to Asia and were introduced to the UK in the mid1980’s. By the early 2000s, populations were emerging in several locations across the country. “I was working for the Environment Agency at the time and had been tasked with developing a better understanding of the ecology of Topmouth Gudgeon and how their populations could be managed,” says Professor Britton, “Populations were being reported in a number of fishing ponds in the UK, so we knew it was reasonably likely that they were being accidentally moved to new locations through fish stocking. For more information, visit: www.mahseertrust.org www.int-res.com/articles/ esr2015/28/n028p011.pdf
Topmouth Gudgeon are quite small, so spotting them in amongst other fish isn’t always easy.”
by the Environment Agency, vastly reducing the risk that they posed to native fish species.”
“I contacted Adrian, who was working at the Centre for Hydrology and Ecology, who had recently published a number of papers highlighting the invasive potential and ecological threats posed by topmouth gudgeon and other emerging non-native fishes such as sunbleak. By studying the fish in captivity, we were able to learn a lot about their behaviour, ecology and interactions with native species. This led to using a citizen science approach to generate an accurate picture of the distribution of topmouth gudgeon populations across the UK.”
The model of research they developed while working on Topmouth Gudgeon – identifying a problem, researching to better understand the issue and working with members of the public, as well as industry bodies – is one which they’ve continued to use and refine through their research careers.
“We worked with the angling press to educate anglers about the threats these fish posed and how to identify them,” explains Adrian, “The feedback we received helped us to map the location of 25 populations distributed between Hampshire and Cumbria, which allowed us to consider various control strategies. Since our research began, around 20 of the known populations have been eradicated
“It’s really important for us to work with people on the ground,” says Professor Britton, “It’s by doing this that you can identify gaps in knowledge, which we can then help to fill. Just doing the research isn’t enough; to make a real difference, you need to combine it with education and knowledge exchange with the public and the sector you’re working with.” “It’s also essential to work with researchers in other areas, because it’ll give you access to knowledge you might not have. We’re really lucky to have a huge amount of expertise in the Centre for Ecology, Environment and Sustainability. No matter how
successful you are in your area; there’s always going to be something you don’t know. The key to that is collaboration and working with the wider scientific community to accelerate knowledge gain.” The model of research they developed through working together on Topmouth Gudgeon is one which the team have successfully refined and then used with other species and in other parts of the world. As part of a current research project, they are working on the conservation of threatened Mahseer fishes in India. “In response to declining numbers of Mahseer in India’s rivers, various conservation initiatives began raising Mahseer in hatcheries” explains Adrian, “Unfortunately, at the time, knowledge of the taxonomy of Mahseer fish wasn’t far enough advanced for them to know that they were stocking the wrong species of Mahseer into the wrong rivers. Essentially this meant that an invasive species was being introduced, at the expense of native fish.”
Professor Britton and Adrian recently published a paper in Endangered Species Research that demonstrates the stocking of hatchery reared ‘bluefin’ mahseer into South India’s River Cauvery has driven the endemic hump-backed mahseer to the edge of extinction. “The importance of the Humpback Mahseer to the local economy can’t be understated,” continues Adrian, “These iconic fish can grow up to 50kg in size, which used to attract anglers from all across the world to visit the region. This then pumped money into very poor rural economies which assisted conservation as locals realised the renewable value of each individual live fish which could be caught and released by multiple anglers. This meant that locals protected the fish from poachers and the population thrived.” “Since the collapse of the humpbacked population, the recreational fisheries have closed and locals have resorted to killing the remaining Mahseer using non-sustainable fishing methods and using them as
food sources or to sell at market, thus exacerbating the extinction threat of the remaining hump-backs.” Professor Britton and Adrian are currently working with UK charity, the Mahseer Trust and a major industrial partner in India to develop a robust conservation strategy for the hump-backed Mahseer. This involves extensive field exploration, stakeholder engagement and an outreach programme to raise awareness across schools. “We are also working with the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) to resolve the taxonomic confusion surrounding the 17 species of Mahseer which are distributed throughout the Himalayan drainage and Southeast Asia,” explains Adrian, “This also involves assessing the extinction threat each species, which feeds into updating the IUCN Red List of threatened species. This should afford these iconic fish better protection in the future.”
Bournemouth Research Chronicle | www.bournemouth.ac.uk/brc | August 2018 | 17
Faculty of Science & Technology
From face blindness to super-recognisers: how research is changing lives
round 1 in 50 people are thought to be affected by prosopagnosia or face blindness. The condition can have a significant effect on people’s personal and professional lives, but has only relatively recently begun to gain public attention. Bournemouth University’s Dr Sarah Bate has spent much of her career researching people affected by the condition, and more recently those at the other end of the spectrum: so-called ‘super-recognisers’. Prosopagnosia affects people’s ability to recognise even the most familiar of faces. People are largely born with the condition, although in rare cases they may develop it in later life, following a head injury or illness. Until recently, it was thought that only a small number of people had prosopagnosia, but research led by Dr Bate has proved otherwise. “My interest in the area stemmed from my undergraduate studies at the University of Exeter, where I first heard about the condition,” says Dr Bate, “My lecturer was in touch with one person with prosopagnosia and offered me the chance to work with that person for
my final year project. It was a unique opportunity at the time, as not many people were thought to have prosopagnosia.” “I continued researching face blindness for both my Master’s and PhD studies, but still with quite a limited pool of people as the condition was believed to be rare. It wasn’t until I’d completed my PhD and moved to Bournemouth University (BU) to set up my own research lab that I discovered this was quite far from the truth!” “Not long after I moved to BU, my research gained considerable media coverage, which was probably one
of the first times that face blindness had gained much public attention. It also coincided with people beginning to rely more on using the internet to better understand their symptoms. The combination of the two meant that suddenly I was being approached by thousands of people who thought they had the condition,” explains Dr Bate. At the time, very few GPs and medical staff knew about prosopagnosia, so for many people, talking to Dr Bate was the first time they’d been able to fully understand their symptoms. In due course, the increased need to acknowledge people’s symptoms, combined with Dr Bate’s
extensive research into diagnosis of prosopagnosia led to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recognising it as an official health condition in 2014. Since then, much of Dr Bate’s research has moved on to focused on how to diagnose the condition in children. The tests used to diagnose prosopagnosia in adults do not work particularly well with children, so Dr Bate’s team have developed new methods involving eye-tracking technology to help with diagnostics. “The tests we use with adults aren’t very suitable for children, as they tend not to have the concentration needed to make them work,” says Dr Bate, “We use state-of-the-art eyetracking technology, which enables us to pinpoint which parts of the face children are looking at. This is important because our research shows that typical people tend to spend more
time looking at the eyes, whereas those with prosopagnosia look at other areas of the face.” “The main aim of developing better diagnostic tools for children is so that we can improve early intervention treatments for them. As with many conditions, the earlier interventions can be made, the more likely they are to succeed,” continues Dr Bate, “It’s harder to treat adults, as many will have developed their own coping strategies and they don’t always want to try something new.” At the other end of the spectrum are so-called ‘super-recognisers’, who have above average abilities when it comes to recognising faces. This is an area of research that Dr Bate has begun to explore more recently, in an attempt to understand if prosopagnosia is a developmental disorder or a sliding scale of ability.
“The idea was that if we have people who are at the bottom end of a normal range when it comes to facial recognition, then there must be people who are at the top range too,” explains Dr Bate, “We’ve developed research in this area, which is now beginning to help organisations such as the police and border control to identify which of their staff are best at recognising faces.” “We found that different people are better at different aspects of facial recognition, so it’s not just about screening for the ‘best’ people. Computer software is a long way off being able to perform this function of policing and border control, so it was important for us to have rigorous research to back our theories.” For more information about prosopagnosia and super-recognisers, visit the Centre for Face Processing Disorder’s web page: www.prosopagnosiaresearch.org
Bournemouth Research Chronicle | www.bournemouth.ac.uk/brc | August 2018 | 19
Faculty of Management
Tackling global disasters to reduce risks, build resilience and ensure recovery
isasters and crises can involve human, material, economic and environmental loss, whether natural or as a result of human activity. Their impacts can exceed the ability of the affected community to cope through their own resources; however, they can be reduced, or possibly even prevented, with the appropriate risk management and the right guidance and training. When BU’s Disaster Management Centre (BUDMC) was first established in 2001, it was a small operation, led by Richard Gordon, Director of BUDMC, who grew the centre by concentrating its work overseas instead of emulating similar organisations who were focusing on the UK post 9/11. From the start, BUDMC focused on delivering executive disaster management training to senior government ministers and their representatives, including key military appointments and overseas delegations. “The earliest project we worked on was an EU initiative that looked at ways to bring together the new nation states that emerged from the former Yugoslavia in such a way that they
could incorporate crisis and disaster management,” says Richard. “The project broke down so many barriers. On day one, they were focused on local concerns, but by day two, they were learning to work together – and it was the most beautiful thing to see.” Over the next decade, the Centre gradually built up its reach and reputation in training and enterprise. By 2015 the team was regularly delivering executive training sessions in 12 nations annually, both abroad and in the UK. Since 2015, Professor Lee Miles and Dr Henry Bang have joined BUDMC, with the aim of widening the Centre’s research capacity in disaster management.
For more information, visit BUDMC’s webpage: http://budmc.uk/
“When I joined in 2015, BUDMC was already carrying out some fantastic work in terms of its training and education. We now had the opportunity to also increase its research activity,” explains Professor Miles. “One of the distinctive features of the Centre is that we carry out quite a lot of research before delivering a training course; this is is then fed into the course and subsequently built into the crisis simulations. It is a very practical example of research led professional practice and the practical impact of research ideas. It represents fusion in practice.” Today, all of the Centre’s projects now seek to combine effective enterprise delivery with innovative research which means BUDMC staff work closely together to produce world class
activity of international excellence. The combination of research with training allows the Centre to contribute innovative and fresh ideas which are helping to assist policy makers and professionals in crisis and disaster management across the world. One of BUDMC’s most recent projects – the PINPOINT programme – identifies single points of failure in disaster management in the Caribbean. “We’ve just completed the first phase of the PINPOINT programme,” says Professor Miles. “This project, which is led by Richard and I, has been looking at the British Virgin Islands in particular. They have recently faced huge challenges, following Hurricanes Irma and Maria, which caused extensive damage to the British Virgin Islands with homes, businesses and roads destroyed and communities left with no power, sanitation or water.” BUDMC carried out two major research data collections, both just before and after Hurricane Irma, to identify the actual vulnerabilities and offer an accurate snapshot of the British Virgin Islands (BVI) and in particular the
specific single points of failure across the respective territories of the BVI prior to and after Irma and Maria. This research showed that there are real differences between the islands and that overall there were major issues, such as with communication networks, and reliance of key institutions and individuals, that would severely affect their responses to major hurricanes. Professor Miles reported on this PINPOINT research in national and international press, such as the BBC News Channel, Good Morning Britain (ITV), CNN International and BBC Radio 4’s Today Programme. Moreover, the research has also fed into media training to statutory bodies and media professionals in the Caribbean (April 2017) as well as into the reflections of the UK Government in the run-up to the 2018 Hurricane season. “One of the Centre’s distinctive features is that it is recognised externally as having expertise in strategic thinking around disaster management,” explains Professor Miles, “This is important as it means that the research and recommendations that we develop within the BUDMC are being put into
practice by professionals working in industry and in government, both home and abroad. It also means that we are able to gain feedback from those working in the field, which in turn, can help us to shape our future research to be as relevant as possible.” The Centre is looking to continue to develop and widen its education provision into the future whilst also developing its research environment by expanding the numbers of recruited Masters and PhD students, both from overseas and in the UK. BUDMC’s world class provision and global recognition has attracted substantial interest from postgraduate candidates as well as visiting fellows from other countries; all keen to work alongside BUDMC staff in disaster management training and participate in BUDMC research projects. “With around 14 years working outside of the UK, our work is becoming much more relevant now to the UK and indeed we as a nation will find ourselves learning from many of the countries where BUDMC has been operating over the years,” says Richard.
Bournemouth Research Chronicle | www.bournemouth.ac.uk/brc | August 2018 | 21
Faculty of Management
The effect of large scale interventions on improving public health G
ood nutrition and eating well are an important part of public health and can help stave off a number of age-related illnesses. Over the last twenty years, Bournemouth University’s Professor Heather Hartwell has been carrying out research into nutrition in the context of developing large-scale interventions to improve public health. Her work has taken her from prisons to hospitals to workplace canteens. When Professor Hartwell began her research career in nutrition, much of the health policy focus was on oneto-one support for people who were struggling with associated health conditions. The idea that large scale interventions might be successful was only beginning to be recognised. “One of the first projects I was involved in at Bournemouth University was a commission from the National Audit Office, exploring nutrition in prisons,” says Professor Hartwell, “We found that while prisoners did have healthy eating options, the catering on offer tended to over-rely on processed foods – bread, sausages and pasties, for example. This meant they were eating more salt than the general population, which can lead to high blood pressure and the risk of 22
heart disease. Among other things, we recommended that they used the prison gardens to grow fresh produce, as it was a low-cost way of adding more vegetables to the food on offer.” “Around the same time, we were also looking at nutrition in hospital catering. In this setting, we found that there were much fewer healthy food options on offer and that meal production and delivery were overseen by a number of different teams – caterers, porters and ward staff. This meant that there was no real consistency and making it easier for miscommunication to take place.” “It was quite eye-opening working in two very different public sector contexts,” continues Professor Hartwell, “As researchers, it’s important to go into
every situation with humility because until you’re fully immersed in the context in which you’re working, you can’t fully appreciate the barriers that staff might be facing. In the NHS, for example, catering managers are often providing three meals per day, drinks and snacks on a very low budget, which limits what they’re able to do. You can’t achieve perfection in any situation, but co-created research can significantly improve what was there before.” Working in public sector settings and seeing the difference that larger scale interventions could make on people’s health then led Professor Hartwell to consider the difference that healthier eating options could make in workplace canteen environments.
“These settings are really important because they’re where people eat on a regular basis, not just oneoff celebratory meals. If people are continually being offered unhealthy food choices, then it can have longterm implications for their health. We’re given very little information about what’s in our food when we eat out, so my starting point was to improve that.”
consumers and also give the companies an edge when competing for new contracts,” explains Professor Hartwell, “It was slightly ahead of its time when we first created it, but is gaining much more interest now as workplaces are increasingly concerned about employee wellbeing. Nutrition can help contribute to better health, which helps to reduce sickness rates and can improve productivity too.”
Over the last few years, Professor Hartwell has been working on a major European grant, FoodSMART, which has been addressing exactly that issue. The grant enabled Professor Hartwell and her team to develop an App, which uses data provided by catering companies to help consumers to make more informed choices about their meals.
Alongside FoodSMART, Professor Hartwell and her team were also leading on another European grant, which was looking at increasing our protein intake through vegetables. In the context of an increasing global population, it is important for the agricultural and catering sectors to consider more sustainable sources of food.
“We wanted to create an IT solution for the contract catering industry which would both better inform their
“The project was about encouraging people to get their protein through vegetables, rather than meat, which uses far more resources than arable farming,” says Professor Hartwell, “It’s a healthier way of meeting our protein requirements as vegetables contain less fat and are much more sustainable in the long run.” Partly inspired by the issues of sustainability raised in this project, Professor Hartwell and her team have recently started working on a new research grant with partners in Brazil to consider how to improve our long term food security. More information about VeggiEAT can be found here: www.bournemouth.ac.uk/veggieat More information about FoodSMART can be found here: www.bournemouth.ac.uk/foodsmart
Bournemouth Research Chronicle | www.bournemouth.ac.uk/brc | August 2018 | 23
Developing doctoral research at Bournemouth University O
ver the last fifteen years, more than 640 students have completed their doctoral studies at Bournemouth University in a range of subjects, from engineering to midwifery, from business management to animation. During that time, support for postgraduate research students (PGRs) has gradually developed, so that Bournemouth now has a thriving community of over 630 postgraduate researchers.
“Our new Doctoral College has its roots in the establishment of the Graduate School, back in 2003,” explains Dr Fiona Knight, one of the Doctoral College’s two Academic Managers. “Originally, our aim was to help make postgraduate research student’s journeys more consistent. At the time BU had 7 Academic Schools and postgraduate research students experiences really varied according to where they were based. We wanted to make sure that no matter where you were in the university, you had the same outstanding experience.” “We began to work much more formally; introducing a Code of Practice for Research Degrees, developing training and formal qualifications for our supervisors, and giving much more structure to the research degree journey. The route to getting your PhD became much clearer,” continues Dr Knight.
To find out more about BU’s Doctoral College, visit: www.bournemouth.ac.uk/doctoral-college
The Doctoral College team have also worked hard to develop a sense of community among Bournemouth University’s postgraduate research students. This year will see their 10th annual Postgraduate Research Conference take place, where postgraduate research students from across BU will be able to share their research via presentations, posters and photography. “It’s the perfect opportunity for others working at BU to find out more about the exciting research being carried out by our postgraduate researchers” explains Dr Julia Taylor, the other Doctoral College Academic Manager. Throughout the year, postgraduate research students can also develop their research, professional and personal skills by signing up to any number of skills and training courses offered through the Doctoral College’s Researcher Development Programme or hone their public speaking skills by taking part in the internationallyrenown 3 Minute Thesis™ .
Doctoral college case study Min Jiang joined Bournemouth University in 2010 to begin her studies in MSc Computer Animation and Visual Effects, after completing her first Master’s course at the Communication University of China whose programme is in partnership with Bournemouth University (BU).
Olivia Placzek, a postgraduate student in the Faculty of Management has been studying at Bournemouth University for the last eighteen months and is Chair of the Postgraduate Researchers Rep Committee. “I’ve really enjoyed my journey so far, and it’s great to see how well the students, supervisors, administrators and the Doctoral College work so well together,” says Olivia, “I like all the opportunities we have to learn something new; whether it’s taking a course, going to a workshop or just catching up with other student’s research over coffee.” “Having all these opportunities to choose from means that you can improve your skillset and the chances of going into the career you aspire to; which might be continuing in research or going into industry. There are always workshops on offer to help improve your skills, no matter what your goals are.”
“I thought I was certain to return to China after the one year’s Master’s course, however, BU won me over with their amazing animation course,” says Min. “I’ve learnt so much here and the life in Bournemouth is just too good to be over so quickly, so I continued my study as a PhD student in Computer Animation for a further 5 years.” Alongside her PhD studies, Min also participated in group research projects which helped to develop her real-world skills such as project management and working effectively with others including external researchers and experts. “Throughout my experience at BU, the Doctoral College has been very helpful. They provide funding for us to attend and present at conferences, conduct experiments and buy advanced equipment,” says Min. “They arrange all our training sessions and seminars to help us go through each stage of our PhD smoothly.” After Min graduated from her studies in 2016, she went on to work for Oriental DreamWorks in Shanghai and is now working for Moving Picture Company in London, a global leader in visual effects. “Luckily, BU gave me a very good introduction to the entire industry. Not only do we use the same system and animation tools as the university, but many of my colleagues are BU graduates too!” “The Doctoral College really cared about our studies as well as our lives outside the university. All the tutors there were very kind and helpful; they took the time to get to know us all individually and take care of us.”
Bournemouth Research Chronicle | www.bournemouth.ac.uk/brc | August 2018| 25
The future of research at Bournemouth University
hope you have enjoyed discovering more about the exciting and diverse research that has been undertaken at Bournemouth University (BU) over the last twenty five years. For me, the thread that runs through each of these research journeys is working with and making a difference to the world outside academia. From influencing midwifery practice, to helping the police and security forces make us safer, to working with governments around the world to improve their response to natural disasters, researchers at BU have long been exploring ways for their research to benefit others. At the core of all our work at Bournemouth University is our aim to bring together research, education and professional practice in a model we call ‘Fusion’. This blend of elements helps us to ensure that our research makes a difference to professional practice and informs our teaching. Working with industry enables us to shape research that helps to tackle some of the pressing issues facing our society, while also ensuring that we produce graduates who have the skills they need to succeed in their chosen careers. Looking to the future, as we launch our BU2025 strategic plan, we intend to build on our Fusion approach making Bournemouth University a place that inspires learning, advances knowledge and enriches society. As part of this, we are investing in two new gateway buildings in Bournemouth
and Poole. These will equip us with state-of-the-art learning and research facilities, including high-quality media production studios which will enable us to build on our already outstanding international reputation for animation and media production, as well as providing a new home for health and social sciences. We will also be responding to the ambitions set out in the Government’s Industrial Strategy through developing our existing research strengths in health and medicine, animation, sustainability and low carbon technology as well as assistive technology. Research will play a significant part in helping the UK to rise to societal challenges, such as an ageing population, the need for the development of clean energy
and use of technology in driving economic growth. By building on our existing areas of research expertise, producing outstanding graduates and working with industry, Bournemouth University will help to ensure that the UK is well equipped to succeed in the future. I am proud of the work of Bournemouth University’s researchers, students and professional support staff over the last twenty-five years and I look forward to seeing the difference that we make to the world around us in the coming years. Vice Chancellor, Professor John Vinney
â&#x20AC;&#x153;I look forward to seeing the difference that we make to the world around us in the coming years.â&#x20AC;? Professor John Vinney Vice Chancellor
Bournemouth Research Chronicle | www.bournemouth.ac.uk/brc | August 2018 | 27
Bournemouth University Fern Barrow, Poole, Dorset BH12 5BB Research and Knowledge Exchange Office: Telephone: +44 (0)1202 961200 Email: email@example.com Web: http://research.bournemouth.ac.uk
BRC Bournemouth Research Chronicle